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NAMES: Gabriel, Esther Faith/ Garma, Czarina/ Javier, Jonah/ Herrera, Lorlyn/ Ibea, Hardee

DATE: November 27, 2014
Experiment No. 1
BUFFERED SYSTEMS
I. ABSTRACT
Buffers are aqueous systems that resist changes in pH when small amounts of acid or
base are added. Buffer solutions are composed of a weak acid (the proton donor) and its
conjugate base (the proton acceptor). Buffering results from two reversible reaction equilibria in
a solution wherein the concentration of proton donor and its conjugate proton acceptor are
equal. For example, in a buffer system when the concentration of acetic acid and acetate ions is
equal, addition of small amounts of acid or base does not have any detectable influence on the
pH.
There are several factors that could affect the pH of the buffer. First is the accuracy of its
preparation. One should be careful of the proper weighing and pipetting of the substances
needed to prepare the buffer solution. Second is the addition of Sodium chloride which basically
decreased the pH of the buffer. This is due to increase in the ionic strength of the solution. Third
is the temperature which has relative effect on the pH depending on the buffer used. Fourth is
the addition of water to the buffer. There’s an increase of pH because there is a reduction of
ionic strength.
Buffers also play an important role in our biochemical systems in the maintenance of pH
within narrow limits. We can see in the three important buffer systems in our bodies:
1. bicarbonate buffer system
2. phosphate buffer system
3. protein buffer system
Therefore buffers are very important in our cells because all of our enzymes need a specific
pH value to work at optimum. If the pH changes our enzymes might deteriorate which means
death.
II. OBJECTIVES:
At the end of the experiment, the student will know:
1. What buffers are and how are they prepared.
2. The mechanism of buffering.
3. The relevance of buffers in the human body.
4. Some buffer systems in the body.
III. MATERIALS:
A. Glassware and Apparatus used:
1. Pipet and aspirator

Vinegar is mainly used as a preservative in food and in the pickling of vegetables. is an inorganic compound of sodium with dihydrogen phosphate (H2PO4-) anion. chemical-based heating packs.0.0 and 11. It exists as an anhydrous salt. Its presence prevents coagulation in the preparation of condensed milk. It is an inexpensive chemical that has a wide range of uses. Water free acetic acid is known as glacial acetic acid. NaH2PO4 4. Beaker 5. Acetic Acid 2. Plastic Bottles B. Na2HPO4 Properties/Uses Acetic acid is a monocarboxylic acid because it contains only one –COOH group. Graduated cylinder 6.2. it is a common industrial chemical. including as a food additive and pickling agent or a laboratory reagent. It is the main component of vinegar. Similarly. Disodium hydrogen phosphate is used as an in conjunction with trisodium phosphate in foods and water treatment. also known as anhydrous monobasic sodium phosphate and sodium dihydrogen phosphate. It has a sour taste and pungent smell. reusable. Sodium Acetate 3.and dihydrates. Monosodium phosphate (NaH2PO4). Volumetric Flask 7. One of many sodium phosphates. it is used as an anti-caking additive in powdered products. Vinegar is typically 3-7% solution of acetic acid in water. it is used to adjust pH. Vials 4. Weighing balance 3. In foods. It has the chemical formula C2H3O2Na and is also known as sodium ethanoate. meaning it is moderately basic . Sodium acetate is the sodium salt of acetic acid. The pH of disodium hydrogen phosphate water solution is between 8. Chemicals used and its properties: Structure 1. as well as mono. It is also the prime ingredient in portable.

colorless to white cubic crystals. Table 2. It is highly soluble in water and considerable amount of heat is evolved due to the formation of a number of hydrates e.5. transparent. so that dissolved or molten sodium chloride is a conductor of electricity.. NaOH Sodium hydroxide is a white deliquescent solid having melting point at 591 K (318°C). The calculated and electrometric pH of the four buffers did not match. it can be decomposed into sodium and chlorine by passing an electrical current through it.6 7. DISCUSSION: Data and Results Table 1. IV.0 Buffer 1 Buffer 2 Buffer 3 Buffer 4 Electrometric 4. Sodium chloride is odorless but has a characteristic taste.8 . Another is that. 6.6 8.8 8.0 7.H2O. It is stable towards heat. Provide theoretical discussions for your results.4 5. NaOH.5 Diluted pH value 5.6 4. Effect of temperature and salt on buffers Buffer 1 Buffer 2 pH with NaCl 3.2H2O. NaCl Sodium chloride is readily soluble in water and insoluble or only slightly soluble in most other liquids. NaOH. pH measurements of the four buffers pH Calculated 3. This may be because of the inaccurate weighing and pipetting of the reagents. while pipetting the solution it might have been contaminated and thus it affected the pH of the buffers.6 a. It is an ionic compound.5 pH/°C 5. It forms small.g. When it is melted or dissolved in water the ions can move about freely. being made up of equal numbers of positively charged sodium and negatively charged chloride ions.

and activity of hydronium ion which alters pH of solution. b.: activity coefficient is usually less than 1.1 ml of 1M NaCl.06 0. it is expected to have lower pH for acid. logγ A.conjugate base pair when ionic strength is accounted for. γA.g.Buffer 3 Buffer 4 6.9 8.9 16. NaCl is neutral in nature but with its addition it increases the ionic strength of the solution. addition of water (dilution) to a buffer solution can alter its pH due to reduction in ionic strength. Kb. Ionic strength affects ionization constants. Table 3.1 18. Give explanation on your results. Moreover. With the addition of 0.3 8. On the other hand. Accordingly.07 0.is negative. acetic acid. Therefore. since this increases depending on the electrolyte used. boric acid.sodium borate) while others increase in pH (e. Buffer capacity 3 ml 6 ml 9 ml 12 ml 15 ml pH 9. Temperature change affects Ka. the magnitude of change is relatively small for acidic buffers when compared to basic buffers. and Kw. Some buffers decrease in pH (e.sodium acetate) as temperature increase.09 0.05 . How would the sodium chloride affect the ionic strength of buffer 1 and buffer 3? The setting of the ionic strength of a buffer solution should be done in the same way as the setting of the pH value when selecting the electrolyte.5 13.4 11. Each buffer is influenced differently.9 a. the pH of buffers 1 and 3 decreased. The following buffer equation for an acid (HA) and its conjugate base (A-) accounts for the ionic strength by incorporating activity coefficient term. activity of ionized species (salt form) of the buffer. Thus.06 0. pH of buffers is influenced by temperature.3 Buffer Capacity 0. Ionic strength is equal to the concentration.g. The multivalent ions contribute strongly to the ionic strength.

a. What is the effect of increasing concentration of NaOH as increments of the base added? With the addition of more NaOH. It is made of a weak acid and its conjugate base.75. the buffer capacity decreases rapidly.36) 20:1 V. b. pH = pKa. One is the amino group (NH2) and a carboxyl group (COOH). . What is its pH? 3. What is the structure of protein that can account for their buffering capacity? Answer briefly and completely. QUESTIONS: 1. No.1 mole/liter of sodium formate. CONCLUSION Upon the completion of the experiment we learned that buffers are solutions that resist the change in pH when small amounts of an acid or base is added. Is the buffer capacity a fixed value for the given buffer system? Justify your answer based on your tabulated results. 2.4? (pKa H2CO3 = 6. What is the ratio of bicarbonate to carbonic acid in normal blood with a pH of 7. A buffer contains 0. A weak acid and its conjugate base can remain in solution without neutralizing each other. c. It depends on the amount of base or acid added.05 mole/liter of formic acid and 0. When does a buffer have its greatest buffer capacity? The buffer has its greatest capacity before any base is added where [salt] / [acid] = 1. and according to equation. The pKa of formic acid (HCOOH) is 3. Amino acids are carbonic compound that contain two functional groups. Protein structure are the bonds by which amino acid chains generate complex protein structure.

htm. The reaction inverts by changes in the pH of blood. The pH of human blood must be maintained between ranges of 7. you die a horrible death. (2013). What are buffers and what do they do? Retrieved November 24. it can stabilize our body’s pH. These neutralization reactions will not have much effect on the overall pH of the buffer solution. Factors affecting pH of buffer solutions. However. Buffers: A guide for the preparation and use of buffers in biological systems. REFERENCES Charmaine. these buffers generally prevent such mishap.blogspot. Because the enzymes in your body don't work well at a pH of 5.com/2013/06/factors-affecting-ph-of-buffersolutions.When hydrogen ions are added to a buffer. VI. Buffers are important in our body. Importance of buffer solution.M.html. S. when you drink a soda. the pH of the blood should remain constant. There are several buffer systems in our body but probably the most important is the bicarbonate buffer system.html. The remaining acid in the soda causes the pH of your blood to decrease rapidly to a pH of about 5. M. Helmenstine. Mohan. For example. C. These reactions might fail to happen if the pH changes. For complete reaction to take place. Retrieved November 24. These changes also affect the biological activity of a human being. Gharaibeh. A. its acid neutralizes the small of base in your blood.ehow. San Diego. Retrieved November 24. 2014 from http://phcalculator. 2014 from http://chemistry. they will be neutralized by the base in the buffer. (2011). Reactions inside the human body take place in the blood plasma. (2014). Hydroxide ions will be neutralized by the acid.07. Biochemical reactions are quite sensitive to the nature of blood. California: Calbiochem .com/about_6637932_importance-buffer-solution.8.com/od/acidsbase1/a/buffers. This is how buffer works. 2014 from http://www. But thanks to our blood which is a very effective buffer.about.