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Hard Chromium plating

:
Extremely hard and corrosion resistant. The process is used for applications where
excellent wear and/or corrosion resistance is required. Chrome plating may be either a thick
layer of chrome (generally known as hard chrome) that offers exceptional hardness,wearresistance, and oil-holding capability, but limited corrosion resistance;
Hard chromium deposits are intended primarily to increase the service life of functional parts
by providing a surface with a low coefficient of friction that resists galling, abrasive and
lubricated wear, and corrosion.
The average life of a chromium-plated ring is approximately five times that of an unplated ring
made of the same base metal.
Nickel Plating
The Nickel plating process is used extensively for decorative, engineering, and
electroforming purposes, because the appearance and other properties of electrodeposited
nickel can be varied over wide ranges by controlling the composition and the operating
parameters of the plating solution. Decorative applications account for about 80% of the
nickel consumed in plating; 20% is consumed for engineering and electroforming purposes.
These deposits may be specified to improve corrosion and wear resistance, to salvage
or build up worn or undersized parts, to modify magnetic properties, electrolytic nickel plating
is decorative, functional, and corrosion resistant but it tarnishes and it is not as hard as
chromium.
Nickel-chrome:
Nickel plating followed by a flash of chrome for tarnish resistance and extra corrosion
resistance.
Industrial (Hard) Chromium Plating
Hard chromium plating is produced by electrodeposition from a solution containing
chromic acid (CrO3) and a catalytic anion in proper proportion. The metal so produced is
extremely hard and corrosion resistant. The process is used for applications where excellent
wear and/or corrosion resistance is required. This includes products such as piston rings,
shock absorbers, struts, brake pistons, engine valve stems, cylinder liners, and hydraulic
rods. Other applications are for aircraft landing gears, textile and gravure rolls, plastic rolls,

size. hard chromium is applied directly to the base metal.05 mil). T The excellent wearing qualities and low coefficient of friction of chromium are highly advantageous. and construction of the part to be plated · The type of metal from which the part is made · Masking requirements (for parts that are to be selectively plated) · Dimensional requirements (that is. . improvement of tool performance and tool life.5 to 500 μm (0. abrasive and lubricated wear. and corrosion. whereas decorative coatings seldom exceed 1. Selection Factors The decision to use hard chromium plating on a specific part should take into account the following characteristics: · The inherent hardness and wear resistance of electrodeposited chromium · The thickness of chromium required · The shape. decorative chromium is applied over undercoats of nickel or of copper and nickel. and part salvage. provided that the base metal is hard enough to support the chromium layer in service. With certain exceptions.3 μm (0. Decorative chromium plating in the following ways: Hard chromium deposits are intended primarily to increase the service life of functional parts by providing a surface with a low coefficient of friction that resists galling. whether or not mechanical finishing is required and can be accomplished in accordance with desired tolerances) From the standpoint of processing.1 to 20 mils) and for certain applications to considerably greater thicknesses. Hard chromium normally is deposited to thicknesses ranging from 2. The major uses of hard chromium plating are for wear-resistance applications. Another major purpose is to restore dimensions of undersized parts. regardless of their surface hardness or chemical composition. The fact that a chromium deposit can significantly reduce fatigue strength must be considered in determining whether chromium plating can be safely used.and dies and molds. hard chromium plate may be applied to steels.

Conventional electrolytic nickel plating is decorative. to salvage or build up worn or undersized parts. mirror-like deposits described in previous sections are not usually required. functional. Nickel electroforming is the specialized use of the nickel plating process to produce or reproduce articles by electroplating onto a mandrel that is subsequently separated from the deposit. to modify magnetic properties.Engineering Plating The engineering applications of nickel plating include those where a fully bright appearance is not required. but limited corrosion resistance. hardness. the lustrous. or it may be nickel-chrome (nickel plating followed by a flash of chrome for tarnish resistance and extra corrosion resistance. wear. abrasion and wear resistance. as is employed on truck bumpers and automotive brightwork). and magnetic properties. such as corrosion resistance. to prepare surfaces for enameling or for organic coating. and often used on rough-service applications like down-hole applications. consumer electronics. surface texture. Engineering and Electroforming Processes Electrodeposited nickel coatings are applied in engineering applications to modify or improve surface properties. Chrome plating may be either a thick layer of chrome (generally known as hard chrome) that offers exceptional hardness. Although the appearance of the coating is important and the plated surface should be defect-free. and oil-holding capability. Engineering nickel deposits are usually sulfur-free and matte in appearance. the most important properties to develop in a coating are corrosion resistance. to function as diffusion barriers in electronic applications and for other purposes. and corrosion resistant but it tarnishes and it is not as hard as chromium. and luster. These deposits may be specified to improve corrosion and wear resistance. Electroless nickel plating (actually autocatalytic nickel plating) is a glassy nickel-phosphorous coating that is very corrosion resistant and quite hard. hardness. Engineering applications exist in the chemical. and computer industries. Chromium Alloy Plating For both chromium and stainless steel types of alloys. telecommunications. . nuclear.wear-resistance.