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BTEC

Organisation and Behaviour


Unit : 3

Task : 1

rganizat
ional
LO
:1
structur
e and
1.1
Culture

C
o
m
p
Organiz
a ational culture
more of a
r islarger
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e a more general
a term that refers
a large
n to
umbrella of
d smaller topics
c and issues
o within an
organization.
n The structure
tr refers to the
a infrastructure
and the various
stmethods and
di practices within
f that
e infrastructure.
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r organizational
e culture run with
efficiency
n the
and
t consistency
o which should

be
th
e
ha
llm
ar
k
of
an
y
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ati
on
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e,
wh
et
he
r it
is
in
a
co
rp
or
ati
on
,
sp
ort
s
te
a
m,

or any other
set up that is
large enough
to create its
own
organizational
culture.

This
makes the
structure an
integral part of
any
organizational
culture, but also
narrows out a
very specific
segment of the
culture as its
own
responsibility.
Organizational
structure will
deal primarily
with the set up
of the culture.
How
management
works, which
specific
responsibilities
supervisors
have, how a
complaint is
passed through
the ranks-these
are all issues
within the
organizational
culture that are

dir certainly
ect include all of
ly them.
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Culture
ho
basically
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refers to the
an
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org
and behavior
ani
adopted by the
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organizational
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members
al
during
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uct
the members
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of an
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organization
rks
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they adopt
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not
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wo
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havior of
employees.

1.2
Relationship between an organisations
structure and culture

Organizational structure and organizational culture have a dependent


relationship with one another. In the business world, management structure determines
the behaviors, attitudes, dispositions and ethics that create the work culture. If a
company's organizational structure is strictly hierarchical, with decision-making power
centralized at the top, the company's culture will likely reflect a lack of freedom and
autonomy at the lower levels. If a company's management structure is decentralized,
with shared power and authority at all levels, the culture is likely to be more
independent, personalized and accountable.

The way a company allocates power and authority determines how employees
behave. These choices manifest in a company's organizational structure and
organizational culture. Organizational structure is the the way a company arranges its
management and lines of authority. It determines roles, responsibilities and the flow of
information within the company. Work culture results from those decisions.

Most companies use a hierarchical structure that looks like a pyramid on paper.
The chief executive or president sits at the very top of the pyramid. His direct reports,
usually the vice-presidents, are on a line under him. Their direct reports are on a line
under them. The pyramid stretches outward and downward based on the number of
levels of management the company needs to operate according to its objectives.

Upper management uses organizational structure to control who has power and
authority in the company. For example, if a company president only wants to deal with
the most important decisions and wants to leave the day-to-day decision-making to
someone else, the organizational structure would have the president on the top line with
the vice-president of operations sitting alone on the second line. This effectively means
that the vice-president of operations is the only executive with a direct line to the
president, and everyone else reports to him. In this scenario, the vice-president of
operations has a great deal of power.

1.3
Factors which influence individual
behaviour at work
According to John Ivancevich and Michael Mattson, the major factors that
influence individual differences in behavioral patterns are demographic factors, abilities
and skills, perception, attitudes and personality. Let us discuss them and they are as
follows:1. Demographic Factors: The demographic factors are socio economic background,
education, nationality, race, age, sex, etc. Organizations prefer persons that belong to
good socio-economic background, well educated, young etc. as they are believed to be
performing better than the others. The young and dynamic professionals that have
good academic background and effective communication skills are always in great
demand. The study of demographic factors is significant as it helps managers to pick
the suitable candidate for a particular job.
2. Abilities and Skills: The physical capacity of an individual to do something can be
termed as ability. Skill can be defined as the ability to act in a way that allows a person
to perform well. The individual behavior and performance is highly influenced by ability
and skills. A person can perform well in the organization if his abilities and skills are
matched with the job requirement. The managers plays vital role in matching the
abilities and skills of the employees with the particular job requirement.
3. Perception: The cognitive process meant for interpreting the environmental stimuli in
a meaningful way is referred to as perception. Every individual on the basis of his/he
reference can organize and interpret environmental stimuli. There are many factors that
influence the perception of an individual. The study of perception plays important role
for the managers. It is important for mangers to create the favorable work environment
so that employees perceive them in most favorable way. The employees are likely to
perform better if they are going to perceive it in a positive way.
4. Attitude: The factors such as family, society, culture, peers and organizational factors
influence the formation of attitude. The managers in an organization need to study the
variables related to job as to create the work environment in a favorable way that

employees are tempted to form a positive attitude towards their respective jobs. The

employees can perform better in the organization if they form a positive attitude.
5. Personality: Personality can be defined as the study of the characteristics and
distinctive traits of an individual, the inter-relations between them and the way in
which a person responds and adjusts to other people and situations.

(a)
Advantages and Disadvantages

Advantage:
Success can be won or lost through company culture, but not everyone knows
how to cultivate it. Thats why we like looking at outliers the people who are innovating
and taking risks when it comes to culture.
People like Netflix, whose approach to performance management is to weed out all but
the top performers, Google, whose openness and flexibility is designed to encourage
innovation, and Nike, which offers numerous perks to gain a recruiting advantage.

Zappos is another company that attributes its success to culture. As CEO Tony
Hsieh says, Our whole belief is that if we get the culture right, then most of the
other stuff, like delivering great customer service or building a long-term
enduring brand will just happen naturally on its own.

Disadvantage:
Customer-focused businesses operate
solely on customers' needs and wants,
which can have a negative impact on a

company's creativity. When companies are


customer-focused, they may resist coming
up with ideas to improve products or create
new

products, so they begin to lack innovation. While customers may know what they
want, companies should use research and development to come up with ideas
customers may not think of on their own when surveyed about their needs.
The purpose of running a customer-focused business is to truly focus on creating
products and services that are in your customers' best interest. This includes ensuring
that you provide customer service that helps educate your customers and lead them to
sales. Customer-focused businesses can become self-serving, causing businesses to
indulge in their needs and wants, such as focusing solely on profit, with thoughts of
the customer trailing far behind. To be truly customer-focused, each strategy and idea
you execute should put the customer first.

1.
Traditional hierarchical structure
The world isnt flat but maybe your company should be: Businesses without
hierarchies may actually perform better. Online retailer Zappos is the latest company to
do away with hierarchy. By the end of 2014, CEO Tony Hsieh plans to replace
Zappos traditional structure with Holacracy, a flatter operating structure with no job titles
or managers.
To empower all of its 1500 employees, Zappos will be organized into about 400
different circles in which employees can have multiple roles, creating company-wide
transparency and more personal accountability.

There is a growing body of evidence that shows organizations with flat structures
outperform those with more traditional hierarchies in most situations, wrote Tim

Kastelle in the Harvard Business Review.


Flat structures work best when a companys main point of differentiation is innovation,
said Kastelle. They also work well when teams need to be more nimble to respond to
a rapidly changing environment, and when the organization has a shared purpose, he
added.
The company, now with over 10,000 associates, began when Bill Gore left DuPont in
1958 to start a new business - and a new style of management.
He wasnt simply interested in inventing new materials or selling products, he was
bent on creating an entirely new kind of companyone that unleashed and inspired
every person in it, one that put as much energy into finding the next big thing as
milking the last big thing, wrote business strategy expert Gary Hamel.

2.
Flatter Structure
Zappos has long been a role model for corporate culture. Entrepreneurs
regularly make the pilgrimage to the company's Las Vegas headquarters, to learn about
Zappos's commitment to being "a little weird," its over-the-top customer service, and
even its policy of offering new hires $2,000 to quit. But according to a new post from
Quartz, Zappos is about to implement its most radical policy yet, one that may be more
difficult for other managers to emulate. Namely, Zappos is about to get rid of managers,
altogether.
According to the post, Zappos CEO Tony Hsieh, the originator of the company's
commitment to quirkiness, announced at an all-hands meeting in November that the
1,500 employee company would be restructuring into what is known as a "Holacracy," in
which there are no job titles and no managers. The term, which originated in 2007,
comes from the Greek word "holon," which, writes Quartz's Aimee Groth, "means a
whole thats part of a greater whole." In other words, each part of the group is
autonomous, but also reliant on the larger group.

Instead of having managers and subordinates, Zappos will be made up of 400 "circles,"
or teams of people who work together and take on various roles within those circles.
Zappos is a unit of the online giant Amazon.com, which acquired the company in 2009.
The move, writes Groth, is Hsieh's attempt to prevent bureaucracy from infiltrating
Zappos, while maintaining a startup culture within what is now, a quite large
organization.
As John Bunch, the Zappos employee leading the transition, told Groth, "One of the
core principles is people taking personal accountability for their work. It's not leaderless.
There are certainly people who hold a bigger scope of purpose for the organization than
others. What it does do is distribute leadership into each role."

Task : 2
LO: 2
2.1
Effectivness of different leadership style
Leaders should have the quality and capacity to influence the other people in the
organization. A manager should has the leadershipquality for facing different situational
problem and motivate, control, and decision making process in the organization. There
are various leadership styles followed by the different organization and it has different
theories and approach. There are various leadership theories and leadership style
which are described below:
Autocratic Style Effects:
Also known as authoritarian leadership, autocratic style clearly defines the division
between leaders and workers. Autocratic leaders make decisions with little or no
involvement from employees. These leaders are supremely confident and comfortable
with the decision-making responsibility for company operating and strategic plans.
Although research indicates that autocratic leaders display less creativity than more
contemporary styles, this style still works when fast decisions must be made without

employee involvement. Employees may feel some disconnect with this style.

Participative Leadership Effects:


Also called democratic leadership, this style is usually considered the best option for
most companies. The opposite of autocratic leadership, this style emphasizes that
management offers guidance to its teams and departments while accepting input from
individual staff members. Leaders reserve the right to make final decisions but
encourage feedback, ideas, and suggestions from all employees.

Delegative Leadership Effects:


This style, also called laissez-faire leadership, is typically considered the least effective
option. In stark contrast to the other primary styles, delegative leaders rarely make
decisions, leaving this function up to the group. These leaders seldom offer guidance to
the team and delegate decision-making to trusted team members. While offering few
advantages, this style often creates some disadvantages. Job descriptions and lines of
authority become blurred and confusing. A loss of motivation and positivity often
accompanies the confusion of team members.
Corporate Culture Effects
Also called organizational culture, corporate culture defines "the way we do things."
Leadership styles have strong effects on corporate culture because employees tend to
act in ways that mirror their leaders. Staff also subconsciously wants to please
supervisors and management. Over time, leaders and employees usually become
"comfortable" with each other, which can cause some "culture friction" when new
leaders take over. Every business, regardless of size, has a culture. It can help or hurt
operations, often dependent on the strength and efficiency of leadership.

2.2

The organisational theory that underpins the practice


of management
Organizational theory and management theory is used in many aspects of a working
business. Many people strive to adhere to the theory to help them become better at
their jobs or more successful in life, although this may lead to them having to sacrifice
some of their personal principles in order to succeed. One example of following
organizational theory in the financial sector would be an employee or manager who
wants to know how to achieve goals by having a set structure to follow. In addition,
someone in a human resources sector will have to make decisions through their
working day that will undoubtedly change the structure and practice of a working day of
all other employees in the company. If an individual gets so wrapped up in trying to fit
the mold of what the interpret their role should be in terms of organizational theory, they
may start to neglect others areas of business. In the some way, management theory
may also underpin the personal values of some individuals. For instance, they may
disagree with a particular rule or regulation that has been introduced by the company,
however in order to carry out their job as a manager effectively and professionally, they
need to move away from their principles and execute the job. It is difficult to try to
execute both management and organizational theories as a psychological contract
between the employer and employee still needs to be maintained. This will need to
consider how fairly the company is treating the employee and how fairly the employee
is treating the company, i.e. are they actually putting 100 percent effort into their work?
Any changes to the organization or management in a company, is undoubtedly going to
have an effect on all of this.

2.3

The different approaches to management


As mentioned in the earlier sections, management was influenced by various disciplines
like sociology, economics, political science, anthropology, psychology, and even literature.
Due to such multidisciplinary influences, even authors like Harold Koontz

(1961) referred to management as a jungle. Even then, differences exist in the


classification of approaches. Although one of the ways to classify management
approaches is from the analysis of John G. Hutchinson (1971), which considers the
development of management from five different perspectives, the history of
management can be broadly classified into three groups: (1) the classical approach,
(2) the neo-classical approach, and (3) the modern approach.
The classical approach has conventionally implied traditionally accepted views. This
approach emphasizes organizational efficiency to increase organizational success. It
believes in functional interrelationships, following of certain principles based on
experience, a bureaucratic structure, and a reward-punishment nexus. The classical
school of thought developed in three different directions: the scientific management
approach, the administrative approach, and the bureaucratic approach, which also
falls under the administrative school of thought. The bureaucratic approach was
pioneered by Weber (1920), the scientific management approach by Taylor (1903),
and the concept of administrative theory by Fayol (1949).
Modern management thought combines concepts of the classical school with
social and natural sciences. It basically emerged from systems analysis.
Even though most discussions on the evolution of management thought start with the
classical approach, a brief acknowledgement of the contributions of the pre-classical
theorists is useful to appreciate the process of development in management thought. A list
of the contributions by pre-classical theorists has been provided in below table

Compare and contrast the leadership and


management styles of Zappos with its parent
company Amazon :
Online retailer Zappos has long been known to do things its own way. The
customer-service obsessed company calls its executives monkeys, has
staffers ring cowbells to greet guests, and offers new employees cash to quit as
a way to test their loyalty.
1 vision is clear and simple (though in no way extra-ordinary). Here it is:
Zappos
One day, 30% of all retail transactions in the US will be online.

2
People will buy from the company with the best service and the
best selection.
3
Zappos.com will be that online store.

Zappos and Robertson are careful to note that while a holacracy may get rid of
traditional managers (those who both manage others' work and hold the keys to
their career success), there is still structure and employees' work is still watched.

Poor performers, Robertson says, stand out when they don't have enough "roles"
to fill their time, or when a group of employees charged with monitoring the
company's culture decide they're not a good fit.
Since April, Zappos has moved 10 percent of its employees to the new system.
Now that it's official, Bunch expects that the rest of the company's employees will
transition by the end of 2014. He acknowledges that it could take up to six
additional months, though, for people to fully understand its complexity. "Theres no
two ways around it this is a difficult system to grasp. Were so ingrained in the
traditional work paradigm."

Of course, quotes taken out of context are always just that - out of
context. But, they generally give a window to the soul of the leadership style of a
founder or the person who's in charge of an operation. Consider the following
quotes attributed to Amazon founder and CEO Jeff Bezos and then hit me in the
comments or in an email reply with your favorite:
Do I need to go down and get the certificate that says Im CEO of the company to
get you to stop challenging me on this?
Are you trying to take credit for something you had nothing to do
with? If I hear that idea again, Im going to have to kill myself.
We need to apply some human intelligence to this problem.

Task : 3
LO: 3
3.1

The impact of different leadership styles

Leadership goes beyond management. Management involves getting things


done using the resources of the organization, and the formal patterns and rules within
the organization. Leadership, on the other hand, sometimes involves driving through
changes and new initiatives, which may be unpopular in some quarters. It is possible to
identify a range of approaches to leading change in an organization, depending on the
use of authority by the leader, and the amount of freedom given to subordinates.

The power of the leader is very important in motivating others. There are
a number of sources of power:
1. Personal power is possessed by certain individuals and is sometimes termed
'charismatic' or 'referent' power. Some individuals have tremendous charisma and are
able to build up personality cults.
2. Legitimate power is based on people having positions within a structured framework.
In a particular culture, power will be delegated to different offices or positions and this
will be accepted by members as being legitimate.
3. Expert power is based on the specialized knowledge possessed by certain
individuals. It frequently arises where there is complex knowledge that can be
gained only through education and training.
4. Political power stems from being supported by a group. To gain political power the
leader will need to be able to work with people and social systems to gain support
and allegiance from them.
Motivational leadership involves striking the right balance between these four sources of
power, and using them when appropriate.
The culture of an organisation is the pattern of relationships and typical behavior within
that organization. It is sometimes referred to as 'the way we do things around here'.

3.2

Application of different motivational theories

There are many factors that motivate people in the workplace. There are many different things that
motivate stress and conflict in the workplace. How a person handles the stress is what will make or
break a working relationship. Intrinsic Motivation Theory, Theory of Scientific Management, and
Motivation-Hygiene Theory give people the initiative and drive to do their job well and to help
relieve stress at the workplace.
Intrinsic Motivation Theory is used by management teams to motivate people with intrinsic rewards.
Under this theory employees desire to do a good job because they are proud of what they are doing,
and want to be a part of something good. For example a Disney Imagineer feels satisfaction when he
or she creates a new ride. The feeling of being a part of something so spectacular motivates him or
her to do a great job.
The Theory of Scientific Management has a different view of workers and what motivates them. This
theory states that workers are motivated by their productivity. Whereas with the Intrinsic Theory
workers are motivation to create a job well done, this theory strives for workers to produce a lot of
product in a specific period of time. Workers are paid more if they produce more. This theory works
best in businesses that require high productivity and mass production, such as automobile
manufacturers. This theory does in time lead to workers who are dissatisfied, because they feel more
like they are machines than people. The Intrinsic theory promotes a happier workplace than the
Scientific Management Theory.

Style

More Effective

Less Effective

Achievement Seek: To excel; may avoid both low- and high-risks as a result, in order to
pursue meaningful success.

Work alone or with


other high achievers

Power

Direct others

Seek: Either personal or institutional power. Either way they want to direct
others, but the institutional power is in service to the institutions success,
so those with that focus tend to make better managers.

Affiliation

Seek: Harmonious
work relationships, to
accept, to be accepted,
and to
Work in
settings with
include others. They can be more comfortable conforming to group norms. significant
interaction

personal

The Motivation-Hygiene Theory is similar to the intrinsic theory in that it promotes people taking
pride in something. However, in this theory workers are motivated to take pride in their physical
appearance and hygiene. This theory promotes employee benefits given by how clean a person is.
This theory has not been very successful because it does not promote employee motivation at
work. However, it can help to give an employee more self esteem which does help them to perform
better. The best motivator though is the pride an employee takes in a job well done.

Many different factors motivate people in the workplace. It is important that companies find
successful ways to motivate employees. It is also important that employees find ways to relieve stress
and make the work day more relaxed. All of these things will make for a pleasant and more
productive workplace

3.3
The usefullness of motivatioanl theory
Motivation is derived from the word motive which means needs, desires, wants
or drives within the individuals. Motivation is a process that begins with physiological or
psychological urge or requirement. It is a tool that helps to stimulate an action or a drive
that is aimed to achieve some goal or incentive.
It is a process of stimulating people into actions that are helpful to accomplish the
desired goals. In the work goal context psychological factors stimulating the peoples
behavior can be:
Desire for money
Job satisfaction
Team work
Recognition
Success

The most important function of managers and leaders in an organization is to create


willingness amongst the employees to perform to the best of their abilities. Thus, it is the
role of leaders to arouse interest of employees towards their jobs. The process of
motivation consists of three stages which are:
Drive or a felt need.
A stimulus in which needs have to aroused.
When needs are satisfied, the accomplishment of goals.
Therefore, we can say that motivation is a psychological phenomenon which describes
that wants and needs of the individual have to be tackled by framing an incentive plan.
In modern society, one of the significant problems for all cultures and organization is to
provide jobs for all those who want and are able to work. In fact employee motivation is
very popular among the management circles. It is a key factor in arbitrating
management style as well as in determining productivity.

Motivation by many writers/authors has been defined as the drive or gear to make
people convince in do some actions to achieve certain goals. The drive to do something
can be from internal sources or external sources. Moreover we can say that motivation
is the available factors that are given to individuals to satisfy their wants wither personal
or professional.

(a)
Company culture is something that many corporations take for granted, not realizing
how important it actually is to employee morale, work quality, and overall profits. In
order to build a great company culture, the leaders of the organization need to infuse it
into all areas of the company. In other words, culture is not just a sign on the wall or a
bullet-point list on the company website telling us what they stand for. Zappos.com, led
by CEO Tony Hsieh, has a unique company culture, one that nurtures its workers and
motivates them to provide the best customer service in the industry. Being very
interested in his ideas on how he cultivated Zappos' company culture, I decided to read
Hsieh's latest book, Delivering Happiness: A Path to Profits, Passion and Purpose.
Now, I almost never finish business books; a chapter or two is usually all I can take. But
I eagerly read Hsieh's book from cover to cover.
He provides advice and insight we rarely receive from our most successful business
leaders.
Hsieh's account of his transformation from a Harvard student entrepreneur through
his years as a dot.com wunderkind to the creator of a formidable brand is not unique.
But he deserves a lot of credit for building his first internet company Link Exchange in
just over two and a half years and then selling it to Yahoo! in 1999 for $265m.
Then, as the tech boom burst and Hsieh confronted the dwindling pile of cash left over
from the sale of Link Exchange, his story began to come alive.
One of his most promising startup investments was Zappos.com, a shoe retailer. Just
as disaster struck the company, Hsieh stepped in. Recounting the stress of operating in
survival mode, we get the inside story of how he revived the company, from the
deliberations behind liquidating his assets to fund the company in its darkest days to
the risky decision to seek out an 11th-hour loan.
By the time Zappos was acquired a decade later by Amazon for more than $1.2bn,
Hsieh and his team had built a unique corporate culture dedicated to employee
empowerment and the promise of delivering happiness though satisfied customers
and a valued workforce.

Hsieh focuses on three critical areas that businesses typically fail even to consider in
their strategic plan: culture, training and development, and customer service are at the
heart of his success.
Most business advice books focus on issues like maximizing profitability, ROI, product
innovation, operational efficiency, and beating the competition, so it is a breath of fresh
air that Hsieh barely even acknowledges these topics.
Over time, Zappos' number-one priority, culture, became even more important than their
commitment to customer service. The heart of their success story lies in the
commitment the business made to consciously and intentionally build a culture that
embraces the business's key values. Culture is a tough topic. There are no road maps,
and the path for one business is by definition unique to that particular company. Culture
is a long-term investment. It cannot be regulated by a board of directors.
Zappos annually produces a "Culture Book" that's shared with anyone interested in
its content from employees to vendors and customers.
If you were to visit the Zappos office, you're likely to find a nap room, a petting zoo, a
makeshift bowling alley, employees doing karaoke, or a popcorn machine dressed up
as a robot. If you happen to visit on "Bald & Blue Day" you'd find employees shaving
each others heads.

(b)

1responsibilities
There is an employee who is known as the Goals Coach. Her
include meeting with employees and holding them accountable for a personal
goal that they want to achieve for 30 days like learning spanish or kickboxing.
1
Theyahandling
believe
incustomer
a personal
andmy
emotional
connection
withastake-away.
customers.
And
the
dofavorite
not use
a script for
they say you
cantpeople
script
conversation!
Thisservice
was
communication
2

All
photographed
humans,
not mannequins.
That way the consumer
canmerchandise
truly see howisthe
dress looks on
likea as
a true size
8.
Every orderwhich
received
is packaged
and right
sent next
within
two hours
if the items are in the
warehouse
is located
in Kentucky,
to UPS
main hub.

want to to
flowers
acknowledge
any customer
in some
of theirway.
choosing.
They can
They
send
alsoa can
card,tape
a cookie
a video
basket
singing
or
Happy
Birthday to a Zappos consumer. Who wouldnt love that special attention.
Executives do not have flashy titles nor offices and sit in cubicles right
between the entire staff. Employees can talk to them at anytime for they dont
have a closed-door policy.

1
Since
the company
is 24/7,and
they
offerdrive
foodhome,
in the theres
cafeteria
and drinks
stop.
Also,
if you
get a bit sleepy
cant
a room
wherenonyou
can take
a nap.
2
Even
though
asothers
you walk
appears
that
people
are
having
fun and
chatting
with
other
workers,
but itthere
is work
being
This
fun
atmosphere
motivates
to
dothe
thefloor
best
they
can
for
they
love done.
theirjust
company.

3employee.
TheThey
benefits
and Zappos
medical monthly dues for the
also are
offertop-notch
adoption perks
among pays
manyall
others.

(c)
Employees usually respond to bonuses and other financial incentives as a
way to reward great performances.

I saw good responses to perks that werent simply financial, such as casual
days at the office, half days, office parties, and social activities outside of the office.

Zappos is a perfect example. Zappos might not offer the most lavish perks for
employees, but Tony is focused on creating a corporate culture that makes
employees happy and builds loyalty.

Task : 4
LO: 4
4.1
The nature of gropus and groups behaviour

Group behavior is the behavior of human groups, from formation to dissolution.


Along with many other organisms, human beings tend to group up and engage in
cooperative activities. The behaviors of a group can be highly variable, as can the
factors that put pressure on the group. Social psychologists study group behavior. Their
work contributes to everything from the development of advertising aimed at specific
groups to the understanding of how crowds react to dangerous situations.
Groups can vary widely in size and composition. Individuals tend to drift to people with
like characteristics, and the composition of a group that arises organically may be more
homogeneous. In contrast, a group with enforced membership, like an assigned group
of people in a class who must complete a project together, will be more variable.
Various activities may facilitate bonding within the group, one reason many
organizations use retreats and ice-breaking exercises to get their members to work
together.

4.2
Factors that effect on teamwork
The success of teamwork is an integral part of any organization wishing to
succeed in the global community. In order for organization to achieve any desired goals
it should know its status thus, background and the impact or importance of teamwork in
an organization. Teamwork enhances the organization to operate and function to its
best ability as well as to understand crucial issues such as factors promoting teamwork
success and the disadvantages inhibiting teamwork success.
The most dominant and popular factor promoting teamwork success is intergroup competition meaning is competition among groups in the company for example
a group from Limpopo province competing with a group from Gauten. It instill group
effectiveness and cooperation because when groups turn to compete with each other
members are most likely to conform to the rules and values that a particular team
uphold in order to reach effective teamwork.

4.3
Technology impact on Zappos
There's no denying the fact that customer service is important to a small or midsized business. The quality of that service will either enhance or degrade customer
loyalty to your brand and your business. With the economy in recession, customers
have more alternatives than ever. The business that proves to be responsive to
customer questions, complaints, or other needs can gain a clear competitive
advantage. That's why it's so important to understand how new technologies can help

you

anticipate customer needs, tailor business processes to best serve customers, and
ultimately improve the efficiency of your business the latter of which can keep
costs down.
Customer Service Technology
There are a few major areas in which technology now is able to help provide key
advantages to businesses in engendering customer loyalty by improving customer
service:
Websites. Providing areas on your website where customers can
answer their own questions or seek answers from others.
2
E-mail. Using e-mail as a way to improve customer service and more
quickly respond to certain needs or help requests.
3
Communications. Unifying communications so that you know that the
customer who left a voice mail also sent an e-mail with the same request a few
days ago.
4
Software. Better managing customer relationships with more
sophisticated data-gathering tools, such as customer relationship management
software.
1

(a)
Zapposs group formation and teamwork
There are three types of task interdependence. Pooled interdependence exists
when team members may work independently and simply combine their efforts to
create the teams output. For example, when students meet to divide the section of a
research paper and one person simply puts all the sections together to create one
paper, the team is using the pooled interdependence model.
1 Be Adventurous, Creative, and Open-Minded.
2 Pursue Growth and Learning
3 Build Open and Honest Relationships With Communication
4 Build a Positive Team and Family Spirit
5 Do More With Less
6 Be Passionate and Determined
7 Be Humble
8
A training team trains employees in each core value. So, every
employee hears the same message, learns the values, and learns the behavior
that is expected to live the values every day at work. The trainers are available
for training value gaps.

(b)
Impact of technology on teamwork in Zappos

In an effective team culture, the concept of context is addressed. Team members


understand why they are participating on the team and how the team fits within their
organization. In an effective team culture, team members understand where the work
of their team fits in the total context of their organization's strategic plan and success
goals.
When the organization culture supports teamwork, team members understand how the
strategy of using teams fits in the total context of their organization's strategic plan and
success goals. Team members understand why using teams will help their organization
attain its business goals. In fact, they understand the context of a team culture so well,
they are convinced that teams are the only way their organization will excel.

References:
1.Compare and Contrast Different Organizational Structures and
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2.Compare and contrast different organizational structure and Culture[online]


available at: http://www.ukessays.com/essays/business/compare-and-contrastdifferent-organizational-structure-and-culture-businessessay.php#ixzz31hHgag9I[accessed: May,14,2014]
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and Organizational Culture?[online] available at:
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5.Organizational Culture, Socialization, and Mentoring[online]


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Stakeholders[online] available at:

http://danielsethics.mgt.unm.edu/pdf/Zappos
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7.What Are the Advantages & Disadvantages for Every Company


Becoming a Customer-Focused Business?[online] avaible at:
http://smallbusiness.chron.com/advantages-disadvantages- company-becomingcustomerfocused-business-26150.html[accessed: May,14,2014]

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http://www.inc.com/issie- lapowsky/zappos-gets-rid-ofmanagers.html[accessed: May,14,2014]

9.The Efects of Leadership Styles on the Organization


[online] available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/effectsleadership-styles-organization-10387.html[accessed: May,14,2014]

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