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l r h

E d i t i o n

THE THEORY AND PRACTICE


OF
SEAMANSHIP

Sinceit was first publishedn 1962, Thc Thzory and Prattice of


Seaianship has beencontinuouslyrevised,culminatingin lhis lllh
edition.Ttns new editioninclualesan updatedsectionon 'Reguladons
for Preventronof Collision at Sa' as well as a new Author's Note.It
hasbenwidelypraisedandis thestandardworkon thesubject.
'Thtu book is tntendedpriDarily for crndidatd for Borrd of Tlade
certilicrt4s of competencybot such it the debil th{t while being
equrlly sritable for the beginner, it i3 rlso e rcfercnoeworl for
experieDcedsermen, snd the layout s||d style of text mrke it
suitable for clrrespondencecounic ,ror* wherc pracdcal experlence cur be dlied to the tleorcticrl f,ppmrch, All fsceis of
rernrsnshlplrom the rnchor to drmrge control rr ddt with rnd
the chspters on pracdcrl sbip hondlin& strrndiDg and bscbin&
towing, emergenclesand the safety of nevigrtion ar prrticuh y
noteworthy.Thls book ir an excellenarnd rrsporuible contdbution
to the nau0cal lleld ,nd must hrve s freEendous rppeal to sll
grad6of serDen.' Salarsr
Graham ltrnlon conrmencedhis seafaringcarerin 1946 on the
faining shipflMS Wrlcst?r,afterwardsservingwilh lhe Port Line to
Australia,NewZealand,USA, Canada,Africa, west Indiesandlhe F{i
Islands.He obtainedthe ExtsaMasterMariner'sCenifrcalein 1957,
gainingthe year'shighestmarksin the examination.For this he was
awaded a Royal Societyof Ans Silver Medal and alsb lhe Criffilhs
Award by the MerchantNarT and Ai ine Offrcers'Association.For
manyyearshewasSniorLcturerin Seamanship,
CargoCarriageand
Ship Maintenancea! PlymouthPolytechnic,sincerenamedPlymouth
University.Though rctircd, he is now a newspaprcolumnist and
for BBC radio.
tnoadcasts

THE THEORY
AND PRACTICEOF

SEAMANSHIP
I ITH EDITTON

GRAHAM DANTON

r,H:

F||srF|blisH 1952by Rordd8c& rci.a Prul


loh .dition l9rl
I l!\ .dition FrUisH 196
b RodlcdSc
I I Nc* Rt r l^.oc,I-ddqr EOP 4EB
SiEdl|n oti.ly Fdidr.d ir th. USAr$ C&d.
by Routld8.
29t]Us 35$ StECIlthw YortaNY lml
Rcpridld 1998,1999(twice),2ffi , 2m1, 2ffiL 2fi.J3
Rortlds. Ltat n Vi,t 4lE Ta !, & Fr@titcrry
O 196.2,l%, 9n, ln6 1978,lS0, 1985,l9gt, 1996Gnh6 Djlbl
Prhi.d rrd boud in Or!.t Bnbin ht TJlcdidd

lrl hddoq Odr*dl

All rithB r!|.flql No Fn of thisboo*n.y bcllf.lcd a EFoduc.dor


ulilizd in tny fd'| 6 by ey cLalonh, nrc.hri..l, a o6anrDa.r$,io?
h|osr 6 h.r!.ft.r im'q|Ed,irEludiDftbaocopyinsnd tlcadin& or irt
y infornnid rion!. or tltitrvrl ryre$ widnr F inidr ir writir!
fiun E publidE .
Btitith l;bdt Catatoeaing
i^ Pbnaia &b
A clarlogucrccdd fd tbi. booLi. .vrihblc ftG dE Edtirh Ub[! y
pbr@, olcgnsntt CatdoaitAh Nlttdoi

&ta

TIE rtEd, id Frdcc of r.dnauIfg ,/Cnhnn Ib|ld|. - I llh cd


hclud.. blbliogophbd |Efatt6 !|d hd.r
ISBNG,lls-l42GE (hud. - IIIBN lXl5-I53717 (pbl)
l S.rn.rtrip. L Tltb,
vx54l.D3 1996
64i38-dc20
I$N G4l5-l42GE 0rbk)
(pUO
0"415n5372-7

96-11271
OP

CONTENTS

I.
II.
III.
IV
Y.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.

LIST OF FICURES
LIST OF PLATES
AUTHOR'SNOTE
ACKNOWLEDCMENTS
TABLE OF CONVERSIONS
THE ANCHOR
MOORINC
THE PRINCIPLES
OF SHIPHANDLINC
PRACTICALSHIP HANDLING
ICE
LIFE,SAVINGAND DISTRESS
DAMAGE CONTROL
STRANDINCAND EEACHING
EMERCENCIES

x. TowINc
XI,
XII,
XITI.
XIV
XV.
XVI.
XVII.
XVIII.
XIX.

FIRE
DRYDOCKINGAND LOADLINES
THE OFFICEROF THE WATCH
THE SAFETYOF NAVIGATION
LIFTING GEAR
ROPEAND CANVAS
DECKAPPLIANCES
THE SHIP'SBOAT
(D.O.T) ORAL
THE DEPARTMENT
OF TRANSPORT
EXAMINATION_FOREIGN-GOING
INDEX

xiii

I
35
5l
75
t0E
8
141
159
t82
215
233
25E
282
293
373
407
446
169
495
499

FIGURES

t.l
1.2
1.3
1.4
1,5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
l.l0
l.ll
l.l2

Hill's patadtstocllasraochor---contsooatrchor
Adroir.lg c.!t anchor,TypcA.C.l,l
Chaincrbla end its componcnts
Luglca3joining rhrcklc
Ms.kiDg! or at|cbot!rnd csblas
Dcvil'scldwa-Bletc's stoppcr-pqtaotsliF
Yee of r ihip rt singlcrtrcbor
Anchoringon r sboal
Pointing.hip
Anchorint o! r stccpto bc|ch
High holding-porveranchors
Liftilg r bowcranchoron dcck

2l
Strca!6 whcn!t opcnmoor
12 Erccutingm opcnmoor
13 Mooritg wit[ atr anchor.achway
24 Foulitrgr hlwsc
25 Aichoring Dcara shorl
2.6 ExacutinSr atandinSrboor
2,7 Erccutinga ruDningmoor
2.t Corrlcling lc6Y.y whetrEoorirg
19 Thc B.ltic door
210 OcarinSI bcrrhwh.n Bdtic-moorcd
Zll-15 Ocarint. foul hewlc
3.1 Transvrr$ cfiactof a proFllcr
3.2 Forc6 axanrdby twin scrcw!
3.3 Thlustcrunits
3.4 Thc turdng circlc
3.5 Thc cff.ct of widd oo . vslct
3.6 Eficc{of wind whcnstoppirgard rcvcrliig I vrascl
3.? Tumingin a curEnt, ahcrd.nd .st rtr
3.t Crnrl fr.ct
3.9 Etrcclofircqu.litiB ofthc sca-hcd
3.10 Sh.aringcfrac$ofr riv.l strlaD
vii

Pq. 3
5
7

ll

t5

26
3l
31
35
35
37
3E
39
0
4l
42
43
4
16-9
52
54
56
56
63
65
6
6t
70

FIGURES
pag. 7|
3.ll Enteringa dock
3.12 Girdinga tu8
74
a moorcdship
3.13 Efrcctof passing
76.84
4.1-17Ma[auwingto andfrom buoys
85
4.lE Thship'shawscrs
4.19-27Mancuvringto thc bcrth in calms,and currcnts.
8G90
Clcaringlhc bcrth
4.28-51Maneuvringto thc bcrth in a wind. Clcaringthc
90-103
bcIlh
4.52 Tuming a vcssclshort round
104
104
4.53 Tuming in a rivcr strcam
4,54 Tumingin { rivcrslream
105
t05
4.55 Entcringa dockfroma cross-st.cam
t06
4.56 kaving a dockinto a caoss-strcam
l0G7
4.57-58Turning
a vcssclin a wind
buoy
130
6.1 Riggingthc brcchcs
l3l
6.2 Firinga rockei;n a cross-wind
hookfor lifc-rafts
131
6.3 The R.F.D,Automaticrelcasc
davil
139
6.4 Thc Wclin-Maclachlan
Singlc-point
suspcnsion
145
7.1 Patching
a holcin ship'ssidcplating
146
7.2 Altcrnativcmcthodof patching
147
7.3 Planvicwofthc Datch
150
7.4 Makcshiftfish-bolt
ls0
7.5 Petcnlrivet stoppcr
t5l
7.6 Shoringd bulklcad
154-7
?.7-ll Jllry rudders
t57
7.12 St.cringby drags
163
in tandcE
E.l LayiDgout anchors
165
E.2 Carryingout a boweranchorbctwcaotwo boat3
166
8.3 Scuringa purchaJalo Sround-tacklcbawsar
167
8.4 Anchorsin tandcm
175
*hcn
on
to
3.r
broadsidc
8.5 Utrgrounding
115
whcnstcm-odto saa
8.6 UnFouDding
178
8.7 Bachilga vcsscl
t79
linsasborc
E.8 SccuriDg
9.I
9.2
l0.l
10.2
10.3
lo.a

Thc drift dircctionsof a wrcck


Matr(ruwcsfor rccovcryof a ananovctboard
PraclicaltowinS-ltyout bcfotr towinS
PracticrltowinS-layout duringtowing
Sccuri!8ttc oastctrglf to thc hre!.r
FrirL.d ch.6ogdr.vo

l9l
t97
?27
2A
229
231

ll.l
ll.2
I1.3
ll.,l

PIOURBS
Kirl& Zoic da.cdq ry|!.o
Kiddc rEokcartlclor Lyout
KiddGvilud ,ooffior
Kidd!.udibh .nok dctlclor

W. U9

r2.l St bility of. .hip h r fodirf doc&


rL3
tL4

Lordlin6 for r !t .d.t


Irdli4a foa a iiEb.r.crrryb! rl|t.l
Irrdli!6 for r .dlidg rhip
Cdqrlrtiotr fot tha docl dlor@

l,t l

CorvaotioDrlditrdioo of buoyag.in tL Urit d Ki!8doE

t1.2 llteral Earlis, Region'A''A'

Csdinal marb, Rcgon


Ilolet d drdger ord lafc *rtaa !urk!
14.5 SFcial Darkr
14.5 Lidtchsrsc-trriltics
14.7 Spccimetrroutcs, Regioo'A'
l4.t
Ac{io! ofr.ililt rbip. wh.o collitiod it iomircdt
lia.9 Ac'tio! of powqld shiF wbcncolirioo i! iEEilcot
14.10 D.tlfEirilg ttc dirrcliotr of r vr.acl'r bcadi!!
l4.l0^ Thc coEFs crtd
l4.ll Th. ID!.mdiond Co& Fb8'
ld3
tL4

R.cviDgr th$Gfold purch!.


l5.l
152 Putrhr6
15.3 Hslcd dcrrick
15,4 Vclc dcnick
15,5 Stuclctd dcrtidr
15.5 RiffiDg 3hrcr3
15.7 RigEitrg. SfD
l5.t
Deck cranc
15.9 Tbc unio! pucht!.
15.10 Doutlilt &rr
l5.ll Yo-yo g..r
15.12 Thr ri!&L.d rLrrict
15.13 Thr b...twrtbt rig
l5.l,l Thc Livcrpool rig
15.15 tb hc.w d.diot
15.16 Tb rwiltiot ddrick
16,l Th. colltructiotr offbr roF
16,2 Ovcibrld trcr--dh..tb.nd-irsrc-of-.irhtt!ot---.lovcbilch-tinbcr hitch
ir

E3
254
28
272
274

n5

a7

298
M
300
T2
303

3m
329
350
314
376

3tt

389
391
392
394
396
397
39t
39t
39
,$0
101
82
M
408
416

FIGURES
16.3 R..f knot-bowlirc-rollilg bitch-hdf hitch-marlinc
spilc hitcb
16.4 C$ick bcDd--cow hitcb-Bhckwsl hitch-oatlilg
hitch---{wDi!8hitch
16.5 Clovc hitch od thc bight-bowlid. on thc biSbt-shc.P
shaok
16.6 PassingroF and cheinstopFrs
16.7 Stag!hilch6 and chtir hilcb6
16.8 whippings
16.9 Wormin& parcclling,rld scrving
16.10 Flat, routrd,and Ecking sciziogs
16.ll Chain,cut,aodaycspucca
16.12 Longsplicc
16.13 Coiling & 'Frcnchman'-Eyc aplicc-Bulldog 8rip6
16.14 Srwingc.nva!
LogScnsorassembly
l7.l Electromagnetic
log
Electronic
17.2 Chernikcff
It.l
It.2
It.3
It.a

Hslf*.ction aid aidcclcvstionof woodcolifcboat


BcLing frlls on a stlglorD bollard
A lifcboat,fully riggld
Tbc thcoryof s.iling

4lE
419

421
42J
424
425
427
429
430
43E
444
455
451
475
481
4EE
490

I
I

PLATES

Betll'?eNges 460otld461
roclct. Dctailandfiringopcration
l. scbcrDulylinc-throwiog
2. Schcroulybuoyanthcad.Lifcbuoylightsaodsmokcfloats
3. IDiatablcrubbcrlifcraft-scctional vi.*
,t. SiDglc-point
susFDsionraft
5. Singlc*hcavccarSgblocla
6. Multiplc blocksand filtings
7. Conmodotl Log cquipmcnt
8. CommodotaLog Rotator
9. ChcmikccfrLo8-Impcllcr asscmbly
t0, Chcmikccfrlrg-Indic-ator
ll. Chcmikc.frL.g-Tubc asscmbly
12. Ddt-mouoid 'Synch.ostP' tclcgephs
13. Singlc-s@ quadtantaldavib
quadtantdauts
14. Ovcrhcad.typc
15. wclin Srivity davils(Sarotrb)
16. Wclin Srevitydavitr (B.T.C.vcss.l)
l?. UBdcrdcck&vits-top piclut! showsbo.t stowrd,
lowcr picturshowsboat s\r'ungout
lifboats
It. Undcrdcctdwits hadling glass_frbrc
19. Clarlc Chepmanclcclric windlass-forc .idc
m. Chrkc Chapmanstcamwi.dlass-aft sid!
21. CtarkcChapmansplashlubricetcdstcamwindlass-all sid.
22. ClarkcChapmanclcctricmooritS capatatr
23. C'lsrkcchapDansplashlubicatcd.lcctric cargowinch
machinc
24, Kclvinclccttically{riwn,oundiog

AUTHOR'S NOTE

'Th. cxerci5iry of
ss^M^NsrDis a slil !! anciqlt a! nanlh4 &6n d as
tnowlcdgcne&,sssyto naviSlte,edltaid andoFlaL a vcss.l'. !o whichI add
'In a
dc word 'sfcly'. As a boy, it wa! c4laincd to nc by a safatr as
m'ritio situation,doing rbe rigbt lhin& al lh. rigbt tin, wilb wha&vcr
mrtcriab ord quipmcntarc .vailablc.' Tbc goodscamat!ehctbcr a! offrcer
or a lltirg, is onc who canbc irtllid by his scnicrsto talc imm.diatc atcPcto
try io bring.very potcDlialydangdoussiorlioD u&rcrntol.
Clcarl, wiih mcmbrsof tbc profcssioolitdy to scrveon shipswhich mly
hav. bccnbuilt a! aDydf,e duringtj. lastfifty ycus, ! lcrboot on thc subjcct
must blcnd nmicrt aDdnodcm Lchnique,swith cquipocnt tlal Eay vtry
b.iw.cn thc rsvolutioBry and the obcolescorEqualn thc bool eusr cop
witb constendy-cb.dging
rc8slations.
My boot is aiecd prinarily al officsrs ad ced.ts Etudyingfof British
Cciifica&s of ConFtcrcy, bur I hoF it will b of vnluc!o all scafarasasa
Sime it was 6rst plblisbcd in 1962, it b!! becn continualy rcvistd,
Dticat 4 andcrFniLd 0oinclu& conLmpor.rybclicfsrc8lrdrngst8nding,
colision, nfloatir8, suwivrl itr xtr.m. coditiols, oil polution, and the
'sailing' faciorof I'rgE disablcdhnk rs.
Colourhasbccnomii.d ftom my diagrnosfor r..!o[s of cost,but caftfiil
colouring,usingwax cnyons atrdtb. colourbys, $'i[ cdbanccth. us.fulncss
ofrhoacrElatiDg!o flagsrnd booys.Tb. boot shor dtc sMicd in coojuclioo
csFcialy tho6. coDccmingLifc-saving
with rbc la&st mlndabry rcgul,ations,
andFirEAppli.rccs, Mus&n, Oil Polution, Darydous CoodsandConstnrclion Rules.
'R.gulationsfor
A! ahcboot cvolv.s into its lllh cditio4 $,ilh thc latalt
PrEv.otiogColision at S!', I aa indcb&dlo my rEa&n for |hn suppottand
.ocourlg.n n! ad to my Fblish.rs for th.ir co inucdh.lp addguidancc.

A C K N O W L E D GM E N T S

t wlin to cxtctrdmy gtalitudcio tbc followingfor thcL assbtanccin


supplyinSphotolrapb and information:
Mcssrs.Bror,n, Lcnoor and CompattyLtd. (Anchott
Thc Sacr.taryof the tnstitutc of Naval Archit cts fo. pcrmission
to quotc from a papcrby Mr. H. PoPc
The Departrncntof Ttanspon
Ltd.
Schcrmuly
PainsWesscx
Thc R.F,D. ConpanyLtd. (Lifcratts)
BaaufonAir-ScaRcacucLtd.
wclin MtclachlanDevitsLtd.
ShcllT.nkcrs Ltd.
Thc wrltcr Kidd. CompanyLtd.
ThaComptrollcr,Hcr Majcsg'i StationcryOfrca
Thc GourockRopcworkCompanyLtd.
Thomaswalkcr and SonsLtd,
Ltd.
Instrumcnts
Chcmikcctr
Mca$s.Chadburns(fcbg{Phs) Ltd.
Mcasr!.Clarkc,ChapmrnLtd.
Kclvin HughcsLtd.

TABLE OF CONVERSIONS
(WITH BS ABBREVIATIONS)
: 2.54cctrtimcfts (cm)
: 0.39E mctrcs(m)
:
l't3 n
: 3.28fcct (ft)
: 39.37inchca(in)
: 0.4536tilograrnmcs(kg)
Wclgh,
I pound
:
I tot
l 0 1 6k 8
: 2.z)5tb
lkg
: 0.9t5 ton
lq)0kg
:
I mcldc lon o. to ra (t)
: 70.3tdnt2
I lbiir'
: 14.7lbliaz
(atm)
I atmosphere
: 76 cm of m.rctry (cm Hg)
:4.5461itr60)
fofui.
I g,Jlon
:0.228!Ion(grl)
I litrr
: 35.314
lml
ft'
: 7116
Powar
I horsapo*cr
w4ft (W)
:
lmw
I kilowrrt (LW)
:
I.34 horscposq (hp)
:
F,Wtcy
I hctE(Hz,
I c),clcp.r accond(c/r)
Yariout Dit'l,llrt oJa.ropch ltri[inctr6 (mm)cqualrcircumfcrcrcc
h inchcs(ir) multiplicdby t
I tonnc of acawsrcaoccupiGrougbly I m!
IztAth

I
I
I
I

itrch
foot
fathom
mctra

Ar not dl &adlra srr frmilitr with thc matric ayltan, inFrial


aquivelcntrhtrc bcanput whcrc rpproprist in thc l|argin. Th.*c
iEFid quantiticsarr loi idrnticrl with thc mctdc quaotitici but rrr
app.oximrtcly of tbc rsmc ordlr, |rd rdthnrctical calculationswiih
imFi.l que[titid will bc sclfconsi6tent.
xv

CIIAPTER I

THE ANCHOR

rHE AI'MIMATY PATTETN, STOCrII'


ANCHOI

OR COMMON

lTlrtr!
u.hor ir ilurtrrtcd itr Ft. l.l togrthctwith tbc nrlncaof thc
I vadou! Ddrb. It b fttd with a stocl, which !bo!.ld bGof atr
I
epprovcid6ign aadwriShoDc{uartct of thc lpocificdwcigbtof
thc Eorindcr of lhc strchor.It i! ftdowtrcdfor it! GxcdlcntholditrS
quditics, rtrd cveo today somc d$igns of patent stocllssarchoN
arc no morc efficicDt, so far as holding ProFnies atc concemed.
tht! thc common anchor of onr hundrcd ycars a8o, a!$rmiDg
anclDrsequal in wciSht. Il is no longr rcquircd to bc carrid on
mcrchaDtshiDs.
Whao thc rnahor ttitd tha a..-H thc atoclgbcilg loqpr drd
brivir lhln tba atDq r3rud6 thc horizontalpo6itio! r! roon rr rhc
|nchor i! rt!!lad, thus cdulitr8thc lovri atm strd lutc to bccoD
.6baddcd Itra ltock !ivc! ttr alchor g!l{t atability,i.c. it praeaolsit
f.6 rotrti!8 uad.r hcavylodd or a stslsrapplicdothd tht'tr i! linc
vith thc shrlf. Tbc ucnor will tum id a [orizontal plrnc quiic cesily
|! ! rhip ingt with tbc tidrl rt csm or wild. Thcrc lnc !o Dovitrg
rqltr to b.coDcctol(.d gilh s-bcd rnatcrial,rc thtt 3houldltc snchor
f,aiccidlotatly brokcnout ofit! holdiDgPoritionit rcEli!! aficicnt for
rarla[odn&
Tbo uDD.r!u|rc. whichprotrudcsfroE ttc aca-U, contsibuta !o
holdiar iiwcr aad nev bccoEcfoulcdby thc ceblcs! thc thip twitgt.
furOJ,-ia vtry rtattos watar,or whcrEthc &a-H ddcr out,.mdl
caafinry bcconciDpalcdon rhit iukc. Thc coEmotralahor ia dificult to rtow *ith thc stockin positiod.I! mcrchaDtsbip! it is ulualy
kcdgcaDchorwith thc atockstowcd
foundr. r ligbt (nod-comPulsory)
Dantlcl with-tbaahuh oia! e Mcboatuchor' As r tcdgr ucbor it is
iikcly to wciSbup to 2 to!trcs,dimcDsiontfor this wciShtbci4 roughly
3.9n ortr.tl l.ogth: 3 7 nr lcrgth of ltock, rnd 2'5 m width of erms.
lbc rtccl commol aachorof todly ht! r holditrgPoxTr of rouflrly
Otlc to four tiD.r it! wci8lt, dcpcndilguPodtho s!a-M. It fu of rut-

2 ions
1 2 f t6 i n
l2 fr
8ft

THE ANCHOR
prili.trghirtorlsl ilt na6tto notc lbat AdEiral Irrd Ncbon'sadchol
(ILM.S. yLt rr), *ith it! buoy.lt o.t ttock, bld a holdingDowlf of
2.t tioaa itt *cif[L EftciadcyitlFovc@.nB hrvc tbaidorl baaotmrll
aiica th.o, !!d rlr onlyjust dcvdopitr&
Tha rpharq or colsrlaoadt! !t llo ,toct cxtrDitic! lcrvc t*o purpoacr:thcy lrlirt mtrtio! of Oa alahor whcobitiDS;strdprrvaot,to a
cartlin cf,t at, riDling of thc ,toct irto ltc sci-h.d rtla it fuProvidiag
3tlhlity u!&c lod.
tI|E PATENT STOCIIESS INCIION
Thir .16[0r ir rlro ilu.tntld itr Fi& l.l. It ht! !o .tocL, .Dd c|[
tt .dorc bGho\,iight homchto thc hswlc piF, quickly!.cuE4 lnd
ir rady for i$trnt lcttitrg go. Tbc ctrtiF haad,includiDgttc rre! !trd
iutc., ia rbL to pivot sbout thc cld ofthc abrtl. lt! a!8L of rotatio!
i.linitld by.toF to 45 d.gr.r fro& !h. axir of thc thtd. I! !oD.
dcrignrtbir ugh ir aslow sr 3) dc8tt6. Thc hcrd nult rci8tr.t h.d
60% of thc tot l wight of tbc.nc.hor.
Ifit rtsiL. tL. r..-bad vilb thc iu&.. vlrtic.L thcit tiDDiiS Fh.
chafot!. surfrccrld rtan lohtio! of tba ate& Thc .trc,ho!hlr Sood
hoHilt powcr,itr tbc tclio! oftbttc to fou! tid.3 it6 x,!i8ht i!.ficilot
bolditrSIroE4 but haa. Dovitrgpsn wtich crrr bccoEcchok d tvitb
a..-b.d Ditltirl Thir Day ecll c.u!c thc fuk6 to fril to Ftrip ltoutd
t!. uahor babrotctr out ofib holdi!8 podition For thi! rcalo!, whao
$chodns fo( .om! tinc, it i! e Soodprecttucto rcgubrly xdith th.
uchor.!d riir rr. Thi. rtpli.s p&ticuLrly oD!.trdy.nd ouddy r..bcdt, |trd .n opporrurity is rfordcd to ho!. thc ucrhot u!in8 r liSf,.
t'rl..ur! lrtlr jct SoE! shippitrgcodpalic. itrsilt uDon thi! bdlt
doE

H.vilg ro ttocl tbis tyF of.!.bor i! utrltitlc, .!d wico dnggilg


u!d!r b6vy lord i! liit c to ioist lhrough lto dcgrct lf tho tut .
f.il to tEtip, .!y holditrgpowr EDainingi! duccotLclyto wriStt |!4
i! tur!, flic{ioo.Th. riz. ofthc futr! i, a dittct Ecrturt oftl. holdilt
FoFti..,
ovctloolcd i!
Dilrdy&h8pr nd aaalc !ot!d sbovr ltt Saoarany
(tolaDpubory)
.trc.o
idc.l
of
ib
..!y
rtowrg..
It
i!
.tr
ihc lifbt
.trchor for vlaaalrittrd eiih rtdr haslc pipa&
Eothtbr *ockld rd rhc stoclhsr archor meyhl}t t ring !ccl|$d to
t[r !h.!t (|l tlc irlc,hor'rccotrr of gr.vity. Thb ir thcgarilt MThcmo.t ooDion tt?6 fould itr tbc Mcrchalt Sqviccu! thc Byldl
Hdl's, andTrylor's prtcot stocuaasanchoB.Two atEcrrricd ar bowcr
a.!cho[t in thc haw& piF rtrd s tbfudia catticd .! s tpalo or rL.l
5 ton ll.3 ft drclor. lypics! dimc$ions ofa ltotrna anchorwouldbc 3 5 m ovcnll
7 f t 3 f t Llgth; 2'l m cxtrcnc lctrgthof hced; I m mra6urrdiD siabclcvatiotl
2

THE ANCHOR

5 fa8 in acrosslripping palmsof onc nukc snd 1.7m from fiukc tip to crown.
T6ts at thc Admiralty ExFrimcntel Worls havcshownthat:
(l) Holdirg powrir reiscdby incrrasi[gthc fukc e.Ea(2) It ir dlo ircftascd by hrving smooth,uribbcd iukc!.
(3) A holditrEpowcrof tcn riEcsthc wcightcadbc obtsitrcd,
(4) Stabilitycaa bGcfrcctcdby usiogstabilisidgitrs.
(5) A dihdral surfaccod thc fukcs givca. gratcrboldiDgpowcr,
(6) SuchI surfecci! rnorc.55ily oblaincdwith hollowirtca.
Thc atoclJaa!alc.horwilh tumblingiutc3 var irtroduccd ia lt{o,
ald sincctbat &E cfr.clivccbadgcain d.signhavcbccn&gligiblc. I!
thc Lttlr balf of tha lidctcrntt ccoturythc Adnira.ltyconducld t6t!
in ordli to 6clcctthc mostcffcicdt typc,but litdc va! doncto ibprova
cftciaicy.
T6t! e.rc rchtroducld iB 1943aft.r muchcompleintby parromcl
durilg thc w|t ofrhc incftcicncyof archon. AIlq four or ivc modifrc.tiotrr to r proio9p., r rcw dcsigowsscfrcctcd.ad ir lDown esthc
ADMITALTY CAST AI\TCHONTAPE T.C.T'
Ttir eDchorir fully ilustr"atld in Fi& 1.2rd ir sow acc.pt d rr a
Ecrchart shipanchor.It wast ltd in p.actic{llycvcrytypc of sca-bcd,
ildudiDg tluc chy (a poor holdirg 8rouadfor rtocll6! rochoB),sa!4
ahirdc, aotfdu4 and had.ock covrrrd with. rhin bycr of,ilt.
Tha!. provld it to bc an aochorof g.rt strbili9, hlvilg ttsbilirilg
in! at tba bcadcxtrcEitid. It w|! lblc to changcdiFction rapidlysld
without 106.of pull. Is rlmodt rll typ6 of ....b.d it b.d e toldi!8
powc. of two rtrd a half to thcc tim6 that of r rtoclkaa 3tildard
sDchorofcqual $riglt.
52-qrr Listcd bclow src somcof thc tcst rE ults using a 2.ttonnc Typc
5+ton A.C.t4 anchorwitb hollow iutcs, and a 5,2ttonDcdaDdrrdstocllcs
archor itr th. aemcbcd.Tha fgurc! comparcdrr! narieud holding
poe.rs h tcrD! of *itht.
Se,'d
Rtrl clry, .!d, rhidrL, .!cb
Ah: clrr tlio LFr of drd, fud.
Aoftnrd
Efl !, tmrb r!dr, thir bF of till

A.C,t1
l0{
13.6
4.2
Va

3.9
ll
t.6
t9

Ia tba ir,t thla car.., thc lightcr u.hor datdoDd ttG gr!.tcr pul
h tonnca--otr!to tso tirD6 that of thc haavirra!c.hor.td thc fourlh
ca&, howrcr, tbc h..vicr.Bbor *rr ruFdor itr thir ll.Fct |trd iodi.
calc. ttrl e DinimuD r/ljtht DUlt bc Edntsitrcd for .oc,hot!ttbd ro
.hip. lit ly to h.w b dt!@pt |D.lodry io F&lic.||y inFnctr.bL
rd-badr hafotth-Jactro! havr dftlopad tha Stota! anclrcrwhich

aoxrtalrY
l.-,

- ,

-,-6|lAlX.......-

c^sr A|ctiot .tYpEt4


I ot|lalr3totis FoF 2-t Yoaei

r----------''o-_.------:+DD

200

.... -- - --.1--'-_':..

SECTtONS

THE ANCHOR
rcrdoblcs thc A.C.l4 anchor. Whcn thc prolotyF ancho. was lcatcd in
holding grcund composcdof largc gravcl, ssndand clay, il wasfou nd to
havcs holdrnSpowcr of 15 2 timcsrhc wtiSht cornparcdwith only 4 4
for a statrdard stocll.ss anchor of similsr wcigbt. This anchor has bcn
g.'antcd^ 25y. rcduclion in Rule wciSht by Lloyd's Classification
socicty.Th ffukesare madeas thin as possibleto cnsuremaximum
pcnctration of lhc sca-bcd.Thc normal Daofonh ancho. whicb h&sa
straight stock passingthrough the lumbling fiukes givs a holding
powerof 14.2timcsthewcightin the sameground.Thiscnchor,despitc
its cfrcicncy, is srill largcly uscdonly in small crafl. Ils slowagc plopt_
tics arr good.

CHAIN CAELE
Thi! Eay bc mtdc of $tought iron, forgpdmild stctl, caststccl,or
lpcciahuality forgpdste.l.Wroug[t iron is w.atrr thanthc othd thrcc
iatcrlats aoa h morEdifficult lo obtaid trowadays.Fotgcd sta.l is
somc40% .trongpr,aBdthcrcforca smallct,lightcr (by about l2l%)
crblc is pcmisiblc. For cxamplc,s vcsl may bc rcquirrd lo carry
rtecl
or e spctitrl'qu{lit}
cableof 70nrmin si7.:,
2:: h eilhra wroughl-;ron
shackles
of
cable,
this
3lcngth
of22
mm
in
size.
Over
of6l
cablc
2r'din
tons afrordse savingin wcightof 17tonncs.
Thc sizr of chsincablcis maaiurti by th diamctcrof ihc bar from
whicbthc link is madc(Fig. 1.3).Studsarcf!t!d to prcvcdtkinking&nd
lotrgitudinrl strctchitrgof thc links. Thsy arc alro said to Providcatr
incrcasaio startrgthofup to 15%,compardwith opcn_litrkchaiDoflhc
aan|csizc.Thc studsarcsomctimdfttcd inro thc litrk undcrr vcrybigh
pressure
(46vcm'),butonemanufaclurer.
at last.mouldshislinl :lnd
itud in oncpiccc.Itr wrouSht-itoncablcthcstudsart wcldcdh Plee.
Anchorandjoidng abrckLs,rDd oth.r cabla6itin!!, arEordcrd for
Oc aizcofihc cabt for whicbthcyarcintandcd.Tbc followingbrc.kidg
strd proof stlcs formulac aaaa rough 8!idc, but rrc by no maatrs
acc|rratrthrouShoutthc .angpof sizc.Thc symbol, rcprcscot!lhc
sizcof thccablein mm,andthercsultsarcin tonnes.
Pr@ftt4tt

.
.

Drt35
Da24

Dre*ttt

t r.tt

A126
Drlll

stelcablcin lilog.ammcs
Thc minimumwcightof spccial_qualily
prmetr.is roughlygivcdby lhe formula,t/50.
Cabtcis madcio l.ngtbs of 27'5 m callcdtlac&Lr-thc Amcricans
l5 fuhons
call thcm dDu. Thcy rrc conn.cLd by luggador luSlcstjoinint
rhacu6 (Fig. 1.3lnd 1.4).Whcousingr luggcdjoininS $ackb' lbc
lug! a&tc
too big to posslfuorgl 6 cottunonliak '.!.d tr. thcrcforcco!-

THE ANCHOR

rcdad to en oFn link whichis udltuddd and krorw es thc ard rfi*.
Haviry no stud,it is wcatcathan thc commotrlidks, atrdis thdaforr
cdrrgcd. Thb will noi 6t a conrmonlink cithcr,and thr two arc thcrcforc conn6tld by an c crgedstuddcdlirk callcdan intum.dialc littkFig, 1.3shorvsth6c libks, and thejoiniDgshacklc,togpth.rwith thcir
l.lo

1 , 2D

4gCEE-E
'Ibc siz.s rtr approrimetcbut ncrr
6iz. ralativcto ttc commoalitrk.
purpo!6.
practical
Tbc lcngthof a lint is 6D rd it! br.rdth
cnoud for
3.6D.
LUGGED JOIIIING SHACXIES
Th6c .rE clos.dby Dcaosofa ,ort. Thisis lcqrrcditr placcby driving
i bras or rimcd-stlcl pio, havisSa taFr of orc in sixtccn,throughthc
bolt ard otrclu& Wtrtr ttc pin i5 frnly honc a lc{d Fllct fubammcrcd
ilto thc sdall &vrrscdovrrailcdchrmbc. abovcthc larSp!trd of thc
pir. Thc dcpthofthb chsmbcrb cqualto thc lsrSpdiamctcrofthc pin,
!!d tbc totsl atrloutrtof dowtding is aqutl to thc hdf{cpth.
Thapi! ii calld thc ryderirr, and i! sonc crs.s, particularlyitr tbc
frrt orc or twojoiling shacllc!,i! madcof ashor Eslc (solid)bamboo.
Thi! coabLatha bolt to ba rcrnorrd by haDEcriry its uDlipFd rnd,
th! .h!tri!g th. wood.o pia If nctsl thc spilc pi! b rloovrd by

THE ANCHOR
punchingit tEdLr ro4 thc L.d Fllct bdrf ttoct d out *itb tb. Pi!.
lcfore ftthg e DGvFlk4 rhctlori!! of thr old oocDutt bc rcanodout
oft!. dovct ililg. A!.hor rtrrtl6 h|r!. E t I rPib Pi!. Old6 oo..
Ery bafouDdhsvi!8 | fordoclc
Th..c rhrctlc. t! frtt d to t[c ctt c rith tb. bos cod f.ci4 out'
ar tbaceblc
bo.rd. Thi! i! dodcro that thc lugt do trot foul Paojcc{ionr
bccaula
rcvlrtc
dircoiion
itr
tha
ru|r! out. Atrchor ahrc.ldr!att ittcd
rhcy.rr urlilcly to foul r! rhcrtrchori! Lr 80,rld thalu!! till not foul
I DroicctiooI thc alcbot i! hovchonc.
tli tott rhouldbc wcl rEcrrld with whit! Ltd .!d tdlow or aimilst
coEpoutrdwhcatrtcrnbliog, othrleiE it dly bcooDcrozat in !dn'
tio!:b .uchI c.!c t[c .h!c.Hr dould bc bcatld!o tht thc lut.fipsdr
notr ouicllv rh|! thrt pan of th. bolt wi6in ir Tbit c.! b. dotrGwith
a blo*ibrnph thc ab*acc of doclryed cquipa.ol A vlry old Dct[od
u|! to light r 6.r bdcrth ttc |brcklc u.i!8 trt sld oal.uD.
LUGI,ESI JOINTNC SIIACf,I.ES
Tbaacrt. r dc of !o[nodv! lktkal ad ad rr! i! four Frta,
oB of vhi:h i! ttr .hd or choct (Fis. 1.4)' Thc lbf it r.cutld by

N/
' l r

J
STID

IIAO
tatttt

n
l l

t l

tl
ll

,rtt

ttcutt r.a
n .'t of r E i.l .pih pi! rld Lrd P.!.t, rbc Pi! bdtS dtiwo dirgon'
.tly lhr@Shl!. two .iLt of tb. lilt |nd thc .tud. TbG.cPi!| b.F .
dov tiDcr of.bout ooa iD thitrteo. To prrt th..a ahrcuct' th! Pi!
.!d Fcli.l |t! ddvtn out, th. ftd fJtoc&.dcL.t, |!d tlo tro ddor of
8

THE ANCHOR
thc shacklcscpa.aledby mcansof a lop swageavailablcfrom the
narufacturr, Thc usc of thir Puach avoids dam.8c to thc accutttcly
rnechincd surfaca. Thc mrnufactur.r also supplid s compound for
c.rting th6c surfacasprior to astaEbly. Should thr sbactlc bc aubjcclcd
to halsh trc3trn.trt with a hammcr, thc mechincdsurfacrsmay !o lotr8rr
6l togctbcr. Bciog similar to common links, rhougb of largcr mr.xihum
diamctcr (1.5D), rhct i3 no qucatioDofftting thcm to lhc cabl., fecing
thc wong way. Thcir miDimum disdctcr is ilc saDc rs tlut of thc chaitr
c.blc lo which thcy arc fittld.
whca witrg lhclc shacuc! with forgcd-ltcct ceblcs,no cdargpd lioks
atr trcc.ssary,af,d thcy at! thcrcforr id.al for joiniig a brokrn cabL.
Anchor or cdd ahrcklcsarc ltso msdc to thb dcaiS!, but atl ofr latgar
rizc for a givcn c.ablcthan joinilg sbacklcs.Tlcy rrc sligldy pca!rhrpcd, with tbc tapcrcd cod heving a 3izcrqual lo I 25D, thc largc cnd
bcing rouShly l 4D and thc rhid-scctioo!.{rly 2D. (D b thc aizcof thc
chain cablc.)
Luglessshacllcs mada of nickcl stccl arc not hcat ttatld, ottly tcstcd.
Doth typcs ofjoioiDs shacklc, whcthcr luggcd or lugL$, dre hrScr
thrtr lhc commoDlioks, and may thcrEforr jam in thc sprockct or enr
ofa cablc holdcr. Tbcy should thcrcforc bc passcdovcr lhc lattd in thc
fat po.itioo. If uscd with a cablc cspltao, ttcy should agsin lic f,at
ar&i$t thc holdct, but this timc th.y will bc vcrticd. ln othcr word!,
thl spitc pin of a lugSld shackl. must bc Frpcodiculat to th. cablcholds ,urfacc, vhiL thc spilc pio ofa luglcasshscklc fu Parallcl to lhc
surfacc.
IESTS FOR TNCHOf,Ii
L,ndd thc Anchon and ChainCablesAct of I967,all anchorswhich
arc to be usrdaboardUnitcd Kingdoft rcgisleredshipsarc to be leslad
bcfor. bcing pul into scrvic!.Anchorsof75 kilogtamm.sor lessare 168lb
cxcmptcd.For ihc purpossofthe Act, lh. wcightofan anchoraln/ays
includcsthc shacklc,if any, and in lhe casc of a stocled anchor il
cxchdcslhc stock.
In thc 6rst instanc., application must bc madc to e Ccttifying
Authoritr. which mav bc Oe Dcpartmctrt of Tra$Pon or rhc
Authority appoioM by tbcm. s|rch as thc Ctarsificltion Sociciies.
ancho;s a;; t6tcd to a oroof tensilcstresswhich laries from about
twcnty timcsthc wdgh( for a l-tonnc anchor,to just rnd.r fivc times
thc wcight for a SGtonne anchor. Aficr thc test is complctcd, thc
and malcrial
supcrvisormust examinetbc anchotfol flaws,wakncss
dcformstion.
Within onc mooth ofthc lcst-if satisf.ctory-a ccnilicatemusl b
irsucd which containsa serial numbcr, lhc namc and mark of lhc
tcsting.stablishmcnt,the namc and matk of thc CcrtifyingAuthority

THE ANCHOR
rDd thc tran|r of th tcat SuFrvisor, In rddition, it notca thc tyPc of
rlcbor, wlilht itr liloSrrfi|nar, wrtht of stock, lcdgth of 6hank in
dili6rtr6
ad Ln8rh of .rro. lt must slso show thc dirmct r of rhc
[ttrd iD nd[irnctrd (!G. Figurc 1.1). Thc ptoof lord i! abo rcvcrlcd.
TEI'TS FOR CAELES
(}5 in

UDdcr tha slmr Act of 1967, chein cablcs atr a.lso Equircd to bc
t6tad uDlcsstb.y arc lcssthen 12.5mm disrEtcr. Th. T.3tirg Estrblishmctrt cotrli&rs thc crblc io lcogths of 2?.5 .tr (i,c. shrcklcs of c{bla),
ThFG lilli ar! takc! from c|ch lcsgth rtrd t6tcd to s tctrsilc bEsting
6trca6.If tbi! provca aalisfactory, thc lctgth of c.blc is thcn subj.clcd
to r tcnsilc proof str.$, It fu thcn iDsp.ctcd for drws, wcatdcss and
mst riel &fo.mation. Thc DanufactuEr of thc crblc *ill thus provid.
cch lcngth to. tcat with thrlc cxtra links.
Ccrtsb gradcs of st..l cabl. Ert thcn subi:ctcd lo ultimatc-stttss,
cloqdion snd impact trsts.
Shsctlcs rtrd othcr crblc scoassori.sslt subjcc! to tba asmc tcosilc
proof lords as thc crblc with which th.y arc to bc uscd.Onc samplc in
cylfy brrch of25 i. dso subi*Ld to thc brc.Lir8 ,&rsr (l is t) in lhc
csc of luSlcssstacklcr).
Thc c.hrin c.blc is also a*ard.d a ccrtificatc of tcst. This coot&n3
sirhiLr gro.rd itrformstiotr &! in thc aDcbor t s! ccrtificatc. It also
showa tha typc and grsdc of chain, thc dismctlr in millimtrcs, thc
total LnSth in matrcs, tha total wight in kilogranncs, thc dimcnsions
of thc IiDk in mitlidcttr! and tbc lods ulcd in tha tcsts. Thc formulac
SivcDo'l prg.6 h&vcbccn alrasscdfrom thc ofrcisl loed tablc foi cablc
of rira 50 D.tL
Somc manuf&tu&rs lilc to carry oul thcia o*n additional tcsts,such
as lhosc of Mcss6. Brow!, I..nnox & Co., who rcctntly rchicvcd lhe
followiDg rBrlIs:

A scmm studd.d link (br.rtiog str6s l4l tono6) was subjcctcd


to ao cnd-coopncssiotrl!.t atrd brolc al thc high stra.s of 137 lonncs.
t)62:t in Th. stud brokc atlcr thc link hd crtcndd 16 mm.
A,ll-mm opcn-link ctblc (b$.king str*r roughly E0 tolnca) rcl.625in
mtrnad unbrokd rftcr a tcffilc strcssof 120tonncs but w|r complctcly
ri8rd.
A lqlnrm studdcd 6blc (brcrting str*s 395 toD!6) l?mrincd
+in
unbrolan it 7m tonnc! tcn3ilc strtss.
,in

10

THE ANCHOR
MA"RXJNGS ON THE ANCHOR AND CA.ELE
Evcry a*ho. which hds bc.n omcially tcsted undcr thc Ancbor and
Chain Csbl6 Rulcs, l97O (msdc undcr p.ovisions of rhr 1967 Act)
must bc frsrkcd,
A circlc is to bc rntrkd in sny conspicuousposilion on thc tnchor.
within this circlc, two itcms of informsiion appcar. In FiSurc 1.5, thc
symbl x r.prcscnts thc Scrial Numbc. of thc T.'t Cc(ificatc. Thc
symbol yvy rcpr..rcnts lhc lcttcrs of th. Certifying Authority. lt must
not cxcccd lhraa itritials and one numbcr (or foua lcttcas).
Thc chlD cablc is markcd in 6 similer mrnncr, as shown in Figurc
1.5. Thc mertinp arc to apFlr on cvcry shacllq al cach cnd of thc
cablq rnd cvcry 30 m along its lco8lh.
Thcrc markings ar. much simplifcd comFrcd with catlicr tequircrrctrts. much of which are now incorpontd in thc Ccni6cat6.

ANCHOR

CAILE

F I G U R EI . 5
ANCHOR ANO CAILE MAA(S

Aport from offcisl mrrkings, thc c{bL i! d3o ma.kcd by crlw or


doclyard staf lo show ahc numbd of thc shrcklc. Thc nunbcr is
rccloncd from thc rocho. toward5 thc chain lockcr. To indicalc thc
third joining shacklc, which *ill bc 82 5 m from thc anchor shacllq
thc third link on cach sidc of thc joining shacklc is paintcd whilc aod
11

THE ANCHOR
thc rtud is bound with sciting wirc. Whcn thr cablc is running out'
cvcn quitc npidly, thc frshcs of whitc trlry bc !.cn providinS the
mrikings rrc wcll mairtrincd.
If D-iyF shackLt ar fittcd, tbc opcn link on clch sidc ofthc ahacklc
is ignorcd *hcn arranging thc marks. Tbis is illustratcd iD Fi8lrc 1.3.
ln tuglclsjoining shacklcslhis is not ncccsssry.
It is a conrmon ptaclic. to includc an lxtrajoiniog shicklc sotnrwharc
30 rd within rhc first 2?'5 m. fiis is mo.l uscful if it is ntccssary to trail lhc
cablc on lhc acabcd,or to hang ofr lhc rnchor. fiis cxtra shacllc mf,y
bc ouilc closc to thc anchor so that whcn thc sncbot is stowcd in thc
hrlvsc pipc, it is fonad just forrard of thc windlass. In othcl calcs it
Insy bc it th. 1375 m mark, dividing thc first shtcllc into hrlvcs.
Scamcnthcrrforc aomctimcsrcfcr to it rs thc half_shecllc lt is obviously
igrorrd whcn thc cabl. is bciog rnarkcd for lcngths.
If clblc is rcarr&Dgcd(scc lcxt saction) th. marks rcquirc altctinS.

CA.IE OT TNCHOnII AND CAIIISI


Wb.ncv.f,po..iu., .Dcnon .hould b. urcd sltrtnrt ly. CrbL ehith
lic. idb i!.loc&6 for 'try lctrfth of ridc b.coDcabritdc, aodfor lhi.
taton, ifhcocvrt a luitabb oc..!iod !Iis6, thc csbb lhould bar.ntcd
itr r drydock, or cvn on s chsr wharf or j.tty, aDd two o. tht!.
shadlc. trrnlpord, i.c. thc ittt two or lbrE lcogth!rhould bc phccd
at fh. irboatd .,n4 or vicr vana,Thc csbh *'ill thctrtrccdrcms.kitrg.
Whadru8F4 tlc cibLa abouldbc cxatin d for wtar tDd &oa$rd
if tr c..$ry. Ap,proxih.rdy 11% tc.rdotm i! b6l di.mctcr (D) ii
anorDdbdorc rcphccoadt ir rcquitrd.
At r tutr,!y, ioitrilg thrcklaawilt bc oDatcdald dl Pdrt! cxrEiid
do.cly. Tb6c coEponadbwil thctr ba cL.trGd add vall lubticalrd
bcfolr a$c6t y. WrtE tallowit oftanuradfor thabol8 aadwhitclc.d
for thc .pitc 9i!4. Ellry litrt Il ba.outrdcdidth r hlDtlrcr to tart for
a dc.r riDg Loor. rtud! i! rrought-itot crblc Dutt bc rFaaulk d or
ltphccd woodro pin! rt! ttrs.d.
Whro lilt lr rtphcd or rt?rircd thc cabtcir !8ain ts !d to it8
d.tutory proof lord. C{trLa ban dt froE rrgubt h.et trlatmcnl but
l|r!lca! rbrctL. of trickclttaalrtt cxcttrptcd.
Alchor. ltc trot loredly rE-t6trd or gilt[ filtthcr baatlt .tm.ol
aftar lhcir iDilid proc..tbf unl6s it ia cotrtidatld dainblc' Thc
rlchol! ind cit 6 bctrdt frod e rcgularc.rting of Stockbololrr or
pccirl cbein pcitrt, Thc pivoring mcchalilm of r ttoctlBt uchor
thould bc rqshdy lubric.tld with s thicl grc.s.
Whctr thc cibLa rrc raagcdtbc c.blc lockd crn bc ttorouShly
clc{trcdout, lcald rvhcrcncccas.ry,.trd?all coatcdwith rsti-corr$ivc
ptiDt Coblc-rccuring
fittitr8t lhould bc tborouSblyovcrbruld. Itr u!c,
t2

THE ANCHOR
tbc hrd pclct .houH bc .ightrd whcocvrrpo.titlo-f$lty in!.ttior
oftcoL.dr to tt.n droppingout ofth rlcc,s.bovc tlc tpilc pid.
ArcLoft lld c.blc must bc rll wub.d dos! .ft.( u&, A thictly
cocaulid Jrctor catrbc ttsihd awrth at alot ap..d (to rYdd dlDrt
to hnl phti!t), a& wbilc trwigititg .lovly our ofu urbongc.
SECI'XTNCCAS.E WTIIIIN THB II)dXN
Io palt tincs, rhc iDbodd pon ofr sbip" c.blc wat bcLyrd o! bittr,
and thc lfrm bllt t dtd'B still u.cd. Matho& by ehich thc bit!.t cadi3
,acurEdvrry gEady froE thip to !hip. ln aomcc'!6 it hr! Dot bcctr
scculcdrt dl pGunatly by rccidaot .rrd thc uchor srd clcvctr
ablcLksofcablchavr dilapFrad out throughthc hawscpipc.Itr roDc
v6s.b thc two bittcr cnd. rrr shrcklcdtogcthcr,ottro *itt tta idtcotiotr of bai{g rblc lo ulc pofi c{blc otr thc starbo.td aac.horrnd vicc
vrt& It ir g!trc.allythoughtto bc r ddprrclicc, rincc it crtr lced to
ooeplicrtioB whcaslippitrgttc bitta.od.
Tbocod liDt i! rodctiDc. acculd by ,avlaal tultr! of wirEropq or
rdall c.hrir, or r csblcclclah rtich triF th! cablcrd crtr bc rcrrwEd
tigb! or r cbritr bridlc iocorpor.ting. p.tat dip. Th. followirg rrc
thtlo cfti.ot !!cthod! troi itrcludinge Datlll dip i! tbcit coDpoa.Dt!:
(l) Thc cd li,lt is plsccdbctwtr two ltacl lu8! sddcd to lhc c.trtrG
linc bulh.ad of tha loctar and e ph i! &ivcn throughthc luSr
rod [*, baingforcloctcd rt on cod.Thc forclockb ramovld,
whctrtl& lint ir to b. dircomccr.d,rd thc pin hockad out.
(2) Thc cddlint b t lca to thc upp.r Frt ofttc chaidlockct,r,h.r
it catrbc rcschd by a mr! ltardirg itr rhc lowcr forTaak ot6
roon, and ir rimilarly ocurtd to . stroDgbrack?L
(3) thc cnd lint is pllccd tbrough a slot qrt itr a rdf.ncd |rc| of
plstidg ro that it projcct t[iougb tha dact ofrhc lolvtr foNPcak
lockcr,o. itrto oncof tlraltorcioorn! at thc bEaLof thcforrcastl.
A pio rcqrrt. it s! bcforE,Thisph rhouldcit[ar bsvce foElockr iat, ,mall picccof slr.l Fsscd tbmughr alot i! thc pin !d
chrind to it to avoidlors----orcbc s portionofthc ctrdofthc pitr
.houldbcrt c to biDgcrbout thcph rxis. EiO.r of thaacmclhodr
Flrantr t[c pin froE slippidgout aacidcdtlly,
Thc httai two Danhodrrvoid rhG!6tity for r E a tlvitr8 to aotct
thc chair loctcr wh.o rlipping thc bitt . .od. It i! obviously8tr cxtr.ody food idla to bacobaquiclly @qurint d {ith thc ncttod ur.d
i! r Fdicular rhip, siloc ltc rc.d ro dip ccblofrqE thc lootr( o.y b
bortru6pc.r.d .!d tr8.dt A prolorSpdr..rch for ibc biscr .o4 ody
b fnd rb. .d|rilg dcalr rcir.d up, it lot h L.Pi!8 rrith lb! ulud
drc1|Dtnncaa.

THE ANCHOR

CLASSACATION

FQT'IPMENT

Aa an arlmplc, a car8o-p.scn8crvcrscl of | 65 rn in l.ngth is rcquird


to crlry t*o bo*cr uchors of thc siocllcss tyF, .5ch wcighiDg 5'4
tonnc* r 3lrtc bowcr stocllcss strcbor wci8bing 4'5 toDoct aDd 22
shrcllB of spcciahurlity stccl cablc of 6l"mm link diamct.r. Thc
v6scl quotad also c&rirs a ootr+o&pulsory lcdgc anchor of thc
slockcd typc, eciShing 15 tonG. Shc wrs origlslly rcqui.rd to
cdfy vrought-iro! cablc of ru mm.

AITHOIING rEnll^l
ltrc followiqgercr fcw of tbc 6pi6aios. u!.d itr &cDori!& ald
ofiaarrwlo Dry bcin chrtSpof th! foftcaldccrblcP.ny eil dowcl

to arqulbt thcorclvlatith all of thao, fot a Ei,lundattoododcr froD


thc bridgeDly girr rilc to othcr ipotrt!trcor|!tlami
tb&.'
A v!.rcl i! !o dcrcribcdwb.o ,tc it riding hc.d to wild.
?k.'
A v....1 i. |o rLrcribd wt o tbc ir riditrs hcd to tide
Ic tt&.' A tid.l |t!..o rfiic.h i! Esilg to Lcw.rd or dou*iad. Thc
xrt r .urfrca hla a ailirud ofcto, od it, but tb. combincdforcaa
ofwid rd tid. .r! tclilg upor thc .hip.
Vatl0r ttde: A'j,drltuiAawhic,h i! lcttitrg to wiDdwrrdoi uprvild.
llc *rcr rurfrcc i! Ey choppy,but thc forca! of wind aad ridc
alc aalilt ia oppo6itio!od th! atlip.
'/r/rt.'/j,8.y',r: Thc c.bb i! lhortaad-itr whc! lo6c of il i! hovc
itrbo.rd,
Grodttf Thc *ry lt crbb it lradilt from tic baw!. piF, c.& !
r.blc ir lFowiDgdt whcnit L.& .lL
Slo.t rrdl.' A c.Uc it !t ahortataywhc it i! tiut and lcditrS dowD
b rbovrb( do|c to tha vtttic.L
Io,a t r.' A oatrbi! rt lotrgttry whaoit it ttut .trd lcadinSdotn to
tL *rtar cloaato lha horizotrtd,
whcna valal i!
Co.'. to, Dr.,{]hl tq,Got lE dh: ft*ata!!4!d
ridilg to bcr alahoaald ctblc' rd tha formct it holditr&
Jl d 6rt..'To atoptbc cablcrurdog out by uling thc brrtc ou thc
rildlrtr.
liagr drrr.'To Ly o|tr thacattlcon abck,or . wh|tf, or i! i drydocl,
rb"
Fq d4 Wal* ba&: To pry out c.bL u!d.r 9owr, i.c. u!i!t ib.
rildh|. Eolor.
Wdbtg W iE @dor To loE tha uc.bot und.r PorEr'
$r8r car&.'To dlow c.tlc lo ru! out fFaly, lot urhg thc btrlc or
iha siodbla notor.
14

THE ANCHOR
,l'co.t r?r.'U,cd to drscdbcthc alchor wbctrit ha! ba.l lorrrcd
d.at of lh. b.wscpipc .!d is h-ning vlrticatly.
Fouladtt: U..dlo lj!'r'ibc a! roc.horwbi(t ir o.udt in a! udcrwrtaacablc,or whichhl! hought old hrwrct! to thc rurfapcwith
it, ot wbi:h it fouhd by ib ownc.bla

\\#

.,.a..-./-'
'----<./-\--=

SCtat

tlofDEt

AxD sLtP

llrHouSt

F-.!-eg!E-l-!
VFo*&!r't: Tb C|b'l b up.nddow! whcait i! L.dilg Etic'lty
lo thr rrtar.
Cr@ rdter?.'Whaobotl atrchor araout rtrd thc cab|.altt clcarof
onc anothcr.
Fa{rLrrr.'WhcD both rlchor! atr out rtd thc cabk rrE Gltwitrcd
or ciotlad.
Opar dr,e.' Whcoboth snchoEarr out rtrd th. cru!3 lc.d brord
out otrttcir oen bow!.A rlrlcl lyiry noord to r[c.hor! .hcadaDd
!!tcm i! d oFo harlc whcorhclicaacio|! fhalina ofhrr rnchort.
ClanA 6&ort: Anchorr itrd cibLr dt cL.rcd rwry ehcD thr
accoring8c$ on dackir rEnovcd-Thir nay indu<lccbria bridlcs
Frrcd ih.ouShcllrb .trd rhlcthd to ttc d..t, .!d tlcrtk claw
rbich lfa dclrl b.rr hootd throughttc c$b ald *r!F!d up

lO f{thoms

THE ANCHOR
of . riggitr! r.r.r chdlcd ttd th.d&d lo tbr d.cttilht by Elr
rbch tuillolilc. rcllord froE tbc crbL whctr
hrvc
Bow ri.roocn
ir ir oL.int" c.bld .rG cl..ttd wh.n th. .hiP ,tritrt .ourdillt (i.c.
ihc cdtar! trtari *tct! &pths arc lc*s lhso 2m d), rvhatr thc
vbibility ir Door h dahotitrg daPth$ .Dd wbad D..tiD8 bfbout
Fir- f.6.hofl v.riou! aquipEadt uacdto t.qrtc c.t{aa.
6& h oippcd whra ra otrtnrcrion' .Ucb at tha
Nbfo d.:'lfu
iieo or hrwcpipc lip, orur.r it to ch^!8c dilldion sharply.
nodrtld whco thc bt!&. ir rpplicd tbcuy,
na&t dc: Tlrcal'ci
!o ttat ar wilht com6 on lic crbL it i! $lc to ru! out dowly'

AllcHotlNc To a SINGrt ANCrlot


I! .dm tbar llc r!.horr8p ir rpprodchadrt dov tPG.drld tbc
.D.tot i. lct !p flhjt! thr .hip hlr Gith.(h!.dwty or .t trwty. Thc calb
i! trid ou! tld atttilaa .r! utadto tdicv! rtr.rsa! in th! crblcjuat bcfor'
tt. 1*l b.i!pto. Tbc ofir.r who b uchorin8 hi! owtr lbip,ututlly
Dnfur lo atoD-hiart.r l at thc rnchollS. by 8oi!t.!t rn. Wh'd tb!
iloogp reri naclcr ttc.hip rb..6 of tlc britr hc ut . thrl8t '
htii" ttrt ttc .tip lar t-t srt. Thc .dsitr . .tr thr! kcfl fphg il4l
Iow rrtco 8 thc-uchor i! L|l fo. EdgiE ltt ttoDp.dtlDoa! immcdi'
rtdv ald rhc vlalcl drifu a!r.m hyilg out bcr cablc,whichltowr oon'
tiliallv ahcrd. ,u.t baforctho tlquid acoF it out' th' colior3 'rE
rrati anea ro tUt Oc vaaaal8pt! hcr cabb a! 8F!dy u Poltiblc'
Tbit Ecthod.n!u!. thcch!i! b.itrgdE r ofrhc huUPlati4 d dl tibcr'
M|!y Dilotr Drdcr tbc dnpLt mcthodof |tdvi!8 al rhc tlchorr8p
wi$ r iitib bcaiwry on ttc vt ..l' lcttiDt so thc c.blc, lsi!! it out rt
lb. wad mov.t alowly at!44 |trd touchitrStttcm jutt bcforc rbc
rauircd acoDair oul. With thi! prrcticc, tba c.ttc 8ror|t contbudly
..dn wbih it i! bcirr rlodcrtd !!d c,i[ Fob.ttly hrrn thc p'br*ork
o! tbr hdl Thi! iatatb.t Eorc lctidut tbrtr lr Eay toutrd'bccrutconlo
tta Eilt ir tltlovcd to tia b|t! batd rd corroliotr lcra h lipl y'
TLL_irrltFlaot wh.o a lt acldrydoclc' tincalhc(! b urudly r! ooc''
rion duriDgr rcy!8c whaothc cabL doc. Itow utatu.
to rrrcf' up lo a) ro dccpthc rnchor and cablcaiould b' lct- 8p
l0 f.thom!
ol thc nra, alio*ing aboutdoublcthc dcPth(of 6bl') to tu! b'fq!
cfaclint it oo tha btrla If thac.bL ir ,subH ra adotr|! tbc |Dchor
ioucb-6c botton thc |!cho. ViU bc dr.Ead dolg thc aaa-bd'!d
sin b. s trb to Itip. Futlh.., sith thc wight of tbc rtrchor ofr thc
crtrlB it lodctidaa [rpPGrD!tbat wha! ti. brata ia ttlcdad tLc t'trb
rill iot rorlcc itdf. lbn h.9@t ei.o tDrr! i! r hc.!' vEiSht of
..t'L .b.ft lh. sD.y, L.dilt tiow! ilto tbcloctE rld t'h.o tic lyPty
ir itr !.od oflubnbrtion Bv ordog thccrt c iaitirlly, tb..!.hor b,t !
16

THE ANCHOR
chancato cmbcdibdf bcforEtb. cabh ti8btctr3.Th.tc it lidc rilk ofa
rtockk$ iuchor bcitrgfoulcdi! thh wry.
In wotcr of ovrr An m the .ttcho! shouldfirst bc wdt d bdck to l0 falhoma
eirhh sry 4 or 5 m fiom thc s.a.H, lnd lct 80 froD thcrr' This 2 or 3 frthoma
anlutls thll thc strchot wil not danagEi$clf fdling o oo idaoblc
distr* o! to ! hrrd bottom. .!d dlo that thc csblc will not ra&.
ciarlr |!d rutr out !o rrpidly thst il bacoocacxtrEDclydincu[ to hold
it otr ttc braLa Thn practicclhcrdorc coDlidcnblykagthctr! thr lifc
of thc bnlc linitrgr.
Itr vcry dccp anchorirg dcpth, I0Oru and ovcr, thc c irc opcrt- 50 f.thom!
rioDof alchoriD! ihould bc dooautdcr powrr. Thc FDry.hould trot
bc t!&an oul of gc.r at r& baaaulcthc hcsvyeciShtof cebb bctwcco
$a-badrd h!wr. piF rdl utrdoubtcdlytskc cblrgp.
I! i rird it i! bcttlt to epproschttc atrcho.lgch.adi!8 upwha Thc
ahipi! mol! aas:lycorlrollcd ald will m*c litdc Lc*ry. lf tbc wild
c.rtrot bc browtt r.h..d, howrv.t, thc ahiDce! lcl go thc!trchoain th.
uluaf ery sn4 u5i!g bct cogitr.rto lrlilva !lrt*!.. oa t[c catlg .witrg
hc.d to wird ar ,bc bri!8!.to.
Ib rt.tD.f &chor lhould bauradaoa! to evoidtrippinf tha catiL
round tba ,t o, If llc vc.rcl i! baadioSdlad ilto tbc rvhd'! at abr
douH brvc hct hcadcart ofi onc n'ay or lhc oth.f, bcforr kttiit 80
thc Ethct $aboa. Thc c.3t .hould trot bc crcctrivc,bccaurctha rhip
ril npidly rcct to lic acr6t ttc wind and dcvElop! th|Ip |widg to
Ldv|td. Co.rcctilg h.lE .!d bold lrlc ofcogitr.3doitd b. urd if ltc
cart &vcloF info r teitr&
In . tid.ny thc lt tcl thould ,&o rhc ddc .od .8!i! .!.hor lith
Ladray or abrorry, rt in aalb c!.rbcr or itr r wind.IL( halDtill bc
ofD, crto whib DrtinS !o *ry oEt t[c !t!u!d duato thariLl .ttLD
nEdlgF t bll, U tbati&l rtr.m c.nnot bcrtaomcdthcc.ttb rhould
barq*lb hll out.h.&ly omrr thaaxir oftt .ttr.D" A! rhc bdlflto
i! th. !tc.m, tha U8!i of rh. c.tlc dfrt8ilt acroa.tt t .-bod wil
bdlt hct !p to h.r .DAor vcfy laotly. wbaa l!.lofitr! i! a tlLtry
notiog oUar orsd& |'r .oDolioaaulcd to drnrtdila sbath.. tba
.[b dil h.. h..d*ry. It rbouldb. !o&d tb.t th.r. oti..l| itdi:.t lb.
dip'r ry..d rdrrivc to ttc trfaa, atd a Kcl .tcoDilt a atrlan rilh
ttattotot ta['ting Ws b.ti& b3r(ir. pkr6 of r,oo4 ctc")wil h.vc
atarlrry ovartb lrourd aqu{ to tha ratc of tb. tta!.D. Ooly *haa
ttaaaobjGctrdrift |ltlrtr wil th. ahipbo .loDp.d oltt tta gotrtd or
hr! taad*ry ort( il
Slto anAoftt! ta@ilS a at!.D |rd dro harioSa tild abaaD,
|ic L. |!.td.bouu
b. kt fp frrt Ar .h! Sebt t crtl, hlt.co wiU
6aa awilf lo ltc aio4 cautitrgtb. catrLto tlov d..t If .ha !s ibt
r16.a .0A6 b.. ..!lc wi[ co inl|.ly b. fod of th. boe DLti!|!

THE ANCHOR

DUTIES OF THE CABLE OfIICER

l0 fathoms

Th. anchors aod cablcs *ill have alrcady b.cn clcarcd away. Tha
t Lclcd anchor is Dowa'cockbillcd by puttinS thc appropriatc 8)?sy i!
g.ar and walking lhc anchor back cl.ar of thc hawsc pipc. Wc rrc
issuning shallow watcr-if th *ater is ovcl 20 m dccp, then the
.nchor must bc walkcd back clos! to thc s.a-bcd or walked back undcr
powcr a[ thc lray. This lattcr, of coursc,is donc oDly whcn drc ship hr3
tro hcadway, olhcrwisc thc trailing anchor rvill damagc thc folcfool
Thc brakc is now scrcwcdtight and thc windlasslakco out of gcer rcady
for lctli0g go.
Thc anchor buoy will alrcady bc atlachcd to lhc anchor by its wita
Fndaot. Thc lcngth of this pcndant should prefcrably bc cqual to oa.
aad a half !o t o timcs thc maximum depth of watcr at thc ancho.aS!
so that thc buoy is not Jedttpd in a strong currnt and ccasasto n'atct.
Thc aDchorbuoy is strcamcdjust bcforc thc anchor is let go. Thc
Thc anchorshouldnol bc
windlassopcratorshouldbc weari.Sgoggles.
lct 80 until rhc Ofrctr has madc surc thal it is all clcar bclow.
Crblc is liablc to b. stowed in thc lockct with small stotrcswcdgad
bctslan thc links and studs,and thcscpbblcsarc frcqucn{y piojcctcd
at high sprcd as thc cablc runs owr th. windless.Furthcr, it is nol utrknowtr for thc cablc to patt as it runs out. Fol this rcasonit is inadviJrblc to strnd fon ard of thc SyFy as thc cablc surgcs.
Al thc ordcr to lct go, thc brak is rclcascd,usually by a blow frorn
tha carpcntcr's maul, and thc cabl. is surgcd. It should bc slubbcd
whcn twicc thc dcplh has run out. Thc brakc is tbcn slackcnrd and lhc
c.bL allo\rd to rcndcr, Thc ttcll is sttuck a numbcr oftimc to indicrt
(by ih. Dumbcrof strokcs) thc lcnglh of cablc surgld, i.c. thrcc strol6
as thc third shacklcruns out. Thc ofrca!-in-char8. must ildicatc to thc
bridga F.rsoDncl how lh. csble is 8rowin8, particularly if it bcconcr
nippcd. If this happco3,thc brakc is liShtctrcdand thc bows allowcd to
3wiDgtoward! thc cablc so fiat it gro*s clcar. Hc indicatd by poidtin&
and dt night by 3winginga lightcd torch.
Whco thc dcsircd amount of cablc b laid out thc otdcr wil bc givcn
to r.rar, r@.Thc brakc is rhcn scrcwcdtight and thc haadlc ltruck witt
thc carFntcr's maul for Sood mcasurc.Thc cablc is th.n sccurcd by
plsciog thc bow*toppcr guillotinc across lh. links, and if tcc.$ary'
parsing thc dcvil's ctaws. Thc ttow stoPPcr rclicvcs thc windla3i of
much ltrtss wtrilc at enchot. Somctimcs, whcn thc ahiP is pitchiDg
srd rhc cabl. is tcnding to jcrt, bc{!y coir springs (50% ttrctcb) &t
sccurd to lhc csblc and lcd wcll aft. Whcn lhc springs havc bccn maclc
fr.r th cablc is vccrcd gradually until thc spritrSssharc thc strcsscs.
Heving sacur.d cablc, it must now bc c{rcfully watchcd ov.rsidc. lt
will grow to long stay a! thr ship britrlr-to hcr anchor alrd thca ,lowly
18

T H E A N C H OR
slackdowtr if thc .ochor is holdia& Sonc ofrccr3 Drrfcr to watch a littlc
longpr bcfor! sigoalling tha! shc hrs got hcr cablc. It should t do&d,
howcvct that a rc8ular cyclc ofcoming toiorg stay, thctr slackiD&thcD
coming to long stay agiin, and so on, ott.n indicetG that a ship is
draggirg hcr anchor. Crossb.aringJ or bcam tra|rsit-bclritrgs arc morc
rcliablc. Srric y spclking, lhc anchor b6ll should not bc hofut d nor
archor lights crchangrd for st aminS lights until thc vcssclis aochorcd,
i.c. brought up. Bcforc lcaving thc forcc{sdc hcad, thc ofrccr should
chcck thc bow stoppcr and windlassbrakc.
AMOT'NT OF CAELE TO I'ISE
A tcrm us.d hcrc is rcope. Thc lcngth of cblc laid out, mcasulrd
from thc hawsc pipe to the anchor, dividcd by thc distancc rhca.ucd
vcrtically from thc hawsc piF to thc sca-bcd,is calcd thc scoF of
cablc. Thc scopuscd dcFnds upon scvcral faclors:
(l) Thc nsturc of thc holdiDg grouod. Stifr clay, rock, lhcls, end
stoncs alr co$idcrcd poor holding grousd. vcry toft mud can bc
a poor mitcrial in this rrspcct.
(2) Thc amoutrtof swinEng-room availablcfor thc ship es thc *ind or
strcamchangcsin diraction.
(3) Thc dcgrc. of cxposurc to bad wcslhcr at thc atrchor.gc.
(4) Thc strcnglh of thc wind or stram.As this slrclgth incrcas6 ao
lhc ship movcs astcm, lifting hcr cabl. ofr tbc bottori !o thrt i!
$sumcs lonS stay.
(5) The duration of stay at anchor.
(6) Thc typc of anchorand ciblc.
Il thc cablc lcads from thc a&hor shacklc in a dircction 5 dclFca
abo]r thc shankeri! the holding postr ofthc encho. is tlducd by oncqua.tcr. lf thc aaglc bGomcs l5 dc8r!6 thc losr of holdin8 powcr ir
onc-half. (Ihi3 frct ir rcpcat d itr Cbaptrr VIII in vi.w of lhc tcxt contrincd thcrEitr.) For this rlr3otr, it i! sroat imlrortlrt th.t s lcoSlh of
6blc aball lcad froD thc adchor sbscllc alolg thc !..-bcd bcforc riling
gctrdy to lhc hawscpiF. ODly a good 6coparrill cosutl thit" Vcry oltc!,
l'bc! . ship d.agt hcr aochor, .tror! ceblc ir vttrcd aod th. anchor
holdr. Thc ac'tiotr i! c.ri.ct, but thc oft-rgulti.g bclitr ia I fellecyth.l il ir thc rairtrrcc of rhc cxtn cablc wllich hlr hcld thc !hip. Thc
aachor w.3 tro doutt drrSgrng baciurc thc strdc b.twlco thc cabL rnd
shaok uis, at thc abrc*t, er! morc than i.no. Thc vladng of c.blc
ildovls lNa ln8lc rtrd rhc drchor holdr otcQ inorc.
A rcugh rulc ro lry out thrcc to cidt tiD.6 rhc dcpth of *rtcr in c.blc
LoSlh ia hrphirsrd. Thc Admiralty rrc.mEcnd tha fouoeing lcn8hn
19

THE ANCHOR
wtich ahouldba rlg.tdcd !r thc EidduD for cdD wcattcl lnd r
tlrot ru6e:
4S\,/D fr
st\,/D h
TWDft
f.fi

rons
tons
tons
tons

For wroughtiron cablq lay out 25y'D of c{blc.


For forgcdstcclceblc,lEy out 2ty'D ofcablc.
For spccid.6tcclcsblc,hy out 39y', of ceblc.
(WhcrcD ir thc depthof wrt r itr m.trcs.)
It shouldbc ob6crvcdthlt mor. cablc i! Lid itr thc crlc of thc
stlongcrchaio. Thir r.prcac ! r diladvatrbg. of rha lFcir.ktrcl ia
that it i! rouguy l2l% lightct tbrr *rought-iroa ceble,lnd tbc.dorc
litt! from thc s.a.bcdborr cuily. A b.avy bight of ceblcmult bc ulad
io thst tbc cablcpardy li6 or thc ..e-bcd rtrd itt dataury, or cufla,
provid6 r ipriDSebich f'&tirly ab6orb.rhocl(! duc to pitchilg o.
yrwirg. Tbc hoHirS po$!r ofrs .!c.hor, i.c. tha t,'par skctchcdi! ttjr
chaptcr can vrry flom bctween tltrEc atrd fourtcen tim$ its own
weight. The rcsistaDce
offercd by cableis or y aboutthrEc{uartcn
of its veight, and therc is thusno point in laing out more cablcthan
is necaasary.Further the cableimparts a drag to the a[chor, quita
aprrt ftom th drat of the ship. Reccotrcsearchhas show! thrt r
twin-acrwship, archored in e 4lnot straaa and a 55-knot*'idd,
witb loclcd p.oFllors, impart6thc folowiog drag to her sncbor:
Scicv drrg
. 2 toancr
Tidc dr.g on hull
. 4 totrtrc!
WiDddrag on bull
. l0 tontrcs
Csblc drag
. 2 lodtrc!
DUTIEI AT INCIIOT
Cros-b.aring! at! urualy trkcl l! rlc atchor i! kt go (to 8Gti
roud po6irionfor thcanchorit$lf) ard rg!i! *hcd tharrr.rd i! baoushf
up. Archor watchG rhotld bc lct atrd th* bc.rilgr frcqucody
chcckd. A rcughcirclcof lwing ca! badrrwDon thc cblt B.aD tru!it-bc.rin8r, ulc of thc cchoroundat,|!d .rdsr will dl hclp to &tct
drqgin!: Otrr wry rockybottoe thc loirc oft[c dnggitg rlc.hof cra
oftlo bc hcrd quitr cL.rly on dcct.
Thc vBsclwill trorDdly lic with thGandor.nd cdrlc f!! o! it! o*!
bow, rey r poidt to a poilt .od r half. Thi! aogh ir lnowD .| tht
vr*scl'rraira, rr".r, b.aaur !!G lic. sh..ftd diibdy icfoar tbc rttao
or wind.I! a ltrodg wiDdthc vr.Gl will taodto Fw rboot |! rhowtril
Fig. 1.7.At thc cxt&oity of hrr yrv rbo nrllaa atc.d |trd thlo dtoFr
brck oD i.t srchor, irtilg tbc c.tt " If duri!8 thc yrw thc *i!d
catc.h6hcr otrthc oppodE!i(h to thlt lolEaly dpoaadby barnrturd
!hc.r (i.c.c.tc.h.ah.t on iL! port aidawh.n r|d!g hcrrGtoatd .ncf,orL

THE ANCHOR
dc Day, Etthc axtraoityof hcr Fw, turEpnpidly &!ota hcr uohor to
ttc othcr .xttoity of yN,, i.c. frotrrpotition 6 to t i! thc n&t!, liP
pitrt blf c.blc rolld thcatcNn
.d bl!ati!8 tbctrchor out ofib holdi!8
podtbd. Tbi, ir crld ,r.zb!g t/r.,t f th. |nclor f.ib to FtriP li.
oti6 rlclor Dutt baht to rt oloa
Wb.o itritidly brinSirg to, it jr . goodidra to |nr!8. fo8r joili!!
lbacllc to bc situat d oD dcck wh.o thc cabl6 erc &.|rc.L Thir r,iU
flcilitrtr ltip,pirg ltc c.blr, .,'d dcariry . foul h.!* .hould thit h.coDc nacaalary,
v^t at alactl Arcrci

ItfloAL

F-19!!!-11
At anc.horit is d.sinbh from thc drck o6cc/! poitt of viitwto hrl!
rrady for idmadirb ua I! s tidcttc nrh cagitrc!aid rtaaring-gcar
ray tbc vslcl Day bc abcrEdby hcr nddar. It i., howEv.t,iD.frccfivc
*hao thcrl i3 tro ttrlao. A witr4 blowi!8 fton orc di'. tiotr for tooc
cdlid.ratrlc tiEG,til ,ct up r rurfrca drift curnrrt but thit i! uditaly
ro bc rl$ciartly rtoog for s.ositiv! rt .dtr!;
Thc.hoE rigld.ltitior ahouldbc wst hd at a[ tinaa.Applor.6itr8
in rho
sd dc?rrtingbo{r !c.d vigiLncc,r! do othcf v6.cb DaviSating
vici[ity. Thc offccl of lhc rrtch shouldrt 6ll tinca balt a roughidc.
of howI$ cablci.rlyi!& !o lhst h. canmr! oft olh.t rl'*b wbichtrt
to ala[or r6oat i|,

TIIE ANCHOR
DIAGGINC INCIIOI
Gloddly rFti!& oDoc|a ucboa dart fo dr.t; tbc vraadlathacr
!bm*!y, rtrd tii! Dry t corDc.rc6ai1l hoDpt !.tioo ir nca...try.
HowrlEr, rh.(l rrc Grc.plioB, rld r E*il riditrg out r 8.lc hlt bcctr
tlowD to drtg fowly rld rta.dily for roEGdryr rt rougl y . Dilc Fr
d.y.
If fhGwhd ri!.n .xtrr c.tlc rhould bc bil out to .o$r. r 6igit
lying on thc !..-bd u!d!t conditiod of !.rw .!d pitcb.Pibhilg c.! bc
F.tiitypr?vrot d by tridnirS thc .hip by thc h..d. Y.wilg ir litcly
to atrrt tb uchoa dr{dtr& |ad oncof lDrrcr.1io!r i! dvilrt c:
(l) Irt go thc .lcood .lchor urdafoot.t thc c.ottc of y.s. Tbir it
.n cic.llot plla if th. btrtc i! hdd jo.r d&Ndy,If th! trrt .mhor
llrfb to drlg fbc r.Eod ril bitr tld ib c.trb wil r.odcr irr.lf.
Ttc troilc of thir giE rrmiry of dl.!8i!& rtrd thc rccod crblc
ir Errd wittout dcLy. Tbi! i, toncti@ dooaby ,ciacn a! l
rrguh pnaricc,ithcthcr or lot thc wlatb.' fubad.
(2) I,t gp tbc ,.oo!d .!c[or.t tbo.strGoity of y.e |!d vq toll
ciu.. ,o t[.t tbc lbip .id.. cooFt|tittly qoi.0y to h6 two
araton.
(3) Stc.n up io thc ftn .!c[oi, dccr .sry, .rd Lt 8s thc r.oold
.rAor. Th. 6!|t c.bb ir bor! io ttib qp.o.cbi!8 ir. .trcho(.
Bothcablc!rlr thcn vt'rrd ro thst tbr srl .irL! quicdyvith
so sochor6nc oDcachbow.
If I hurric.lr it rpFoo.Lilg; th. vq..l rhould L.r6 hrborr if
oth.|rvr*!.b rtr rnchorcdclo!. by, if thc boldilt trould ir oih.r th.!
.*cc[.nt, cr if ttc trrboul b u8halt l!d. D.Faturr lhould bc Drdc
tydl bdot! tbr ltore !rriv6, othcasit thc rt..cl Dry bc c.udl outrkb sith ioo litib rce-room.trd drivr .!horl, Ifrloritrilg itr hrbout,
.ctioo (l) rbovc rhould bc trLo andcibLa vlacd rcll isay.
Orca r wl b.Bi8 to dn& morccati. ihoold bc v..itd.It.hould
not bc lurgrd out aLcuy, othcrri!. thc csbb rray Frt |t llc \eraal
rtrly bc brouShtup lpntly. TbG
bri!8r-to. By rt.titrg it, ttc wl
,Gcdd uchor $ould bc lct fp in gpodtiEc, othcrrilc it Dly bc fould
tbat ro Duchclbh hr! b..o rl.[rd otr thc fllt llchor (try t out of ll
,hrctlc!), th4wry litth c!tr b. \Ecrcdotr th. r.cond (in thi! c.!c @lt
2 to 3 3h..Llca),hgiDcr rhould ba trcd to r.lilv! !rrt$6. If tb.rc i!
1006 it nry bc bc]t r to b..vc up rld rcct batlr( holdilf groutrd
WEIGHINC ANCIIOT
f, drring h..rirS; th. c.tk i tubjcc{.d lo . brd nip thc tindhtt
thould bc br.ld .!d rb b@t dlorld ro rri!8 to thrt tbcc.bb tro*t
22

THE ANCHOR,
clcar. Thc aablcahouldbc wlt wubad t'd dot rd" fha alcrhor,if
foubd with rc.-bcd netcrial ca! bc towld aw!!h for a ahortdittanc.
rt dov rpc.d.Tb bcll h rgdn rr[g io ildfoaf. fhc fiob6 oftbcjoiF
iry ahrcuo rppcrritr! froE thc *!tdr aurfrcg rld viFroody nng
phao thc |trchor i! rwcigh. It rhould hc rs?or@dfoul o! oLar aatha
carc mry bc. Thc rDcborb.ll or lightr, ca! troe b. lorEGd. Thc andon .hould Dot bc frdly 3c.!rod u il dc.ocd ro lotrlcr naaaraag
for in$diata u*. Er.ving lrp i! a lood opportuaityfor chcckitrg
rpilcpin pa-[rt! and cat{. ,cizinf-yttic elrtintr
A windhss having.D Glcclricmotor of tlt tilowattr c.D hcd/c io
alrck ceblcrt /amioutcaFr rh.ctlc snd tight clbtc !t 5l rtrirluraapa(
ibrcldc.
DT,OPFINGIIOWN
A r.st l i. raid to &op &rr rn d .b. &ito with ttc tidd !t!..e. A
$a!cl rt rlchor eilhitrg to rlo thi! wil b..rl b.i uf,rhorjurt d..r ofthr
,c.-bcd.Ecr rpc.d though thc rrtcc wil bc d, blrt hcr lpccdoY!. thc
Srourd wil bc a$r.l to thet of ttc ,tr.D. Ilcr ruddlr will hry rc
cficct,bcc.u* tlc(l i! troFrtcr fowitrgFlt iL Shccrdot bc contnolkd
cxcaptby lraur of tbc cogir.i or thc tlchorl.
DNDIrcING IX)WN
A vcradir !!id fo &.d9. wi.[ rbc morl' trldcr ttc hnu.oca ofth!
tidd .trc.m but eith brr elc.horhdd rt ihofi rtry .o itrt it dEfa alooS
thc bottoD. Hcr lpcado}!t ttc gor[d ia lhndo|! rtt tdad aodL lot
aogrr.t N! tic rrt of tbc ttrc.m. Str ti.(dorc b|t naarhrrythroush
itc ad.r. Hcr nd&r Dry bc urd fo da.r h.r. A lonStid.l d&ae ia
rc!|ry
for hrr hdE to bc radtitivc.
If . v..!cl, rbcn d'!dd!& Ddr bct nddrr to Frt th. rllt l
xitr ft@rh Frdld rith th. .t!..e dic.tio! bot vitl f.rdor[y noE
di{ons[y.cro8 it towardrhcr port hstrd.Shcwil d$dgc ridihrly to
atarborrd.In aa.l ca& thaltrort aficiadtnorldadt ir rahicvrdby udtrg
tbc rnchor oa thc tllc oD,po6itto th.t in *hich .hc $d.r lo drdga
i.c"it ir prcfctauaio lltc ttc rtarboordr'chor ifdEdgila to Donlnd.r
Dort hdb. A rt.$l whit it dr{giD& tDcrdorr, cr', tt DrfdDS[.r
ta.la ovrr, rroid oth.t r!aaa.l!,proyidcdttc ltrcao ir lilt ctrowh to
n*c h.f, tbcci[S !.r!itivc. Abo, thc olatatiotr of dr!dti!8 oa! ba
Eodifd ,oEEwhrtitr ttG c... of. ship!t |!c.hor x,biA |rothlr
dqgitr8 td|td! L... By lurgiry h.c c.trb npidly |!d !!iot bold hdo,
rh.Dry bc.t c to 6.cr ayry from tic lirc of drlg rDd hrilC-fo otrlic
ott6.nchor, Thc turt onc ir lirbtr to h. foql4 but ibir h of.orl
Dodaot in tia ciEuatalc... Io both t[e htar c.i. t!.rl Dult
ofcourE, bc r at!.D.
23

THE ANCHOR
ANOiOIING AT AIGII SID
Thc alatrof' ara tba larto**rtcr Dvilrtot'a ddd-by id d oas
of cdarFocy. Thll. i! a! old ,.a-r.yi[g, 'Ncrq go r[or! rill a!
.lceor i! l!. piF', .!d ltir .hould rply to Do.t c6riFd... A 6ip
Day f.il to trrD, t tG r rudd.o rb.cr, arrt, too olab rry, a! aotiro
Dry fril to !o rrt rD,r quall nry cetcbtbo 6b, tbo ofio lolcfrrpi
!!ry jrD, a colljdoDDay ba iDmi!.oFi! dl crE it |rAott rt!
rrititrS lo b. u!cd.,ori !!.hort .hodd bcLt !p ad dlolld fo tE ort
lhirc.bL!trtilnrficibliroutto.o.tbtt
.dor.to ho!d.fh.y.ro
drd .outb.d .!d Fb.F dt o.!.ly r! tld od outt d .o ltd lhc
rhip grrdudlt,lo.c. h.r rry. Bothc.bLr 'Ji[ bcsrowiD8sirm thro!8bout thc q,.rrtiod, ild both wil bo rubjcctto b.d siF, Tbit mc.n|,
howEr, tb.t ri. hlw'c.piF liF rrr rdicving thc trildLt| (dthoq!
.troqly b.ddod)of nuc! of ttc strcr( F|rrlh.r, bolh c.trb .rt t tilg
|tr cqud rhra A rhip with quitcconli.larlrL h..dv.y E y b. t(outht
up quitc rapidly eith two .lcbors us.d i! this f.rbion. Afte sr&,
the anchor!, cablcs,haesepipes and windlsssshouldbc survayed.
Largc trrtcls tr|ay wcll part their cableswhn anchori4 at *eeds
above1 knot.
lf r .bip u.r only olc .rchor |hGi! lildy lo Fd ft o.Ur Ey
quicHy .nd th.d forgpdr.d ioto d.!t r. Iln h.r hry!,.ood dl too
flqu.ody witt tic !Gc.!d .!c,hor idL io tb piF f ttart ir ilrrGci.ol
rcon itr rhb to pry out r food *!Fa d abovg thc cabLaD|l|t bc
Eubb.d rft.(, try, two |hrc,tl6 hrvt run out ald tba alchorr dr{aad
.lo!t fi. totton to Edu.. h.rd*ry. Tbi. it hit[y &!&roor, not
avar,i! hrtoutr wtaa thrtc .tr llbordta crtL.,
A v6rcl $riding 27$0 toDr.r whcn dopD d in 30 rD,troElilg
initidly st 4 ktrots,idcur' r 3t lss of 195tonlca itr r sirdc cabL. Th!
6grrc bccon s ,135tom.. if thc initisl .pccd is 6 lnot!. Tha at$!!sl
slr ha.lvcdif two .qurly t iotrcdc.bl6 rrr u!.d.
IN(IIOIINC
NEA'I A DINGEA
b Fi8. 1.7ti. vr...l i! tidiot to hcr d|rtoqd .!cld. Th..t i. !
d|!t r to rtr$o.rd. WLc! .bc trtr to tb..rtnoity ofh.r yrr rt poritio! 5 ald b6!.t! ha( ahrcrah.virtudly aailrrrioar hcr rnAot tld eay
brt.t it out Shcir rho hc.d.d tovldt rhc drnSar.For tt|t raaron,
whrn uc[orin8 laia r d$g.(, tbc o0ibot! alator rhoold bc urcd,
If ah.ari! brokd thc Yt .cl ril tc h..diry rsry fton thc tl.!8!f
ANCIIOIING ON A $IOA[
If rhir bccoa accarrry lhc rqld rhodd h..d i o rb.ti!4.!fl
tb! !ho.L r'd tlkc roEdiDg. It i! thco drcidd in thi6 d.Drh 6.
24

THE ANCIIOR
.!.[or i. ro b. Ll fo. Thc rt tor i. t ltd b..t to thi. da?6.od tl.
rsl nov!! uErn a!l[ lbc ahdL A' ao@al tbaoatb gsrr.naad,
shoril! tbrt ttc tocf,or ht louch.d bottoD' c.lrIc i. 'r!.ard .!d hid
out r.106.ttc thoal .!d thc vracl wil rid! to br. |lchor i! dcc?f,rtar
bcyord thc .ho.L Tlir i. . vlrt good hddilg Fdt'lo!' b...Ile it i!

AllCtlOtlNO Oll A allo^l

t!g!!!-L:!
.lEoat inDoaritL to rtttat tbc crt{a !t tlc aldor thactib itr tny *!y
oth6 thrn-p.nlcl witb lhc th.nt (&. Fi& I't).
BOINIING SIIIP
A rhip ritins to aililc .nAor Dry rcqlit! to clato a Lc od olr aida
An cfidcrt n tbod ir !o L.d r Yir., sv 24 eo, frob rb. dtcr bitt!' 3-tl in
rlorg th. rhip'r rid. cL.r ofcrE tbitr& rld rq|t! it to ibc c.tL cloE

25

TEB ANCEON,
to tb hrrr fiF fb rirG ir th td.trd .ft .!d t[. ..U. i. !r.dy
ElL
A rbc ei.! bcco6 |&r.cq ib. .tip ir fofrd ofi tDoriod
(F Fi& 1.9.
AIrcHOITNG IGSII'E A SI@.TO DEACTI
I! bofhfh. folorin8 crE r. rill a|.ooc th|t ttc s-bcd coEpriaaa
. bd!..djrc.at ro lb. L!4 f.[i!8 rwry .b.rply ilto v!f,y dGGr .a.
h lh. n n c.s (Fi8. l.l0 (a)) xr *i[ |rtu$ thlt tb. edfe ir rd.
'derdy atrialdadto 6wud to
lrovlL r*ilfirE tooo for r vlard

?o t.att
F I G I ' F EI . I O

|ldorint .t th. LdS! .sti!oitl,. Thc |!.hor i! rdtd h.ct to r &plh


cqed to thrt jud to hDdr.rd of th. kdS. .!d tbc rhip erl.. . dow
|Ipro|.t A! rooo ar thc crbL gorr a& rho*ilf that thc [ahor bar
fooatc4 aablch tlcrrd to fb. rrsui.rd tcoF rDd 6. bdta aa(arld
dfh. fh. c.U. b dlowld to tilht ! lld roub thc .hip ,rady roud
|o th.t lbc brilSlto hcrdilg r.rrtrd" fhc .!do! *ill b. pulilS ror|td. drio! troun4 rld proyidcdtbc crtrb ir lyitrgoa thc bottoa" tic
abipril baraorc i! dl bqt a rrrdtt olrhorc *ird or tn oGhorc witr4
I! tbc bnaaa'vaotlba vra-l rill drift o$ to aca.!d E!!t lligh ua[or.
I! th. tcoold c.& (Fi& l.l0 (r)) rt ril .rsrDc rtr itLd hryilt .
26

TEB ANCEOR
tlcfdc iirho8 wit! gpic.l d!tsn! .t .hom. fhc vt .d Dod clc.dy
.Dctor hr.dhS td.tdt thc ltid. fha dchor lhodd tt idor! bc
wdlcd b@kto-rourt y Z)-30 D rrd the v..sl rg.io h..d.d in dowly. 10-15 f.thom
A !h!rD loolour mu$ bc tcDt for hc.dr of iroldcd cora!,cla wbcn
thc crt c :rowc a!Er4 snd itfu riould occ{r ruy gtdurUy bacr!|lc
th! ihip .bould bar,!a minimumof hcrdwry, th coginGal! &vtr!.d
rld r bight ofcablc r.od.ird. If or y ooc slchor ir usd it i! r Eood
olan to lo*tr thc *coad onr to rhst it bita* rDd !crG* up thc bt"ak
itactly. If tle vcs.rcldrogr to s.awardthi. sccold lnchot will rtndct
frrrhcr crblc rrd givr wlrning of thc cvcot. Thc oD.|rrtioncu bc
c.rricd oul orlv in a! ofr3boEwind. lf thc witrd blowr o$horE tbc
rt $l wfl drift-to thc rcGfttrd mult w!ig! |nc;horrtrd procc.d bcfoE
thir @rt', A ainiht daift mry ooc{r il c.lDr, but ihir ney bc prcvrot d by los,a.iry a hc.lf Eight (aqchr. ttc atlG.D tochor) froD
rft to a d.'othr{dl in.sc.s ofthat.t thc Ldgp.rtr.oity. Ar tho lhiP
drito onrhorc,thir w:ight wiUfoul thc ldlp lod hold th. rhip'
TUINTNG ON AN A}TCIIOB
Wtao h..dinS with thc tttlat! altcm, thc vEr.l mry ba $dcJdy
tuld hc.d to atnan *ith tha arailtttrccof a! t!.tor. Th. uchor'
cilb.r oF til doj.hould b. Lt fp.Dd bdd.t |hort ttry. A!thc.nchor
d.{t il wil roub thc botr! rould atd |rp.t!ad. Th hcrdrdy ahiuld
ba -Dubtcoutly rlduoadby an .rtrrn oort6.ot Thi! i! . ridpL
D.re[9l! Fovittd thc rrclot it Lc?t rt thort !try. By dnggitrg il
dort tbabottod, haavy.trrBa. at! c@plctclyrvoidcd.
tf lb.hrrD nip.t ttc hrs. pipci! cdtidald lEd..ir.blc it y b.
F daly pEEottrl by c.tdtr8 tha ahiprlilhdy taroartbc drtaD hdorc
i:ttu ro tto upcram .trdot AftGr dinfiry lb ador Dsy ba
qdAly
tdd.d.
Ia ciln rqrbct od ao qlrtdt th..hiP Dly b. dnihdl, tortr4 bot
riti r@a oodifEarkna Th. h..dwry ir nduoGdto ! DininuE ald rt
aratoa it La to o! tbc 16, .tlosi4 tuficldt,oo,P. for tDcatc,horto
bii., tf tlc c.bL it .oubbcdtoo quictly ihc ..dor wil b. dt|gFd .nd
tb. D.MvrG q,o.L Wt o lhc btrk b Elt rbc Gi.d it brouglt
@ rftl fha cat& !.owitr8 afr, atd th.o .taaDad routd tba uctror
a t* tl[t cebb |t do* ltrlll[tn'ot, ri6 hdn trrd olta tdrrdt tba
.!Aor, fba vt rd r!|l.l hc dly biolfht to har cal,L |od lta htt i
ataold.ly tut bdorGudlt rb. cogiF i! tbi! frthiotr, oti. irc tb
aLip|lt*aa t .dmy |!d .tr @daairrbL.uddco|'aa. it idpoaado!
rbc.U.
Sooaihaa a tld i t|'d oo ict rdor bcfolt lcrriry ro uchoc
13 tlit rbc.!.hd c.ltb i. hoE h rttil lb.ic h t!fi.ilot Loglh out to
orDl lb rAor to tol4.!d tb.hiD Eovrd.bd.r dor Etlution

TEB ANCSOI'
Entil tb. c.tL lroq .rE!. E foio it t rE, lb 6Si!. .r. .toD9.d
.od rb .hip dlonld to briryto t o{y @ lt6 c.ti4 Wh.a it it t !t
aauo, lta aofila. ara Dovld d..d .sd tto bclD put brd ot'tt tc
tr!d! lba |'.foi tld th. |hip rt!.o.d toEld ro tbc rlquirld ditdioo.
Irh-Glr
rhiF lEdly tur! DonGr.fidly i! thb D.!!.t th|! if tb3y
rdSh anatoaald rort aolilaa in oDpodladttcd@!. Tb. tlctor b
lta!, .ftatiE for dl tuflias nracuvr.. wtatEtt t! it irt!fiaiadt tooo
for lldd.rntlolbd tumr udcr hcrdway.
CI,EAXINC A FOIJL AIiI(SOT
If thern.[o. i! wdld in an u!d6r*r!c! obatsucton|!d cauot bo
nish.d tb. rlt.rt .tould bo DoEd v.ry .loply dr.4 Eitr8 c.tL
l|ltil it !to*! waI arlart Whlo itc vl.cl it broughtup atd tba cattb
ir taut thc ctrgiDcr.Ir workcdrhcrd v.f,y !!trdy to rca if th. rtrchol
ril br!.t out. Thc ]r.sl etr t[cd dowly baaEaaad!ou!d i! a cirrlc
with tbc c.bIc trut (tur!i!g towrdr tha alator of coura), to ty to
rot|tc ttc !trc,horlnd brrst it out by co!!t!!t Dovloaal If thi! frfu,
follalar with |! rttaopt uDdli narnray wiahth! oabb Stowi!8 forr|r4 th.a thc cttb Eutt hc diDDd ftoo tb! d.cL, buori!! tt!.o4
aodthc ancLorht.f ilcolrfld bt,dir,lae
If thr alchor brr fouLd a c.tlq wirc, d ot!.i .itiLr udaifliar
obcudior th. erc.hd |Dd foditr! ir ho1! *r[ up to tb harr. DiF
A rto!8 ibrr ropc,&|f,l er r maaih oootiat liac ia tlo crrc ofr hcevy
|uhrritrc c.blc, ir pur.d roud tha obalrua{i@aDdboll aoda|'c
bovc trut |'d Ddc rllt f|!t on dcck I! lb c.|a of |! ulioDorirlt
ob.tucliotr r wirEropc cll bc ura4 but a ibrc ropoDr|rl bo lrod i!
cas whcr! tha obatnrctionbay ta r tdrgrph crbb or or! cartyint
hith-!.sioo curcnt wh.d thc litrc i! ho}! llut tlc .t td i. rdld
barL cLr of tb. ob.rrq.dior .!d thc[ ho\,! h6r ilto tb. pipa Provirld ttc forrr ir .curd at thr foFcaatb&cl i! . rrlio[ ofDarinuo
&r!, lb. fodinS will.ei!E cL.r eb.d lh. u.!or it *dtd b..&. Tb.
h.!!.r i. tbcodippd fro6 tir d.ct lo rdcrn iL fouli!8i
If tbc ob.ti&liod i! rtil D.ni.[y lyi!8 @ tb r.-bcd .!d otr dlf
n|iatalca to rbr haqar, aotbrt it docrtrot twirE to tta !at! of,lbabo!t,
tb. dip.borld borro0y.h!.|ld rw.y ro ttrt tb. poilt of r|.Ddtio!
oftbc fouliogcoDcaditEcdyutrrla thr daol ldtr Tic rlcho( ca! lld
ba hot! LoEr,
Otr r.rc occ.riort it Dry hrpDadtbrt r!a! lba ar.!c h rdfbd it
aoa(lra frco thax,|!ar uFitcdo*! with tlc c.tlc hdf.tr|t!!d arod
tL aDada,
ctoc to thr hard whra tbir ocorrt thr alabor Dun bahg
ofi frorathcforccsltlcdcct by Ecansofr rhongwit! topc p|!rd routd
tta catrtloDay bat,!a!.d util
tbo aldor taad. Whaotba wifc ir E!

TEB ANCSOR
tbc hrlf.tun dib. dd! .!d d!.r of tb .blot. ftt c.U. i. thca
dowlyhorqi! ultil it t*ct tb. T.i8ht ofthc.!chor' vh.a t[c witt n y
b. c!!t off. If iD .rchor is stuckia its ba*rc pipc, it mightbc lrrcd by
!a.|rri!8 it to thc orhcr elchor whi:h is tbao lowcrcd.
EANGING OTT AN AI{TOI
ofc.blc.t iLbb fo. u.., tbr.tdor
Ifit i. d..ftd to hnr.lrc..rd
wiu har! to bc dcra.sd from tbc cablc.Uaualy, thGftat rbaal& of
cablc iDdudaaa joinirg rhr..Llc 2-'l n from tha .Dcior ahrkL,
.o tlrt rh.d th. .!Eho! i! .ldd tlc joinins rh.dla n bdlt.a tb.
ryFy ud tbc h.fi. piF tf thc crtb ..tr b. F...d tbtousl r forntd
iL'rDr cadl fairL.4 lh.n thc .rchor oa! riDply bc t cttcd i! th.
piF --ng wLr hthiD8| .!d tL b@. .toFf.r. Th. c.bb c.! th.tr bc
..tcd ofr tt AE y |od Dra&.rrIt i! thrd Fld io tbo fiit d udng
.h.i! boot!. Thc s.mc .pplict iI . third herr. piF is 6ttcd.
If th. c.blc b to b. F..d ths@ghrbc hrw piF tbo.do. Eutt
bGftoortd ft@ itr ho!.iD! .!d @t!d .t thc .hip'. .id.. 'Fit t, lh.
.mhor i! lorcEd cLar of tbc piF ald r'coclbil.d. With r ltolta
.!chor, .2+mm wirr rcF ia thro F!*d frod bitt! tituatcdiuar abft
thc her Pipq ard Fdcilttly rt lluiEua fat!' thror$ lhc ttcbot
Oacttc end beckoa dccl. Both tarta .rc hol! t ut ald baL)ld
Arotlcr 2+mm rit! roF, ehi$ wGrril c.I No. 2 til., i! F ..d
th.a Ld to tb
fton bittt, throughtlr c.U. fdf| d oftL lbcll.td
Er..t wiDA rarpilS bafi!!. 1L cr& ir a.tad to No 2 tira .od thtd
blot o. No, 2 rit! |. ttraov!.rrd rloely ,o tbat tla alclor trito aban
tt piDc.Eolhrirt c.r b. Lft t&rt (No.2 oirlrill bc*opptrcd ofrrd
bdryld) ro tDd thG.!Ao( it .urEdd.d .qtdry by both, ot & it
rholc of b sajlht cra borralrfdrcd to tDafnt tit!. A Dto c.[ th.d
bc !.dt oltr|iL to crtt ofi No. 2 *it!, ?bfuhir bovcitrbo.rd. Tbia i!
rdvi.d,lc, t c.u!o ifthir *ir. ir Ht h thc piF it t l bc $tttcly ctdd
by tb. o.tla
i.
ShouHlh. tD.!Gjoilitrg .h..*L b. otd of t!..h th.! rb.!.tG
lof,a.d cL.r of ttc pipc, No. 2 titio liU hlrl to bGFt d vrtib lh.
rncho( i| atovrd fh. c.blc i,t thco Gaaa4brofc4 r'd tLc arc.hor
r'ooclbiucd by y.arilg thc wirE.Thc ott6 2{-Dm b.*s wil tbao bc
Ft d od.b ar bdora
v.r*lt rhic[ ftrqHtly aotlp i! thir o?crrlid r- a rgadaly Dd.
thialb..t to!.& boh@t
.!oD inatoadof tb orrri& wirl,.ldiilh
of i! rboul l0 Eitrut!.. OtD.(etbod. i.du& i.litrS th. ov.rdtL ti.t
to . wtrpirf b.tid .td br.vios llc .t 6ot !P to rb. tL.t .d9.. fb.
alchor i! ttao GittaarE[ dr.a of iha d.tbf dla to rbalata ot d& ca!
hc G..ily aao|!.d aotharii doa lot .riD&

l-2 frthom

tton
!in
'in

TEB ANCEOT
IIEAVING I'P ANCHON,qtrIII NO WINDLASS PiOW
Two solutionsc5n resolvethis unfortunetcsituation. Thc iist i5
tons onc whcrEbyr b.avy puchrsc (15 toln6 s.w.L.) i! rEurd to tlc
cablcandlcd *Ell ell !o ss to gct {! muchdri4 aspossiblc.Thi! ivoids
fnquant ovarbfirlio&Th. purch$c i! rilsch.d to thc c.tic by m..Dr of
3-4 in r lotrgFrdadt of24-32Em witr. This!voi& foulirg th. putEhrlciDthc
mlny dackittiDF rdjaodt to lhc windL& ThaFn&nt i! doublcd!o
thrt thc rtr6! ir cachpcrt i! hdvcd. A lightcr, ovlrhsuling trcu. ir
ri88cdon thc main purchascto avoid delayand hcevyworl. As thc
c.blc ir horc in, tbc gp.y rhould bc frrc to .wotvc, so thrt thc cabL i.
alowrd.Thc Srpaiaarr! fxcd to rh. meirrhft!, whichtlvolvr cithrt
*t n hni!&go or whaotbc nain wHr rlr rlid dotrg !!d -Fs.d
lith ltc drivitrgpitrioDror th. i Grlrcdi.tcrbft, .trd dlo fbc ri&a of
rtc s|p6i6, Thc intcrmdiatr rhrft drirr! lhc i,rrpidg banrl!, aorht i!
thir Frticutlr calc tbc baitr vbc.l i. .o!r8!d siti th. !rp.y ild
ablcto rotae thporilrbaR. A friciiotr &irE i! aow rct up by nran of
r hr.vy 6bnaooorilg lilc ru! froE rhcp|rpi[g h.rrd to lhc drud of a
wi[ch. Whrtr lhc wiDc.hdruD tlvolYl. it wifl driw ihc intardcdiata
rbdt of tho rhdl|r!; rhis pil driE l[c Drb *hc.l,.trd thit tiu
rwolE fiG SD6y.
Thc btrlc rtrolt bc raNlFrdtight b.foc thc putchra ia ovtcbauhdof
oouttc.
ThoFood nathod is '.thcr mor. timpla Thc toppirg m fron No.
I d.nrirt i! utrlhcH.d nom thc dcrrick hc.d and lcd forrratd. lt ia
.61rcd by r F.odltrt to thc c.blc" OtrctoDpingm onryir nacaalary
f6
tons otrccsblc,providcdit hs r S.W.L of rt Lrll l0 toDtc!. Tbc t aod$t
must bc doublcd13 bcforc.Thc SD6y ia ph..d itr 8..t, tlc friotio!
drivc is sct up, trd tbc toppioSlift rrighr tbc oblc .nd ancho!.
SLIPPING A CAAIA
Ifcrutiotr ir to b. cxailild, thb vork c.mot bc hurri.d. Uauallyth!
fof ditpilg rri ar ebao ttc archor catNrotbc r.ilhad.
!ity

O)qrra ft.n |b l)cd


VG.rc.blc, or h..r,!, r|!tl a ahsctlcir .iturtcd !G.r to tta hrt. piF
2!3 in upF lip. A 20-2+rlrE wirc roDcwith ltry .y.. frrpp.d .hut ir D.trd
lhough lDccrtb fotrard of ttc .trr&lc ttrd bott.ndr Lor! rrft rrd
ordc f.rt, p[tf,rfrbly otrrc?..|t bitlr, i.c . D.rftct.IiD-f,n!.lh. c.bb
ir card fo thcrit! trs,E .!d lb.o h|Dt r.
Tb. Fol&o lov .ri!c. rt to how to dip th. xi.r. Fi..g t}. .otb
rhoull b. wortld .h..d .o thrt tic c.ltc i. !p ..!d dova rld b-tilS
thc DiliDuE of drc.r, orly it ortr rdtit i! fic{. Th. wiro ora ttro
30

49!-l!9!9!f:!!&E8-r

3l

E!98!

THE ANCEOR
aith6 bc surgcdofi oe rct of bitta!trtil it rult Acc,or onac[d ca! ba
o! a r{arphg brnl rd Binilrrly rurgd &oD tht, or lhc *ilr cin ba
crt .t tbc hrw!+piF lip ulitrg r irc .xc of th. fdlilg tyF Thoitrbolrd
cad!of tbr *it! wil lc.p rft x,trn if i! aut thtoutb, atrdto rvoid idury
cllitr doppcr! could bc pu.d froD folTlrd to Fsvldt t[it, odc to
cr.5 Frt of tbc *it!. A h.tt6 Dthodthll |ny of tbc ir to incorporataa Ftc t dip clo6crp to rtc hr*E DiF. Tb. cod ofoaua ahoddbc
buoyodto cfrod htcr rccovrry.

e) g[it

noDn L.f..

Ecrc tDc.otiF c$lo vill bc rutr out. It i! EGr.d ultil it L drdly up


ald dowl itr th. loc,kr. WorL ttc adgitur at .d |t bdor. ro thrt thc
cablcbcarsonly its owtr$ri8ht.A 21-runwirctru|!.r i! plrrd tbrou$
thc c.tL forinrd of thc 5rp.t rtrd Ld to . wilch wrrpbg.b.trll th.
oth.r cod bairg bdayrd. Tha wirr ir hov! faut ald th! calrL i! calt
.drift iD th. .&!i! locl6.
Tho FDa!, ir tbao ttvolvld urdcr Dowtt rtf,y dowly, ald tha wirE
haw!.f ir rer4 Thccablcwil thctrcooc ofi fh! rypa]ratrdi! aoad out
rhtougbtb! hrwlc piF otr thc wirc hrwrcr. Srbcothc .od of..blc i!
wdl dow! tbr piF tbc wirr hw..t ir cul or .lipp.d .. Morr. If tb. cod
of..ttb i!.llowcd to dcrr th. pip. b.foc.lippi!8 th! vilr it wiu fdl
hc.vily ilto thc aaa,atrdthc r6ulti[f jc t Dlt pert th. yiro-r dc.irat b cfrcct,but ir oly hlpp.l at r &tr8.rou! tiEc atrdpboa
ANGIOIING rf,OM ArT WrnI A l{rwn
IlIICHOI
Th.ro tr! oqdon! vhln tlir it a ulaful aaliotr,It i! astladcly aoi!
ttc c'|c of r w{ll wLic[ i b.rcbilg.nd hr ro&irll tiE to uldrF
t tc ttc l.o...|ry wo(t, for vh.o lhc ir b...[od h6 gouid t rllo it
lh.o s&ady hid oul |!t c! ofh.r. A .tip ru.h .. thi. rill hrE to lrc
hc( h.avy to*linc.
For norEd uchoritr& a 24-32-EE wirr ha*laa i8 F.r.d frof!! thc
afr.r L.d& rlo|!8 th. rhip'. .id. cL.. of .re.rythilt, .Eutld to lhc
a'cod(bild .rc[or, !!d t lrrld |ft. Thc c.tic .Frr pi.o. dould bc
,.cuttd *it[ r Fi.ot dip .!d cb.in bridlc, .!d thc joililS .[&tlc
b(ot6 opco.ThGEtrdor i! thao &t go whro lcoaaaaryby Lloctilg
op.d thc dip. It wil bc dooceith r [trlc h..drry o! tbcv!$Gl but with
rtoppcdproDdl.lr to Noid foulitrSttc wirc. Ttc .hip ahouldbc rhc.rbg .wry ftom thr ala&oaa! it ir llt 80. Thc alahor ia hroyld i! fta
uautl gr!,.
lf it b dr.iGd to tDchorfrom rft with ti. c.hla tbc witr ir p.t d
|' b.for. rDd k pt Frdy for !!lc.tlin8 to tbr ctri!" Thc |nctor ir Lt tp
ad lb. tqdrtd reount of cablctarcdwith haadwryon t!! E..aL
A joiDitrg tbrctb nurt b. poritiod.d nc.r thc upFr h.w.+piF lip.
32

TEB ANCEOR
Tho rhip ir broudt !p grddy on h.t c.bb th. lslt t gowitrg .!i.m.
Thc ?ir! ir thro rol! uprtrrd, tbrougbthc brwr piparld laclttld to
thooatrloforwrrd ofttcjoining.h.cuc. A l,ong,cutrrc4ipccialy e!d.
tb!.&lc i! lrd for thir o.[.d eJorarr.hrcur. A ch.i!.topFt rad
Ft dt.lip i. tt o riggpdfotwrd oftbcjoiliDg thlrHr'..t t8bt, |trd
& l:'G h at d to th. ttopp.r. Thcjoiniru lblrllc ir btot n 3d tbc
.lip ttrock d ofr. Thc aocior it buo:rcdh tbc uu.I e8y, Thc ahiPi!
l& movcdrlosly ahcadwhilcthc wirc ha*lcr it hov+iDan Thc ahip
i! atoBd crh.tr 6r vitc ir up strd dos! ovtt tba atlr4 Thc will i!
rfria hovcin ad thc catrlcbrouShtftord tft ead t qrlld ltouod
.cErl din of bitl3.
Atrotiai @thod i! to caaaont thc crbL fton forwrrd od r aaoond
wirr a, it ir hoE-itr !ft. Tbi! t cotrdwirt a'i[ thaohrrl to bc digpad.
CIIANGNG A!'CIIOTS
If! bofta atrchorir to bGulrhippcd frod itr cabb ltrd tlt apdra
boF iartalhd iato ttc hrwro piF tbc ffi .ncior i! lowErcdto ih.
vd.d. dgr rld lhc follc.|tb d.trL.t rstulg or4Gidc.Itr Fi& l.l2 I
+to[nc sschoris bciDgcbantFd.Itr vicw of thc bightofc.bL wbichthc too
d.rricl vil brvc to npponl, ric bttct thould bc et lc.!t of S.W.L 5
tonn6. It is riggrdwith r ttonnc S.W.L.lifti4 putEhrc. Thc purchaJa totri tod
is lcd to th |!cho. add sccuftdto it by mcra3of t hcavyttop.
Thc.Dcbor i ttctr lowrcd uDdcrnrd to t kc sdYltuga ofthc lola
b xnitht d|E to itr ditpLc.m.nL Thc crblc ir vrard tld tlc ddticl
f.tl hovritr utrtil thc .!c$or it ditlc{y b.low rhc drtricl( h..d' It n y
bc k pt udl6f,rr.6 durinSthb Dlncuvr!. It i! thcoliftc4 toSt(lrt with
thc birbt ofthr& c.blc, fron 0) lo (2) i! thc nglllc, rd d tbi. .rr8p
tha c.blc Dutt bc raadttd tt th. thip'a ri&. Thc dlttick it awu!8 i!boud, tlc alato. h.trdc4 tlc ahauc brcko opca, ad th. c.t c
Eurld to thc tprrl uchor. If tbc rp.tr alchor i! lot tlitEtly bclot
tb dErict hc.d it {il hrE to bc c.t!frrlly lBta.d.t it b letd ofr tb
&c,t to .eoil . trrddln ttti!8. It ery th.a bEt*ung to lb. .hiP'r drb
by !r!yi!s th. d.rbt.
Tt punhr& ir hoE-otr util .. bGforqthc p.irbl h of lh. !bip'.
ddc 6tb L!hi!& rtic.h it th.d crn ofi, Thc rtrchor ir lorrod otil
luhfe&
By h..yiDg @ th! c.bL |!d .lsctitr! on tb. dlrtict f.ll thc
ucbor ia $ippcd lrd ornd itrto tb. hr*|c piF.
h tb Cflrr tha putrtr& bloctr havcba drrm Duahhr8ra ibD
rb sb roEld p.rEit, for Oc trf. of drrity.
Sooctin r ttc tFt! bos,crtDchoritttottld forsard of th.fot6rda.
t .d bratwrta., or rubplrte Itr thi! aaaajt tuat hrvc r witl E{tad
to it rld lod to lta !ci!6t forwerd*arpiag bcrtl or bittt Thit vit!
t}f'fu'a
fulrqc. Thc purEhalci! ld to rhc rFtt bowrr stc[or,

TIIE ANCIIOT,
tb. bntLoD.r.t tilbt, .!d tb. Prrcb$ f.[ horqio. Tbitjod nod. tb.
.!cto! cf..r of thc ttoc&.!d now,by plri.s h..Yy, g!.rd elob of
tiEbar frm thc.D.,horto tt! top cdgaoflba htc.ttrrar, tta purEh|s
c.tr b. frrtbaahm-on, daa&itt thc bu[to9a, tld thr anahoawil tlida
rlp fbc Dlrtlb d.|t of thc btt.t*rtar. Tbahrlropc c.n thlo bautadfo
guyttc a!.hor tltil it it bclowtL drrrick h..d.

,1..1 t

caatE 5lcutED
ox oact( HiE

ercxor ul.oEi f^rEA

HIGH EOIIIING'EOWER

ANCEORIT

ThG3calr dcfncd es bcing at le&st t{rica (tomc atc rdurlly {our


tins) .3 c6ciaDt .3 a Btandrd 3tocllaa atrchor of tbc lamc aaltDt.
ADo6vrd tvDc6 may bc -no6t
Dc.mitted r 25% wciSbt rcdudio! bt

tyF of .c.-bed ' fuk u.a b th.


h
cir;d66tid'sodctia.
Dct iDDonanrfactot itr holditrg-powcrbut wcight do.. pley r vild
mn in Door-W
rrourd litc loft nud or shb rcct. Owrcrs m3y crcccd
7% (wirh Rulc{izc cbrin .ttacM) utrdcl Lloyd's
hutc-wiirtt
6.1m
thc A.C.f4 iD Fig. l'2 morc Ngh holditrg-powcr
A-p.ri
RuL..
eoctor ri'c strownt fi8. 1.11.Moet havaaitbcr sloclr or atrbilisiog
fs. Bccaurc of thcir iffrcicocy, strchor dr.magcis dorc frEquclt
trwadava.Thb occu6 rt bcrd pitr!, fute aipa,h.5d sroF ed ir tbe
!h!d a; dhonion, whict m:y-caurcthe aacborro iaE i! the hawsc
Fpc.

CHAPTBR II

MOORING

r|Er a vBlcl i! arc.hofrd eit[ both alahor! L.ditg .hcr4 .hc


b rrid to bc on opsr roor. Suppodings rt.lcl i! lyiog to s

V V titrglc rlchor rL.d rh..d |ld with r rtraarin h.r crt cof?
toDncs.If shcbrd two strchon lcadiry dcld rb.ad tha sttlsr in c.ch tda
would ba *f tonn6. Whatr tha rtrglc bctsccd thc crbl6 bcconlrs 120

.- t - ,

Y
I

T IONN!

OPEN MOOi IIAEiIE3

FtGUiC 2.1

dattlca, i.G.wit! aac,huc.hor rbout 5l poiob on d bo% tha attr e


ir ard c.blc bccoDaaT ton&& Thir vduc iFt !.i to 2U sld 3f 8
tb. .!Slc bcoo@ 150datrc6 |nd ld) dcgtrcrtr pcdiydy.
S!.d th. ulL cscc.d. tt r.ft liEir of I20 de]! . .h. i. o6dint
ro tilc to r {tfu qcr Fi& 2l ilu.tr.r.. th. D.t.ldotnn of
forcaafot |! .tr91.of lZ) dct !aa,
J!

MOORINC
COMTNGTO OPDN M(X)I
rtqra of thi! nllauyrc. Thc ftncl ir
Fi& 22 tho*! tb. iuciE
hc|d iDtotbauchorrgc with tbawild ot curr.d o! om bowitr ordct
to !!.i!t coualdrcliotr of hc drift. Tho r..th.r rtchof (or uFttlrD
.nrto.) ir LngootrtDclu! (t), |Dd h..dny conti cd for tougblyolo
ilird of ttc Gld lcngfh of oblc, Thc ,ccord inchor ir l.t !p rtrd thc
frd o* rll$bcd .t thc 5Dcy, Ar lh! w.acl bringr-rootr hct w..thct

I
I

ottt.

Looi

!!g!!an
c.tlc, it frrdur[y grorr trut to wind*and,aoubbilgthc bow rould
(2).f th. clSitrca.rr th.o rvorlcd.h..4 u.i!8 warb.t hC|E,to.! to
tccp thc c.bk trut (tbc,acordcaUair c,h.ctad,oooafbr tbcrlEtor i!
kt fo) thc boer ril drltlop. rrpid rwbg Fro th! tir..n o. wi!d. By
tc.ping . [td! rh!.d of b.i .r.ton (3), .o l[ t both cstlc. gro*
dilhtly .fl' th. Dtrlcuvrr i! h..h.a wh. i..diog ilto tbc sind or
rtlaao, both cabLr ar! r! r.d (ttc rocod oe ooly, for . lhort ntil)
|!dtt r'6.dbrirsr-ro in poritio!(,1).Tbcr!.!@ forE rilgthr Fold
@. by ibc|f ehilc drop,Di!!b.ct iDitidly i! to DfttdL fhr.bip b.tq,!.o
harmcf,on. By bying ort ona-thirdof th. Icd8lhbctna thc alc.horrr
ard GDdlyli6 r poirt o! r!. bow.

I{OOI'tNO
Moorio! i. !.!.llt t &.a to qa @i!g
@ d..d.!d @ lyilt!rtrtG-{
o.tL..rh
ThGfryri[d .n q!!ar.rE .r.tor b how!
.ruc, iL 06.r lrdu c.[.d rb M4
ot

2'3),

th. |tip ritt tro .don,


uy, rt it wrr 0[6 c.[cd.
r| rh! d.bA oteot rd
b oder |!d c$b (Fig].

tqrLlNo Alc

.LEEDII6 6
LtE Glttl

- -t-'
ttD0{o cArLE
H

!!9.9!!-31
Ttc rdv.trtaSaaof rrtooril8 .tl:
(l) Th! v! rl ocorpi.. litL tr{i!ti!8 tooE turd!8 dEot i! h.i
or! Logth .bout har |iad.
(2) Ttc rcopc.c.! bcptldjutt d for thcprct|f,ilt rrr.odh ofrhd
'
lhc trDriy
or rttro. Tlc ropoof ...h.ruai.cttiorcditr
sr th.t for | .itr8L |!c.hor (Ch9cr t).
fr. di.rdtutagra .ta:
(1) ThGm4
or Lc, !!c.hor fs rtbf! ald ia of no v.luc lo tlc
o! if lh. r.t d bcgis to dr|& ln lh.
.hip if r hc.dwild iEas
LtEr gl.d! ifpo..iu., it i bcfr.r to dr.! tbr .!dot downuaiil
ihc L..o.hor b l...t d (h..viry in tbc Lc c.bb trn c tlt ggi4)'
tha two cauaaca! tbaabc rE rd togdha(.If c.trb it lt rld ot
thc liding .!Aor ioitLly .rd th. w.$l oootitrudto dr.& by.tt
tidc thakc rlclor i. rl.clcd tbac Dry bc.o EUc[ cabbollt oa
rhcrilirc .rAor that thr orlrt c.blc c.! bc rtalld ooly r theclb
(2) th.lc i i ritt d lrfrirt . lod hsre. To .voil ttil th. wl
nuat alsrya bc |rung rithh tla aa[a at! .t .aL c@tisa
fd.l .h.nr. Gi& 2j).
(3) Dlrcto tb flrt thrt o*c.tb l..lL.ft, rh. v..rl do.t b. dtlptd
dow! fo it whadkavin! tha ucSor{G, itith i! .nd th.o h..vc
37

MOOI'ING
hcn lf b6ck to th. .iding aoc,ho..Al 4-5 midutlt F rhrckh' thi!
vil lrtc . codsidcnblc tiDc. At oFtr moor, prcvibd rtG tlohort
alc cloc togath6, both cabhs ca! hc how ainuhtr outly.
(4) I! | boDr wind thc v6!cl will tum !!d lic et opco hrflla ecio.r
tbc lioc of hcr lIlcllol!, crciting r tiSit ,Ftr. Eoth crbLa tnurt ha
rt.(ld aMdy, lha vt$cl thco tiditg lo oFtr Door.
FOI'IINC

IIAWS

Thi! occun whcd tbc cabl6 bccodr antwincd. In Flf! 2a it i! aP


Btrot ibat ftom Dolition (l) thc rhip rbould bc twuag withil thc .rc
iviar oa tlc liac oi ncr raclo.t trcart thc botrod of thc Pt8a. Thit wil
iulr io clcar hawrc. tf, hoew.r, lhc lwin!, to (2) within thc fouli!8
ltc rhc dcElops a cto6sitr h.r c.bk!. Alothcl twi!8 rIrti'clockwi& ro

1!g!!-3.!
3E

MOOttNc
tffi dEihrwio8 FodE.

(3)tC oIr i! |n dbor,.!d.


c!o...!d r!
dbor, (1).
To.voirl ltir, thc y.el st 0) fiodd trrE bc.tr drto a taoadahraa
b antboardjEt b.forc rl&t rrt.r aotDrt ttc Es attiaaDcat66 hac
rt|ttdrd quartr(, rwiagingblc witiir tL c.Laaarc. Hdfcllr, durios
cahr o( ri[dy cooditiola at dlA wlE ihia ahaarEty bc caladLd
ald a! adrtlE @c dadop. EDginartiil tb.o brY! to bo rrd !r ftc
E rEcaa cooDao to ruq itr ordaalo !toE thc coNa{ atcar,
M(rcIE)

@OS

TO A I'ANGN

I! Ftti, 2.5. v..rd i. roorGddo.c to t .LoL Thir ir han y rdvir.blc,


hrt tlc occrlio! Dry.ri*. Itr F.iti@ (l) tbc vcl i. ioitidly 6oofd

llDllc To
ot?lHoit altcflot

e-P\=--.'

c|.lri tE txD
ctt iof o^t|6t

!lg!!!_3:!
rfrli!! lo h.( od.a[6c ardor. Wt a lta arilt r h e ch8ta of
.tt!.ro to Fridron (2) do eu.r do ro ro .tutorq .o .voidila n@i!8
iaa atao dc fo tbartod. D.oura ahair lidilt fo th. ofidora aldor,
tar trr! tloailr ctrar.I! (2) rta at|i! ridaaro thc ofrdd! arahoaIt .tutatd @.

nffxtrtr{c
fba! ilr tro baricDaoodatrtar6y r ylaadDaf @

O)Ir. bl,(kt,

ry.

c Shll

6! DoG.

M.c

L !, r@
rD. v!..d i. tlqtirld to Dodritib
LidF dd! tb.
li.. uLt io Fl& 26. fb d.t.a i. r@ing ft6 tt &ft jA, oatb FSo.
Fltrr .h..S.. Lolih b rlqdrld o tb poit .do. .!|d fq 6 tb
(ritf, r riod
.dad
dor.
Itr rq.d i. hrdqt i!!o tb .tr!
9

MOOIINO
ald rhao botl ttc
irrilad ofr firaD, tha \ttaad it bcsled to titdtr|t{
F rr.ot ttc rt.|cl bard! lic orc which ir haviq thc drodflf GfiE-l),
rirh r!ficilttt bc.dwry to t*c hcr to 0), wbich wil bc rorrg y fv.
rh.ctk Dlu. . hdf rhip't-L glh bc,,o!d th. litc ,1, (thc lt.cl b to
ri& to h.r port rr.hor i!iti.[y, h !r ..y). At Fditi@ 0) tbo pon
al.hor ia h So ad thc ctaal drifo down!!!ao, !aad.dl8 hcr Pon
c.blc to nilc lhaafk , tbo rod of tbc tto kngth!. Shc it brou$r up

>..'
oa Lxcrxa

atGUiE2.C

g.noy o! thi! ceblcrd tL tt rboordrncho! i! Lt 8purdc oot .t (2).


Tta r,6!al thcnmiddhahctralfbdrltco tha anchonbt'\Ecring or tt!'
dcringfolrr rhrckLaon thaltlrbo.rd oca)tnchot c.blc rnd haaviDgitr
four .hr.&L. on th! tiding crblc util.b. rc.chd po.itiotr (3). Dudng
thcmiddliDg;ct8in6 mry bauradto rclicvcthceindhtt oflha ttt . on
thc trut ridirCcebb.
Tbc isutr h|. baaahid out i! lb&a Eti@t to abov tb D|ncuYlG
with cJerity,thorg\ of counc,tb. Eoori!8 i. do6 dodg th. nm trTf
of lh. rhip, NoticGth.t thc l.d Ft .. tbc bddg!.Po.itiooli!. twkt
duriagthc maacuvm.To dov! fron (2) to (3) sil trt .gProie.t ly
40

MOORINO
IG23 mhut6 with r l&lilorrtt witrrlLcr, dcp.odioSlpoo whcthcf
rt! titlilg crbb i! d&& or trut.
(,) Tf. n-rE! d ntb& Iltoa (Fi& A7)
AarurnirSthc..nc oonditio8 atd &quir.naol, r. hcforc'thc rl.'l
ag|ir h..& itc tidd rt$tD or eind. Thc {rrbo.rd (hc) |ochor ir h
fo witl hc.drrry 06 tbc rt.!.I rt r pditioa diltrnt ftoo tbc lilo ,{,
foui rh!c&L. lG't . hdf.hip's-lctr8th (l). Th! c.blc it rlod.(!d 8 tbc
round.
vlaaalmovlsuppisd or uFt lam ,o tbat thcbowir lot c.hcc&rd
Th. lc. c.blc it Lid out lo r lcngthof linc ahrckld, thc auo of tla t9o
Logth3,iDd tbcbntc tulcrErcd up. Ttr c.blc ir not dlot|.d to titht o,
rl

t - - - - . +- - - - - - - - - - - ; - - -

--+

--

4!3
oth.rwircrDcboe wil cto6st[c rtslae |nd hi8haosi!. rwolutioDrwill
bc !.o.a!ary to cortlct thi! ahrar.
At po.itio! (2) vhilc th. L. c.tlc is rril drck th. port rtrc.hori! h
go lrld.rfoot ard thc ltaal Eord uicm. Thit ridiDccrb& catraittar
hGyraild to iB Lnglh or ckc dt rDltcly lurlpd .nd toutbd. & tbG
rt...l mffi d,ow!eind or dtrad, fv! ahaclkallot ba naillcd on
tlc lcc c.bb (z) niautla) and fr}! rhrcuc. r,!.r!d otr tDcritirg a.bL.
Thc t !ar.l ir if.o bronlhl W oo hc. ridirg c.tb rt (t).
ThGngul! h ag.itr Lid olt in th!6 diotr! for ttc |.L of cJrdty.
Tbr r!a&l Fas thr lir.,tt oDIyoE i! ith Elna|tvta Urdaaaqiai!
!!ctori!! ft,@ th.
c@ditiotrnlhi! Door Dry trfc bnfar to atracsta,
riD! lb. frrt .trchorir h gp.I! t!! dt!F,pi!8 nooa,9 rbac,ltrBuo !!od.trd wftt rbc .t!.m. I! th! lmitrg ooor 9 ahctLa rr! rtddacd
4l

MOORING
qFfut th. ttrr o, Atri4 i! t! dtopdn! noor, odl},/arh.dL hrv!
to bc rlithcd, .g.iut 5 in tbe ruding 600(. N.tunUy, if th. Lottb
brd b t!r!i|C4 lhir Lttlr colai&t.tiod rould a&obclcnrdtorl
I! a crlaapild tbatlaath.' alahor ir thc fra b bc h !o aotbat thc
rt.d do.. lot d.ift r.!o.. h.r c.tt* If tb! b. .!.tor ir Ll 8o thr ..bb
ril Srow!trd.. ihc,bb, hr. bor! will bo roubb.d !p ilto th. ri!4
tL atr..D. I! li. drcpfiDgDoor rL&ohs rba
ald |t! riu grt sa
ridiDgc.l& rl.oD ttrgc bct*!.o 0).!d (2) .nd to*itr! thc.d@..
cottlcttNc

LlataY

j\',=.:
iutfNtNGlrooi

tF SHEE^|IClEiots
tteEA*

cfllcx af|lac
olt toit c ttE
5t^||Drftc taooi

F+
)

!!9_C.!!--?!
aaaa!!|Dd.t rl.fbcr hdo wil iclp to colltr.d hcny, thr rwi!8 of
m ttc crbb.
tb bowr rEoaath. *rcaD tciDg ch.ctcd l.o.a{ry
Ia tL mtrtriry Door bc*!y ii ct .&d ty Lyitr8 out th. rbcph!
crf,b uod.r cogiDcpowr trd ic.ritrg upwilrl Aly ahcaraa$dathr
atlaaei! tbaooonrccd rith ka hda ard aLo Frtidly cornci.d by tha
v{d'r r.odffy to !.y ofi thc eitrd u!d.r [c.dwry. Noth. tbt in ihc
droPdtr! Doot rbaarr.tlas ttc ttam dua to artltn aova|laof it
a!8rrvaLd by $i! trdd.ocy,Ilo*!v!f, th! catr&aprovi& a SpodaLa&irg lcti@. Too DDc! dcrlwry thodd not bc dld|ld (E Fi& 2.t).
b ..h w..th.r tbc Don .Dchori! thc bcttarotrcto &!p fttt in fbc

MOOItN(}
.tadiry Eoor, ritroc rtry artn DoErD.dta o! tha aodnc Gi8htnlldcd iirdcdcrtr thip) to Educc .!y tlDriliry hdery vil o.!t
if,. .i6 rsry ftoo thr |[cfor uld.doot
For riuihr rcrroo, ia thc rulliDg lDoorrbr port |nAor i! tbc battar
oD droDpd .f (2). Furttlc, i! lb, cytdt of thc bo c.trb bMiog
jaD!.d d|si!8 thr nm froE (l) ro (2), .tr ltt.f! oot'lo.ot trirtt lha
vcrrd to rtrrborr,4 thc cabbg.orr d..t rld avoi& I bd EiP.
fb &xlc l,!oa
Thi. Dcttod of Dooritrgr .tip i. roploytd ehro . $r.d ir lo lic
dollai& r quay,thacotrtttnctio[ of whici it trot rufiaildy robutt to
FrEit rrtrfirg of th. rhip dudngb.d w.ethc(.Th!.. &y| tb. trDiry
;f thc noor ir i4lproprista, but thctc u! ao doubt au.h whst i!
itt

ta|.r tc lfooA

MOORT G tti!

'Jg!.EE-3J
v&iou! othcr Fttt of tb. wotld. It i ! ua.ftl mcltod of batthiry r
tad itr |tr odtbot! taL of wiD4 Frtiq lrty wbadthc rlraal it cr'
pcctadto hart hdot! tho ea.tbrt abaca.It it a Dopulll Daesvrl ir
c6rri! redl d|tla of lrvd rl tcb.
Il tbc D|laauvr! ir to hc crccrtcd ia u erurgo.dad oallhatt |hiP,
r 2!30 nm wir! is Fltcd from thc .ftcr hadr otr thc poop,dotg thc !3|in
ofthdr tllc, oubidc .trd dr.r of cltrythi!& Thc of.hoia t!.ho( i.
r'coclblLd .trd ! D|! .aot ovrr.i& @ r c.haitto arc 6. iitr lo tta
dahor, Fftrruy at lhc .h&&L, ThGafta( .od of tDatitio ir aart to r
rarpirg barrGl&atty fd baavinSh {act ti.a
Wi.d tb. .r.o i. $n .tt thc po.itio od th. qu.y {ti... t}. bt4!
sitl crtoodly bc fbc uc&or it Lt tp, rlil tilh t .dr.y @ tlc vrrd.
43

MOORING
hdf r .hip'! lcogth of ciu. i! !ur8.d rld th.d th. c.bb i.
Ah
|a6b.d. Tht vi.! it hovlitr .rL
fhc odrho& eiDd wil drift th. vatcl down on to haat rth, |Dd ttc
acoD.of thc cabb, rtrd thc wil!, it rdiult d ald 6toely ltcrEd urtil tha
.hip lrlda atooftidc. Fi& 2.9 rhowt thc Dtn(luvrc. It i! moat iEPottut
to lrt 89 ihc rlclor hrving tha bcrt PocsitL iudScdcnt of DoritioD' fq
iffha uc.hor bc ld 8p roo ftr ofr ttc quay thc witE will bc ofintuficirot
kog$ aad fha ttip vil fsil to rcrch hcr kh. Th .rlc,hor mult tltco bc
tz) f.thoms wcighcd aDd thc matrcuvrc rcFatcd. If the availablc wirc is 2'10 m

LENC'I'

r-!-9-V$-::!9
I I0 frthoms in lcngth ald 220 m rtr to bc vre&d, thca louShly 7l shackle of
J{Dft60N crblc will a.lsobc vccrcd. tf thc ship is lt) m long aDd lt m in b.rm
tb. l'clor vil tb.o lh olc!trd-o-rbrd .biFk|trLSltsofi th! quay.
If it ir di!ooE@4 bcfoE too Euch c.blc it YErr4 that th. atrAor baa
bcan Lt 8D too f.r ftoE fi. jctty thc crttb !nu!t h. roubbad atd tb
uchor dtrgrd b rtc d!.ird Dosition.
If tharc ir !o wi[d at tba riDG of bcttLitrS thc cEtL .dd wi& ltc t Dt
drat ald thc v6scl dan@uvrrd io tlc barth u!d.r .tr8inc powr !!d
hab. E c! tiEG tbc pmpdlrf, b Eovrd tbc sitE Euit ba hoYc until it
8r!et futhar to loog ttry.
44

MOORINC
Io lho cvat of tbc achor lying morEth!! . .bip'! kdgt! fioD th.
bcatb,cLrrilg i! ooEFlrtiwly ca!y: thcwraclir hovr out to lcr alchor
by hcr c.t lc, utin8 thc witt to E L turr that thc rtcm do6 not foDlthc
badb.If draiEd,thc llrlts m.rybadoacandthc vlssclhovcout to hcr
ardor rttra flrt ulitr8 tbcvirt alolc, picldngup tbc da.k c.blo a! aba
tpa.. Thc aff.hor ir wcighcdard tha vaaadlwutr8to thc dlaird diEcrioo (3).In.n otrlhorl witr4 thc |lchor oi! balGfrat sbort.t y rtrd tho
rcl tt.tn d lould it, if thc d.siE to bc.d lpwind (Fig:,210).
ftbc !trc.hori.lyinS l4t tb.!. Oip'r kogth froD th. q!.y ttr vr..d
c.! h..}l blirdf out to it, tcapilg FrdH with ttrci:tty. Tb.cc ir tro
rood to ,*ing h..d-to rtr oElhorcvin4 ,o tbc ,lahor i! vcighrd .d
thc iEsr.l boild up to wiodwrd rtcro-frrt und.t powcrfulrlvolutioD!.
Shcwill cxdrlc ttir rwitrgr.pidly, Whcoruhciatrty far from thc quay,
shcc.tr th.o rwilg to Oa frirwry. IfthcrE i! ro windit wilt baprcfdabb
to alriD hc.vc out p6..llcl with t[c qury, eigh tnchor, lnd proc.cd
to awing(if ncc.rsrry,of corrlc) urd6 powr.ful [.adwsy (Fi& 2.10).
lb lu.af.lltEr
lroo.
This moori! u!.d whadwtlrf rFcc is limir.d ard rhcl! ir dar?flrtrr
slotrglilc thc ehrrvar" Thc vBsl ir Doortd atad o! to thajctty with
bott hcr rtrchon lyinSaha.dof hct, ftc otr cacl bow.ThGtnrn@uv&
vltiaa gll dy &cordilg ro tlc FweiliDg wiDd,rd will ticrrforr bc
fu y dirculaadi! Ctapta W aftlf tharcadarba! rtudid Ctlpt r trI.
CI,EAn!NG A TOIJL IIAXISE
Thc 8r.r nccc.sltyfor thi! o,paartion
rhould baEsdr rc.dy rt th4t
wetcr.lt will iDcludcrt lc{it thr.c Z)-25mm *in3; e smdlct wirr, ssy 2l-}in
I0 mm,or lorrc ltrgthsof IGltEm ffbr! roF; r boatswaitr'schrir; ll ia ll-2.in
lrd cquipmcotn{c.rary for brErtilg op(o s 6blc joinitrg-rhlcttaTbc oFiatiotr may bc rrrrtld a! toor I tlc shipis svutrgto a lcv
.tr..D, ttu! giyingabout6 houB frc.dor" Th. clcaringEsy ta|r up
mo.l of ttb timc if thc t v.c i. bodlyfouLd, Mu.h wilt dlp.od up6
the Dco cEpLoyod
Tbc hrwlc i! ct .r!d by .mhrckling t[..k pitrt c.bL ud p.r.i!S
tbc cod.rouDdthc ridil8 catL"
Il Fi& 2"ll thc tum! r! hov! abovcyrt r ud rt c{,lc Labcrlto
8erh.rbclos thc tutrt, ulriogtlc fb|! roF Thc uvrl DcthodDry t
.mploycd,by usirg ttc lifht wirE|!.howtr itr th. fA!!!. TIG two codr
of ltrc *irt arc tbcn bcleycdod rLa&.Th6! rhould bc tro di6orlty i!
btrgitrg tb, caua. to8cth.r, sitrccthc rL.pitrg oabbeil barrdodrbly
alaa&.O[c of rh. big8ar*inaair th.o pu..d rouod tho aLgrilt catrb
bdo* thc n|m|, ho}Erighl andbalsrGd.Thi. wirE..ta !| a prcyrofa(i!
ca& thc nn.r_4hd cod of thc catrL i.lo.g rld rho rdirrt. tta turrr
45

uooltNG
ofr@ ofth. c.tb wilit A rouod tut! E y b. uld *b.[ F.d!t
6ia t tlEor.r .rourd ti. caur. Thi! aoauaalhc wir! to bG.li!,pcd htlr
ftoo tL d..&. Thr tl .d i. .h@n rtlilt to h.r .tutord c.t'b"
..ddmthlottlhthchrwrc
I!Fi&212oeitt@lrrL|tb..oF
rb. mtr of rh. Dort
dincd
.routd
tt!
tidht
c.ttc,
folori!8
ti!.,
o.UB .!d ntud.d to th. forocrrtb dcc&.It L dippcdody o!.c' .!d
db h.lf a tua! ri|l bart@or..drt ary otrclim.
O[ d..& (Fi& 2.13)tb po c.bb b.r b..o i!.itd |ntil . joitrilg
rbr&L i! forr.rd of tb. AD.y. TLr lhird wirc L r.ct|'ld to lhc c.tb
jd fot{.rd of tb.nrda
both p.rr! |Ir lcd to rt bitt+ b.lr}cd, .trd
allvE|ltEl

tittaraflot3
tlGuil:.ll

lh rt .. . i. !...d to ttir wir!. Th. .h.tlc ir trot o q'.o, Wb.o


thGc.tlo i. F.t d tb. .hr..tlc nry bc rcflrocd rad ocoblcd Thc
-dq ri.! .hodd bc c.Ftb of bcbf dilD.d AoD thc d.d., .!d for
tlir t .|on it i. .dvi!.bL to brE it Fring lhoqlh tbo o!.o .od-lht
Btrlatihao |la attraaofthr c.bb ir 6 ihc G.drf witc, 6. rhlaLL aiould
.li[ bc Dovrli., If rh. .h.d.b i. irEfi.d i! F.itioo by ihir t st c.dn!
ln! (thtioufh rb .odirf) it ril not n!firf,, b.c.urc it c.! .ti[ b.
bi!&.o tld rt etrld
in .pitc of thit.
On6 iobotd .dd of, tlo n $.D!.. ir lor Eu!.d to tb joilio!
.D..tlB th. orb.r it trt6o, riti .r tood r L.d .r p6ibb, to . x.tpiot
b.trrl,.!d -trilht Ttc .dtrt ri! b dor0y !oi!t ro b. .urtld o! rhc
h'tlrjf dcdrr4 oc ctrdofit 6! rho b. lodto r *.rpi!g b.tr!l; it c.!
6

MOORTNO
tb.d to tttrS.d withoutrirt offoulilg th. otL.r rod of tb. ritlt or it c.!
bc t'!ai!d urdar porr(.
h tbc c.r. ofr lugL$ joinirg .trcuc, wbrn tbrnc11! no rod-lilt!
or cdh8rd coDDotr litrk, th. c.t . ir a.cuFd ty chd! rtoppd or
amciaotbow rtopp.rr, thc catlc rhrcuc brot n |trd thla &asadtr&d
(wb.o thc c.bIc br! !.rt d) frlt to bolh thc mcaa.lgarald thc aa!i!!
will, Th! c..irg wirc ir th.o how, thcftigbt trkao ofr iha dopDaa|,thc
lrtcr c.rt o&,rld tbr litultiod i! s3bcfoG
Al ir lov rt dy for rcitoving thc irn h.f-fu.!. Th. D.!.c!g.t i!
hovo-itr|!d tlc c.rdtrgwitr corod.Thc dircciio! of mor4rlaot of tha
rDc*i.og.ri! sr thowl i! Fi& 212. WhGnthc codofc.blGi! .boul to bc

olFllt{c tE

rEsrEtGlA

FtGUh! 2.12

dippd tb c.litrg yirc ir diFFd (Fi& 210, tb. oel.t


hov., .rd lho
Gndof cabL diF aroold tha atarboardc,hri!" It thadcotrthr|aao! up
to tbc h.x!. piF .!d o! to lh. forlc.db dcc&.
O! drcL ttc ..!irt wi.! i! rttir ..t up, tbc ftiglt i. t tro o! it Oc
EraaaoSEcax ofi ald tldippcd a! Uor! to ftdor! thc ttdrinilt
tdf-turn
WL.r thi. h!! b..o a.hictd lLc .iturtion ir .! rhd! i! Fi& 2,15,
Thc c.bla i! rEjoilc4 thc prcr.cr.r ir c.rt ofr,ald tbaibrc lahiagr .lt
burmd throwb" Tbia tr oftcn donc by lcddiEgr Dr! oviaridr otr .
chn I& lPil8r hior.trdotg ltc c.t lc, aoat rhcibrc ropci! pcnfi!,
rDd tchrar to thc drck, A buclct it thcol{lrl4
cootrililg buEitr8
porrffn ra8!, to ..t ttr ropc.li8bl M.ny bcthod. D.y bc d.rilcd for
thir binor job. Ttc c.bl6 eil th.d p.n eith rl.ry litdc vhlr, bccaurc
th. rbcpi!8 c.t{c i! rtil rlsclc
47

rtttatacEt

ttD

tttrt
Iria |rl
laarrc ti!
to attt3

ttavatt!t

tattro tnl

trcur! a,tt

Dtt'|ts

tr* c ttl

ftcoia a.!1

c|.tat H^taa
!.!9!!!-!:!!

ry

MOON'ING
Uiitrg thc traval mclhod, tbc ligbt eitr ir c|!cd from {ra dcct ro pcrt
th. crblca, onc cnd is dippc4 and thc wi.r bovci! Thia [g[t wirr will
D|3! through a commoa IioI.
Ttcrc ar! lavcrrl othcr mcrbod! u.cd to clcar a foul h!w!.: tbc shiP
n|y bc tumcd, usinf hcr cDgina!or lug!, uDtil thc ltlwsa L clcar; somctitn6 rhc brolcn add of thc 6Lapi!8 ceblc is lct go cotopL&ly ovcnidc,
rld tbctr a eirr froD cach bow is olcd to lift it ovr thc riditrg crblc
utrtil ttc tum! at. rltrrovd. Itr r lDrll lhip a eir wbicb i! Ltgp in rcl&
tioa to lhc cabL (so that it will Dot jem bctwc.tr lint6) cetr bc dippcd
.toutrd tha a.blc twic. at a timc ldd e full tur! rcnov.d by haavi!8
oD lhi! mt.laogcr oDcc.
Ooc mahod cmploycd is vonl trotitg; thi! c.n bc u.rd only l,h.n,
upotr haavirg thc tumr rbovc wrtct, r joiDi!! .hecllc it vbiblc in lhc
.lccpbf cablc. UiiDg a cr.n of 3ubstutial c.trstruction, thc d.cpilg
cablc n|y bc ps&d hdc (dt t h!trgil8 it w[ ofr rt thc .bip's !idc)'
ald rhc ctrd rusFndcd froE thc h!e,c pipc D.slad aroutd thr ridi!8
crbL urtil tbc tut!! ltr rcmowd. Th. ceblc i! tFjoilod aad thc haigcr
tqnovcd.

50

CHAPTER III

THE PRINCIPLES OF SHIP HANDLINC

fa-(ttE suc..lsful hradling of lhiFr is .ntiftly d!F!d.dt upoo thc


I hudlcr havirg a widc krowlcd& of thc bJry f.cltor! involvld.
-1 somcof ttc fac'tor!alr c.trtrolhbL by hir& otba6 arc lol rtrd
hc mu3tquickly$saasthci! cfrcclsso that hc mry mrlc duc.llorroc.
for thcE. Sodc frclors, auche! wind etrdctrlrlnt, mry bc u!.d io grc.t
rdvsntsggptovitirg thq, atc wcll utrddstood.Wc sh![ di*o!! dl thc
aaDca8i8gol1t4 undd lap|'rtc hcrdirgr, but thcy |tr trot to bc rl d
.r bcin! i! ordarof inporrlc..
(r) TEE ENGINISI
Thc rtaan rcciprociring.ogiDci! glocrrly conliddrd to bc lh. baal
frod tbc Aoht of vi.s of r6poa!c. lt ir rrpidly.toppcd rd rtv.tla4
tnd riry ba&licd uponto dcvclopful powci cithcrwry ia r rrry fcr
aacondi
Thc modcl! Di!..I.n8i!. i! ttrttld rld .topp.d rlnoct rt olcg .rd
oftrtr dcvcloF poftr mor! quicldytba! tta ,tc!n .ntin . Hoscvlr, thc
Dic.ct rdfinc i! di6cr{t to 6tin in r rtlrcrlc dirciiol whilc thc vrocl
i! E*ing goodwry throud thc wlt r. Thb ir duc to thc Girtlaca of
th. ertcr .t cdn on tlc FoFlcr bhd6. Bcforcord.rilt r cbug. of
cagirc dirlclion, thcrrforr, thc *!y of l[c rEs.al ir baatdloqEd to
rcduccThc turbinc it rlow to dcvcloppor.r-it nlr.t bc givctrfioc to i!af,alrcrlvolutioo!, rtrd shc! ltoppcdit mult ba rlowrd to ru! doir!,
1! r.l i! Equfud to rtop thc turThcrrfoE, wb.d r turbi[G-cquippcd
bio6 murt bc rtomcd r littlc i! .dl|@. Thc todinSJowr of tha
turbilc Dly trtc up to 6vr tdnulat. A ac?arda turtirc provirkr
rsrcm poftr, rd h! u.udly only dout tro-ttfudr of thcpowr of lha
rh.!d turbioa A grl t dc.l offorBight i! Dccalrrythcn h!dli!8 tlcl
r rhip.
A[ vBscb, Frtic't|lrly Dic.cl.cqdpp.d .hip* lhoold b. h.dd!.d
wit[ .r fce startr tnd rtoF r! po6$:tL"
5l

THE PRINCIPLES OF SIIIP HANDLING


(2) PNOPEII,ENS
By coovcntio!, cngrncsatt dcsilDd to bavc clockwfur-tuming lhslb
ehcn going shc{d |nd whcDvicwcd froDr astcrD.For this rl$o!, riSbt
hrndcd proFllcrs art ncarly utrivcrad in siDglcscatwships.Twin-sctaw
ships iondably havc outwud-turDi[g scrrw!, i.c- lhc propcllcr on thc
right sidc of llrc ship is right-hatrd.d, and thet otr rhc lcft ridc is lctt_
bindcd. Whcn goitrg astcm, both proFllcB nstually tur! itwar&.
Triplc-sarcw shiF ar! ulutly ma[(ruvlld oD ttrc oulcr two !c1tw3,
lhc ccatral ooa baidg uScdto ioqrarc ahcador astcm powcr.
FIcHT.HANDaD!CAE{' GOINGANEAD

_-t@1ry
ElgllS!-.!:l
Qurdruptd..dcw!bip! htvc I pair ofproFllcrt otrcrch sidc,a rilht'
h&d.d Dair oD thc rtarboardsidcrld a ldt_bradcdPoir o! thc Pon
d&. Thcyatl usuallyoalcwrtd o! tbc oui.r t.rEw! ody. A turbiDc'
cquippcdrhip with four ,crt{! S.ocralyhrt th! outc.pril ody crpablc
of goinglrtcra
Thc thrult of thc propalr bhdc i! dividd into two coEDolcnt!, I
forc-rtrd-sJtoacrld a rcly sDdl rthr|rtshiP3 odc.Thc lrttcr ir callcd
tr@trartc thruta,tcrcvbtgaAact,ot taartw bl4t.
Tbr r6dt of lhi! forccE y bc dducd by collidltisg thc proFllcr
to bc a wbral,carryiDgtbc stamltrouS! thc r$cr at riSbtalgh to tbc
v..!cl'! lina of motio!. Thc causc,bowrtlr, colridcring a! iDDcr6ad

52

TIIB PRINCIPLBS OT SSII ITANDLING


protdLr, ir D.iDly rtocto th. ru.tiotr .{.ild llpd rh. hdl iED.di.ldy
bc[ild tbc rotdilg bhdrr. Sip tbc hdl ir oorc frl i! ny of tL
upF bhd.t rtr .uctionhrt it! grc.&r cficd rt thir Faid&raald a bha
ir c.urcd. Thir bi.! i. vErytroticcibb it full-d..!.d w' l+ hn i
d!6t llllifibL i! f!eli!.d dc.troy!6. D.dlity .td F.lion c.tlot
b. bcld r.rpoBiblq ,iroc thc lp.cifc lrrvit, of .dt t !.i .t rt!. Dy
only 0.0q)015ov.r { dcpth of 3 m, atrdlhc biasstill oocurset dcpth! toft
rb.(c ..r.tio! i! ncfligibh. lt it lit ly' howrtr, tlrt rrcrtio[ Dry
|ficat bhr whanthc propcUari! wortiry clo to thc todaoa.Whatrtia
Dilp.ILr i. Frtidly cdlrfd bi.s i. utrrioubtcdlywry LIlrly du. to tlr
Fddlirg of th. lort( blad.c.
In Fit 3.1 r right-hsldcd proFl.r it rhortr wotti4 rh..d, rogahcc*ith ttc arctioabiasrld thc eh..liry ctrccl,swinSilt thc bor
to Dort A rtarboGdswitrSoccuraa,hc! SpiDgrstcrD'|Dd tha rcllt|c ir
trur rha! uring r lclt-hrdLd proFllcr. Rcrdl(r lhould lotc thrt co!to[rblFpitch !srw! rill rterys p.oduccthc |.tic Utaa'tilcc thay
roltt6 itr r conltrlt dir.cliotr rhcthcl tbc rc$al uos rhlad o!
a.dcm.
Wh.d thc6!Gl nov6 !hc.d r bclt of ert.t ..lbd tbjt crton, t+utt
to lho upD.(
ir drtwn dolg by thc hu[. Thi! FoviiL! . tt'irt|F
tiLdcn wbictrrcduca rtutirg bfu! a! tbaapcadi!r('qrat. I! r@a cas
an oDporitabir! mry crca &vclop. Un&t !t t ry th.t! h v.ry liuL
r|&c ,trauth .t thc p.opau6,lnd *.rtiog bh. ir Erintaind rr 4ccd
i[cr..ra. ConlitlrabL rtlm*sy diy bc lac6aary Ho.c tba tudd6
rill codld tbc bht, ard rodatinaa .toppitt th. ctrgito Fovid.. ltc
ody coarcation.
$.ni!t bi., L Drtunly nodifcd in cooditiontof tind,.trrftdt, .td
wh.o rh. rhip'! hcrd i! .tu6dy .eiDgiog.
.bip vitf, . ddt-i.!d.d !(D
$lrnrdrinS tbro, h r rirglcsrt
Dclai:
ttu bo', c. r ro po.t, tt rrilf ddt..h!..
V'16 gpbt M,
rry is pthcrqt rad porritly "run8hg itr thc oDDo.it ..ot
c|trt rtto!d), to.t rto.td.d tlll ooo.
lyr6 totg ata\l'trea
tin@ to do aoultil cofilatilg Hn n uail
I!. trio*r|w dip thc prof.[r. ... oft.a ft@ th. dir.!d
a rDorncotir q!.t d rbout thr lattaaby tha fotq|ad{ft ltalat oatta
st'x, tur!i!! tb. r*l to @ ddc If botn.ofiG.t!
!*|t d-d 6
aat r!, .od at tb! aaD Erclution+ lb tto tarrvla! lbtuaa cad
c..h otb. Itr .ly c.r, tt port ..cw i| kft.nud.4 |ld bolh lt lnD.
thc bor to d.tbdtd rh ldt
ar'tf ltu d i6 ofu<fu..or
.hrd. SiDiLd', tb. .t tto.rd slt ib
!oin!.t .d c.ot lb. torr
c&.l1 Fr@ OrL,|.
to po.t, bo6 by it. otu.!d itr tn!|ftrFltrlrt
st
a [qt
i. obii.ru! ih.t r tr..d nE d riaf d'.r*bt!irf
53

TIIB II,INCIPLBS OF SEIP SANDLING


aad'wrCddttaa tb!
oracuvnblc ttro o ntut tith iltttd-trrlilf
Fort propdL. of.o.h . rhip; tt b tiSht-h$d.4 .!d th.tdor! wh.o
rrriof rbid it trurrtr! t&r4 c|ltt tbc botYio Potl inib ita o&ct'
.docl c. . rtc bo* ro |t.rbod. Th. Ft .titr! of tbc thip it rtc dif'
rbc
Wilh ortwrd'turnilt sffi
fc@ baclra 6aaa tro cfrGata.
rii!! ir cotrtolbd bt &a tttr of,lh! adGctr

ArtEit
outrAAD ltarNc

IHIID

aHt{D

llllil{

!!!!glCi4E

i!g!!g-!.3
rcrcra bay b.cooa
I! l.t!ot 9a!a.! a E .cl hrviot ioeatd-httDiDS
'nn.og-bL. A! f.r |t hutlliq it ir conene4 .dd!r Dovrmt
ara lrdr aa for rly oth{ ttiD*rlw rhip, but th! bab|viour nr}'
.ct tt till b.
b. ED(tdi(Lbl.. Th. &h.|!t s. of ifi.rd-tomilt
disrr.d Lt r. bot it b trdly ofttdln d by t[G ilf.nior DrDclariqa
olahica"
_
To ooild.rc rhir dbaot kto, iEagiE a! outtnt+turin8 tcac?alip
.!d irt .t tio.td .oab. !ei{
h.rb! irt port Golio, !pi4 .b4
ad!r!" Thia !urh..tdAu[' turtt rfa 6iP ,oadly to d.tbo.td. Eotb
Dioa[a.. ar! !o* tll|ti!! Lft{rtdatt C@dd.r lhao a! oD bit ld'
tbrrat .a!ta tta bdt to at|ttard'
iraa oroodltr. ltc mur!.*
ti..rAg offu.hip. Thiof of6. i rtd-turli4 ste.t!'D
.r.itif
Ed.r dDihr odditiora Ar|in th. pu.h.!d-pu[ rctbtr n|'.. tb
54

TIIE PRTNCIPLBSOF EEIP SANDLING


!bi9 to .t rbo.n4 but both FopdLrt d! oov Eeolvi!8 ti!bt'h.!d!d
sld tl.ir tr![rvlrtc Orurt! ofDolc th. P!!b{!d'pul rftcl. Ofr.d tb.
frt&d ir omoa.d iu6ci:!{y to a.!t th, ihb i! a rqrlrF dirtclios
(Fi& 3r).
Whca turdlg r twirrcrtw thip whfth i! ttopP.d or ndilt vlfy
dowly thc lt'anwartcrhruaLof btr propcl.tt it glatrr ttrtr thGofirGb
cfi.ci r.adthc tvo coDt ilcd slt mot! af(rliw l[r! hd!'
Fo; frc.dod fm@vibntio! th. proDclc.oui ntm i! . toootl iot
of ertar. Thi! iov ir t.aticLd rtao thr aodlaa a!! rrlrlf.ad ald aLo
i! rhrlow qs&r, ro thst vibrrtio! ocom unda lhaaaoonditiolr
Piop.Ud!
MrGtri!!
A dcvicc dcvcloFd in 1950 is known ss the Activc Ruddar. It
consists of a subocrsiblc clcctric motor, gatcr-fllcd rnd watd'lubricatcd, imtailcd in thc trailinS adScof thc ruddcr. It cao ba supplicd
with .arings varyitrg bctwccD 15 and t2m kw. Thc r.3r and of thc
motor shaft carrics a propcllcr *hich is crPobL of bcing twcrscd i!
thc dircatio! of rotadon. Powr. crn bc aupplid immcdiataly to tum
th ship in aDy dir.cliotr. It is of Daniculsr ulc whcn thc vcsscl i!
stopFd. A sidc ctrcct is lhsl, in thc cvctrt oar msi! ctrginc f.ilurc' lhc
aativc rudd6 givcs sufrcicnt powr to propcl thc v6scl lo pon,
Bow thrustar units atc inqasiaSly in usa ODc of thc, frttcd to a
coastal tad(cr, savcdthc initial cxFolc of thc utrit tn onc yaar. Thcac
uDits (about 36 kw for s 9m(lbntrc d.rdwriSht vdscl) rngblc a
vcssclio tum vithh hcr own lcnglh. Tbrultcr unit! mly abo bc ittcd
.t thc atcm. Hull r.sistaDcc ia not incrtsrad if propcrly faircd doors
arc fttcd rt rach ctrd of tha thrusEa tutrtcl, thc doot! atrd tbc Eotol
rhc uda Tc
haviDg intcrlock switchinS. In bcfthi4 or utrhhin&
idvat;bb. By stcrDiDg ahcsd otr r for*etd sp.i4 strd tbrulri4
toverds thc qury et thc ramc tiDc, e vc$cl crn rtovc aidcwtys ofi tha
quay.

(' lEE WAIT CUIIEIT


tfr b..sy, t!.[Dsul.r b.r!p i. ud.r h..dny . ..vitt rill b..rrtld
.t ib atain wri.. will ios dom llt aiLa of tL hatte |'d atid i! io
br. rt ddd.t
6tt thir o.vity. Sb.rilt yJinbc rut.itEdy.ftdd
wil h. worlinf i! wbrt Dilbt loo.dt hc i.rDd . Frlid 1|.4u.
Fudha, th. proD.fk wil bc aorti!8 h di*utt d t E, .D.d tin b.
lost,.!d vib.rtidr *ill b. ..1 rrP.Thir *rt r, lri.filt into tb o.ritt, b
iffh
c.n d rb vata grl'lat. Botbaayiaado!ald wrta c!(rcot iE-!
oaatl
If, horltnr, r irdt da(natly|.f,r fit rrldar haadtr'' tba cavitrriod

lltvE
RI'OOER

FOaa ilal

E!9I|EE-3:3
56

TTIE PRINCIILBS OI SEIP AANDLINO


.!d r*. orrrdt wouH b. lt y du.L .o.lkr. Ship. .hodd lf,..dm
hc courtuctcd wit! u fr I fotn |ft |r po..itIa wL! tL |hiDlolta
.tl..tr lbc c.vibti@ .td ?rtc G{rrtot .f,irt at tL .t.D .td til bavt y
rodl ln.!y c.!, it wil lot !ftc tb. Ft4|dLt o..bi!&

(o mt ruDrrEn
Tboturtrilg FoFrti.. of . .hip d.p.rd tr4dy tpo! th. rir.' .h.p.'
.!d po.itio! of tDcrudd6. B$i..Iy, tt ir uE tto tlF: th. old.G
f.!bb!d rddli, i|bi.b h'' dl ib uE rb.ft tL rudd.( F.t .!d tb
b.L!..d ruildcr, t vinf .boot. ttitd ofit .t!. fdt rd oftb. F.t
whca tbi. tyDcof.u.tdar ir l|!rn d vrt . io9ilt . n9@ lL fcil|Ia
araa.rd aaaiaLtbc rotatio!.
Ia . ri!8b.crrw $..d tb. rutd.r i. dit!.dy.b.n lf. pilDdlc ud
tt! diFtrarn atailc. dircdly upod ttt idd{ arfae. I! r twb.GEr
rbip th. rddrr i. dtrstrd Eilt y b.tct!.a tlc tro diFtl lnr .!d ril
h.v! cf..a otrlywbrd it i! dinct d i.ro dh.[ @, or wb.o tl. .bip b.!
rfici:lt ray up@ har to caulaa 6ov oftdat Ftt tha rod&r.
It ir for thfur..!o! tLt r dndc|ci!f, rhip i! thr Eol. Etitis of |l
or ttb
two typ.. yhco ttc rudd6 ir Eotld dudng vlfy dor aDaadr
tb! rhip ir rtopp.d, Wc b.1! rb!.dy ttrtld thrt th. bdo ofr tti!t.tcw rhip, rtoppador oovitr8 r,!fy dorly, i! lot aaaftatiE aa tha
ofrct+f.ct ofltc two PtoPcll.rr.
It.honld bc lotcd tt t dlrFiE th. good,t .tiD8 qudid.. of. ri!|b
..i.? .hip, thr rudd.r i! .166t i!.ftc'tiv. wtco tb .bip h.r h.t b..&
*ry Fducadby |rtaiD Gdlincllrowincotr, dua to ila tttrllln8 tltto'
kdaa
h |om. tri!..cr.o v!.!.b twia mddar tc itEd, oo ditdly .baft
lh.t of.
..cl FopG[.(, tb. .t criot qD.lit'rd th.6 do.V.Dpro.!Li{
dDdc{crr!. ,hip. V.aldr woititrS npd tla CaladiasCr-t l.rt r hrn
tb.n .o!i!.r |ft .rd tbrir b.idF.idt forwd. Tb losed di.hlbF
tiotr of rrilht advardy rft(da rtrqfu& cvlo und.r foll bcadtay, ald
twin nddrn al! ittld to comFlrt for tti!"
UD&r .idry coEddrr.th *ry EUn ba8t6.(!d i! ord.. for th!
ruddd to hc cfic(tiv!, .!d cy.o rh.n .t crilg b lit ly to t !tdi.tb.
Thc tcd rt t c.n b. hoFd fo. ir . ftod itr tbc ri8ht dirccd@.
bar! | r'r(y oo.b
Vaaal! fttad with irwltd-turtrilg t*ia|.rt{t
rioyrr tsrt'r dra[, rtrd h.ooa bate. at rio! quditi.t ttlr ata
fouod {it! oltt'||dtlmhg
FoFGlkr& ThGydro b.!t . .lilhtt iopnoflld!p..d. Tiar. fta*oraat!, hmrtr, Stt tly outrliShd bt rbr
poor Drtr('wl.hditl. at alow4..dt Wc h.w drridt ttald hot tE
trrtrtvrrr thnrdr opFrr rhc ofilct cfiac1.trd lhir *ill Ftin !!dl iL
abiph.| roficint wry up@ h6 for hcr rudd6 cfraatto DrtdoDbala

TEB PRINCIPLBS OP SEIP EANDLING

(t stDE rP oR sID
Whco r vlllcl tumr uldan hd& h6 .odr rtil rbout ha( pivoti4
poirt Thc(Gir .bo r bodilyrid.lip dur to c.otrifi{el forca Wbm .
nlsralir light hcr rid6lip, rtrd !ti4 bccorlaEorr rppennt b.ciula h.t
&ducd urdl({lrtcr volulrc brs s lc$ glip o! tta watcr.At highapa.d!
th. 3tiddirg har & Dad.d cfrc.1iDrcdudrg tradwry.
(O IIIE TUTNING ClrCXT
WhGna vlsscldtcn hcr coo$autdar haln tbrough36(}dcglaa ahc
eov6 o! . roughlyciftirlar p.th c.[d r ,ranargcircrr.ltroughout tba
turd hcdbow*i[ bcrliSbuyinsidclhc circb !!d t ( .t rtr s litdc oubid.
it TLc citdc wil bc tbc Dst! t sccdoot by h.i o.nts of8r.vi9.
At lny i!d.[r dErilg tba turd & litrGdrrwtr ftom rhccantlcofcuwtturc of thc Flb, pcrp.odiclrhrto thc lhip'r forD-rrd{ft lim, eaatt thc
Ltt r rt r poiot calcd thcp''onifgponrr.Thi! ir dboutotcthird of tba
a---ti^||lllF--

f
I
I

--t

l-

I
B
Dr^r(rrr-- -- --- - -1

alCuA t.:l
5A

TI|E PT,TNCIPLESOP STIIP HANDLING


Lotth froo forv.rrd. For pt!.iic.l Porpot6.rif rlry bat t o tt hcilg
iud forrld of thc bridre. W[.o th. vcl Eovct u!d!r tElwry tb.
-oiwtior
poinr nos rfL rlttv clo.Elo tl'G ttsn. Fi8. 3.4 rhost tha
ir"ttooiu- n ttog "ircf for r rirglcrcrcr thip. Tb dott d tr.ct .up.F
inDoacdotr thc ftlt circlc i, $c turnilg dtElc of i rinil|t vratcl' btrt
heiiq twir.ssrq or going tllcm |nd oo. goin! .Dad' .t .qud
rsvolutioor.
TbccircL doc' not litt up idth thoorigiirl cour$' dur to .o@. .ido'
diD wh.d thc hclo it fnt u!.4 Eludlf tb. tur! thc rtcl,ufra(t ao@a
daiabr ion; aftar turnins ttough q, dcgtL. ata btr lod rbout onr
rpccdtld eltrr i futth.r 90drgt.a tlc blt loat
curtur ofhct oriSiDNl
about onc-third of bcr oriSiltl a..d' Tb.ftafhr thr tp..d rEmritr!
roulbly cootraot.
Wit[ . risht h!!&d proDc[.t thccircL to port wil bcdishdy 3Ddlc.
in ridiu! tbln thc citdc to llarbosn4 duc to rhc aficct of tr|nn|r
ttrurt.
Saamduruallyrdcr to t[c turdog circlcel bciagttc Pothtri4cd out
by tlc pivotinsFhg thc dldlition 8iv!o Prwiou.ly bcingthlt of !.vd
ri.:litcirr. fnc two circtcssill bc wry cloactoSatbar'ald colocntric.
fhc d'@r.. i! ttr dirtracc trrElhd hy tla 6rtl of lFrity dotr8
tbaoririlal coura
Ttc-t @t/.r i! tbc dittucc tlrtdLd by tbc cctrtE of gtrvily' q'
aur.d ftoe thc orisitrt tr&t to lh. Poilt wh.rc tbc tc.t.l baadtatd
Lct coutc ty 90 dcttt ..
Tfu l,f,tlc'll diarQtcrb lb trallfcr for lto dclts
ftu W qh h tb .& b.ts!.o thc .hip't fotF.nd{ft lilo |!d
thc taDlrot to thc tul!i!8 citda
Thc ivcrrrp edvaaccir rbout tbtla io fout ahiPLrgltq hot o{f ba
colsidcnbty morEat higl rpccdr.Thoavcragcte.licd dirEct.f, fd atr
crtity aumcd|hip i! tbout fout rhiFLo8$!.
Tie tinc tak-n to complclc e tumint circle cln rangpfrom 6 ro
ncady 30 minut6 in mcrchaotshiF.
O) ETDCIS OT I,oII'ING
wlco dacplyhdcd r w!$l wil catty h.r vJaylodsat' c.u!c ltltlca
if thc st'! Iight,bc dw lo |!.ftr barbd!,
&D||alDd.riDFctth
w.y,
bc rfrcccd by rhd to a nini|nuD, hrr!
in
ba alu83ilh 8!tki!8
r tumllg cirUcgcocreltyu!.fi.ctad by b !pGG4atrdwil brE r Lrlrd
trminr cirlGfor a giEtr tpcadthln if tbc *ar! lifht
WLo [!!t !!c vtil b. livcly ro cngila norlocab, tadaitiva!o h.t
tda, cedy turncdon hcr alchor, bc .frrcld by wind to i oaxiDut!'
coily rtomc4 bc nol! carry bbught up by atrchottor nooriot li!..'
bc nibid aobrrFr uounrt of tH r|rd lilc.lip, brtc r rodlt tuni4

TEE PRINCIPLES OF SEIP EANDLING


circlcfor r girto 3pcodtlln ifab! rdr dlaply Ldctr,c.u!c Laadrrlaga
l|d.r ibFct ttrtr if rh. rlr. d.Aly Ldrq and wil hrrE r turnitg
cirdc, l}a '|diu! of whkh i!.ral.3 rr tha apaadiG!.!ar.
Horcv.t, if tbc vraaclir ro liflt t' lo only Frtidly ieearac h.t prc.
pdk, h.r &c.Lr io! tnd d.odcBtioo wil t rildl rati!! ha( dov
fo atoprDd .t rt rhowb lot aoalow.r ifrh. wcrEdocplylrd.o.
A ecirLlt rbip hadL. bc.t whcnrhci! r h.lfto two-thLdrlo&dc4
rDd t iEmcd . littlo by lba atrm.
Crcncrr.[yrD.ali!& thc ooat awlsard gF ofscl to hrtrdlci! oDc
*hioh i. lov lnrNrlr4 daalrlyhdc4 of targc!i.8, bsvitg r singb,crcw,
!!d toor rt criry quditica.
G) EFTDCTOT TnIM
A Kd frinead by ttc rt m hrr hct pivotitrgpoitrt frnhca afr tbao
if rhc wc(l otr .vcn laal, ha! a Lrgai tumhg circ-lc,wil dcvrlopnariEsE Irowr, will.L.r wdl ald vill tur! Dorr tridily downwitrd.
A rllrcl triEncd by rhataad br! har pivotingpoitrt f&rthcrforwerd
thrn if lhc wl(l otr cl&n taal hrr a tDallar tuming cirdc, do6 lot
dcvrlophcr ful powar,f,,ill bc dificult to turD,lDd onc. rwitrgilt rhc
wil bc dificuL to chcct, eill turD morEr.adily iDto thc wi!4 wil bc
tlov to ct lhc flitrd eilh blr atr(! u!d!f rtmway, strd with lhc
wild on th! quutcr mry 6"-66 '"-.."gcrbb.

(9)ETEDCT
Or r.Fr
A E .l lirtod rin tlttr Dor! rc.dily for.td! hlr high tidc, riu hrvc
o ahalhr nrmiDgcirclcotrtill aid!,rid i! thccar ofr twitr{crrs rhip
thalow.ddaadfiE wil bc Dor. cficctir,!tb.lr iha ottcr, Irr-ridc hclrtr
eil bc lroaaaaryto co('laf ttir.
GO CAXTY|NG WAY
A r!|sl wil c.Iry hcr w.y f.tttat wL.o .h. i! largc,dply lord!4
.noott-hullcd ltrd !@.fouL4 .!d of i!. forD. Whco dccplyladco
ahcDay c3rryhct waylrp to th&a tiDaaa! far ar if shci&rE lighl
A rhip ulrdly rr{tE h!( hc.drry quitc quicuy doitr to . rDG.d
whaaaLr *rrc-Drti!! ir 3t . DilinuD, ,ay 7 ldota, Tbrafta( tbc
ld of?ay oc(tr$ at I rrducld r a
A trtrtcr,2 tn lon& tl.vdling st 16ttrot!, vr! stoDpcdwith firl
7mft
l.?5 Dib. rtarn pow.r itr 2 ttE (10 dinutc!). Witb tbr rud&r hard ovar, thc
ftutt bo[!
l.6tD (9 Eitrut .), Thi| t !l.. b.d . d..drcilbt of
| 6l!.
56m totrn r.
Thafollowitr! f8urcarrls& to r twiD-3crcerhip of23 5q) todft! drs|r0R plrc.orot, 260m kw' kogh 2m r& strd spccd23.5krots:
@

TIIB PRINCTPLBSOF SITIP IIANDLING


Uodcr tdi& firl !p.od sr' tt .hd {!.r 17, eirut.. codD.dd!!
tt rolLr
fron rcrt, duri[g which tidc thc v6rcl covttld 9'3tD.
Uponrwt'dl! hcr cn!hc., rhc laEGto ft.t itr a Dilut.. d!a( cattyirg hcr ery for 6l ihip lcngths.
whcn hedliag r rhip ia uaaow t|t.t! rha dould lsvar hr}t too
mlFh wry upod hrl. Thi! docslot EG{tr ttrl lttl lpccd tcconct .
ddSprour odrr; on tbc codtary, it i,t tha nolt cdci.nt whaoinltalt
!!!poa!c from hdm fu d.si&d, or for corEcting ot conaaoolt .
$in& It ody bccomc.dadSuou!rYhaotoo Duchvay ia dlowrd to bc
Fthcrld.

or) IIIE BTDCTOl $|lrroqis


Ar tbc hul Dorl throughrhdlo{ srt r, 6rl thft:[ it diapLacab
aot !o c..ily npbccd by otlr.i sri.r, tnd tbc propdbr atd alddaa|ta
vorting i! wbatnight agsi! bc loolcly tlfmd r F rid vr.|nn. thr
rcalal L'kc! lotrgcrto rrrrsct hcr trlD, tnd t6pottc to cogiDcmorc
mc ! bccoE r duggiih.
Itr th..c cirEumrtoc.i vibration pil bG ,at up, |nd it wil ba
Grftmcly dificult to corrrc-tr Fv or ah riti ary dcsrrcof qidity.
At rcrDd rpccdit i! fould tbat a!.ari4 b.coD.. crl.tb *had tia
d@t! of vrtar ir Gqudto, or l4t lh|tr, @ .Dd . htr lidaa tLadcFt
ddght, i.c. e v6scl drrwitrg t E Drximud dnught will dcwlop Aft
un3t.dy stccdrSin wrtrr of daptt 12 m or uadcr. wtaa r rhiP i. 36ft
nadlg a[ arttldly lbsllow d.pth of r$ar, r!.t ar a aboal,ahaia
litdy ro r*c r tudd.tr !hc.l, frrt toerld! it .!d tb.o viohl$ rtry,
Tbir ir c.[.d.t' rrht rLaroor4 ud 6c notttorot of. dnfi.h |f,b
nry rdd.oly tccoDc .rtoDirhilgly livdy.
DrE to ttc frca th.t tt s.E di.pl&.d bt . hul Dortug thtouS
ibdlore arir lot cuily ndrco4 ih. bos wrr!.od at..! tavo of lb
vBrcl itrcrralc i! baifhr Furtbar, th! tr@th wiii rorD.[y .8irta
uodar rha quart r bccm.3 d..F |!d ttc db Frr of rba 6ip n
dnwtr dowtrwrd! towrrd! tbc botto6. By rcdoai!3 apc4 tb tr!
bcightr rld toufh de"tt wi[ b. dinini.bo4 |od tb v*l ril Dor
thcrtfoll clcc thc bottoE, d q'r&r.
Thc {,G.d of r vc*l bovirg i! rh.Ior xLr dorld .lx.tt b.
Eodrr.tc; if tb. .Fd i! ircrrrtcd rf. t d ril dc x b rh. goJ.d
.trd th..hip eil.h..i.bout lngldi't.tfy. lf 6. bor rd! |nd rEn
f,|l! .tr ot|.Ilrd to bc hifh.fr tt ! i. Fo.t.dt aFad abaruld
batldoaad
--.but not luddcoly.If thc AGd ir t t a otr'rp tly tt .Etr erlt rill
ollrt|lG thc v!..d .Dd c.o!c t ( io t.l. r rtaEa,tttid in a nattd
clrlrcl couldbc digrtout
Ftrr!.r cftctt of .hnon eil h. rliF!|!d hE

TIIE ?RINCIPLES OP SHTP IIANDLING

02) TI|E ImXCT Or STEINWAY


ahip wil.Dgw( h6 hcls lmd.t ttcla coDditiotr! pio.
A dulo-lctlt
vid.d rhc ta! gpod !t m*ry, tha oolditioot rlr calh, tod hcr proF[Gr
i! lot lwolvirf. It ! wind sLaring uldcl atallery it PGtittL oDty'
rad rhco ratbcr crntically, shctr rtc ttc(n it !u! rilbt itrto tba *itrd'!
Daapitcthc rbovg tt'pdtc to ttc r!d&r Didat $arnery i! Scocttly
poor u!}.s it ir dcaitd to r*ilg thc vt .cl to atrrbo.rr4 whcn thc rudilcr arrite thc trtrwr'lc throlt. If thc v!$Gl ir to ba $ung to pon |Ddct
rtrmeay *ry Durt bc galhcrld ald thc Gtr8itrctltopp.d bcfoF twiDgitrr- i! ord6 to rvoil thc sdYltta ttrlfvcf,rc tblual
inc win-scrw Oip wlt tbat quitc wcll uldcr dcrnwry by verylaS
tha rlvolutidr oo cr.h .oginc r! epproFiat . Sbc will not, hosEvct'
at .t .r vcll a! ai. would uldcr bcadwry, rnd io a lvild rhc will lot
dacr oodar dcmvry.

oo cENErr, DElcr or rwr.IscnDws


Arn ftoo whst ha! dtt dy baaodi*u!.ad ibout thlra r'!aack'it
d ald ! awingaa.bitEd
ahoild bc rot d thst hcrdery c.! bo c.hcc.k
t!. Drdnum ratr
To
rdiwc
otrc
atgitc'
hy
Evliritg
rinulrucoojy
of dinr h I ts,iGclw Oip, lbc lhouK b. kcpl uldar h..dwry. If
ir-rratict 4 howcvar,th! o! $dr cogilr lhould bc worLadful
aDaca
rireC rtc ruaarr t put brd ort( to D*a tbr turo' thc inalb .ngirc
i! tq.crtadftlt art.tn, ald th.o tla orrta cdgilc ir dowctl By gthc.ing
tbc ouLt otrc'
afaalsry,!!d tb.o rlo*hS thcinnlr aogitrc|!d apaaditrg
aloth.r'run ahcadca! b. Drd! ald thc rwing ooltilu.d- Th! ahiP,in
in thc ,atr wry !! a cat t[m! in a lrarow rcad; tbc
otharsorda,awioSp
but rrc..lcrsbd or dlodcrrtadaarlquitl.d.
trcvrr
atopp.4
codncr|rc
io to- . .c*ttot Oin haviDstrin'|ctlra in h.t owtr Lafth by
nr'ri4 tha a.rl'| rt .qul bot oDpotitatwohtriort i! a rtf,y dos
DnooatG
'
At hrr ba.o aaadalt ady,tho twi!-c!w ahiPcaaD*a r vrry a@dl
tunisg cilEf. b rgvlrling ltc inlar .ogitG.
ofcr th! frlr|hrf,rdv|lt|gc of bcitr8Eot! al,loto cotLct
TiiF6ttr
r .uddaolhccr tba! ltc !in8L $tcw.
GO THE DFrlCT OT WIND
wtrd a ltaral i! lifbt, r taoth btEza c.n hrva rhc ..nc cfralt ltloo
hcr ar r $b wouH bavr o! r d.cply lsdcnthip.
Wt d i v!.rcl i! rtopDadrh! edoptaa Doaitio!.u.n that tha witrdi!
roud ', o! tbc b..D.

A
V
A

l. a4atlY 3raErtD atD ttotato.


l^tt ofa !anl!v. olaalcullto
io cto3t
lFr'|e !Act. liEl

t. ^! aoi ! arrl oltllou|.l lo


atot ou! lo lrtt v olilclloL.

tI

I . taEtDacdaatalfl ll llllt L|.r,


rcauln|qi a o Aoot lo lltt Y.
ruLL ataao NaEDIDlo arrxll
utt||ac. ltla no ctolL ll|o.

l ' l

0
A
V

21.ratttuL
lfatct

Y. |.ltlll
lltr
ot ataattto.

Dollnlao.
l!ol!
t.cu^atri
aot |.ulta ut allD vaalt|.
licl to cioL tltao. laa
Ita|.r taqorcc.

::luil|'!
63

THB PN.INCIPLBSOF SIIIP BANDLING


Wt d lhc i! rmd!' rt mw.y t.t pivotilS poilt aov.. rilht r& .ll
hai widagc irla i. fom|rd of thir pd4 .nd lhc rqidly ru!! hrt at6n
up into lDc vitrd'r c',c. Thi! i! r 8.o.trl rulc, Etrdprovidings rt'acl
t'r .pprccilblc rtcrlrry, rhc wiu do rhir cltd urdcr firll of,po.itrg
h.IE.
Utrdarhaadray,r vc*rcl'r lrorroadtt i! r wiod ltt vlry oua! rlF
paodlot ulroDthc adouDt of whdagc forrrd or sball hcr pivotilg
poiat, |ad rh. rchriv! dirErion of thc wind. Providitrg! rt|rct i!
triDDcd by ttc rtcm, hcr gatcst wir&gp wil bc fotwrr]4 rnd tlldrr
h..dfty r,ith o vind oD thc bo% lhc vi[ lr6d to pdy ofi to L.wlr4
ir, tun actodttha wird. Tha axccptior!lo thi! rl! rcrrclr trionod by
lhr haa4 a &cpv Ldao talt.r *ho!a fqlrd andauF !'ucturc rft ecr
a! a Dizran,aX,ad llrlab bavinf lon& highpooF
A dccplyhdai! frrtar, dthough havirg rtr cficctiv! Diz.o '!ril' rft,
will rtill fltr hcr .rtr up into thc wird urd.c .tcmery. A te[tcr i!
bsllrlt, havbg thc urusl largctriD by thc d.rn, plyr ofr thc wild ad
nmr r4idly acio.sit uodcf,hcrdeay,vigprourly&ckirA thc vild rrith
hcr ttcro uodcrrtcm\vay.
Fifi 3.5shov! r v6scl uDdcrhc.dwry with ttc aind in dl it! rchtilr
ditE{ior6. It rhouldborturlid crrdutly andthc r.ddctrcyto run rcroa!
thr eild !ot.d.
Itr gca.t&llr tird i! of gEat allin!trcc plovi&d it ir Dottoo at ong
fol lhc cotrditiotrof lordin& ard judgtDcot doaatrot lccd to bc ao
cxrct .| wh.tr Ean(lwritrg io a calm.
To rmrccht tha lrtd *ork oa Faatical rhip h|!dli!& l! nult
tt&c caFful lotc of thc rvaarlp vt.!d'r thrEct [dldcict in r vind:
(f) To lic r.no.r it wb.a.to9pcd.
(2) To m! !.(c it u[dcr hcadvay.
(3) To rt rrror. itrto it udda atarai,ry.
Wc cr! roe anthipdtor tEaacl'anorqnaota i! a t[i!d. T.lc, for
asiDplc, s rt3$l utrdrf h..dwry who6ccogia .rc .loptEd, rtrd lf o
t!\,rtrd tYblo lhc hrt lost wry. In Fig, 3.6rhc it rhor! ruoDiaBrith
tto wild on tha port quartar,A! rhc loacahaadvry ,hc n|lr acno6thc
trild to (2). Ar rhc lrthcE hcr atrEwsy, h.f, bow dcvcloF r Gllitc
rwilg to rtutdrd and ahcbo(rs h.t dlrtr irto thc wiDd'.cF !! itr (3).
Slc doa!lot ofcoutE, rlaah h.r o.iSinrtpGitioD0) dur to ttc lccvry
wbkd.h. ir clntinutlt .aparircin8;
A twitr-icrcwrhip wbic.hi! rtt oprirg to !ei!g into th. eind rnut do
.o u!d6 hc.dxtsya[d not Ely mcrdyoDthc ofirct rld purh-lrtl c0cc't
of h6 !q!sr. If ahcrttaop! to lic atitiolrq, and turn uprird udlg
hcr G Shla atrad and astat! bli borrt ilil Ddyofi tha ri!d. ShcEurt
thc..fo6ctur! into tha wind urda hradvot full hdn, and a llaEf.ad
ilaido aosi!..
64

TIIE PRINCI?LES OF SIII? I|ANDLINO


A iriosw
rhip &rirour ofturdq doslrhd tdl .. i! tl! o... of
rbip, rriDS DuchEotr npidly if d.tlnry i. FrL.0.4 .o
..ilfbsr
thrt rh6't.c!...L! ttc wild'r *.

vt33tt xaa

\-,----.-+

/\

r^p,o,.v

/ \ l \ . r . r i . o F r x c

" l
-/ . t \l ,/ l l\_i'
!r99!!-!!

G' THE ETIECT OF A CT'IXENT


Currrots wbich rrc ktrortr, .nd lot loo sttotr8;diy ba ulcd ro
advaatag.,Th.y do Dot!ficc't . rbip'3htadlhg qualiti.. .d rfrcct dl
shipa.qur[y, rqrtdl6t oft i6 or lordi4;
Whcohrndlingo vBacli! t currclt dur allos$c. mult baEad! fot
thc dcartcrn drift of ric $ip; tDcrdourt of wbid d.Pd. opo!
thc rtrflgth of tbr ltr*tr !!d ibc Fiod of tiDGdttrilg *hic! tbc rhip
i .ubjcc{cdto itl iniudca.
Wt o rDcioEd or barthcdin a cl|flttt tbc ruddli i! cfi.c{ivcducto
thc cotrtinurllos of wacr !q!t it
SLal wd.r mry ba foutrdclolc i!!hot!, whi& r.vl'E q|tttdlt rt!
oft.a aFdctrc.d ofrpic.t .d! andiirdh pmirtio!! into rh. .tr..D.
A rrard ataooinS lbc rtriaa.n rlov rpccdDry ooDplctothc frn
Fn of ha( turni4 drdc rlDoct witti! har ot! Lodt' l! tir ltrcarB
rtn! alrild thc tlad broa&idc"
A lt d nrDil! domfi!.n
Dry vctl dcrdop doltrlc th. rpc.il
ortr tba lroutrd DorDdly!dai!.d ia tLck tvricr by tb etidlg adfho

TEE PT,INCIPLBSOF SI|IP SANDLING


t!|vobionr, dd if tbc h tlrnd tlr !.din of,lb. fta $ dcgt6 oftut!
ia frr i! a6 of ha(rlra&d|taa arilfi, Thaaadinlr .l! rholm i! Fi&
3.7.Grat c.t! it !.c....ry i! L.ldlirt. .hip tlnilt rior!,tt r.D.
Wn d b.ttli!! thr E .d |houH .t 6 th! rtr!.n lnd eill b. u!d.r
G.rycontrol du. to thc t .ti!t.frGc1 of th. curr.ot wb.o L.ving ltc
b.dh rt upti&.od b.| io rooriltr rlackcod rd tbo wrt r, ruDdrg
barrt.o $. q!!t, aDdthc tbip".idc, forc.. thc otDcrcod of tbGYt||.l
dc.r of ttr qusy,h tlc c... of oD.*piL w[.!rtl+ thb .ftct ir lo.t,
ald if tL r,laadia Doo@db.rdiry upatc.D thc .ngiDrrwil ba}l lo bc

YI

lfto. ro3r. I
ra r.&x t lt l

l--\

,,

a{D. x}t'l{

,,

\,i1-.''

\.._rf

i ( ' )
t \ I

^v
ltcSl

llrxc

l|D! nt(t

ttcutl l.t

rlitad aiaad |r aootrat rb bd it oan ofa.ao rt tbd!, i! otdafr


!o p(.'Eot ih. d.(tr fdlitg tb piL& H..diog dotn|e..d, thL dtu.tio[ iLaa lot |ri&

(ro Et

ETECT Or NATTOWClN rg IrVEg AND


nEsrnlc.Ig, (gAMEa

h lL.. loc.litic. .ll tt rft.l| of .h.lhr rlL( .r! F.Ei, to!.ih.r


ritt o(!G Tbc *|16 d4[.!.d by . v..d Dovbg r]..d i. r..ti.Ld
itr E4tdcdt ty thr p.odnity of b.rfr. fh. flor.d .fc.t ir r Duiltlup
in tlc r|t.f, Lf,d.hd of th..hb .Dd r |drtiilg h rb. L\d d.t! of
E Thb lrodw r .ursiot .fr.d rhi6 qn F.t I Doo(d .hipl
6

THB PRINCIPLBS OF SIIIP HANDLTNO


h.wr| up to 3 km .t d of thc Dovi!8 yEEl, prodd th ..m 2 DiL.
rt.rid.d cotrditiou ptlv.il r[ th. *ry.
In rtdirion, thc novinf v!rrcl'! bos rnvc, {.m ervc' rld lrough
incdlc in aaplitrrd!, ard foa thi! rralon a vt!|Gl lhould poc..d ar
rlov lDaadin 'rrch |t!aa.
A! rhc Bal Dov6 throughthc E$riclrd chaficl it i! p6ribh tbat
Oc mry olo6coac b.!k, Io this cwDt r .ttaslitring or vctrturicfr.C't
.rbs duc to thc r!5ttictd lov of wrta. or onc Bi& of tha shiD.This

9ATER LVE

rHr99rDE

cu3|{toN

l {

F^Sl

rT
ll
Ir

/l

g.EioN
eFtccj
FTGURE3. I.

cao!.3r.oiDcr!.ta in ttc vclocityof thcrrtac o! thst !i&, togcthcrwitb


a lo.! of prl.surEbaad.Tbc hsac tD|'iflat! itlclf r' r drop itr wrtcr
Icvclrt tta trralrr barl, and r thrutl ir *t rp tovrdr it Tbc 8r!43.r
fuln6a orti th. dLr bodyof rhcrhip r@t|Itca tlc tbtuat,aid it lhta
rrta.rr morc ltroDdy rt tba lLrn tban $ tha bor. Tbc 6Lrtr Doycr
tonrda tha b.!t .nd thc bo? aray fro6 it Affii(u t (Et for ttc!
6a.ta at! d* nctid ard ,o* .arfro4 Erpccdvaly;thc t.(d! arr
r|..ftI in dsibing tbc .fc.tr, tboushth.r,. i. no qdioring unh. th!
e..d of th. Er.Gl ir ,o hif! .r to o.u* r buil&up ir vrtct lcwl .t th!
ilabor! bor. Atl tharaGtrcctrc.tr hc &nodtrdrd caailyin a aiop&

TSE PT,INCIPLBSOF SHIP EANDLING


ghtr r|!&, rrd r F.od holdingthc .hipEodcl c.r f6l ibc ru.tioD .t
tbc .tcrr. lt .houldbc not d thrt .hiF F!.irg olo.. to orc .!oth.. eill
aLo acp..ilooc rh6a Eoturi afaalr.
Fi!i, 3.t iloltart.. c.trd cftd, rDd it wil bGrc.o tbrt thaEel hc.lr
toJrrdt tlo trcrrr blDt !o a! to dilpLoc coDrtr voluEc.
Th. drop iDeltar lcrtl rnd tlor ttc caaalafrrat,viricr r! tlc r$ralc
ot thc aFod, Soa roa|l cbaltp i! aFd eill produca! hrSr chog. itr
t ltE @netb8 h.bnwlst.AqLn hrgc6al
fhc cD.orlGft.r. Jvarrsurorr
tttrd
b
.rtE
n
tf
ah
to ,cdt . thit luhn whotslowine,b W.
6.ct
A rhip wishiof to dstc r dght-b.nd turtr itr a rivcr bcnd, i... to

V=

-- -t

fi
ll-t
9+

V ,-/

_t 0
$ ,--ttcutt !.,
rtrrbolr4 c.tr, by t cpiDgwcl irto thc port baDk,us. thc cfrcc1ofbok
Crla[iotrforr"ard to araisth.r turtr. Thir ir frcqucndyrlcorbd to in
n'tro,v cfi.nncl!, suchar oll prErcdtid thcFanrda C!ml. Thcc, ! lhip
tlnring to darboardr.ouDd. bcddwil bc tc?t i,rll iDtottc port b6nt.
Sh. *ill turn quit .rlily with tbc rudd6 tc?t adidlhiF. tfthc cuhionport hclo ory brtc to baulad i! spitaof
i!3 afraatbacooaaadcalaivc
tb frd 6rt tbc tura ir dir!.id to .trbord.
Iffhc ahipb tcpt i! itc tloc c.attr ofthc cbaoDcldl th6a forc.r a&
aqndirA h.qudid.a oflhc botlon ca! 6!ra thclaforE6 ro corrcilto
plry d..pilr tbc f.ct thrt th. rhip ir .quidi.t rt ftoo both bsrb, If thc
dr6d ir dcapcrotroE rid! lhano! thoothar,ifttr balt ir ltcapa on
or aidA oi if rha raaadFas oirr a lhql rua*ior and clnbiontrill
aDDCat
tuddloly dnoto lta liv!( bcdtt trictitrgthc for of*itcl. Thir
6E

TIIE PRINCIPLBS OP SEII ITANDLINO


ir .ioih to !@clitrgth. trou!4 rld d.!t6ou. .hsr n y.uddrdly bo
l|l!o.
Fo(thi!rcltoo,thcrbipthould .lltiGbckptitrth.lrucaaottio
ofthc ctr !r.1, rihich, .r .hovD iD Fig; 3.9,b lot r.od.nly t[. vi.ud
@trc, h 0) thc i! tltirg r th.6 to port bcc.ulc th! rt rbo.rd b.!t h
Lla ataapth|! tbcport b.nk |od hcl rt rtr i! ruotadto*trd! tbr fornci,
Sh. .hould thcrdott tlrt bct! Lpt cro.crto tbc port b.r!. h (2) abc
ir trtilt o aidilil lhcar bccrulc thc atdboard ri& of thc c,hrEl ir
lhdlovtr th'' tb. port ridc, A8.i4 hcr politiotrin8rhorld brv. b..o
f.n!.f to port In (3) thc chr'lcl ir ofoo8t ut dlptb, th. b.trb lt! of
cqud gadictrt, rtrd fbc yi|Ud ccottl !trd tn& @trc !r! tha raD.. I!
.ll th. drrvhtr thc E .l i! .howtrb..di!t wry ftod thc ob!.trri
.!d politioncdh th. vilorl c.ltl!.
If thavaaadir tapl to thc tluc ccrtF thc diniDuttr amoudt!ofhclm
er. u!ad.Thir i! rdvsrregru!, b.c.o!a ifthc ahiprtould auddcDly
tal.
I rhc.r thc ErxiDud.mount of codEring rudd.r ir rvdLbL" If tbt
bcro Dcc*rsry to naviptc thc chmcl i! co8iltlotly of brlf or fu[
tDoutrt th6c rhccringforc6 shouldbc rulFctld ard thc ahip'rtrtcl
craDiold oo thc chart
Blnl cushiooard ,uctio! Day bGlid to idnntrgr un&i cotrditi@t
whro r caoaarind ir FriltaDdy cau.i!8 t lr*Fl to tritrS har bot
down*ild, By L..pin8 frtth.f, tofir& thc hc bcn&,thr cuhiooi!8
cficotwilt cor.cl thi! tcdlocy, SiDihrly, if $r n cortinu.ly rritrtirt
upwhd, .u.h r! ntht bc ttc calcidth r do.plyldro tinfcr, by fccDint
cloac!to tb. eleth.t bart thc rhading forrc. wil ttaadyb.r.
Du! to 0!a naaaslrryalov rp.ad of a ylrlcl n|viFtilg b thdlor,
raatictadrrtct!, rnd ftc cofirapotrdiq rlufgilblaa ofbdD trAolrq
thoroddtr, whla u!.4 si[ hlvc to bcDoEd boldly.Fudn r, fo.. dvto
lulbca oftwolutioa!, ha(rD.cdwill bc tlo{lr tbrtr tD|t i! daaPf,atc,
doc to lhc iEra..d |mpftudc of tcr ttav!-m*iry:
fhc lhip rtould bc trNig1rd aotb|t tb! baridor! aeoodt of coF
llcting ruddcri! rla,ay! orEilabL,l,otatbcrpith ar DuahDaa..uvrilf
rcon .r pctiblc. A rb..r.hould b. ilrt ltly oottlc{.d by oldldq tun
nvolutio .at ful codlc{itrg hclD, tldodtg both inn di.t ly thc
rwi!! b cM.
In rD Go.rt ac, tba archor d tb! ailc towardr
rti:h lbc wl tu rhc.rilg rholld bGkt !o .!d b.ld .t .hort rt y.

oD n|E lrrECT Or Dmrtxt


Ti. u& oft rt clrbion |!d nrctiotrin !|vit ilt b.!& t ..ltr.dy
bccnoanli@.d. F@ lt.ront wtkD fr rr! $o{tr to diErraa,it ir be,
wh.G D6itL, to arcid Faritg ott6 vEdr rittia I rrrt lartlt baad.
Bothlrc rubirrcd fo dctriry.
I! ntrot irt (9.ttc |ttlogth of .trtao varia.gr.tt ud 6a r.el
69

TIIB PRINCTPLBSOF SIIIP HANDLING


mrv grll bccom ost of coDtol it brf .od! rr. tuqi6{ad lo oFporilt or
didcfinr curFnt!. Thc wstcr utudly rult f.|g itr tha EiddL of r
rmigbirstr ald in ttc coEw balk of r badd.Ofi tb! coors bett,
lrcwn rr tbe point, rlar&wrtrr ot eEtr nllttta cuftoL Dry bc fouDd.
I! Fi. 3.10r waaclit ahow! touDdi!8 r b.od to Port |8riltt t}!
itrc.E.-fu |h! L.v.3 tlc tE|r8bt rct4[ ald cabr! thab.od tha aotFt
ir fowitrg sto!8 bcr !i& s& but on to b.t Port bor' forward-Tbh,
urt .. bolCcorrcctbg hdE i! uto4 wil cau$ htr to trk . thaar to
3trbo6rd. wtad bc.diry rgEiltt thc atrcln it i! advit.bL lo tcp
wit[in thc baod ard ar irr evay from thc Poht rt Polriblc. BraL
culhiotrwil thco|rriat itr corrrcti!8 rhc tharr, if rtry.

NOTE COiiaCtNG
iELtl. liHlP I laP3
TO !END, SfllPalo
?o {T.

IY
rl
',

F t 6 U r E! . l o

A va.scli! a&orhownroulditrS! bcodto port with lba 'traaD sram


of h6. A! lhc c.h.tr8ra[ar coutta, thc atrrab ai cltdaa h.r Dott
qudcr, caulilg hcr to .h.cr to Po!t. Whrtr haadingdorldrc.E it.ir
iavuuic to tccp clorco thc poitt, to ttra b.trL thaaringforcaarritl
h prcrltrtbg r lhcrr,
itc nort-drnrprour dtuatiol tiact rtao a vtrsd ia ha.di!8 dot!'
rtllan rad .'.qltil8 r h.od to darbo.rd. Th. corrcotcddaa b.t atlF
boordq|rltt r aalbc turnt, rhccri!8 hr( ro d|rboatd. IfDot tba.ogis
rrr rricf! d (bcctulc thc ship is FrhaF out of codrol) thc ,titrg to
ctatbosrdir rggrvrtcd atrdthc tbiP wi[ com tth?rn tbc ltr..n.

TIIB PIINCIPLBS

OF 3I|IP HANDLINO

oo Ft!(x or N xx)w E{Tr N(E


A 1l&l .atldnt r doc&,bclq or pi.rt-& ofi b tivca*fl|, if thaaa
ir r rfiorg c{nao! tra.d tlga to oontrolhar aotry.A aodl ahip,howortt, cu urudly nrto tb cotnre uordno4 uadtr bold hc.d'ry.
A Lr!6 E !d !.orr.ly b.r not .ufi.ildt !oo!Ni! whb[ to 8rlh6 tlit
bd?.y.
Ar tta bogt ooer uldaa tba La of fta uFrr..m pi.d..d b.r forc
bodyi. i! rl&& ?.i.i, whib th! d.r! it rtil u!d!r thc id|&Dcc of thc
atrrao, Sh! wil ttccforr tand to aba6 tovatd! thia pi.rta.d, !trd a

t........!

>_
D----->

cqiEcttlc

Y--+

at&t

HlLl.

l^lEi

Frcrnal.tl
..rtfirl *.rc[ Dult bG&.t' f6 ih. ird .t! of . c. Eoll oor!!ct4
h
ud . .uo!.hd
o! lh. .oti!.. r|T bc E'y
to oouir.&t
thir. Si@ tb .pcio.d D.y t D.&.t riaht.ltL. to tb ra.!.D, dE
.llon& Dtd b. o.&f6 rlor!.tt!.e &itL fd....tor|E
t ritSld
rr rb. up.rE D toi ud tt dowr|lED qErE (Fi& 3.1lI

(rt llrl lFtlct

oF Tt Gg

h @ lo..&i. tt ..d.t e of . |!g i. rr.d.l, FribLdy i!


cddiliirn! of attloS omtot oa rid. E afina.., tb !- of r tlt c
fulr l
f]l ily dd to tha Aaad aod rfcty of a oaerr!!. I! vary
icfd*d ?|!|t lt fr? L.vo.hd
cood.t cotlol ortr ft s',
7l

THE PRINCTPLESOF SHIP HANDLING


thc main ctrgin6 bcitrg uscd to a$ist thc vcssclin gathcdng *ay or to
compLtc a swing. whcrc thcrl is pl.nty of maaauvridg room, thc thip
is hadllcd in thc usual way, using thc tuSr to push or tow 3! rcquirrd.
Whcn osiog a tug to push, thc forcc ahould bc applicd st rhc Positioo
ofthc ccntrcofgraviiy,Ifthi kdoDcllc v.ssclwil movc bodily,but
ifthc tug's stcmis a fcw nretrcsout of positiononccnd ofthc ship will
swing rapidly whilc lhc olhcr ctrd rcmains practically siAtiooary, Whcn
a $rong nind fu blowitrg on lo l[c othcr,idc of lhc ship thc tug's 6Lln
should bc r little forward of thc c.Dt r of Snvity to corrcct for thc
swing of thc ship's bow dowtrwiod.
whrn a tug is bcing ulrd to s*ing r ship a puhing forcc is uually
morc cfrcctivc than a towiog forcc. Thc tug should position hcrs.lfjust
abrft thc ship's stcm atrd rt dght angLs to thc hul plating. Thc tug'a
forc-and-aft lir|e will thctr makc aa aoglc of roughly 70 dcgtt s *ilh thc
shits fore-and-aft line. Thc cfrct of thc tug's hcadway wiI thcn bc
pardy !o turn the ship and pardy to push it astrm. This lettcr movc_
mcot is counleractcd by worbng lhc cd8rncsat slow ahad; with th.
hclm ovc. torvsrds thc lum, tbc ship i! thco assistidgthc tum atrd it i3
often achi.v.d in thc vcsscl'sowD lcdSth.
If instcad tha tug is 3imilarly positionad .ft it ca[trot gct tuficicndy
closcto thc atcm; thb, combincd with thr fact that thc ceotlr ofgravity
of rhc ship is lpDcraly rbaft thc midlcngth, plac6lhc tug too clos. to
thfu point to givc any cflct othd thtn a vcry sluSSishswing rnd consid.nblc sidc drift. Thc haio cagiocashould trot bc uscdwith thc tug 30
closc to thc propcll.rs. Evcn if it is clcar to usa thcm, lhc tug will bc
unrblc to maintaio its posilion in thc slipstrcam.
whcn s tug is uscd aft to hcavca ship clcar ofa bcrth it will f$t loe
at riSht atrglesto the ship's forc-aod-aft linc so 3s to gpt thc stcm w.ll
clcar of thc bcrlh. During this limc thc headlincsand forward spriogs
must bc kcpt laut. Thb will tbco ensurcth3t thc stcm r.mains stcady
without lating lhc quay. As sood s! thc stem is clcar, thc ahip wottg
hcr cnginesastlm for s momcnt, thc tu8 s*ings round so that i! lcsd!
out on thc quartcr, 8nd thc forward liocs ar lct gp.
Whcn cmploying tugs, it should bc boma in niDd that r tug will havc
co$idcr.blc difrculty in conE-titrg r vioLdt lhccr. For thit Ealon, thc
smouat ofway gatharcdshould ocrcr ba arcaasiE
Whcn csstrng ofr sa aftcr tug, if drc vcs.cl hlt stcEs,ry on hcr,
wrrcthcr or Dot lhc cngioG arr stoppcd, thc liDc will bc vary lisblc lo
run in uddcr th. st m rnd foul thc ruddcr o. scrcws.Thc litrc should
thc.dorc bc lct go whilc thc ship is carrying hcrdway, aDd it will thcn
strlNn .!tcm, cvco monc rapidly if tbc cngiocsarr r,orti4 ehcad duc
to thc acrrw stram, Thc.! ir oo laad to stop cdginls wh?d lcrdng !p .
tug wbilc tbc ship ha! hcadwry upoo hcr.
Urfonuutcly it ir Dot piaalicrl to !.cuG a to*lila to a tl|8 clo.c by

THE PN,INCIPLESOF SHIP HANDLINC


itt ltam-rail. Thc lil. is usudly 36urcd vcry lcrr thc caDtrcof
iotatio[ and for this rcaso lt]c fig mayb gidzd ot gi ed.
Fi& 3.12show . tug bciog8i.dcd.It occun wbcoa towlinc uddcr
at!a$ i. slovld ro lcaddirldly abaamfrom tbc tu& Thc cl!ft it ulatb
to tlr'r, !d mry caFiz., of|.d with h.avyloct oflifc. Thc Iirt trkd by
tbc tu8 rory bc !o sctrt! add rapid ttst thc crcv,r0aynot bc rbb to dip
thr book.Thr EGnltetrdingby thc towtinco! boo.d ahrtowcdEaaal
rhouldthcrcfoEbainrtrotly rc.dy, all timca,lo lct to thalitc.

tlcuRa I

12

I! thc fgur! the ahipha! bccdtorrd brordlidc ofi ttc qury frce
(l) ro (2).Withoul wemirg to tt lu& ahcthcnDoll3 ahaador 8latti
ir rtc 6gurc!h. h8 |nowd astcrnto (3).Hcr rtotioo tatcarlc tugtDalia
uoririr., md bcforchc can!*ing i o littc with rhc towroF thGLtLa
ka& !bc.D ttrd bi! cr|lt k girdcd.Anplc *emiag duat b. irto to
novE.hc.d or acain. Tbb is lot
tufr if tha6hipi Equircdto suddaDly
I irnDorlrat if tic lowlitrc it borylcdto thc st!|! of tt! tu8 i,itt a

sen*.

THE PR.INCIPLES OF SIIIP IIANDLTNG


C2O)TIIE FIDCT

OF PASSING A M(X)NED SHIP

Suchr lt. cl wil surgpcorlidcnbly, to rnd flo i! lhc *!lh ofs p$.!ilg rhip. Thc apcd of tha laltai ml|!t thccforc bc rcduccd whctrcvcr a
vBcal i! to bc pa$ad clo6aby rt, !ay, s rivcr bcnh. Tbc lurgiDS i8 duc
to thr @lhioning ud suction ctrccts.xistiog at a Fdvalli!8 rbip't bow
rtrd 3t rtr. Thcrc ir a&o thr foreand-tft ffow of wat r doe! hcr sidc to
bc collidcrcd. Fi& 3.13 ihoes thc movcDcotr to wbich. Eootal ,hip
wil bc iubirt. Duc to thc sp..d of thc trav.lling rhip, rh. moorcd Gsd
caorot bc cotrsidcFd e fx.d objcct in thar it v.ill rcpcl or altnct thc

3TEiI{

AC9ELIED

llfF*

forDrdr boi ald atar! O! rhccotrtrrry, thc moorld va*l il ttgEtdcd


s! a lodtinS objlct shitr ir .ubjl'lt.d to thc.a thccrilg fotc6. Strictly
rp..fi!& ihip 'A thould hrw hrl lilaa taodcddutinc thc F!.r8a of
'B!, !!d thr littlr rhouldprDc.od.. dowly .r p4ritrh ir odcr to tccP
hrt wrvm!.Liog to r dilinuE. Ship'B' mutt s&o bc @ *[ char
'A'.
of lhc other batrkso that shedosDottake a collidingsheerinto
Thc forces acting here arc ktrowD6 ittur@,iaa and can bc vcry
d&garous in closcauartcrs situationswhn shiF rre ovcrtaking,
passing,steamingabrcaslor picking up a tut at spccd.
1tl

CHAPTER TV

PRACTICAL SHIP HANDLING

X 7ruN lhia chrptar wc shell Dskc r conpllbcliivr atudyof


l/ l./ ship marcuvrcs.Erch onc will bc illustrat d r|rd.rpllind
Y V io tha !art. In aotnccasc!| mooritrgIiDcorrtr rlc.bor cabb
brs bc.a omittld from ihc drawingfor lhc aatc of c.lstity.A *ind i3
irdicatld by m.atrsof an anow fcsthaEdotr olc aidcody; currcoti!
sho*n by a! srrow fcathccdon bolh sidas.
All thc araDplcafcatutr a sitrglc-scrrt/sNp havidga tiSht-hindcd
propcUcr.T*in-.crw v.ssclshrvc thc advritag! of baiugDoI! adlily
hardlcd in confrcd spac6, and thcir man(.uvrqtarc thcrcfoc trot
iocludcd.
A cendidaGwho prcrntshimrelf for a DcpanmentoI TJansport
(D.o.T.) cxamination in oral seamanshipwil bc rcqui&d to
dcmonstralanability to batrdleship6.Unlcsrstetcdothcrwiscby thc
exatrliocr,tha modcl ship is to bc takc! ac having a sinde rightbstrdcdpropcllcr. This modcl slrculd bc movcdby lhc c.trdidatas
rrdisticaly as F6siblc; Eneraly, it shouldbe ha[dld sloctly; lhc
grtbcriry atrd reduction of vry must bc dcmonstratcdar bcitrg
gradual, therc bing a slight dclay betwccn cndrc ordari rnd
rcspo$c; thc rutrning-ashorcof moorhg lincs must bc indicitcd
beforcthc shiph rc$drcd to be chcckedby th.m; the dchy betrveen
must bc aho*!, logcthcr with a
e bclm order aDdswinS-response
graduallyiadasingrate of swin8.
Io studyingahcncxt fcw prfrs, thc r.adcr is ldvilcd to colccnlnlc
oo thc drawings,tsling drcful notcof cachcnsccutiEpositiotrof thc
ship bcfo.r psssingon to thc ncxt.Thc hclm,cogiocmovcmcnt,hcid'
way, st t[wey, moori.g liocs,and tbc lrofih of tochor cablc,if riy,
.hould bc studi.d for cachDosiliotr.
As thc rcadcrpro8rc$ca,ic wil .pprcciatcthat only a vcry fcw bo3ic
prirciplca arc i olvcd io cach msltcuvrr, aod th6c hc will soon
mLtar.
75
f

PRACTICAL SHIP HANDLING

ng,lJ. S.dt W to Two BWt br


CaLnwcrth.r
Thc approrch should bc madc
with ttc Eiridum of ha.dery ir!
ordaato rvoid r tPins drvclopiDs
wtrn $c .ngim ir worlcd |it.fa.
Ii c.10!, with no wind brstitrg:
cfrectprcnt, ttc dlk of ovrrthootiig cxirtr, For ttir rcaloD,tta rce
lcl i! hc{ddfor tha hcadbuoyf!.
o! ttc ltarboatd bow. Whcn tbc
Gdginri! soatilg astcmto rcduca
bradwrythc leitr! i! fwourrbb.

ng. n, Tbrhg th. v.sd Vo.

S.tuttg to TttoMf ItQbN


Tt hc.dbuoy h BpprocchcdoD
thc Frt bow rd a linc *ntd.
Th! altir3 i thao worlcd aloe
abaador tDc frut liDc. wifh thc
tale hard ovlr toerrd! th! buoy.
Th. rE.cl ir l[ur .sutr8 io (2),
*bad r li!. to tbc st rDbuoyb ut d
to ooDpL't tlc asin&
Ey Lccpitrgthc h..dbuoy to port
tlr tt|Davlt& thru.t cfr.cl i! frvourrblc.

76

PRACTICAL SIIIP EANDLINO

F19.1.3.
WE
to T*o Dbtt wt h
OnatrllM
Thc v!*ral rppro&bc. utrdcrllos
hc.d{l.y ovla lhc g.ouod with ttc
hcdbuoy 6rGon thc pon bow (l).
Wtih thclilc i. sccurcdto tL. hcadbuoy, lbc cDgim Durt ba workcd
Blowrh.{d. With lhc buoylitult d
o! thc port bov, tbactrcctoftriDrvrrra lbrult fu flvourrblc. Tha rtr"
,al i! thlo allowrd to drop dordtttlid !o ti|t thc.tcinbuoy crn br
prck d uD.

FA. 1-1. S.cltdtg to Tvo EuoN


virt Cwratt ,ltErn
This i! wry simils. to Fig, 4.2,
riDocthc vlasalwill s.cutt to thc
6r* buoyoDh.f po.t bow (l). Shc
will lhao, havilg b.cd giEa !
sliShtc|nf to port, dlos thacu.rrDt
to crrry h.r louDd to (2) .!d (3).
Otrccrhc i! baam-o!to thc str..Dr.
hct Ctrgilcthould ba *o.kcd .low
!h..d witt port bclmto tllicvc thc
rfr3s od thc hcadlina
In thi. irBtancctbc buoy Could
rray wll h.vc bccopickcd up o!
thc starboardbow.

D/\
.

PRACTICAL SHIP ITANDLING

Fig. 15. ,lpprca.hinga &tof fion


wfuward
Thc Ecthod rhosa it to drift
bodily dosD*ind, !5ing occ$ioul
abcaddorcmcot o! thr cdgrncwith
xEatharhclm in oidct to lc'P thc
vr!.cl itr ttra corrccl rtttudc. A
bc.dlira i! tutr twly to Lcwrd rEll
bcfoE ttc v!..cI bar nacbcd tbc
booy(2),ald rbv6aatrwtrttghcld
to wind otr this linc.
qrhcnthc cdgilc i! *ort d lhaad
rndar th6c conditioli it will b|}t
to bc u!.d boEly, bc.auta with
littL h..dvry o! bcr tbc .hip wil
t od continurlly to ro! barm-otrto
lbc eitrd.

n& 1.6. S.Nit g to Tvo Mlt w h


Whd o, CurEnt ,|hed, dd
Tutn E ,18 Sh19
Thc rhip ir ruo up wcll rhred of
tbc !t rnbuoy (l), lnd . ltcrnlirc is
.ccutrd. Iftb eiDd i! dlo{lld to bocoloc fna otr tllc boY 8 thown
iEatbcr hGlE wil bc lcadcd to tccP
tbc lhip i! rttitudc. Thc |hip i! thcn
dlocd to switrg tbtougi lg)
d.!rc.r to (2) rod (3). Thc cogiDcts
workrd rstrttr in poritioo (2), to
ha*cn thc iwitrg of tha stcm hto
thc ei!4 aDd a&o to rtlicvC thc
lcrolin' of rrcsr,

7E

Y
t (

$.
\ /

PN.ACIICAL SIIIP II

ry. 47. Sccl/'ingto TNlo&pyt h d


Yay Str,,8 mnd
It will bc cf,kmcly dificuft to
t cp thc wl
hcrd to wind whilc
tacutilg to tb. h.adbuoy, for !!
tootr a! hcad\Ey i! Iost thc vcscl
wil quickly Fy ofi to orc !idc.
Trtiry.dv.lt
t ofthc frc't tb.t
tho r&aaalwill LorPhcl rtlfD up to
wilde|.d nol! casilywhatrutrdcr
rlrrnx.ry, thc b[oyr al! rDprorchad
ltcmfrtt (l). At (2),whcnth. .t mwly hrs bcctrrutr otr, I hcedlincis
!.c!rrd. It shouldbc lot d tb.t if
thc vrrrcl k elorrcd to havc tha
wild ol thc rtarboad qulttcr ag
rhownlbr s,ill quicklydrift atbwart
tb.lin ofbuoF witb thc*ind comi!8 on to ttc ata.borrdbcam,It is
th.rcforc prcfarrblcir (2) to havc
thcPind ridt rft or ftrc otrthcport
qurtcr. Thia i! difrcult to schicrc
wiii advarsclranwc.lc tbrut At
(2),thco,ttc cnginci! worlcd .h.ad
wilh port hclrtr utrtil thc ahip i!
twingirg to (3),*h.o thc ir slow.d
to drift funtcr, to (4). Noticc that
rt (l) th. wild ir otrttc port qulrtar
---tn!!vcnc tbrugtttao sstirb thc
v6s.l to rErchtha vitrd" cyc.Hsi
lh. buoy! initillt b.cn m ro rtsrbolrd, thc hcadbuoywould prob.
sbly hrE barnttisrcd altotathcr.

79

NDLING

PRACUCAL

SEIP IIANDLING

ng. 1l. S.Nhg lo a tuf vttlt a


WndAM
Agrin, aalooDr! hc.dwry b rutr
o4 th. bow3will &dd to psy ofi to
orc ridc, cwn if thc wiDdir riSbt
rhc.4 I! (D rhc .hip b Lcpt to
rirderd ofrhc hcdbuoy, cant d
to por! aod tbc hc.dlirc racuFdat
.bc &db b rhc buoy. In thc trgutc
tba rtsaborrd snchor b!. bcad
droppod|trd thc cablcw.rd inaY
b .sin io t .pitg tbc thip hr.d to
siod. If rcrorti[g to htlitrg rp tbc
aratror(a! rhowE),it oult bc lct 8P
llll cb.r of tta hroy Dooritrg!

ng, 1.9.Sccthg to T*o Bqt vtdt


M noor lo tpprfuch ,odl
wfrNrd
A rr.ndoard ir .rccutrd iDtotha
wiid from 0) to (2) cro,riog thc
lin of buoyt I! rhi! c.tc it do6
trot Drttlt if thc witrdcod6 on llc
port qurrt6, bccaulatlc ltcm i3
rocurcd ia (2) rtrd ttc bos eil
npidly f.[ downrvioduntil (3) i3
rrrchcd. Tbi! sbouldbc coDparrd
{itb Ftgi ,L7.

80

PI,ACTICAL IAIP

FlE.1J0. Clatta tdr Tw tu t


frlh lYlrda St em.lM
Th. d..di!a ir Ln8oald thc vaa.
.d c.ntod to a.rbo.td by .h.trilg
rb h..dli&. At th. ..D irtr.
tb .osiro L *ort d .n .d with
rt.th.f id!tr (2),|!d .! bc.dxny i!
!.thcrd ri. hc.dlirE i! lct go rnd
thc .hip cL.n .3 in (3), itiU u5itr8
urattarhdD to hold h.r i! dr udc.

EANDLINO

II
t f

$..

ns. 4I I. Ctebg lrot t T*t tutt


frltt VM or Su@'r /lttdn
Th. rr.sl h c.!l!d |t itr (2) by
aadot lha rIlmlilc. At ttc aaoc
ilrtart, bdot! |lc it.|cl ovtf,rult
thc ha.dhroy, thc .d!in ia rorfad
darD" Ar ray i! trtar.4 ttc li!a.
arGLt !o |nd rtrll.r hclE uad to
.tnitht o tL rhip itrto tb. li* of
rild oadrlaD.

A}
(/

A b

U JI
A

8l

PRACTICAL SSIP EANDLING

frg. 1.12,Cleng ltd, Twotuyt


drt Wittd oe St.''rt tlttdn,
ad TtorrhatlE Vct al
Thc b..dli!. i! .hcl.d dow! rnd
ttc canlila aalcd.Tha ahipcaDr.
to (2), .trd tcforc tb h..dbuoy i.
ov!fru!, thcaogi!. itrortad aram.
Ar rh. cL..r thc lin oftb. hroyr,
thr .dgirc ir rtoppcdrld tb. d.tn'
lilr h 8p. Sb. ir lhcn dlotnd to
d.ift to (a) .d (5), rwirritrg o! tb.
hc.dbuoy.At (t thr !oSi!. c.tr bc
wortad ab..d |nda( pon tdo to
aalattc atErsotr tlG haadbooy.

btt dtt
FE.1.tt. Clewrota
vMAtul
Thc tn..lis
.t! h to |!d thr
Ylarclir rruog haadto rind or tt
L.dli!.. lf ttc cogiF it sort d
.hd itr (2) tbc dtr!. odth.bc.d
buoy L ..a.d

/ - t

PRACTTCAL SEIP HANDLING

ng. 4 . CleW t di Br&ft ntth


mtd Ab@rr, ao E ad Dor*

vfu

If dcsircd,of courrc,tbc hcedlinc


aatrba Lt gp and thc v*tcl i*ur8
dowrwitrdor thc dsDbuoy. h tbr
i8urr, ttc dcrnlift ir kt !p .!d ttrG
v!i!.I dritu to (2). Hcr! thc crgilc
iaworkcdlricm urdcr rtrrbord or
*rsthcr iclrn. .l'd th. hcedlincir
lct go |! wry is grthcrrd.Thc .tcm
i rrpitly borcdupwird I io (3)!!d
(,1). Thi! i! r morl .dtufrctory
ecthod ifthc fairvay lia. ast m of
thr bcrrh.bcaaulawith thc l'ind on
tbc port ql|'t.t in looc positio!
(t lot |holn urdcr rhc.d cogiDc
EoitdGot .Dd port hclD, ttc rhiP
wil twirg vlry quk*ly to thr frir*ry.

ns. 415. LtbE a, Dwyt with a


Ft t @tltl' Wnd Ab.@^
Thc li!6 Dust bc ihck d dowa,
ho*rr litda rcom i! rihblc, to
tb|t th. ctd lic. rt (2). In thi!
&ttitudc tbr lc.d of rt lin6 ctrlblcr ticra to Do[c ..!ily oppocc
thc forcr oft!. wi!d.
lfttct trc hort ttlrl, .! in (l), thc
two litrc. ut worliog Trinst .&h
otbarlo ruch|tr qtaot |. mry pqlt
th.o. ftcy |!. .fpcctrd to rlai t
a forcaby a4tilt at rifit s!gl6 to
IL

83

*.-\\

PRACTICAL SHtP HANDLING


Fig.1.16.
Lyhg br CabL to a Singl.
Rwy i a-Fisha'ine wi^d
As at figlc anchor, thc v.sscl is
lilcly to pitch aod yaw. This wil
caulc crcGsivc strassoo thc buoy
moo.itrls. Thc cabl should thcrcforc bc sldclcd wcll doran so as to
givc a bight (catln&ry) of cablc
which will act as a spriDg ald partially rbsorb shocks. lt is most important that thc crbh should Icad
horizontally from llr buoy, othcrwisc pitchiog will tnd to lift thc
buoy, $ithits moo ngs.

Fig.1.17. CLa tA EuoN Havinga


Ship Be hed Eirhct Sid.
With a currcnt runoidg down
from ahid, onc of thc outlr ships,
say (38), slacks dow! bcr stcmlinc
until it siDb wcll to thc bottom. A
wirc udll do thr! casily, but ir th.
cascof a fibr. linc it may be advisablc to lct it go. (3B) thrtr shccrs
sway using port hclm. Thc buoy
now movcs to a positioo mid$y
bctwccn thc stcrnsof ( I B) aod (2B).
Ship (2C) Dorv casts ofr thc sft r
linc and aho shcars arvry utrdcr
porr hclm. Ship (lC) shccn aw.y
undcr starboard hctn. Finally, ship
(2C) cas.s hcr hcadlific ad, still
undcr port hln, droF asGm, Ictting go thc hcadlitrc whcn clca! at
(2D). Thc stroogcr thc curlEdt, thc
morc cfrcctivc will ba l}c ahccrs.

84

Y
I
i

PNACTTCALSHIP IIANDLING
Bcforr closingihc *ork otr buoys,w .hdl dilc1|rrtbc clhodr by
whicha shiprnays..urc to th.rn. whct hc.di[g ilto th. sind or r..!r,
*ort ir conccatratcd
o! lccuriu ttc b.adbuot th. rcrt{io.. hdry rlr!
io a morcLisuralymannar.Initialy a wirEir Fsrad thtouShlta tiot of
thc h.adbuoyatrdsccurcdbackon bocd; tbir biglt i! thm u!.d |' r
sliprope.A bighr of fbrc is similatly run aothc buoy and thc vcsrcl
dowD.
caoridc to lhis alonc,with thc alipropcsllcr&Gd
WlrcnusingbiShGof linc it is thc cad whichhaabGGo
r,4rpd berr
throughthc ng of thc buoywhichb cwntuslly Lt 80 fron thc ahip.
lf thc othcr cnd is caslofi ir mayfoul thc buoyor itt owtrprtt .t it i!
At thc aftcr md of ihc ship a bigbt of fbrr will sumccu.l6s it is
cxpcctcdthat thc nnal lcttiDg-gowill occurfroE lbsr, in whichcatca
slip*irc is slsousad.Somtim.sfbr! ropcah.vc thcit cyct row throuSlr
thc buoy-ringsandsccur.dto thcir ow|tpartr by daart ofhcrvy *oodao
togglcs.
Whcnclcaringthc buoysfibrc ropcsa.c slsctcd dowa and Lt gp.
Whcnthc shipis rcadyto lcsv!, th! supwir6 ert c.!t ofi.
with thcrnchor cablc,lba itrchor i! hulg ofi rtd lb. catL
lf sccurinS
brokcDopcn.Thc cnd link is tbcn rh.cl'Ld to th. rilg of lh. buoy.It
cancith.r bc hovcout to lhc buoyusi68. vir! D.'slFr ro}t tbroulh
Oc ritr& or alsait caobc slid dowua sidglcpsrt of wirc sct up tighoy
bctwccnthcahipaodthcring endabo pa$ingthroug! ttraadhr'd lioL.
If dcsi.cdthc anchorcanbc sccuEdin thc piF |rtd thc c.tL Frled
out throughlhc fo.*ard PanamaCanallcads.
Bcfo.. hcavin8on any lin6 or c-rblc,it chouldbGtlclfrid
that
tharcarc Doboaislying acro$ lhcm,roa my manon thc buot

Fig.1.16.Moorirv lia.s
Thc followingtu thc t minolo6/
usd in ilc tlmaindcr of rhis ch.p
tcr: 'A' Hcadlinc: 'B' Forc bilastlitr.; 'C' Fol! b6ckrp.ing:'D' For!
hc.dspring; 'E Aftlr bactsp.iog;
'F Aftcr hcadspring;'G' Alt r
brcastlinc:'H' Stcmlinc. Earm
windsproduccnvc timcs s.smuch
strcssas for. and eft winds.A 5G
lnot wind on r 25O,qX)
ionncr cen
causcstrcsscsof 320tonncsabcrm
rnd 50torn6 forcsndrft.

PTACTICAL SBIP EANDLING


lU.1.l9,Wba&tat
Tht E tiod rpDli.. rhi(icvrt
nb-to tb.li9 i b.dti4. Tb. c|r..
trot&outd dnyt bc |m.4.!d
tbarait lhan D d|!lF of otttaac
liDg th. h.rlh. Tb. .hip it rouldc&
ro u!d.r alog h..dray tlith Ffc.l
oonlrol la. tt to till b. tcdiot
tho rbip do'l durbs tb. rpFro.ch
.d forthir rc.ro. lt .hipd rdl
b. h..d!d for tb bot F.itiotr
rt o t rtbql A b.o.d ttgb of
.rFa.L
n pcroi.du.' b|!t tb
q!.y Aould foi! . t trlFdt b ti.
tuoing d*. A h([.Lt .!d. d
rypraA rb.r h (l) wiU lot tuEl
tbi. cdditiod, .od tb .hb trfll
fod tb qu.y.
E dq.il!| Odld b. !.[!d..
fb. odd.c til h.
.06.r pdlL
.fuiv! a,E rrdaa coadtinr of
no baadrry.

ns. a.20. CIsrE . bth vvh


St6lttd
fh. vt d L .i!d.d up to .! .fr
b.dop.itrt |!d . foc bit tL Wi.o
It! hlE i. .h&d. tb vnrtd
qui*ly c.!rt o[ tlF qury |t lb
dc.o catda. fh. isbor! bow.
WiiL .olid quF, lt idbo.c fof,
of r|tar *i[ ardkt! fta ']lir fto6
tD. ql.y, rt in C). Wilh oE o
?ban!a, l[b aftar ia loaa.td haattrry [!i bo r!a& t forr lhc |tat!
fouh lb qo.y. I! (.1' U! i. u.d
to .r.it tL itriii.l c.d. Tt til.t
lio. [rrt bc d.ceql iDD.rlilldy if
ft .t m i. noly to foul tb. rnd.

Y
t

Y
I

PRACTICAL SHIP HANDLING

Fig. 121. CLarw a krth with


Cunatt At/'am
A8.in, thr Bscl ir siqlcd up !!
i! (l), |nd ofthon b.lD ulcd to
commcocc tlc cadt ia (2), Th.
brl|lt liDGca! ba lct go quita aootr,
bc..us cvro if thc whrrf ir opco
.Dd thcrr isno qtlhionilg fo erd,
thcra ir no likdihood of thc lrtr
fouling.

n8. 122. B.rrtW Port SLC.to h


CaIn v.a ut
Tbc vr!.cl ir hcadcdin rt rt
.trglc of rbout ll point with ttc
quay,lrdcr rlow hced$y !!d vith
at6dy hc.d. A.r tlc cogitrcit rG
Er!c4 s swing lo rtarbo{d dcvdoF .Dd thc rltlcl ril urivc
abrl !t of hcr b6i[ ritl tro *!y
upotrtc' rnd Dot lcl to iL Sbcwill,
hortatf,,bc rlorly rriltio8 to srarboud. .trd tHr mun bc cbrct d
wirh tic hc.dliDc.

I
I

PRACTICAL

IEII

Ft.12t. htw
StoMStb
b
hr Cdrr Vatb
Thp Ed i. hc.d.d i! rt r fr.
.rgL io th. q!|y, .nd dE th.n
?ill bo . ttint to .t&tad *t a
tb. .oSiro i r!tni..4 th! b.lo ir
pd h.nl oE to port riti . blrrt
!Dc.d od th. cofiD! h (l). Tli!
tflfr i Dori rwi!& |!d whadtho
cdliD, ir Fvcnc4 || h (4, th.
rrinS b ctuc.bd .td ttc Ed
106 b.r h..de.y ryi!8 clc to,
.!d FnIH rith h.. b.rt to (3),
Th. .t mliE Diy bc Etd io d..&
r Datd |li!8 b narboad.

I\.

121. krl,4
Pet Sb to tl
C4Intddtttt Ot!tu . Ar.lro
A,lral
Th. u.6o. i. dtlptcd i:ll .
.op. rhid ril .o'rt! th.t lt ril
troadtrg *i.o tovo o. Tt .h'p i.
hd.d itr rt riih 6d.. to tb
bartLaod thr aldoi h !o aht at
of ll..t o xt a b..tt d O). Tht
o.trb ir .ur!d .od ih.thip to!!d.d
to |rtrd.r atartoatd tah od alot
.n!ic r!whd6.
I! podd6 C4, b.for. tD. .ib
Frllhh li. q[ry, fh. t|ttilc ir t]
tl.atd ad fha dttad
rrirf ao
a.laad o@dafaa tha d!6vr!.
Th. |hip ir th dorly ro{td
r|t r! into h.r bc.th (3).
At Dodaioo(, . bdlh. i. r!r,
|'d st!d.
Thi. i. lh.o !.d ro
cH ar a@aativa
aiartoatd arilf;

88

f,ANDLINO

PRACTICAL SIIIP HANDLTNO

nE. Q5. Sattw Stqbood Slh

to i^ calDLtvlti tll' oftlorc


lrrdtor Awo!
Agritr ll .dor ir lct go on
ruficictrt soF, .htalt of ttc atam
wb.o bcrthcd.Thc rhip ir 6trrn d
rouDdthc .lchor undlf irtl port
hGlD,rurSirg tbc aabl rr ahcdo..
ro. I! po.itio! (2), wh.o thc ship
b.r |9un8 Frt rbcliac Fnlbl wit!
tba quey,thr cngiocir r!rtt!.d ald
thc t!a!r!rr!c thrurt rwiDSt h.r
F'|lI.], A dtrli!. ir rotrrt (2).!d
ur.d to chock an a*caaaiFal|tbo&d rwirt,
Ffg.1.X. Cdita to St rrr-rn@rw
ht Cabnt
I! (l) thc otrlhor! .!.hor ir lct
!p oo a tlov ruo abaad.wh.a
rbout . t[ird ol t]c rt drcd 6!.1
lcrsth i! llcrcd thr w.!cl i! brouSbt
up lo hcr c.blc, |nd aa it Srora
t ut dL rhc b dc.b.d round it
uodcr atrrbo[d bdm od dow
adginGrrvolutionr, k{ri!8 80 tha
Don alahor ar aho doaa ao, (D.
WbiL Dovilt to (tI lh. F i crtrb
mlrt Dcd..L, otDa ira h wil irnpdc tbr .wiot .!d D.y drlt rh.
alaLor ducto itr, aatrt ilrufrciat
..op., In (3), ri.a thr .hip'. forF
|!d{ft lio. E*.. |! .trtb of
.bo!f 2 poifi ritt itc li!! of b.dh, |ic c.tb |'. &.d
tb
codE n rGsrd. Thc srw .fret o.itt i.. tL .ftS ro iubatd'
h ar rhGFttcra d..!vry to (4), Ga cal,Lafalr oo tb Fd bor
aDdrill r.drE ary a*caaaiEatattoail rriq. fU .o!b b aio!'t|od
rld ltc coEbb.d cftct of tb. o[&. gorilf b Fr edrbfitord
rrin8 brint tL v*f ilb Lr IiD of b.rth lial D iL Dd.
If b.rrhi4 oi ltc d.rt6rd n|nd irrud of th. F.t t !d .. .b.m,
lha ta*: Euat batbDd tound h.r po.t aalL lolil ab ati! rdo?ta
podtion (3), ro ttrt rb stw .frrd ri[ t o..d io &.th!.l
h.. q'.

s)

Ft. 127. App.dthA o S.'rtr


,|@rA Dcrth.,lM
Ar thc Oip rppoccbcr fhc bcnh
.ad-od, (l), rb rhould Lt go otrly
@c ardor. WhG abch.| lfcaE d
touod it to a@c po.liotr hctffi
(a ud (3) .b. iil bc ir . bculr
Fdnttn for rhc p&.bg of th. ftst
.!dor io b. jdtod. If it b8 h.cn
h to too do.. i! io tbc bcrtl tbc
b d..o!d out io (3) Ho!! tbo
6nd onc ir Lt !p. lf it b'r bc.n
&oppadtoo far out abcca! batg r
.rt m to (24) b.fo.r L[int tp thc
otlc alchor.
r:Ig. 1.8. tartnq $th whd o[ttwc, ot Ba@rr
ot Dow
Tha oa[ouvra ia liDiLr lo thrl
for calo conditionsasaaptlhat a
fta!.i .!tb of rDpro..n (.!d
s..tb6 hd!) i. ..6ry
to hoH
fh. botr. lpxhL Tb. v!r*l it
h..dad for tbc .t r! of thc t db,
rd i! (D t[. ctrti!. ir t!v!6.d.
Tt !ri!g rh.o.!..t!d wil! rcc.at!.L lL hc drift of tho bos,
t@ llc Lrg. sdry
uSlc"
Tblr tiilg bu.t bo -l'c.rd rilh
I! no circlllde..
a i-dlim.
D[rt .tr ofiahoErriD8 ba dl6!d
to dctrdop bafoF rwlentr! tbc
rotb." Wtr b.rtliilt o! thr .t rbdrd b.!4 tb. !!rt.d[t of tb.
-S|a f..?. th. bor lptrild to
@ qH. witl tD. rird on tto
bor C6 |t. bdtbod Fd6oo) fto
.bb i h.rf.d iaro ir o tb rp
F!..t, lc'ry i. 6i.ii-Gd, .!d th.r! i . lood br.tins Gfro.i.In
boiL ..- liE Drt b. horqi! .. roon .. tto .hip Fr.Ud. tb. b..th.
If e omdc .trdor i. r!q!i.!il (., .horD) it i. bctE to h ia gp
rn ! tu ttip hr driftld bodily ofr thc qny rith lh.. E!rc, rd.f
tba! d lba atFqrb rh ia ny caoa ar ofthd! arirE:
90

PT,ACTICAL SHIP HANDLTNG

FA. 129. MhW vtth lfltut On


tlw. ad Ab.@tr
Thc rhip Dult ba roundad-tq
Frdlcl, rtoppc4 aid char of hci
bdth iD (3), rld .llo*!d to drift
doan to thc quayu!in! r! ofrshor!
alcLor if Daccs!.ryto chcct thc
boe. Thc mdor eill bc ncccasary
if loo muc.hicdrry cxisb, for e
prolonSrd .!tcm DovcocDt will
tand to tbroe thc stcm upwird,
prrticuh.ly for & strrboard Llnd
bcrih vbco tbc trsrsvada tbrult
will .ggrrvatc tt swing,

tt.1.30. hrtW Ecd to wid


Thc |bip i! hc.dd for tbc ttld
of itc bcrlt bcc.u!. of ttc bnlin8
cfrcct rvrilabb froE tha wi!d.
Ia !o cit{dttatrc6 mult atr
oshor! rwiry bG rloe.d to doEloe h (l), bccau! rn artarn
DoylD.ot will ircllar ttc fctdcocyof ltc tbip to tu! &io3r thc
wiDdutrdcrftducirg hcid*ry. Tha
rhip mud DaiDtri! a tlow otihor!
twinS to ttrt whad thr cdgirc i,
tlv.rsd ltc i. ridt i! th. wild'i
cta A grr.tlr rwitrg ir euowrdfor
a rtrbood-Land bart! duc to lhr
a.taa! trllrvartc tbrurt Foduoitrt
a! @rborcawir8.

91

PRACTICAL SITIP IIANDL ING

FU.1.31.bthh8 virt @,Ordtor.


Dowltid
ThG rbip lhould rppros.h
Panlal to thc quay, bcitrgrct tc
*rda it dl tta tioa dur to LcPry.
At rb. b.rth i! !c.trd, (2), . sliSht
ofi.hoE c.nt into thc wind i! giv6.
Ar tb. .dginr i! &\&nd lnd bcadw.y i! lort, thi. rwitrgir cho.kcdby
rhc vird caorilg rbc bow! to hrvc
La drift. Tha oEholt catrtDult bc
!rcara( for a ltrrboard-hrDdb6th,
boula tba rnam tttalvrtlc thruat
oanraaltl olrhorc rwitr&

ry. $z bttltq

wtrt @,Andbr

lftt b d Otd|or. hv vttd


Tbc vc..d ir h.idd for lb. d.o
of ll! b.(ll .t. w.y brfld &gb.
Tta aldor ir Lt !o aoar to .lbry
rufid.ot ao!., ald tha wtel
bo .Idly .h..d. I! (2I .b. i!
bilulh !p !..dy to h.r cruc |!d
ft rid d.ifu h.r .ttitr .lotrSd&,
Tb c.U. it trpr rrot tt .loe
coliE rwolstioo! ud rratta(
hc!o" Ar t!. ri.r! ariqr i4 tlc
ct.i! i..L.bd out dorly !!til th.
borr ia raarty od tlic qory, wt o it
i! ffi.It
ir fDrly rL.&.d dortr
qok*ly rt o tb rbip Frdbb lhc
t rlh" (C.l& I (3) .or !ho*!.)

92

PI'ACTICAL

SEIP IIANDLINO

Fa. 1.t3. Dc hing virt @tAn ror


Awat h@t Ofthot Bow wlttd
Thk tiDc thc rhip i. tt dDcd
roud hcr erchor u!d.i full lcc
hclmlo (2),whcr a h.adlitrci! run,
Thc witrd low blow! tbc boe ofr.horr. !o lhc c.blc ir drcl(cd dowtr
ald tbc v..cI.IorEd to tlrr dc.d
io (3). Whcn ihc ir Fttllcl th.
colinc i! rcvc]t d .nd tha ofirhoE
rwilt ao produccdit d.ckcd ty
tbc h.sdliDc.Thavlrr.l th.o Dovra
bodily ilto l}c quly |! rha trica to
thros h.' rrcm upwiDdwbilauDdar
rtc(!r.y ftoo (2) to (3),

ng, 431. D. hi'l' v h Vtu


,1ttctn,PorrM D?-rlh
Tba lc?wryircrtara. hc.d*ay in
ttis Eatrcuvr!, ard th! rhip'! bop8ohrviour und6 tha @ry
lonFd lltarn moltocot ir unpG
dict$lc. Tbc v*l
ir ru! dc.d
h.fo6. l!. rind (l), ud c|!r.d
.ti!!Oy irto rtc bcdh C2I Tb
ao8iD. ir rcwdd and th! acrlt
.fr.d ltrolr lb. riard tact into lbc
rird. Ar lbc Esr.l loaaabaadway,
.S. I Frdld tlr bc.tt i! O).
TDchcrdlin. h (D ir |!.cd ody lo
chada|! cxccstiE ofrrhoa! twi[g
thnt t |!d th.
dua to lrrrirtr!
rhip'. Lodcocy to .cc,t ttc titd
with har .tcr!.

PT.ACTICAL SSIP IIANDLING

ng. 85. Bat.ht8 vith Vbd


,utqr\Statfu&Wht
Tbc proaadur ir rimihr fo that
of Fi& 4.34,cxccldth.t thc w.scl
nott ba cutcd .li8htly arry fro6
th. hcrth itr (2) to rlto$, for ttc otrrhoF wilt 8.oc6t d by thc .!t m
tl.nrwr|C ttlt|rt Thaoftto& caDt
tlun dot bc.f,6ivc, for Folotrgcd
aatg6 60vmt
to cortqa ttir
Dry c.u!a tbcrtrfo to foulthc quay.

ng. L t. brltw
ln Oltdwc
Wbt4
PorrM
Quretlt
Mr
Thc bos, b.iq Frti.lt itr thc
lca of thc q!sy' ta6d to rxiDE i!thorg tic coldition tci4 rtgrt
vrtrd by rh. qurrEdy rird. A
dight twiry rrry frotrr ttc qury i!
tb.f,dotr gilrd i! (l), .!d .r thc
co8itr i! tsr,lrrad i! (2) itc !t r!
DoE bodilt iato ttc qo.t !trd
uFird.

94

tz

PIACTICAL

SIIIP HANDLINO

Fa. 137, Ibtln a h Otdw.


VN, Sttb@r&
futqlt

tudturt

Ati!, tb. lppno|.tri. .intur to


Fi& ,|J6, but . rt rbo.rd .wi!t
Duti lot bc dlocEd to drltlop, bocautcthii wil ba.88r.v.t d by tlc
rtr(n traorv6& ttr!!t. For tti!
rtaro4 a rwi!8 ro port ia s.ocratrd
|t (l), whichi. cor.ct d .t (2)*b.d
tbr cogi[c ir rcvlr*d A at .nliD ir
uad to corrrcl rtr crccaaiEatarbo.rd r?iD&

1JE. bth'A b 6 Otrdw.


QryeltvM
Thr wl
i. t-d.d itrto h.(
bc(tt rith |[. rild .ft, or (b tb
odirto& qsarfar.Ut[.a tba casioa
ir l!rta!4 tha traltrttF ttrut
. tt rto.d .dn8 vhi:t,
!Er!..
i! 6. c.. of. FrGt !d b..tb, i.
.t!nv.ld
by tbc ri.ttard qu.i6ly riid. Thi. Dud b. d.&d.r
tb. rr...d lc t .dr.y i! (4 try .
L.dlic, Tb. .trd. of.p0o.d foi
r Do.t Lld b..tb rhould lt nfoG
bc r. lrta aagoaaiblaFor . rxrbarclaod b.dh tL rlano[vrt ir
Do6! dq|L, fof ttc atarioard
ari4 d|E lo tL rdaan ttantr!
itt||n n oo6r.o.!.d by th. L.
drift of ttc ri.to, ThG |!SL of
rp?ioaat ca! fb.(do|! bairaf.
&,

Pn'ACTICAL SHIP HANDLINC

Fta.1 39.Cominglo Saan-mood^8,


*ith th. lyind Onthorc
Thc mancuvrr is siEiLr io Fig.
,L26,andthcwird gErtly facilit tca
thc tuming on thc ofshorc anchor.
h (2) thc Lc aDchorhasjust b.cn
ld 8o. In (3) thc vcasclis alosrd to
rutr !.hc.d ao that both a&hor
cablcagrowto sindwerd,snubbiog
thc bowrspidlyuDeind.Thccnginc
ihould not bc rcvcrstd until thc
wisd i! drad .hcsd, otbcrwisctb.
staru PiI iwitr8 upwiad ad .
dookad ru! |3tcm will bc nrda
iDto thc b.dh.

Flg.1.10.Comingto st.m-Dt@ tE,


VirrdPatzlkl ,o shor.,@dAlt
Th. vsi.l i. 6nt!d slightlyofrrhorc itr (l), 60ttrl thc eitrd com6
o! thc ofrthor! qusnaa.Tbd frcilitrt6 thctum. I,l (2)ttc port rlcbor
br! jult bc.o kt golod tDct l3gclir
rudDg alaad of it vlry alowly,Itr
(3), *ith both csbl6 frowilg to
ei!de[d, .!d bcfoG rhc Frtlak
tic bcrth, thc cagitrGit I!t! sad.
Tbe trutwnc thrult lrnd! to
itrlighi.o h.r, but th.a undcrlGrn
wry hcr ltcm !cct! tbc wird,
Thit rwir8 to wildr.d ir d.dpo4
horrwr, by rhc ailderrd-growing
crtrl6, |!d tbc m*6 r rdrtivclt,
.hright tua adlfs to (,4),Litrcacao
bc rud fron !ft wbilc ttc rhip it
d to ri!d{|.!d of h.r h.rlh. Shc
ril th.o rlowly drift dorSiidc.

Pi

PRACTICAL SI|IP HANDLINO


ng.41l. Conittg to St.'.'-'r@o ngt

drt vM P@oLltoQaY,@d

D.ril
Ahd-P@tM
Thc vc*rclcu bc rtcaocd roud
h.r rftbolr, (t), uldq bold ich
and Fvolutios, !trd thao ftn
.!t!t! frotD(A b G), itr *hi.h calc
3hceill rrriv. to wiDd*rrd of har
b.rtb, whichi! dc.frbb. Howcvcr,
thc Dancuvrr of turdq it hboriout rnd scvcrrlYhemFrld bY th. ?-fact thst thc boer dritt to Lawrrd
of hcr c.bLs, thc lsttcr thd anubbitrgtbc bo*l upwind.trd r6iltitrg
thc dcaircdturn. lt i PtEfcrabla,
thcIlfor!, ro rring tla ,hip otr thc
eird h 0), sod th.o revcrscth.
coSioc'ebich britr8' hct rrpidlY ro
(2) |! hcr 6n ..ck! thc witd. Thc
archorr arc lhcn droPp.d on lhc
nm rltcm to (3). Tbc rwiog of rbc
bowr to rtubord it dabpcd bY
thc windwerd-growi[tc.blc!"

IU.1l2. Statu&W

Ball

Ttc nr!6rvt! ir pcdo.Dcda! in


Frt 4.{1, with thc .f,ccption of
podd,oo (2). llcr!, th. rt rtr b
dlowrd to rrirs farth.i upwiodbe
fdr thc ruo arian ia Dr&. (lf t[ir
i! Dot dodc tto frrorwrrc tbrurg
$ikt ;n thir c.!. D.rtirUy rt ic| r
dcmboard,ory c.urc thc thip to
fril to tlach llc widwrtd poaition
(3).)In both figutlr tlc position(3)
tu id.otb.l.

yl

PRACTICAL SHIP HANDLING


I?9.1.13. Cotii,A to E crn+r@r,,gt
vtth Wid Otshoe

Thctlr$cl bult cith.f bc rt emd


rourd hlt alcbon in thc u!u!l *ay
-{ lolg rDd laboriour proccdurr
.tdntt ttc eind----or,if thrfc is
room, ov6-rua tha bcrth sdl ofrthorr ud tlvrtra ttc dgim. Shc
will grth.r rtcmwry md rutr hcr
.tcm up into ttc wind'. Glr rt (l).
Thir D.trouvlr !aad! vary crrdul
judgcm.otto phc. hcr i! liDc with
hcr bcrlh. Ewo ttcd, ttc ru! artdtr
ir oot aa!y. Sharlurt not lrc run
.!Gm ltl|til tbr wind i! f[c on thc
Port qurtta. A. rha gi|[cr| !r.m*ry, hcr stlrD s6lr tha sitrd, (2),
ald trmsr$c thrust agtrav.t!'
thit strrbosrd swiDgof thc boea
It ir chcfld, howcvca,
by thcclbha
growitrt to port If tlr arcrl run
ir .ttnnptld dcad into thc s,ind'i
ayr ahcwill rutr to lccw|'d of hcr
bcrth eith thc eind brord on thc
ttarbotd ourtcl.

R.

,?

+
)

r-------t--------

WLa! taliDg up at.(n-Doorin8tit s[outd bc rrDaDba.ld thst two


|rlon hoH thc rhip bcttcr th!tr oDcrloE Rovidcd thcv i|r lct to
dotc togathcr,thcy ca! Irtct ba horc.in riDultan oullv. itc hlrtf,r
!.c6.!ry ery vlry fto|n 2 to ? ibrcuca,
Wh.o ttc barthi! Dc.rcddt thc sicmvry ir chcctcd*ith tbc crt .',
|ad rt lhc ilrtllt tbr v6$l lorassry thc crlrl6 trE cuicHy ahctJ
2or3 farhomsdown5or6 m. lfrhis is nordoncthc shipwl surgcahcador|hcr
rrut crura atd r.rioudy ifrcct rhc ruDdtS of thoatartrliEs.
Croasmooringsarc normallyuscdaft, tha pon tircs lcadincto sterboordrnd viccw.sa. This ncthod docshotdthc shiprigidly iriposirion
rnd pcvcnB eny transvcrsamovcmcni!.In a balrn wind howvar, it ir
thc 1.. 3idclincs whichacndto takc thc rc3s.
A! i! Fi!. 4.15,th. |nooringaand c.bt6 mu.t bc,laa&d do*! r!
Euch rr po('iblc itr r 6oar witrd, 60 a! to giva thcdl r norl trrtutal
L.d" h oald conditioarthr.tcmlins c.tr dwayt bc trutaocdby haavitrgi! . fca lirtr ofcrblc,
Wbcn lc.vio& tbc rt mlilas rlt Lt to cornplctdyind lot slactcd
out, s. trousafirlpuqroaaiarawcdby sodoi!& Thcrhb ir fhcnhovc-out
9E

PRACTICAL ST|IP HANDLINO


to hcaaochors.Thc cngincis Dotulcd to chcckthc momcntulhofthc
rhip, sitr@ttc bight! of cablcwill do Ihis quitc cfrcctivdy.Thc shipis
ihtr6te.rncd.rouodooeanchorto fa@thcfairwaydir.ctioo. h a lr/ind
ihc rhip is .llo*.d to swinghcadto il th. wath.r rnchor bcingw.ighcd
la5t.Whcnswulg, thc.hip cadconvaticntlybc hadcd in anydircction,
for eith rhc fair*ay abaft thc bcam,,hc will r.adily pay off to cithcr
sidc.

Fig. a.11.I2aing Stqn-noo ngsin


a Yat SuongCrcts Wird
Tha st mliacsa.Ebt go sad thc
vcsLl stcamcdout to har anchor!
udcr bold cogila novcmqri rod
full wcethcrhclrD,whcl thc stcm
thc lcc sbip in
closalyapproachca
(2) thc hc|rtr is put amidshipcio
momdtrdly chacl tha 3wio8.Thc
rhip ii sow uodc( good ha.rdwry,
aadrvhcDclcarin (3),wathcr hclrn
is agaio uscd.Thc ship may wcll
ovarrunhar archon io (4), but thc \---'i
bi8ht! of crblc wil chcct thir and
sdubhcr ha{d to eind.
lf thr lirm ir lot ssu!8 rowuds
tbc Ic. obctructiotrrnd thc lhip
hc.v6 tctslf out to har ucho.r,
or st amt oul to thcm witL .midrhiF hcld, lhc *il |n*G npid
bodily hdr|y. Ai shc drift! dowu
otr to thc lcaoh6truclion,hcr cablca
g.oe bro6don tha*l|thaa bowrd
dng ttc bow upwild. Th. rrcm ir
fulg itrto ttc othcaship and tbc
rpptc.tiotr of lca hclfi incra.!.
thc pull of thc cabl6. Th. objccl.t
.U tiro6 i. to gct upeind |r quictlt,
8 po!.ittc.

PT,ACTICAL SSIP UANDLINO

n9.415. Latug a Statbol,r&lwtdScrthin Cohnt


h dl ca!c.ofclc.riDgs bcrth thc rtcltr mult h. cstrt d clcar.Thit i!
doDGby rtcsnitrg .lorly ahc.d oDr for. h..dlprirg whilc tbc hda i!
put hard ovcr toe|tdr thc quay.TbGlpritrg Enrt bc rtaohtdy tight
*bcn thc Fgi'6 st! *ortcd a!ra4 otb.trilc atryDoMtum of tbc
.hip rill p.n r rh.& rpring Tbc rpring |ney b. ro!& ligbt by putiog
a hc.dliDcotr lbc widdlalsbafld !!d hcdvirg oa it TbraatrYolin6
alc rhovo in tbc fgura
TtG ship ir tt rEfor! cant d itr to thc quly forwui4 e), .rd th.
.ogirc ir tt o rrwr! d. Th. hclE i! iDitialt iEidrhiF aDdthalilaa aa!
h go.Aft.r thc fltt fcw rEvolutiod rti.r! tbc nrddcrir put h{d otq
b ardboird to conEt tbc r*iog to rtrrlord gcncntcdty th. trurv.rE tbnrsl Ar thc aliFftrn io*t in bctF.o thGforG body and
quay,tbc urd6irrbL .trrbord rwbg ir futtbF d|DDd, but a! roon
.r rhc clce$ thc quy ihc .wiry mry taod to d.Elop lgli!, fbc
tr.trivcrt ttrolt ov.rcoDitrgtb. fuu ruddcr lDglc. Itr tti! cala tho
aotila Durt bc rtoppadi! odcr to hrvr i rtrdSlt aunadcrn

1m

PRACTICAL SIIIP IIANDLINO

IU, 1.16, L@rw a Porrlwd


ta,t h Cah,t
HcrE,botb lho trlnivcrs tbtrrtt
a,hco t!v!r,i!g thc cnginc in @)
.!d fh. culhioning 3liFtr..a b.trrad tlc fotrHy t|rd qusy.ausa
thc rtan to reing rrpidly bact i0to
tb. qury. Thc bclra till b. of no
avjl. bc.!u!c lhir wil occurbdorc
rtEnFay i! grthcrcd.Ho*Evcr,thc
uDdcrinblcrwin8of thc bow otr to
ttc qu.y i! Fi& 4.a5do6 not .xi!t
hcr!, !!d providiogtlc Drn6uv.! it
corGctlt dotrc, thc clc.rhg b, itr
d'!y ril t morr simPlc.Tlrc Jtcm
lurt bc crntad out to I vcrYlrtg.
|!glc .r iD (2) bcforcthc ctrginci3
Evtr$d, By tlc iidc thc ltcm has
!w!!r bock Darsllcl to tbc qu!y,
tb. liD wil * uadcrltmwri ed wiu bc at (3). st rbo.rd bdE m|y
tbo c;ncct th. rsinl of thc tt m i horc,but cvcoto, a bulat rb..d
on thc cogiacwith pon hdm will toon rcbicvr thit.

F1g,117. Cl@ht ,t Bctth in an


Olltle.. Viid
Thb 6a!@rvr! ir ,inplc. Tha
vaalca! .ilh.r bc Galcddily ofi
|ta qury otr hcr forc |!d aft li!..,
or & a! ahowtr,hcr dlcr li!6 rtc
kr !o ud rbc rwilg' to (2), B, rF
rcrdoS th. .otirc rnd LttinS 80,
iar rt.t! *ill rotr b|.t up itrlo tba
eind to (3), wh.o rb rwint it
c!..t d by r buttt dhcid on pon
L.lD. Ifd.d$4 rt tbo.td hcla crn
ba rtad iort.4 cotrtiDuin! th.
arirs uldcr hcadray.Tbi! ir oaaful
for r fair*ay ehich li.a rlt m ofrh.
b6th.

10r

Eg,1.1E.Ldt A aS@MW
brtb@tMot.vM
Thc !taa! olllt bc cartadof tbr
quly to a mu.h Lrt.' rtrglcth! i!
cald!.Iti quilc arry to do tbi! cird
i! r fr! h brlacauaingful brlE atrd
bold cofitu rsvolutiotrr,W[ctr tlc
.ogirc i! rlwlt.d itr (2) tbc lbip
r.pidly ru'' h.r rtdn upwind md
th! bow' wing rh!4Iy to tt rboord"Thc atcm wil dlDlgc thc
qEly if th. c.llilt .!tlG h!! lot
tc.o ioitidly mfictrddy hrg.. with
I btgc ugb, tbc rt D wil r.pidly
dr.v arqr from ttc qu!y. Ful
pod halm b ulcd whcothc cl8itrc
is rscrld. A 8erll rhip rith E
rhrbhr rh rnd r f.ddct on h.r
illhora bowwil bc abL fo catrth.r.clf of.t ritht .nghr to lb. qury.
ng. 419, Ir$rng 6 Pstbtt
tart h @tOdpr. Uld
Thplbip *ill rct rt dily c&.r h.r
*J
b6th uda.. rhc Llr . trg ca! ton
a lila lo |n ofrlholr mlc. 6 La r
cL.t rs! arlad of bar. Tta t'raad
nrtt bGc.!t d otrrEtil tt rild i!
|! ft5 at troaaibb6 tla ,\f,r|'ot!
qurt r. Wh tha coliD ia te
vtrtd tt.|r u! tttE rdttt! fre
torr: (d)fbc alip.trsD battraadbot
.trd $|.y ca!6 r |rilg lo atrrbod of tL! bo$; (r) tl rind i.
r.{ti!t tb. t..d don o! b rb
qury .ft; (c) rh! haEC! thtr{t
arrata a atarto.d arilf. A[ tD.aa
frctod rqlEaatbc .!da of c.trt .t
oE Ar ao@a! 6a !.tt r. Gtray, horlvE, ata wil roo iar aiaa!
trF i!4 Frdirlrrly r.d.. vt.tt r
hdD. Th...qo@ ir d.{V rhor!
in thc 6gur. Thc vcsat murt hrE goodaiarqo*r for thir Dua!uy.!
aod ca.dofi l,o.r L..t 45 dclll.3 fron rha lirc of tba bant.
192

Flg. 150. LefiA ukh c, No?.


Qtot tlt Wird
Fo! both port- .!d ttltbo{dh{rd hcfth! tt. rhiDnrlr.t bc .prunS
ofi to tucl .n .!d. tid tbc witrd
dcnc. fh. illhort quri.r, (2).
Thir mry b. cittldcly dific1dt,for
ttc .t!m t odt to cli!8 .tolgly to
tha quly id &!h a wind.A tug or !
atrtdiDc to an ofirhor Eolc Ely
hrr,! to bc cmploycd.
Tb vhd on tla inrhorc quarEr
tttd rr.id thc c.oting-ofr of thc
rr.m. Whcn rhc wbd ir in tbit
rELtirc potitioa tDEadlirc catr bc
voatad rlt m, tld tla rbip wi[
run ..tily dc.r of ttc qu.y into thc wiod'r .tc, (3). A iliShtlt l|tS.t
.!tL ofcad dun bc nadc bafoGrcEriDg tbc aolitrc for a port-hard
bartt, bacaulatbc alicn traDrErr t[rut ir rdrtrt .
Flt, 1.51.LarbA a bth teli et
Otide.. ,attdp. Ibvr, qtuEVid
Tha tt rolitrcarrc Lt go .|rd lbc
c.blc horl Tbc rfld win &nd to
hrd dowrwiDdEoIr rrgidly tha!
itc .t.t!. ud thcrdorl {F lrtiar
.hoold bc .lowrd to c.!f ofr bafora
h..ving c.bb (9. A t.dlilc
.hould b. ut d to ct c* tlc n .4
ott rrirc ttc bqt rlry ddft
reidly aErG! tL rDchor l'd bG
rddrbd 6.rply upwiod.AltcortiEly, bott for! ud rlt lh.. c.! bc
..rd loril tlc rEhor ir x.i!hd;
tL lic .rl kt go, .rd fhc cnfinc
ia !cva(!d to producca! ofrrho|la
.rios ofth. bor|.
Id catDrth. .Lia ia.a!t d ofrt|y
.hctil! lb. c.trb . lidc ud d..oir8 rt .d ldar lhtl oottorc hdn
@. forc h..daFir!. ThaliE.r!kn!or
h fhc crcaDtiodofa h..dtEr |!d rbc..tL ir hoE fhc icrdlim dcr*r rbc borr .od tGGp.
tlF v!.r.I p|rdLl to tb. bc'th triib hc.vinli
1(B

PRACTICAL SHtP HANDLIN(]

FE. 152. nonhg a Yatd SIl,,[t


RNtd, S,!'/.-to.e
Thc \,! *l i! tunad rouadi! hc(
owtr lcogtb-No hrad?ty or rlrrnwry ir gathorcd.Wtad tbc aogi[c
ir rq&rtcd r poGful rwilg to rtrrboad ir s!{cr|t.4 ald ro ttcaa
ahiF |tic !tn,,r rguDgtortarbom4
u!k*! tbcy b.E .D.ll hid.rD d
propaltr!, wnad tl.6rv!r* t[rlrt
i! rorll I! (l) tb. cogiDctu Yorr<cd
tuIl .tc.d o! ful sbrbocrd hcld.
At rh! 6ni .igo of hc.drsy rb.
h.h ir FI .oiLhiF rDd thc
cogiDcrcrct.cd fuly. Thc rr,ilg to
rtrtorrd oodbuca, (2). Tb. 3c
qrE . i. ftp..rld in (r) .!d (a),
|!d !o o!, util th. w..Gl ir tuord.
If it .at r! poi/cr h rD![ thc
wr!6 foi haadvry Eult bc cr.
tto&ly dilis.oL

&.15t. T,'.ntg It''t Ro4|t ba


lM
RlE| lt@rr
Tha Yl d ir nra doc lo tL
port-hatd b.trt itrto d|.&.t srfar,
.Dd ttc bor girro a cart itrlo lh.
f.n
c., 0). Th. .f,i!! d.vdopr,
lb. .trr! bdtrg b' || cloc ro tbc
b.!L rr ir Fudrot ltr O tb .dtiE
ir .!rr(!d nrly lo pGnrot bodilt
drift dormtrn
ud Fn i.le
n .d to ooopld. tb. tritri I! o.titrgth. hm rt ttr lbrl bant, lr.tr!ltfr &t!n i.! fagounlrb llroufL
out.

104

PRACIICAL

IEIP

IIANDLINO

Flg.151. Tbn,/B Sl,prt Rogltdh, 6

ktar n a.ttr@rr

b (l) t[. bow i! rwung into th!

.LA.' rri.r rt tha rt[bortd b.Dt


.!d th. rdgie ir r!rcrrcd. Tbc
iald ir ovar to atrfbo|td for thc
aalt ir$oF aDd i. rbout to bc
tL..d rEidlhip..
Tho rlltlrd aolinc prodtrc.r r
lhflrt rnd
f.vo||t|bL trrlwrr!
alo Fatn a as6ir! Lc dritl In
(2) tb W*rtrn rnchor ir h to
|!d hdd .t rhori rLy. Thir npidly
.oDb. thc bory tourd to O), by
itktr tin rh..odn
rhould b.
rtaad lrdcr tb.board
roltiq
U! to codpLic thc r*ing to (,1).
Tta |'Aor ir b.ld .t .hon rt y ,o
rtat |! arc!||ill atraa oo ttc cabL
c.ns it to d$dfF !di.r thr! bc rtdnd. ln (,4)lb c.lrb $trn to
D.y! ba furti.r Eci.4 but thir n o6ly fo. rb. t.&. of cbtltf..adly thr lt r.l twitrg rlry &.rly h hci o(,! Lnslh .l OI

t
t

FU.1J5. p|t!'rta . M lrai .


Sraqrr Mt
Aaott tb
hltM

m. dr.rint dt
fnb qd.!|"
dd. Tb 6ip i. bc.t r..nr.d to l}.
L. tirt .4 (lI rtik lb up.t!.d
lia .t! rGt!*
ldo! bbdLd
(lI s.v!..l iirbodr fod.rt .r!
dFd qv.!dd. .!d tL v*l
ir
toY! .t d Th. lia d! dor.cd
ritfoct dd.y, .. .pproFi.t , to
rt FdlioB LbdLd (2), .nd tt
|LiD i. Eotld o! rr"ar' inlo thc
6taro rtl
tittdiDs otr iL La
bnc&L. BaiB d..Arwhdonr
d iab6 tdo .!&r rt hr..
fb uy log .ni' b..lnFiq itr
(2) t l|r . cotr.i&6.t lc drt.. r,tiL tDa.ta.! ir i! lita r.i...
Had tta coirtD baao 6ada froo fh. r.rttar fir |!d a lioa
Ftn04 .! iDFd Dight t r'! t .. D.dc d ll. L. ttruct!..
106

PRACTICAL SI'IP HAXDLINC

ng. #6. I2flbA a Doctcbto a


Ods suc,,rt
Thc rbip i! rutr out with bold
crti[c ahard-rrvolutiolr a[d uF
rtr..o hrlo. At (2) uFtrcdD litr .
at! ulad to chacl any dowD..tErn
aei!8 oftlc boer .3 tlat cnt r fart
wrt?a.Horcv.r, lhc hridlilc loon
b!! r poor hd rft, ald too much
.hcd.idgod tbr .r!brcrltli!.wil
aggrrvrtaI d@ fi!.oreing. For
thi! r!a!o!, ful polla !!d hclD
meyblva to ba!|cd. Altarnativcly,
tt vl.rl cr! bc ru! out on thc lc.
tnucllc, &ing fcDdcn to pivot
doi,!!trr.o" T[c rtam brEa* li!."
(t) in thc &ur!, cin bc ulcd to cortrol tbr dowDltrras rwin&
In dl calar of cntlrilg i d,oct
dir*t ft& aUorrDcanurt bc Dd!
for dorlttraad lat A rDdl rhiD
c.a baau! in rr'd{ goodhc.drri,
but lb.fo ir tot litcly to bc tun.
cj.!t roon for r big thip to g.tbcr
rhir Lladray, ltrd tu8t mry bG
@rry.

157. Ild"t8 a Yel dth


YhdllM
Tb. rhip b .fi!8 undrr h..dw.y
to (2). Ar thc h..drry ir l6t, thc
mrbodd .wing cootilEa" lt it
astucd
rbco lhc adti[c i! !q
vrrl4 .!d tt .hip npidly mnt
b.i ,!.tn ufird to (3). Th. rwirs
i. th Eliltaitrd o! aL.d-raolutioor .!d d.rtcd hclD, ro (4).
&.

PR,ACTICAL SHIP HANDLING

,44

\J 'rA /
/

Flg.1.5t. Tuning h a hv mrd


TbG3hipit rilutt ofi thr wind to
(2), sd thc teins tu .occoturbd
with r |lvarrad cogioc ind full
rathcr b.lm to (3).|f ttc stro*.y
ir cortilucd auficirtrttt wta6 uic
cdti!. ir sortcd .tc.d t|nd.t fuU
port hc|D th! rhip wil h.v. Dd.
groutd to wildwrd .t (4),

\i

'

,l

A(')

t'lv
V

M(X)RING LINES AND TAIIS


Mentionbasahe.dy becnmadcon page85 (Figure4.1E)aboutlhe
strcsssproducdon a dip by winds, the ratio bctwcenforc-a[daft stressesand bamstresssbeitr8 about onc to 6ve fot a giwtr
wind. For the shipquoted,a loaded250,m0bnncr with atrundcrkel
clceranceof2 mctrcs,a I knot clrrrntfiom aheadcatrpaoducafolcrs
otr thc ship of 5 tonncscomperedwirh 230 tontrcswhcn thc same
currcnt is abcam.Mooring lincs mustthcrclore be uscdlo marimum
alfcicnct and this is achievedwhcn the lhc lcadsfroE thc ship at a
lo* englcto the horizontal.Nevr rnir tnca of dificrinS matedrlssoda will strctchmore thatr othe$ atrditrfoduce uaevctrlosdint.
Mooritr8 tails incf,casethe clasticig of a wirc litrc by up to 60%.
They should be at least 11 metres loDt, parccUcdwith lerther,
caDvas,or pl8tic at the eyesand prcferablyjoincd to rhc witr usint
Mandcl or Tonsbcrgshackles.Thasearc atraight-sidcdard both thc
hcadand the pin (ehich b rcmovedusinga kcy) ara roUcrs,tccping
chalcto a nininnrq. Itr Dorma!use,tsils shouldbc rcplaccdevcry lE
mo hs, bc at least25% strooter thatr thc rvire and obviouslybc of
thc samelay, othcrvisc ut aybt occutsurdar stcas.

r07

CIIAPTEN V

ICE

FIS
mrrh .!d louth pohr icc crp rt! oontiNdly fowitrg out
vudr
udcr thc praraurEofrccumuLtad toorr!, Th6 Dovlinc[t
I
of ico ir a!o!t tbc aslklt routar, wldch srr vlllcy! ild iat,
!
dopinS l|!d rurfacar. Thc Dovitg D||.ar of icc trt tlowrr ar
tacirrr ard cmhrdly prolrudaioto thc &a, ehcr! that ioquirc buoyalcy and loot Thc coEbirod Gfracbof buoyrtcy, win4 and currrtrtr
c.uG lh. tmtula of icc to brr.t rway fror thaland,andcyrry ti6c a
pi.cc ofhc rlo.. lhir r! ic.t rSi! ..aar.d.I! th. North Atbrtic rh. bdt
ofth. ic.b..fr $c oriSilrt d rt.bout twloq oftbc hundrd! oftLcicn
aitlai.d @ tha '!at coatt of GrEoh!d. ltcaa b6g! rr. i.rcgu&r
n s ofioq .Dd . Lrlc nunb.r ofth.6 drift into ttc North A0rltio
O! uDd.. tho GfiGcta
of wild atrdc1ttttnt Evqy apringlnd tuDDIt
lba, pltaadta Dcorcc to rhippiogaafar r!, NDdocc.liordly routt oi,
thc42trdp6relbl. It ir c.tiD A thst rbout 7500bcigi brcskrery from
Oral.nd 8hdcr. cvlq lE r, of wbb rbout,l(x) drift rou6 of NcwfoundLnd,tonc forty fnditr! thci. ery soutl of tbc42ndp.r.[cl. Tbis
jouro.y from Grc.dLnd lo NcrfoundLtr4 roughly 2tE0 bh, i.
lA)dil.
.@oDplirhld by tL. b6gr i! D.riod! vuyilt fror r fcw E@thr to
thrGcyarr.
Oncof tbc worll F.rt i! th. No.th Aulltic fto@rhb poht ofvicv
wr! lt2, wh.tr rt rtrany.! l5E7 b.r83 found thctuwry rolth of th.
a&t Frrll!. Arott r bad y!ar, doraly ipprqctitrg tha atatiitic!,
eE! l9t2 stcn, oa April t,ftb, rho Ult rdc foutddrd iD 4f' il6' r,
50' 14' w wiih thc lor. of l5l? liv6.
Dilirt.Elrtioo of 6c bcrlr coEDaoccri66adnrcb, ihay u! calv!4
.!d i! r productofttc aftat' of rflr4 h.avy ,aa!,*ind, aohr rrdiatio!,
wltE rca-rrer, m4 to aoDccxtloi, rrh. Hcavyaroaiodit caurd d
thc r nlirc, |Dd |! r r6ult of l[i! aDdgffid dct rioEfioq thr b('g
cainr aodlct piaa.a*tirh frl into thcert.t *it! . lood ro.riry loirc.
At thc b.r3 Ddu, crrctilg of thc icc @tr', rrd thi! i! d..tt, rdiblc
ond.r idc.l colditior! ry to a Etra arry. h trrda roBtarfbc b.t!t &ry
zD ft lt{l) fi hrvc hci8htsabovcthc watcr of up to m tn and bDgthsof 5m m.
In tha Artdctir tDparrtutaa ara gadardlylora. Hcrc,ir dditio
to thaforDrtiotr of gbciarhc rod irrcguLr b6!:, thc icacrp iow into
1$

tcE
tba aGa.trdforDr r v|tt barfilr of footitrg fualroutrd iha oontinadl
nuly hundEdsof n trls thick. A Soodcrrndc of this i! thc Ro.t
B!r.icr. In thc iFing .nd iummcr thc incquditi.! of sir .od r.r
tclrpcratun' ptduca lnavcn rrL! of cxprnsioD,rnd vestpico.r of thc
b[ricr brcrk rdrift .nd ntovanoathward.Thclc barSrar! tnown 6s
tu6rdrriccbcrgs,and rcsan$bfoating islen& with vcrticd tidcs rnd r
lcvclaurfalc.Tklc icc ishnds arc usuallyabout 50m hi8h,maaaurcd l8o ft
flod tta stlailioc, ud nry bc up to llotD in laogt!. SoEGare 70miL.
rrportcd es bcirg up to gD m in haight,Thasab.r8s from thc South l7lllft
Polarcrp drift up to thc 55thprmllcl, but somchavcbccnrcportcdas
far north es 33's in tha LonSitudcof 50" w. Oihcrs havc bccn sccn
slongrhc 3Jth Frallcl in thc vicinity of lhc Grcat Aust.alianBight
end thc Capcof Good Hopc.
All iccbcrgrhrvc t[c bulk of thcir voluDcrubmcrgrd,Urusly rbout
onc-ni.th ody i! viliblq but thi! de?and,.liirdy upod thc !fiount of
roclq ardt" or air ebici it ir8ppcdwithin tlc ica, etrddro upotr thc
rmollnt of loolc ,nowliDg upon$a b.ig. Gcncrrly, tbr volumc{hich
ir GnarSad
liaabcter.o oic-t nth rtrd oncthird. A! iocb.rgrouth ofthc
ctud B.nb of N.'wfouldl&d b.y !u irE !! . ddurtr to trlvig.tiotr
for uD to a fortlight, but rftar Jurc thir dacrald to tbout lln d!y!,
Thc b.r8r *bich iG grourdd uponthr Binls ,cco to turvivr for long
pcriod!,po.siblyup to o[! nonth.
Ofi l'f.pfoundL!4 rbc frEqr&ocyof !c.-fo& rbc dcolity of frhitrg
v!.!dr, ltrd th. coatiNour [o* of trrfio sdd othar da4lfa lo thc
.rinbf Frtu oficc" I! ltgt thc North Athotio Tr.cl A!F.o.ot w.!
dcvirad,whichhid downroutcsto bc followrd by r.st- end wcst-bound
taafrc,rech routc hsvitrgr lcpuarc saason,Thcrascalons\rE c varid
from yclr to Jrc.r dcpcndingupoo thc conditions.Msny shipowncrs
took prn io this rgr..Ecnt, aDdnaturrlly it lcft Mastc.saod Ofrcan nor! fira to concantrrt! upon thc hazrdr of ica Collitiont bcc.mc lcarfrcqu.at but icc trrgadicrcotrtiouo4culEistids i! lho l6t
of thctlt@rtc,Tbr folowirs yaar( l9l3), a! IrtalnrtioDrl lcc Prtrol sr.
at up to tac? a vigiLnt r.rtch on fhc Doatdqrro|rt ioc rrat" Todly
thc Ftrol it n iitrilcd by !urf.!. .!d .ir c ft, |!d i. Er!|rFd by
ahcUnitcd Strt . Co.rt$rrd, whilc tbc cort L tb.rd bctnc.o rhc
nriooa orritino Govaiuanta.
Duritrg ttc ica railoA thc Itrtrol brold65ts in bulLti!! rt dm
lomc tiDGin Mdch. AIbr
.ad l2m G.M.T. Gtrydey, commcDcidg
rlcaivhg thc fr.t bu[6in, Mstcn |'c skGd to tt|trlmit ful Etbcf
rr?ort cllry rix hourswhih thcy all situatcdbatwca!th. /Oth .dd
5othp6r.[cb.!d thc 42rd aod60thbciidi.n. of w.!t loqirudc. This
t.trla r dld Ftrpoaq for it arairtathr lca Patrolard cdabLrthc htilr
to t @ . do.. trrck o! .hip! i! rh. vbinig. Th. lco Pdrol mry ftDorl
vclsclswbichlrc obacrvldool to bard ica wrmingr.
109

ICE
Bdor! ,ailitrg, M|!tai!.r! ldvir.d to obtriD rll polaibb bforEatioD
&t8rrti!8 ica locitad ia tb! vicitrity of thair bt Ddcd couna Oo thc
eoyalc rhay rbould d.nnac thc uE6t vigibnca iD d.rhrat or poot
vi.ibility, .d nrlc rutE thrt cEry ir bull.ri! ir rlociYd.nd brooght
!o tb.ir trodrcoiriEdLtdy. Tbc followiry arlaaoDGof rbc nrny tcrnr
l|lad ir coDlacio! with ica lavilitioa:
&rar.'c v*l
whicb i! h6hd
iD .Dd lurroudd by ic.. Thc rhip
ca!trot b cottolLd, but ir not mcc*rrrily udcr prirruE fron thc

rc*
tortg. th. oFrrtion of forciq r g.y $rough hc uadcrtto rhip,r
DOIL! pOWCr.

50 fi

loft

16'F

l* ft

Carrrtt' fbc bfcatint svry of icc ftoE r bcrg;glrci6, or b.rriai.


CorBqt ationof i@ ov.x thc .cs fu matsurtd ia cightt of thc l.{
sudrcc.Whctrotrc<igbthi. ioccovqtd th. watcrb srid to bcoFo.
C&r. r?. rcfcrsto s covcre8aofsn to cight+ighths,whilc a oovcrrgc of cight<ighths witt Do watrr visiblc is rEfcGd to as
6@lthL.t i!c,
Cro.t.. . ro.[ br!.t i! .! ic. fd4 rhicl ir ||!tr.vit tb.
l4r, ,..' ba vhich ir attarhcdto thc gotrod.
neA kz: . WD ta of s icc&ivro cloadytogattar,It Dry hart .
vrn rutftcc .r.a ald i! gr! tly in!6ccd by rild .rd cufiroE. tt
ia D|idy oodtrd fo th! Afttic |Dd coartat|tlaa, ald c!.not atu.
yiv! fo.lorg f.r ftom thG.hoG. It ir ofEry 6rllo dr.,!flq hrt
Dry bc axtrrody har4 F tbuLrly if 6rty or grccoolorrcd.
Fidd ioc i! doo.ptirdy toft io |ppcarrDccald ir c.dy paoatratrd
o! !hr,k {f, whi:h ir ng!.4 rvtilc rhc r!.thcr cdt i. dody
F.&.d .!d edl dd!.d. Wnhi! r fd4 .Ddl pl!.. uey ponc to
b. di"!-o-!
hr!c, t}n t, .!d h..vy.
tlo".. aDplir..r a g@d iaaa to dl frrgffi
of ica
Ibd.rA.' . piE of tffi ioobrvilg . bflIoclGdor L|nro.&d rGct
rath.r liLc r hcrg. lt Ery cxcc.d 15m id hcighi &bovcac.-tcvcl.
60r&r.'r aorll loa c.h!d ftoe . b.rl. Otiadgrr.n i! cotour.
teur./ icr: icc whichis morr rtan 3 m in thickr.ss.
.Lrtooct. r molrld or tilocl rbatr i! D(oducodi! ioa urdar tir
Fr..trt. of rrqourdios ica
Ic dat: h cr, turparaot irc rtiA rrti:wr tro hatdq or
stFDgthuoailit is ooolcdbclowrbout -9.C. It is alBostDlirblcduc
ro tt .otr.Dpd Ly.o of dL
Idd.. r I@& !.tror, !.vig & d.!d
wi6i! .! io. fd|l
Iiltpd i.ci 6rvtl, totr'd cat6 of ica up ro rbout 0.5 m in dirdctcr.
.lv&pdr . rhip whit ir b..Gt|nd uDd.. Dtr..ul! oficc,
110

tcE
Pacf ira. othcrgiscaaLd t d t?. or icld ioc.whan lbc Fok b8 !o
LDcsor kadr vkiblc it i! rcfcnrd to r! cl* prc,k Wbaoopat,
silh mrtry frrcs visitrlc,it n y b 6lld loos, sdbE, or &Yt tc.'
rld ca! lomatimcabalaviSEtrdat ful tpccd.
Pancakeicei n@tl!-fofiitodpiac.s,circularin shaF, ttd up to 2 m 6ft
in dismctrr.Thaains al! oftadriirad.
in cloccFc.k-iccahcd oE c.t of icc
R{ted ic.: tn GM dM
ovcrri&s alothcr, uodcrPrcssura
,Rotta,irr. icc whichi! hotrcycoEbddlE to tha9i!8,
Sc.eww pa.k:ia paEki{' uddrr coolhot rotatio! ducro windafraclt.
Thc moliotrof thc icc is &rScroB to a rhip'. phtitr&
sloru irr.' icc whichha! bacnc8t uhol!"
st rinS, thc rcl of forring s ahiptttough cloccFck by sortils tha
cngincarhcad.nd thc rudd.r from aktcto rfttc'Tbc io6 rrc fotlcd
aFlt
Srrrr i! d.d!c dudgeicc,
S/tda..'or 6rdri, ootrlitt! of ttn![, roft ica .ld alulb, rld it laualy
rbc arcctafp ofp.ct ica.
srr{r[: icc cr,ttat o[ lhc va&da rufrcc' It Poaaaastro Lantnaan
ard ir thc f$t ttata of tutfrca fttatilg Tbc walcralpa.rt oily ald
qpaqua
fooE i6?.'na*tyfomcd ica rYitbno lr|c6 of huerdoc&iog.lt b uP
8in
to an on thick.
lyo*i,E: bding oa alcltitrgthroughtha io.NAVIGATIOi{ IN I@
(.) Itt,.t| r.tid d 6. V..td
Whctrthc vclacli! crF{.d to p|!. thlouth Fcf ica,ttfuh i! lhc
North Prcific may bc vcrt prolifr, thc cr,a* ahouldcquiPltaodv.a
?ith clothitrgluitrblc for !u.h r voy,4!. Thc dcd( nxLiffiy, ud if
pocritJbtha rifgbg loo, rhodd b. colltld *ith c.trv8. Tha ha.ti!8
3yrtad3throudout thr rcaaalmust bc cbac@ PuDpilt &at orti'
huhd, .!d r[ drrinrgc c.h.clcd.Qurntiti.. ofdtling ooEpould Dry
ba put aborrd .d tbc dccb lad lup.rrtstlctur Goatadxitf, it ju.t
ald h..It sthaa. Th.
bcfor! crcountcdrf frEzidt tloFrtutla
ptitrt-b.uth
or,prty
may
bc
rppliad
by
coopound
8un Pktara. |trd
irc rtatt ctr lhoutd bc providld. A mattod rt .otb r pkbrc, brt
h8 oDlyonc atkc, thc .nd of whichif ll.ttcrcd out ilto r l0-12'ao
bhdr. itc insuunadt i. lrcd riDiLtly fo a crrFDtadt dE, eith tbc
hgr rcl !Frt, rd cmployilg a stort choplitE noti(m.
It ir advisebtcto natc surctb.t th. thip ir nd oquiP.d ritl d.D.l!
cotrtrolSEarrld lc.ltoPinS aquilD.ot, itAdiag @aat, t.!4 aiaal
A $rolity of
d.tr* lhorirg, coltuiotrrut& .nd Ftcdt ti!.rt{ol|F[
lll

!cB
aoftsood ts.dg6 dry provc lo b. of valua l.tr fijnt tcnpaartttrts
fro Elio
dlct .tc.m ctrgi[csrhould bGdrrircd ad thc vc.tHcck
iloler.d rld dEitrad. wirtct-gr.dc oib thould bc ulad ebarc rr.om6aodd. Pctrolcngina, ifwrtcr-coolcd,tbould bc driilad oac$lippcd
rith aiti-frcarc, sld brttcrica carcdfor rccoding to tbE&alc/a i!_
ruuc'tion!.SomcthoughtshouHbc 8ivctrto . ruitrblcjury ruddrafoa
thc pi.ticuh vcr..l, .!d tb. traclaaary
fr|r obtdlad.
Thi! Bummlryof prrcrutiorF ir by !o mc.!, oospLti ltul i3 itrtcrdcd to cov6 ralirnt point!
(b) TL hd.dhof lc.
most
rcliablc
irdicrtiod of thc plErctracof icld icaaDdof
Oncof tha
ro crttlmely lirgE bcr& sucbs. s tabular tyPq i! ,cr ,l,h&' Tbia jr 3
wbitbh glfi! iD lha sky,oo thc ho.izo! in lha diractiot of tha ba, lDd
may cxtcndto l5 d.grcd dtituda lt jr duc to thc intcalc Glaatioo of
UghtfrorDthc icc su.facc,atrd accordinglo tnrtry dpctiaoccd Atctic
lldgatori i. molt marlcd i! r clcar,fDc tnorphclcwblo thc lky i!
rnifonnly covctdwith cloud, Tha ,.. .ppca$ bhok baaid.tDc icc,
|trd llfcciiolr faol! thc 3.. Droducca wrat !t/. Thi! cfiacti! Dort
tn.*cd l'ithin |lr icc blirl, prni:uLdy wh.d thr thiP ir b.*t rld rP
p..rs a3black3lc.t or prtchcs\tithi! thc blint' It b r|ldul itr thst it
itrdirrs op.o *tt.r ltrd L.dr. If thc ic. t i i! Floflilh it Dry indi6tc ao ic+cowrcdlsnd m!ss.If tbc icc i! lot ldovovlatd tb a.Dc
Fllov hazr r|ay tc .ocouotcFd dlapitolhc ibaatcc ofLld. TtG icr
btiot i! do6t brilirnr dt r a frts[ frtl ofraow upoa thc icc idd.
Icc btint is oft.r ,..r, fofiun t ly, .t ligbt rt s4rl t! by dry, p.t'
ticr{.rly if thdr iJ eooditit. Thc horizoot l bgt\ .nd to .oDc .!tcnt thc Mght, of tbc blint givcr goodindic.rioDof thc idd |tt - By
day,u{dcr doudtqa conditio , thcrEEay ba !o icc blint, bot tdrlctio! ory produccr mit.Sp ofrbc ica
othcr d!tt! irdud! |o .brupt rDoothitrgof ttc i.a tnd awdl 'tich
mly irldicatr kc to windwr.d. Birdi |!d t ab aitltad fer fto@ Lld
nr|y b. in rhc vtuitri9 of . ptc*. A ruddld f,dt of fog D.y b. .f,'
Fic|trcod on tha adgaof an ioa ic]d ald rlto latSaaNFltGaol aca
!moh, vhcn tl|c laa rppc.n to bc rtlaDinfi Tbc loundt of dl.ill.f,n'
tintr.Dd cdving of trowhfr b|! llt dy ba di*ot .d, thit.bo b.tog
r wrrdn&
Rrdrr shoulddctccts lrr8p bcrgin 5uffcictrttimc but icc-cchocfatl
orc-lirticth a! cffcrcnt13thip cctocs.Sn|ll ic. .ad bcr8' maybc lost in
tlla s.a clull.t. Thc usc of thc whistL to rcturn an .cho from icc
fuuarclhblc,bacaurathc cootouttofthc iocDry pr!$ldt |rrcha! ccbo;
furit r, . fog b.nt h litdy to r!t!.! . f.Lc .cho'
Ary ruddaochlltaa iD a or dr taoF|tutt ahord lot bc rdiod
upoa|t t! irdicatioo tbrt icc ir dt
tl2

ICE
If Srowlc6 er. siShtcd,svcralin a gronP, it mat indicata that. bcr8
i! to windward. from which thcy havc bccn calvcd' Sincca gtowld !|ay
bo sumci.ndy bi8 to c.usc scriousdemagc,a bcrg sightcd at nighl or in
Door visibility should bc passcdro Ditdvat4
All lhcscwaming signsarc ooly supplcmcnlaryto a Soodloolout,
ald ihis should bc mainlsincd i! suspcctcdwatcG fron both forwsrd
and eloft, thc mcn bcing providcd with binoculars' ln clcar wcathcr r
br8 mry bc 3igh&d 20 milcs away, dcFading uPon thc obscrvct's
bci8lt rbovc acalcvcl, whilc in liSht rnist ot dtizlc lhc dislancc is
rduad to l-3 milcs. ln r loc, hazc thc tops of lalgp trcrgs may bc dctaclcd at distrnccs up to l0 milcs. In fog thc bcrg will {ppcar a! a whilc,
lueitrous dtar,. Oo a clcar night *ithour nooDlighl it b unlik.ly that a
sharplookoul wilt dctc.t a bcrgat distanccsb.yond aboul 5m mcttcs.
url6s th. baringis kDo*n, and thc scamay thcn bc ot6lrvcd brclkit8
rlsinrt it, vicwcd through binoculats, at a rangp of up to a milc.
(c) e|!S
lL P.cf
rvill
havc a dcccptiwly qlrict appcataft., but is lo bc highly
ThG ic.
rBgcctcd at rll rimcs. If thc far boundlrid of thc ficld 8rc viiblc h i3
bcticr to dctour lhc prck ud avoid ir altogcthcr. If thc far boundari6
|tc not visiblc thc bar.rds withitr ihc pack arc unknown and thc ship
mry ba bcact rnd dppcd lo both cr!6, thco, wc arrivc at thc wisclt
c.trclusio! ofrll, which it to avoid pack icc at ill colts.
If cotry it inGvitablci! lhould bc madc at right anglcs ta tha lee alg.,
whcra thc ic. ia brokct and loo5c.Thc vcssclis cntcrcd vcry slowly, rld
rFcd i! g'rduelly idctcelcd to a $fc lcvcl, mdcavouring ncvct to lorc
wry, for thctr thc to.3 wiu closc in on thc propcllcr etrd ruddcr. lrokoul! rhould bc postcd high up to wrtch for lcrds, thc laltcr po$ibly
clo3ing vcry soon aft.r bcing sightcd.Thc conning 3hould bc donc from
tho b.ktlp so rhrt a bcttcr apprcciation of lhc icc sizc is possiblc.
At all tirDca,thc stcrn must bc carcd for, bcaring in mind that a ruddcr
Dowdcnt to avoid a ic will swing lhc stcm towardr it. Mcn should bc
po.tcd aG cquipFd with torchcs, $/hfutlcs,or a tclcpbolc, !o thll lhc
bjidgc catr bc itformcd ithmcdislcly rhc proFllcr is codrtr8arcd, p|rticuLrly in thc casc of twio_scrcws.
tt i5 unwisc to Gbtcr hummocky or raftcd icr whcrc prtssutc cxistt
rdd thc v6s.l is lik ly to bc nippcd. Th. hummocks glncrally lic iD r
dirrction at riSht .tr8lcs to thc liic of motio! of thc ioct, .trd Palsll.l to
cnckr ald lcadr.
Thc ravigrtion of pact icc lEquitas PAdcncr,colstatrt vigihncc, prcfcnbly rxpcricrc., aDd cxttcdtcly good judgcmcot Thc ship wrll pmb_
ably hradlc alu88fuhlyar tba low lpccds, and e tum may rcquilc t buRt
abaadotr tbc cn8ifts, usiogfuU hclm. Thc shorlar end bcamiq tha shiP,
thc battcr .hc will lum. Etr8inc movcmcnts from rhcad to as&rt, tnd
113

tcE
vioc vlrsr, rhould bc nlldc crrEfullyto ivoid .trcasingthc thsfii!8 io
low tadp.f'brr., which|rl dcEimcntrlto atcclrnd iron.
Whcnthc cunrot is itr lhc lrsc di.lcliod r! lhc wind thc icc tcn& to
oF!, but in thcrcrrscconditiotr!. cl6a ptck is formcd.ID suchr pact
thc fo6 *ill hav! to bc forccdrpsrt by slcwi!& and s thick fcndcr
lhould bc rigSpdotcr thc 3t d. whcn clc.vi!8 thc ic. lhc ruddcrwill
bavclittb cficct andth. sbipwill follow tbc ctact.
SharprltlraiioDs ofcounc rhould bc rvoidcd, el'd thc ap.td tbould
bc kcpt to itlcrr8p rvEyir clo3cprct, whilc up to 8 Lno$ canbc ulad
35tcd
in sc.ttcrd p6ct ica.lr i! frcqucr y lEc6saryto work thcGDginc
in p&k icc and8lthcr stc.dsry. whcDthisis doncthc ruddcr3houldbc
tcpt rroidrhiF to afford sooc protcctiod to r siDgh rcrw. Trvi&
scrlwsrrc varyvuLocrrblcrytcn boving sstcmid ica,aodthc actionof
sta.nflayihould bc tccomprdd by bur3tr rhcrd on thc proFlc(!)
ehcoclrr icc approrctG thc ,6ce(3). Thc tqulti!8 *r!h wil tcod to
cLdr r chan&l ir whichto cortitrucbackitrg,
At trightit i! prdcrrbL ro hcavc-to,sitrocthc ldtaa cunot bc !acn.
Tla vassclrhouldbc rtoppcdalongsidcthc lccd8a of thaicc,whcl! lhc
will drilt sith thc Fck. If rhc i! .toppcd slotr8thc v..thrr cdgcthc
phtiog i! lit ly ro bc !.riourly dsn.Scd by griDdiDgbcttr.a thc hull
!!d rhc ica.whar hoE-to at Di8btr watchmustbc kcpt for Lrfc [oc3
aad bcrgr rNct mry wort througbtbc icld loerrdt thc abip.Such3
wrtcb shouldbc ailcd by ttc ulc ofpowcrful li8bb. Duti4 rhc dght
..a-wai.r-lubricetld t il+nd shsnt |tE itr d.!8pr offrca"itrg up, andi!
tha crlc of rindFscrrw '&$.ls thc rfur pc.t t nt ahouldbc flkd wilh
vrtar, l(.pt warE by mca!, of r strrm-hoaailjcctio4 Ia sdditio! to
thi!, tbc cart rtcrtr tubcb.comaacxc.t iwly bridc at lorl tlnFratutla.
h twia.cclcwship6th. rrn tub.3 3houldbc aiEilrrly k Dt watd.
Modcn prrcticc i! ioclincdto oil-lubric.tld tid-.nd rhd! |nd Fovidcd rhc cortlcl gndc of oil i! urc4 thc d88!r of ft!.zing up i!
rodl.
A twin-ccrcwship6houldpttfcrttty n vigte icld icc itr tbc trka of
|tr kc-b&atct. Whcncmploitrg sucha va$l it fu d6ir.ttL th fhc
followingahipsbouldlot hlE. bc.m glitaa thsn thc brl tar, bactula
tlc lcrd! .r..t d wiu ba qdtc trlrow. Followingan icbrcatct tDay
Gst il ihlrp tum. on lbc cdgEof iocs, ud fcfdcfr .houldbc libarally
u!a4
Whctraavisatingin 3ludgcthc condo:cr inlcrr may bcconccholcd
with icc prniclcq aod! c.!. i! o! rccotdwhqt a ship*8 rbk to coDtbc frc m.in to lhc ndtr tca inicctiotr Thc frt
bdt thi! by cooDacting
Drio w.! tcpr aupplicdwitt *arrn YJ|t.t by couPlingil b rhccondcDlaf
di!.,h!r8p,lhc srtrf coolilt aufici.ddy fo! lhc cond.n!.r to fulction.
Hot wrtar ahouldbc rEadro iuah srt r clo.cL in ordd to pra,!trt ,oil
pipc3froe frEitrg up. Any wiocl6 or dcck nlchhcry likaly ro bG
114

ICE
rcquircdfor useshoutdb. kcp! slowlyruDningif iupplid by stlin,
ooccLrtrpcraturqs
appro.chfllaziog poinl
SomctiDca.
a v6scl rnty nevigat bctwccnthc pccl focud tbc cor.t'
Itr thisc.r. a! ofrsholrwitrdb ddirrblc, .!d . 8r.vr dt!&r .xi!t! if thc
wiDdchalgFsto sn orlhorc blo\r, fot thashipwil bcb6ct aodstnndcd.
(d) UA.r B..ct
Thc v6scl will bc ou! of cotrtrol,.rld vcsscbwith rtrriS[t sidc! rrr
crp.ci.lly vulncrablaA ship bcsctin .arly rvintc. fu in Srrvr d!n86
from I build-upof prEssuEwithin thc pack,and from tcrSaworkitrS
throuSbtha 6cld. Fftqucnt damagpto thr iuddcr and proFla(s) it
litdy ehcn bclcl. Initiallt actiod should bc ttkcn rr for t dpFd
v!*!d.

(.) lvt . Nf
Th.rEi! litcly to bc coDsidcrabb
ddltregcto thchull, ruddcr,!trd pr(F
wb.l nippcdforwan4 i! to otdai
Thc
actiod
uluaUy
tatcn,
FIHO,
futl spcadaad u56full, lwiDgidgruddcr. Thc actioDDry b. .ccompsiicd by bu.t! of full ..hcadad fufl ast rn in th. c.!. of i .hip
strGngthcdcd'for
icc nsvigetion.If lhi! f.ik, rttcDrpbrhouldbc dadc to
t.im rd/or liit thc rlsscl, !o rhlt ihc frt.3 bcrsaf. A ship bclat and
3ufcriry incrcrsi,lgprtsturc from thc p6ck may tar! hcr altil! hult
bonom nippcdofr, lcavinghcr lying oD tftc icc. whco thc i{:cpora i!
thr 3prio&or b.forc ifpin& !!d currrntt ttr ruitrblq thc abipfou!dcB. lf at anylimc r oan dcscrtr&ro thcicc ard wdtr ovc.it hc ahould
crrry a boathookhcld horizortally acio$ hir ch.rt ro thrt if hc fdb
bctwcctr006 or throwh a crackin a foc, hc ha !om. mcarl!of tup
port
(f) N.rtdbg N..r B.'tr
Thc.c s.r p6st d lcrvinSitcm to hav.rd to avoidporritilc gio*Lrt
Dur to cro6ioorrd Ecltiog rt 3cr-lcrtcl,il mry rppc.r tbrt thcy rt!
smdl, and cloaclrvi8rtion ir poraitlc To|rtura or lcdlr. of icc rtl
likdy to Fojqrt outw!.rd6flodr tbao bclow rrtlr for dirt|lccr ,t
.xc.ss of ta metres,attdthcy mustthdrforc t givcna widc bcnh.
C) Podtldrg 6. $tD
An arrifcial horizoo may bc us.d for 3ightswhctrsurroundcdby
p.ct ic.. A buckct of oil i! roitrblc. If . b.ct-$!h ir po.riuc, tbir
rhodd bc ur.4 i.c. thc p|n ofttc horizodoDa rrciprocalbaariu fr6
thc body ir utilircd if clcsr of icc. Tbc irtroduc-tionof ratcllitG atrd
Irren ad Dcccr trrn!|ftsions hrr Brratly simplifd thc Foblctrr of
pcirion fndiDg in prcl icc.
115

35ft

ICE
(h) To*ing in Icc
It has ben found that a vcry shon towlinc is desi.able, bul in drc
cascof largc vess.lswith high forccastlcsthis cntails a dimcdt lcad. A
bridlc is gcoclally prEfcrablcto a sioglc tonlinc. Towing is only possibl
through pancakc icc or olEo pack, a concentration of up to fivc. or
six-tcnths bcing the m.ximum pcrmissibl. for this mancuvrc. lf thc
toq,ing vessclhas to stop, a strotrg wash astcra from ihe propellcr(s)
(i.c. cnginc(s) workcd full ah.ad bricfly) will Prev.nt thc to* from
ovcr.idinS.
(D Anchorilg ad Mooring
A vessalshould ncver be aDchorcd ncar a glacier coast due lo th
risk fron calvinSbcrgs.If forcd !o anchorin icc th. chain shouldbc kep!
at shor! stay. Therc is a great dangFrof such a vessldragging, particul.rly iflbc p6.k bcarsoo h.r wcathcrsidc.lfanchoritg ncarfasticc thc
v.sscl rhould bc rcady to lcavc immcdiat ly thc wind blows onshorc,
for with icc alrcady castashote,it follows that mo.c may aPproachfrom
wind*ard. The windlasa.trginc, ifs&am-drivcn, should b. kapt running
slowly whilc at anchor. la beys *ith drifting ice thc shallow.st, 3afc
depthsshould bc choscnfor at anchorig!, for thcn largEbcrgs or flocs
will probablygroundbcforEstrikingthc shjp.
Wlrcn hovc-to at night it is trot oormrlly ncccssaryto sccurc to tlrc
icc. lt is bettcr to stop ftar small flocs rathcr than bi8 otrcs,baaauscthc
formcr, undcr ptcssurc,will hummock aod raft and r.licvc thc ship of
strass.lfit is csscotialto s.cuG, th. vassclshould lay alolgsidc a floc
having a concavcbight itr ir with two projrctions, rathcr likr al srtificial
dock. Thc hult is thcn clerr of icc, cxccpt et thc projcclioos (whcrc fctr'
dcrs cao be uscd),*hich will pro!ct lhc ship lo somccxt.Dt from drift'
ing flos. Such a floc is somctimcscellcd tn ic. do.k. Thc vcss.l i8
sccurrd cither with a spccial ic. anchor droppcd otr to thc icc or clsc
by cutring r shallow, fltt-bottomcd hob it thc ic. as far from thc 6hip
ai possibieand scning a baulk oftimbcr in it calLd t d.aAnat' W^t t i3
thcn poured itrto thc holc to f.lczc thc dcadman into lhc ic!. A hc.vy
strop is attach.d to lhc timbcr. Tha mooridg lioc mty rhco bc passcd
ash6rcto thc dcadmaa,whcrr lhc ayaof thc lioc is laaurEdto thc strop
by mcansofa wooda! to88lc.

2CfF 3dF

(t) Ic. Accrction


Thc addition of toPwcight icc .dvcrsdy afccts thc slability of thc
vcsscland caursdama8cto grar, ad injury to tbc crcw, padcularly in
thc cascof ic. falling froD riggidg sad tbc masts,rcrirls, ctc. S.a_watci
spray {/ill fr..za otr to a cold supc6tructut! *tctr thc rir tcmFraturc i3
b.low -6"C and tbc waler tcmperatureis bclow -l-C, the freczrng
l16

tcE
ooinl of s.o-wata.bcing -2"C. h r wind of twclvcknotslld rbovc' 2Al"F
iudct suchcoldirioas, rhc ioc Eay build uP otr dacb ard ttn&-nfta
id cxct3sof 5 cm Fr hour, portic rrly iD a hcad_ 2 i n
at e rrlc aornctimcs
*ind.
G&zadfrod it likcly to occuro! thc vrlsd whc! rait f.lb o! to th!
fr!.ziar .ru.trlt!+ .!d tb build-uPof Oit iccmly b. vqy r.pid. FG.helcr icc. auchar thjf ir vary brittb .!d G.tily brota! twty, udilc
rrlt-wrtcr icc. Thc formrtion of thrcd frolt otr th! drck wil plwctrl
from tccpi!8 ol thcir fcct,ud.rlt ahouldb. rprinltcd oDiL
DaoDIc
_
'It drngcr oa. li3t arisd *han !Pr.y is ahipPcdod ody oncridc of
thc vrtad.ll b Eoat iDportalt lo clartlc icc r! qui:kly .t pottitto,
rld in thi! colncclio!, dl lnow thould ttc rwcpt up |ad jcttilonad tt
ooccbcfol! it D{ctt tighl lf wrlhd rw.y rvithsslt wrlcr by Ectu! of I
haa thc dr rod 6GrtcdFr.turcr lbould bc chccl(cdhcfoEhd4 olhar*i!a thc wtta mry ftlcn. Thc uaaof r d+icirlg comDouddsill Di!i'
eiro thc occrctiol of ic. lsd facilitttc it! ltoovd thaitallcr. Thc ioa
lhouH bc choppcdiwrt Yil! pict!, thovcb, .d mtSoclr u qubtlt
rr tbc mco crl work, Thc uscofr rtcaD hola to Dclt tbc ioaDlt ba
dtaeprcd, but it mry bc foutrdthlt th! rt aD it tuuimrtitrs itrto hoar
frolt,iunhcr as8ravrtilg mrtt rs. Sublitutiotr rrfao to rhc htaritio!
ofr gar itrto ..olid wilhout p.tsilg thro'r$ e Iiquid alrge
TG b$ of somcwrtcb, prnicularly [rhi4 cI'$ hr.3bactrrttribut d
to a r.Did build-upof iccrnd htrf qp6idng. Subftt zi!8 Gop.trturta
ard icc rccrctiotr mulr bc rrponcd to dl lhiF rtrd locd Auootitic.
iDocdi.tt ly.
Icc rcc.ltion oD wh.clhouscwindowscrn bc ltdlimiz.d by thc uac
of.lcctrkdly hastcdglassin conjuction vith ft!sh'*rtc. rprrys rnd
charic wicn. soDc vcssclshrvc stlas pipcs6ttad tound crtcrior
Ect t doo; so thrt ttlc dogrdo oot fr..zc uP, Prrlniin! thcm from
bcilg oFDcd.
Tb irrcrutiond Icc Prtrol, ptwioutly mcntioncd,is Piid fo. by
cotrdbutioDsfrom Bcllium, Crorda, tbc USA, thc USS& Spri.'
J.Datr,Dcndtrl, Fraocc,ltaly, Holand, Norvry, Su,cdcn,el'd thc
U;itcd Kinsdom.Evcryyrar on l{ April, th. Ptrrol &oF r wrrth rt
tbc aircof rhc sinlil8 of thc TITAMC.

tl1

CHAPTER VI

LIFE-SAVINGAND DISTRESS

Fl-lsE
importancc of inslantly .e.ogoising all distrc$ iignalt md
I bcitrg fuuy convcrsantwith thck use,toS.thcr wilh lhc proccdurr
for rcndcring assi3lencc,csnnot b too strongly mph$b.d. For
I
ihir &ason e *holc chaptcr is dcvotcd to this s.ction. Thc ta&r rhould
thoroughly familiarisc himsclf with thc tcxt, contcntsof curEtrt Noticca
to Marincrspublishcdby thc Admiraky. and thc excellcntMcrchant
Shipping Notice published by the D.partmcnt of Transpon in thc
U.K. (D.o.T.). Thsc public.tions rrc obtlineblc ftec by Mastrs
ftom Mcrcaotile Marinc offces and Custon Houla$
Most maritimc countriG providc a lifc-s|ing scrviccfo. FrsoD! iD
distnss in thor coastel aFas. Onc of thc big86t fsctotr in pmviding
assistanc.is thc radio walch rcquiFd ro bc maitrtaincd by vcssalsof 50O
tonsgrossand upwards.The watchis kpt on a frcquencyof 500kHz
if radictclesrapfiy(wfD is fittcd, and on 2182 kHz with radio-tclcphony (RfD. Thc warch is to bc meintaia.d ai all timcs cxca?t ebcn
thc opcrator is Frforming othcr nacaasarydutics, duting ehicb tim6
hc should cndcavour to kcap t loudapcakcr warch. Sil.ot pcrio& rrr
laid down from 15to lt and 45 to tE mirut6 prst a.ch hout ofG.M.T.,
during which lh frcqucncy of 500 kHz must not bc uscd cxccpt for
distrc$, urSFncy,or sefcty sigDals.ln thc csscof R/T ttc libnt Friod!
for 2182kHz are from (I) to 03 and 30lo 33 minutcspastcachhour of
G.M.T. During s[ rh6c silcot F iods cv.n vdscb whicb do not comc
undcr thc Mcrchaot Shipping (Radio) Rulcs rcquircmcnt! a.! $k"cd to
maitrtain r getch.
Whco an oFrator hcars! distr.$ all hc must atrlwai it it lhc ramc
timc allosdng e sufrcicDt intcrval for shipsto ackoowl.dSpit sbich trt
closcr to ihc dbtEss.d vcslcl. Hc murl th.n infotu bi! Meltcr of thc
c.Il, whcth.r othrr ahips ecknowlcdgcd il and thc politionr of tholc
3hips,Thc Mastd may thcn iostruct him to rcFst thc call otr thc dis_
trrss frcqucncy,particularly ifhis ol/n ship is utablc to rctrdcr tssistrocc
or if othcr ships havc not acknowlcdSadthc initial c5[. All .clcvant
perticulaB must bc cntcrEditrto tha Redio Logbook.
Meny British shipshavc portablc wff aquipmcnt for uscid lfcttor$.
Thcscunitsare able1otransmiton 5m and E364kHz and to rcc.ivcon

11E

LTFE.SAVINC AND DISTRESS


500 kHz. Thcy ar. also ablc to automatic{lly transmit on 5m lHz, thc k/cs k/cs
aulGalarm signal (12 dashcs hrving onc sccoid in&rva|& .ll mtdc
within a minulc), foUowcd by SOS scnt thrcc tilncg togcthcr with a
subscqucrt lonS dash, so thal listcncrs can lakc r tadio bcati!8 ofthc
rransmirtcr.On 8364 kH/ lha samcsiSnalis automaticallyleycd with k/ca
tbc crccption of thc eoto-alarm siSnal.A maDudltcy is also providcd.
disat.tt tigah *nt to a sp.cific addrcssarc unwirc, sinc! in
Pivi
rhc rbscncc of a gcncral distcss call lhc public acrviccsarc unablc lo
rcndcr alsistanccor to tclay lhc c.lt Publicly. Ifthc scodcr Pcuni! of
Lloyd'r bcing informcd, thcn and only thcn, thc Coastgplrd wil bG
notiicd, who will alcrt acscrlcscrviccswhcncncccssary.
VEISEI.S MSSING OI OVERDTJE
By contacting Lloyd's IntclliSlnc. DcPertmcnt thc lattcr wiU lcnd
out a g.na'.I mcss:t8Eto shipPing on rhc owncr's bchalc via a Coast
Radio Station. Lloyd's will also alcrt appropriatc Coastguardsiation!.
For frshingvcsscls,howcvcr, thc Codstgusrdsmay be infotm.d dircct,
or pr.fcrably through thc local Inspcctot of Fishctict (or sinilar oftccr),
who commcnct a saarchand rcscucscrviccon thcir own initiativc.
PUALIC DISTRESS SERVICBS IN THE UMTED KNGDOM
In addition to vcssclsin thc vicinity ofthc distr6s call, a$istrncc m.y
bc rcndcrd by any of the followinE:
Coas, Radio StatrbN (controlled by Bdtish Telcom ht.), who
keep warch oo 5m and 2lt2 tI'Iz. A cal is rclayed on all fitquercies l/cs
b ;hip6 al sa and also to shore Aulhotities by othcr suitsble
conminication. Thcse stations ar mo6dy able to trb rrdio beirinSs
of thc catl on 5(X)lHz---{ome can also do it on 2lt2 tHz. They tecp l/cs Ucs
H.M. Coaseuad inform.d lhougioot.
The Rotal Natioul Lifcboa, I^ttitulian b $ai'ittained by charity.
Each of the 12Ooff-shore boats has R/T oFrating on 21E2kHz. All k/cs
arc fitted with VHF/FM and MF radio together with VHF and MF
radio dircction-findir8 equipment.
Hd Maj.sty't Coartguad is a lifc-saving orS isation *hich
kro6 a radio watch at 99 ccoEEs on VHF CbanDl 16. Tbe ara
covircd extends from the UK west to 3f west and betweq 45' at|d
61" North.
Th. Ror?'lNaey pto\tfutF scarch vesrls,airtr"Nfl atd hrlicopicra.
Thc Rotal lit Fotce providcs a sirnihr scrvicc !o thc Roy.l Nsvy,
Thcy arc primarily rcsponsrblfor s.rvicc and civil aiffiaft c8ullri6,
although thcy extcnd thcir scrvicc to all pcrsonswhcn ablc to do 30.
Ai. ,tafrc .ontrol c.ntr.r, which assist in gthcritg end rcLrint
sarch dala.

119

LIFB.CAVINO AND DISTI,ESS


|r! noti6.d of c.!udti.. by Co|!r Rdio St tiolr, .d |rc
I&/r
ttad tlapotr|iblc for ilforDilf ocaa!.loitrt tt[t.
Ofrcqt oftt ntfaf Ir.prt rratt, whocodtactthaCoadfrdd tvb.o
fthirt vqa.& .I! ovladuc,
DUTTESOF MTSTEN
A Maald, or pcrconi! c.har8.ofs t!aa4 mult.!.i!t cvcryFl8o! lt
ras h dsnfFr of bcitrgloat,cv.o if thrt Frctr i! froE aDclctiy Stltr.
Hc ItrUltdb thir aotrou a5thctb no la.iout ihtr8cr to bit own .hiP,
DarrcoEm or crlw, A.r aoo! er hc rcccitd thc dilttt$ call, hc m}tt
irocccd a: quic.ny |! poa.ibh to t[c ditt!..t utr rld itrdio.t hit
iotcatoor d ttc iirt irca lE.!o! or Fr.o!!. I{c nay bc ciccrptcd
f.orn &ing if:
(l) h. i! unablcto do ro; or
(D hc cotrtidanit utrruonrua; or
(3) hGoodidcn it u!trcc.3r{rY;or
(4) h. i! td..!.d froD tDcrbow rtstutory obli! iolt
Th. M.!&r of a \,6!cl itr diltlj.ss ttr.y t qtdtt irt ! tLip wbi:h h!!
.!rwtl!d hi! c.ll. Thrt ,hip mu.t th.s procccdto hie *ith dl tpc.d.
Mr.tcfir lrt rdc.*d fro|! ttcir ouif.tio!! to t!nd6 uaiat lcc aa,ooa
a! tbayhc.r of oth.r lbiF bcingrcqui iliotad (Providcdlhc hltrr t!!
coEplirt), or whctrthry erc ofrciauy iDforDcdlbt r|siat|acc ir no
Iolgpr Dccaaaary.
If tho Mot ( frik to .bidc by th.!. ltrtutory rcquiltoc.tt h. i.
ruiltv ofs Disdlocstror|r.If hc docalot rctrdcr|taittllcg thc Madrr
;f airiibh .hip rcgi.rcrcdi! thc Utritld Ki!8doE bu.t clt r bi. t!.'
sonsin thc Ofrcisl Logbook.Evcrydistrcssmca3a&rcccivcdmustba
cDGrcdin lhii Logbook.
VENfiXI' IN DS'TNESS
Sigad! to b. uaad|rt:
(l) A rpn o! othlf, .f,plo6ivr ti8!d f$d .t int n'd! of $out .
Ditrula.
(2)
- A contruou! aoutrdingwith !try fof tiFrUing spPrrdur. CftG
DOT sueceststhal this is unrvis,and rccommendthal SOS
rhoutdd;nr& cotrtiluou.lv on tbc ryFrrtu!.)
(, Roctct or thdb ibtwilt rld rtrn' 0rrd o!. .t e tirnc rt
rhori i lrvdr
(,1)SOSirdc h thc Mona co& o! th. Wff lpFrrtut, ot by .rly
othcr ridtlint mcthod'

lm

LIFE-SAVINC AND DISTR'ESS


(5) Thc tDokd word 'M.yd.y' trrltmittld by Rff'
(6i Thc t;ldoaliot t CodGflf tislal 'NC .
"orrp,itioc " aqurrcf,egheviogrbovc it or bclowi! r
iii
' ' isi-d
bU.-or alvtlilag nscrnblingt bdl. (Thi' i! c'llcd thc ditt"t
den,,l.l
ttt frarneson ttre vesselsuchas a buming tar barrel (The DOT
rcommend that rockcis or red flares arc mucb morc
efficient.)
f9) e iocia iroducing a rcd iat on a perachutc,or ' rcd h'nd

nrrc.
in Wrr or Rrt.
(10)Thcluto-thrmsignal

(l l) An orrD8!3mok._ri8!rl.
ilzi e vcnicrl rnotionof r Fnon's axt Ddad!rm!'
ii3') sicnatstransrnitteaby an EmergcncyPositionIndicating
Rtdio Beacon.(SeePage370)
Db.tr nochtt |!d fb!6
Shior of OasscsI and 7 ara rcquiaadto caaryt$lvc roclctt, clci
cicctiir r rcd fiart on a panchutc.vdsalr of cartaitrotbcr clas'6 mly
;;6,i
;t'] rcd hrnd:lstts, ..ch tbtowing 6vc rcd sr'rs to '5 m t$ ft
-iini.irt.o*i"r
dtitud..
and dislrcssrockcls,rcd fl.rcs and smokcsignd'
thrct )cars aficr marufecturc' Thc condcmncd
Uc
rcn"-*ca
snoutd
oncs'rnai uc jcrrlsoncain iccp watcrwcll awayfrorn co'3ls to tutd
of thcir b.ingwash.dtshorc'
atginsithcpossibility
U* of lrbf.3 Strb
No dbtrcsssignrl b to bc u3cdfor any olhcr Puregs'-'TE ll* oI
proruorlco'
3i.!ab whicharclik.lv to bcconfirscdwith distrcss3ignds13
ald lh'||
ortcR'
thc
Mastcr's
upon
only
D'irtrtir sislals.rc to bc uscd
(oJ
anoItrcr-tnD
or
dro,Sct'
immiocnt
add
(d)
io
scnous
thiP
i3
bit
onlyif
or aircraft is iD similardangcrand cannotitscll us' a slgnal or (', rI
a!ri3tr!c. it rcquiradrddilionel to thl alr.:dy avrilablc' . - - ..
Thc tiFd tr|u3tbc Fvotcd ifrlsistlnc:. is no lol8et rlqulnoo r'rlurc
waic of timc lnd atlri'ly to othcr
o oo rttiiro.v c|ut" unncc.tss!|ry
F !O!t.
Dtrf !! d UrFncy Sltnb
Pro..dE fd Tr|roitd4
Frcou.ncicsuscdar. 5m kHz (wiT) and 2lt2 kHz (RfD Atry otncr
f..""ircr tiiv u" "t"a, ttowcvcr,'providcdessistanccwill b' summoncd

i"ii o"ilirvl" tmt ritqucncy.ibc w6 rlarm sigml i! rutomttirlly


in on. minutc Ttrit oPcoi" thc lulc
ii"*aloa slna. t*.t"",i$h;
to shiF snd colst radiostttio6 lh't
indicatc!
rtirats Jotncr sttipr.tt
121

LIFE.SAVINGAND DISTRESS
r dilta6s call i! rbout ro bc traamittcd. It is imEcdirtcly folo*ld by
SOS!.nt thftc lim6lo opdatr ccrtaidotlt6 ruto-alarms.Tlao fouors
thc Wff distr.ssc.I .ft r a Friod of2 rdtrutG wNci illow! oparators
to !t nd by. Thc cdl corristr of SOS3atrtthrla timas,follocrld by thc
word 'DE , follo*cd by thc ship'scall sigDsaDttht c tim6. Thcn folwhichcolsistsofrhc sbip'smmc' positior, Drturcof
lowsthamcasrga,
distr6s, rtrd .srfutaaccrlquirtd. lncludd in this, for a y63cl drifting,
wouldbc thc catimatd rrtc add diractionof drift. kstly, thc.Eshould
bc .cdt two lc6ccond darhcsto cneblcradio bcarin$ to bc bkcn.
Othcr siglalr, visualaod sound,sbouldbc uscdalso,in da.kNsr aDd
poor visibility.
Ttc Rft rlarm siFrl consistsof two ton s ttusmittad altcm.tcly
aodautometicdlyoycr. Fiod of 30s.coDds.Aftlr 2 minuta6thc Rff
distr*r catl 3houldbc acn!consistingof thr distrcsssi8!d 'Maydry'
spolcn thrcr tim6, followcd by thc wor& 'This is', fo owcd by lhc
ship'3lamc spokcnth&a tm6. Thc distrcssmclsagri3 thcDscDtasfo!

w/"t

Tb w|f Ua..ct S&El


)OO( itr rhc Morsccodc,rrpadtd thtaathan aod lha rpot o word
'PAN-PAN' threc timeson R/T, .Ie usdto itrdicatcrn urgptrtmca,rgp Fgrrdiry thc safctyof thc ship or a pcrloD on boad, or within
ai8ht lr do6 not ncc*rrdly irdicatc immin st drogpror thc nc.d for
in||t.didc lrcbtarca
Thir .iglal hr! priority ovc. a[ siSDaliothc. tl|.l distr.asii8rdr. lt
ia ooly u!.d !i a gcncr.l signal(to no spccificsddrcsr),vhctr a Martcr
uscs fo wartrabiparnd lrdtion! tbat hc may shor{y hrvc to ura tha
dirtrlit riFrl. In suhce!6 thcsigld mustbc Evokcqif pEcautionaiy
tction o! thcparl of othcrFson! bccomdumGc6srly.
ATStr;TAIYCEAVAIL^BI.E FNOM ANCNAFT
Air(irlt c.r |rrfut by dropdoSmrrkaft, rdok oaiamc ioat!, atrd
survivrl cquipmcnt,consistirSof a ninc-pc.son.ubbcrdinlhy ard two
b.tr of rup?1i6.Tbcy ca|l carry out &r rir !..rc,h, locatao carurlty,
l..p it utrdcrob6.rvation,rtrd guidcsurfscccraft to iL Flinf-bot3
m.y bc rblc ro rlight aadpick up survivors,Hclicoplc6mry dso pick
up ruavivorr.
Us. of S..rd ad R6.r. H.li.ott rs
Threcar|rcsc||el0 to lE $[vircrs &Frding otrthetyF oI machitrc.
Som. crry f,|ccc. Navig.to. cquiplncnr. Thcy do not normslly
2m miL3 opcrrtc mra thao 450 Lm from ba!c, .Dd b|vc VHF.trd/or IJIIF

lz2

LTFE.SAVINGAND DISTRBSS
r.dio and FrhaF 2lA, }llz Rn. The ship approachcdby the
belicoptcrshould:
(a) Uscan orangcamokcsigrd to iodic.ic hcrs.lf, or dtcrt.tir&ly
(D)use a signallinglamp to give a steadylight.
(c) Hcad the ship accordingto tba pilot's recomnndrtions.
froroleewad.Thechocen8raof dect
Tbehelicopterwill approach
shouldbemarkedwith a yellowcircularParch5m in d.lameter.
(d) Tow a mrn to bc r.scucd,astcm,in a boat otr a long Fintcr, if
the hclicoptcr cannotpick up direc{ from thc ship.
(e) Ncvcr..curr tbc winchwirr or allolr it to bccomcfoulcd.
(t) If on 6r., havctllc witrdabout2 pointson the port bow.
(r) Indicetcaurfaccwind ditction with fagt, crc.
(r) Do not touchthc winchwircuntilil is anhcd.
(i) Clca. all looscgFarfrom thc transfq arca.
Thc hclicoptrlvill rccovcra manin thc watcrby:
(l) lr\lcring a .uop to him on thc witrchwirc(if h. is rbL to hclp
himsclf),or
(2) low.r a crcwmcmbcrfrorn lhc hclicoptcrto thc msn ifhc fuhclF
tcss.
In bad weathertbe lli-lirc techniquemay be usedv.herebythe
winchwircis enendedusinga rope messcnger.Oncc this is lo*ercd
to tbe deck and in hatrd, but not secued, the hclicoptcr will move
to the side and desceod,paylngout tbe {,ire as it dosso, until the
hook and strop arc on deck.
AIRCNAFT
Radiois not canicd by all civil ai.crafi. An aitcrrft dislrcstcall *ill
normrlly bc transmittcdby radio on thc ftcqucncyin uscal rhcllmc
b.twccn thc &ircraftand th. tppropriatc Air Traffc CoDtrolCcnlrc.
lf unablcto makcconbct, thc aircraft may uscany othct ftcqucncy
thc callrvillbc madc
ro dert anyD/F station.In addition,if possiblc,
on 5(DkHz.
Diit

!3 SilDLs

(l) By WfI on 500 &Hz 'SOS' snt (hrcerimcs,followcd by 'DE,


thcn thc call siSnscnt thrcc (itrcs, lhc position. natuc of distrcss
and lyp of assislanccraquir.d.
(2) By RfI, rhc word 'MAYDAY' spokcnlhr.lirncs, follo*td by
thc call siSn scnt th.cr lirncs snd thcn thc information rs in (l)

IB

LIFB-SAVINO AND DISTR,BSS


(3) Viiudly, r td pyrotachnicliSht or li8hts,r rd Frrchuic nsrq
or thc group'SOS'on siStdliry appar.tu!.
Mcrch| sbiF will rcrnrrlly bc irfo.Dcd of aircrdl caludtid 3t
s.a by Cor.t Radio Statiotra,brordest on 500 lllz o.2182 lHz.
SbiF6nry idc.d bcconrcrwltc of thc c$llrlty by
(a) Pickin! up or i$tcrccptingcallsm.dc by thc airctaft on gI) or
2182kHz or on VHF Channcl16.or
(r) by bcaringrad findin8tha dircclionof thc 500kHztftnlmission
nrsdcfrom a survivalcloft oa
(.) by pickingup mcs.lag.s
f.om Saarcbend Rcscuc(SAR)8ircrtft.
An aitcrrft wbich hes locrrcd r calualty, or sbip oa aircidl in
distr6s, ney notify ihiF in thc srlr by prrsiDga rtrrsrrgpi! Phin
Llg|egr on . signalliaghnp Ptdxcd by thc groupXXX. It mry rl5o
to rttnct a shiy's&ttention,
(o) Firc & succassion
of whircpyrotcchnicli8hts,snd/or
(t) rcFr&dly switchthc htrding lightson .nd ofr, rnd/or
(.) &p.!t.dly rnd irrcgut dy flashit! trriviSstionligbt!.
If lhc rircraft wishcsto guid. thc ship to thc c.luatty or dbtr.ss
rrce- it mry 0y low aroundlhc ship, or closs shcadof hr rt low
dtitudc, oFning md closingtbc throttlc or chrnginSthc propclld
pitc.h.(fo canc.l eny i$trudionE thc sircrsft mry cttry out this
procadurrattcm of thc.hip.) Thcrir.raft wil thn f,y otr itr thcdirlc1ion
in wbict th. ,hip is to bc lcd. Britirh pilott wil rocl tb.i. wingrrvhcn
ffyirt ofr roMr& thc casu!.lty.Th. sltip shouldtclnowkdS. .I tb.s.
rrcsraS.3by scodinga scricsof "fs i4 thc Morsccod.. Thc ship *ill
cith6 folov lhc rirr.It or bdicatc bt visualmcrlt or rrdio lhd shc
cannotcomply.
s.arsh and R6cuc drrrrft, whcn sc.trhing for survivoF, will 6r!
grrco pyrot cbti.s. Thc sil obvioutlybc urc/lrrd by distt6s llxls
(or othcr visu.l siglsls) frol'i thc survivrl c.3fi.
S.l.at Slgr.lr
thc srfcty of nsvigtion
conccrniDg
Airsaft msy trurmit mcasaSas
aJ follo*s:
(a) By wff, thc c.[ k Fdrcd by thc group'TTf .cnt tht! nmcs
i! tba Morsccod., folhrlld by'DE at oE ald oatt thc call
sigtrtrrDlmittd tbrcctinEs.
(r) Bt R/f, thc c.tl bcing pt!6|rd by thc word 'SAYCURITAY'
eot o tbrccti6, follor.d bt tb. c.I dt!.
(c) By si8 lling lrmp.

lu

LIFB.SAVINO AND DISTREEt


CcdlrfdDd.roA|lt'.fr
Nrvirltioo na*.n, or low f,yb& do lol in thaotclvaairdfuai! dit.
trcsr rirorl* Aitcnll tulvivor! itr rubbcr <li4bi6 will idicrtc tbcit
Drcdi..;cdt by ulint rcd.ltu Pyrotchoia b.liogrph!' !..hi!s SOs
on a lrmp or iorth,-uring brig[t_gEn su aa. dyc, or f,yin8a ycllow
litc supponinglhc rtdio acn3l.
Airc;ft oftctr sirt npidly r fcs minuta d!.r dit Li4 .t r..' |!d
rr3cucshiparhould nata r[ tpc.d !o tha !tta. ShiF Ma|t.r| ahould
wtib on ther lly io rha |tta.
ditco$ thc bcstp.ocadut!rr to rcrc.rro
lfth. shiD&ccivl. rbcdittGr sigltl dir.ct fron tt ritcrrlt.bc.hoold
trtc . rrdio bceriogof it rld $d lhi+ h.r Po.itio!, |nd hlt ilbd.d
ac-tionbr ndio to thc lcrrr't CoaatRldio Statio[
A[ r;curd survivon shouldba qu6tioDadaafolost, ao that full
idorEltiotr sr to oth6 po.sibL auwivoBbay ba obt i&d:
(l) 'Did you bdc out or ditch?Wb..t Y.r tlc d.t!.!d tim.?
(2) At wbst dtitudc did you b.lc outf
(3) 'How rtrlly orhcrsbdLd out?
(4) 'tlo$ mrry Dcrtotrtwq! i! thc dlt.n wh.d drc ditd.d?
(t 'How mrtry pcoplcwcrt F!..o! rticr dilditrs?
(6)'How mlDy did you !.c i! thc w rr?
(7) 'whst buoyucy grrt b.d th.tf
(t) 'How n ry Frtolt ftr. odgilrly in ti. tl!t.lt?
(9) 'Whrt ctu!.d thc c.!udty?
If tn .irqrlt it forcGdto ditct tbc c|ptdn of thc rLcnft rill bc
8rc.tty !rsi!t!d i! lo..titrg . sbiDif sh!:
O) Agirr' eith hohing b..tiD8* ot tr|4Eib a ooitblo!| rilral ao
thri thc .irctatt nly uta ib ndio ditElioo ftd.r, or
(2) mstcr bbck tmotc bYdrY, or
(3) dircct! r !..rchtifh Erric.[y uF.rdt ty Dlllt
(4) Providesa lee; this may be dooe by stcsmingin d circl. .nd
.prtadinSvcSettr|coil
fibcrircrrft wiutt udlydit F-.d.DfFott uddi6adloD.rtiotr----otr
thc strtbdrd d& of a ,hip, riG tba CaPt i! utlaly
.it! or thc port iilc oflbr pt|'c.d hr| a batE vi(:t td tb.r
sidc,tL wi[ ditrh hcrd ro witrd,but if...r .r. hi8hh. sin Fob
lbly l.ad id thc r!outh.)
(t lluDi!.tls tb. ... wiltout dazd6.
6m n
a5)Strlrm3 six lhB or brltcrylilhls, in linc .stcrn, I t0 m aFn.
fl) InforD, tl! Dilot of tudraa tlark !trd Drasut!.
isil rtu r botr ;dy ror hulchid& bo.tditri Fb ti8.4 |!d toD
haavhf tir6 rtady.
IE

LIFE.SAVING

AND DISTRESS

sIrD t xlMl
A su[t d subdarinawill try to irdicata bcr pliS[t snd pGitioo by:
(l) Rdcalilg .! iodic.to! buoy.
(2) By fi.ing ycllow,whilcor lld snokacarldlcsor pyrotcchniG.
(3) By pumpingoil to thc lurfacc.
(,{) By Uowingout air.
Blot GtF lllto)
Ir. Id.loi
Maly rubn&i*a, particularlyBritilh onca,lrc ftr.d witl two buoy$
fiom within thc v6scl' Thcyarc
orc at aachrnd, whichcatrbc rElcascd
2?in lt* in cylindrical,
aluminium,68cm in diamalcr,4Tcm dccp,an(F+3s5 ir 3d! fi r fr.cboardof l5 cm.A stirrupatt.chcdto lhc sidcscarricsup to 915
or1-in m of+mm gdlvsniscdstccl*irr roF. A light on thc lop-ccnttcfashcs
c,hite, orce a se@nd,for 60 hoursatrdis visiblein goodvisibility and
ll niLg dr*D.sa up to 3 km wiih thc nrtcd cyr. A ng of cats-.yctdcctors
is mountcdaroundthc light. A whip arrhl is filtcd. Both booysarc
painrcdwith high-visibility
orangepainl.On cachis paintcda sc.ial
or Poli..Do notsccurc
numbcrend'FindcrinformNavy,Coastguard
to or touch.' For idcntificatktl thc buoyfuma*ed 'Foread' or'Aft'.
An automrtic radio, oFrating o! 4340tllz tra$mits:
. !.ot 3 liD. io 30 a.cotds
ScriatNuntbcr(tbrrc fi8urB)
. .ctrt 6 tiEcr itr 30a.con&
sos
. scnt3 tlncs fu 30r.cood!
strBstNK .
. hnitrg 303.cord!
Irng drsh
,l Einut s,
Thc mc.s!g. tr immcdistly r.pc.trd, thc t*o occupyiDg
fol,olcd by a 6tr|ilutc ailcE Atr oF.rtor o! a .hip rbouldrcportthi.
rigarl ra oDc",indicatirgrigpl rtrcogtt, ship'rporitiotr,.Dd ttc b.adng
of the signalwhich hasto last at lcst 35 hours.
. Whc! frdiDg th. buoyihc .bip shor d ftport it o@, rd if po6litlc
giE thc tutduriic'a Danc.
tf a sirylc buoy is sightcd, it is quitc po..ibl. tDrt it i! tdtilt,
bul rtc 'lport muatatill bc msda Thr buoy mry brvc trokcn adrift
fioE. rubdrri& whi:h ha! ror 5unt. It ahouldbc wcighd by hatrdto
ric6t id vhatbarit is edrilt, but r boatDlL* not tc scqrtrdto lhc buoy
oawrla
A vr..cl fldiDg r moocd buoymutt ttaod by, s.[ clc.r atd prEfct_
.tly dorD tidc, with cagitr.. oppd s.nda boatloYtrEdtlady ro pick
up asaapiDg
aurvivoB.To wam Orcqrrfl of a sunkcn$tbmrinc thet
hclpis rt h.nd, Nsv.l r&alckwill drop smdl cxplocivcc.b|r8.art Lalt
I mib hslf a kiloncrrc rw.y. Mcrch.nt vcls.lt should nrn thair .chosou irg machind,or l|ammcroDthc ahip'tplatcrbclowthr w.Grli!.,
t26

LIFE.SAVINGAND DISTRESS
Thcsubma.iocmaylhcn .clcasca pyrotcchnicooatto indicat harpoaition a to rcknorvlcdtgthctaaudiosignals.
A dass-reinforcli plasticbuoy hasred and wbitc vcrtic.l stipcs.
Typc-060 hasrbc saric wire asilpc ([50 Typc mro hrs 1830n of
wirc 3 mmin diameter.Thesbuoystransmitladio signalsfor at least
72 hourson 8364kllz and 243MHz and havemore powerfulligbts.
LIGHT-VESSEIS AND LTGHTHOUSES
--'
Thcscare cquipFd with R/T for the purposc oftlanslnittihS distr$s
calls conccrning th.ir crcws or othct pc$on3 iD distlcss ncar by. Thcy
also makc thc follouring visual dist.csssiSprls
(l) rockct(s) throwing rcd start lccompsDiad by a dcto!.ting 3i8!d'
e soutrd rockct, or thc iring ofa gun; or
(2) lhe tntcmationelCodcSxoup'NC' by mcansof fiags:or
(3) rhc distant signal, i.c. a squarcflag having .ithci rbovc or b.low
it a bsll, or atrything rcscmblinga ball; oa
(4) a dctonating siSnal, which by night, upon b.ing futd rll&ab t
srn.ll, yclto{whitc ftsh accompanicdby . rcpoat Oa rcrchilg
ils rhi;atc hcight cf about l0O m, a latgct similer nashoccurt 3m fl
togpthr with I loud, racking rcport. By dry, thc cfrGctt arc
similar cxccpt lhat pufrs of vhitc amotc trl visiblc both otr bcia!
fiftd rnd at thc zanith of trajcctory, thc httct volwnc of smoLa
bcing much lrrScr end lingprirg for !oi!c corEidcdblc timc.
Thc ihorr Authoritid yril rrply to thcscsiStd!,
'Thudctlidt!'
fttd
By dsy, with str orsngc smotc sigad or tfurc
rt minut intcwels ot, By night, \ritb thrcc whiL 3trt!, 6nrd rt
mi[uta inaarvala.
Thcsc tso siSnalswill also bc usd by liShthou!. tnd liShr_vBscl
cra*! lo indicatc to prrron! in distr63 Dc.r by lhat thcir PliSht hr! bGCtr
ob6crv!d.
D.T.r Si.Eb
Ught-w.scb, rnd romc liShthou!6, m.y dkDhy, oi fl*c, rtry oftha
followin! 3iFals:
'NF thc sitlglcCodGirg 'U" or
Thc lnlcmalionalCodc flaggroup
,
tha f,sshi4 ofthc lcttcr'U'in Mon codc o! thc tignrling htrP, oa tbc
iourditr! of thc Lttc('U' in Mo.sc codc on thc fo8-hom' All thc.c |rr
ulcd !o iodic.G to a Eascl'You rl! dt tding ioto dtnr./. Att otiot
m.y bc drrwtr to tha frg dgrrlt bt r! .a ofa &odrti!8 dtlat or fb.
frilg ofr gu!"

ln

LIPB-SAVINO AND DI'ITBsS


Thc Intrrnrtiond Codcfag group'PSl', vhich m.5ns'Yoo should
not passtoo closlo mc',
C.d.!dd

rtb

r||

SIF ft n

(l.t

d lltcttd

C.tt

Codclrg group!,o.
Thi. nsy bGcfi61cdby boistilg thc @..ty
hDP, or by
Morlc
o!
th.
.itldlitrg
by nrtios thc !hip'3 c.lt lig! h
fashingthc lcttcr 'K' in thc Morsccodc.A light-v.ssclmayalsous. e
$/hitcirrr, or mrkc 'K' in thc Morsccodcon thc foghomin fog. Thcsc
ritDaL etl not d lasa!it!d!.
LlNDrllIOwlNG
AFFIITNOS AND
I,ANDING SIGNAIS
Undcr thc S.fcty Convention,lifc-s.vint stationswill rcply to r
vc$l's diltrara siglal rs follows:
Bydry, with m 018!8. rDotc rigDdor tb.. "Thuld.ditht frld
rt Eitruta intcrvlb or, By night, wit[ lhrlc whitr rtara, ftld rt
Dinuta iltaavalr.
Tt6c ,ifdr idirtc ttrt tbcEsad baaba ra.a rrd thrt aaair|!!c.
ril bc girto .r tootr .! poaitrb.
Io maoycoutrtricsrhc following sigDb ara urcd ehcD ldsll boats
arc ltndiog ruwiyors of wrcckcdvasscls:
IJSE OT IOSET

fo rdr lE! I! TI! Et tt (t tD r^D': hy dry, a Etdcal @lioo o{ |


rbite t|8 or th. um|, rd hy lifhr tb vttlfo.l dion of r wldt! liSht' A
ror
6d
wNG ltit ny irdic.! . dindd. AlLruirdy, r lla
ro& or 'K itr M6E.
'rlxfiiE rlEr !t Eor[y D^r(doot': ht &t lb horbLl
7o ,6
Ey'Sl$bl, lhc
diiod 6f . rtit !|.; or lhc rrr .d.ad.d hdirodly.
ni.y b.
hdizont rnotio! oi. whitc lidt. ALcrn titdy tll! hit r
ulcd h Monc or a rrd !t't roclct.
lllcl
u!,t
ar<fiLy D noudt!. a rdt l ut^lt
Io ,@ l^tm6
ra !{ rE DIEIIE| I{DNCatrD':tt dry, r ttt'to !|. L mrld hd]
zoot ly |nd b th 6&d in lb gourd. A @od rAit bf h th.o c.rticd
in r cc.trin rft!.dd" ty litb r doiLt D.!cd||to b c.rfld ad afth'9tbit
in
Itbtr Altgrrtivdy,. *hil! .I roclci it r cctt i! tlitEibo on
lidE folfiEd bt 'U q l'' to rE r il.t coutrc Lll 6 tiShl
E t & Bt t od f..f.a L{c...vbg AI?G.E
Signrtlirg should bc catrblilbcd by rsdio or Mo.!c l|mp, but *'hcr.
thtu tu trot pciblc thc iolowitrg Dry bc uscdi

pa

LIFE.SAVINCAND DISTRESS
'Afrmstitc,
i.c. 'Rockctline is hcld'; 'Tail block is fast';
To lltcr
'Hawscris fa!l'; 'Matr is ir buoy'; or 'Hcavcaway':
A gr!r[ 6tarsiSnalor, thc vcrtical motion of a whita fiag or thc
armsor r whi!. light (at night).
'Slacka*ay'; 'AvasthaulinS';or 'Rockct
To mc n'N.gatira',i.c.
liDcis not hcld'.ctc.:
hotion ofa whitcflagor whitc
A rcdstarsignalor, thchorizontal
horizontally.
light(st night)or thc armsextcndcd
lhc shipwnh
will firca rocketacross
Whcnpossiblc,
thcCoastguard
a lincettr.hcd.suchasan8-mmhcmplin . lf thccrc\r/of lhc shipfir. l-ln
a rockct ashorcflst, tbc Coastguardwill gcl hold of this rockct_linc
.ad tbcn attsche strongd linc to it. Whcnthcy signalamrmativ.,thc
crcwshouldhavcon thcir rocketline in ordcr to 8ct lhis strongcrlinc
rboard.
As soooa3cithcr thc strongcrlinc or tha shorcrockct_lincis hcld,
iigral sfirmrtivc and then wait for a similar siSDalfrom ashotc.Ai
soonasit is s.tn. hcavcin on thcliDc.anda tailcdblockwith encndlcss
frtl rovc trough it wil bc hovcon board.This is calcd thc l,rip and
may bc 12mm Abrropc. A iackstay(abour2,1mm fbr ropc) wi[
bc arcurcdto thc bcckctof rhc biled bloct. The jackstry msy bc 22O
m in ldgth, often with a[other 135m whicbcan ba sccucd usinga
specialslicvc *bich the travellercr! paisovcr. MsLc thc tailcd block
fast at a colvenicot position, to a srotrg pobr, as far away from
brE kitrg scis ss possible.sith a cle{r worting arr amundil mtkitrt
surethet the wbip docsnot chafcon anypefi of the ship.Crsf ofi thc
roctct linc and sigrel afdrmativc,Ar sooDar this is sccl, thc ahorE
partv eil stthc iackstaytiShl aod haul off tbc brcccbcsbuoyto thc
iUp'ty mcensof i tratcllinfpulcy. Tbc outhaulof thc whip is crlcd
thc prdttcr prrip, thc inhaul bcingtnotrD asthc ,.t tr,rtiP.WhiL lbi!
il bcirg do*, tbc Ofiocr-b-cbsrF abooldiffiruc{ dl hrnd! in lb.
proccdur! for ulirr rhc buoy. Thc wcightof thc bodyrbould bc tltcn
pdly by tbc clborr! on rhc buoy itlcf, thc p.noo .hould tror ally
trcc rstorc rad bc prcporcato bcarofi with hit faat if ct6itr8 rccfi
or 6l.Uy sulnountitrg di6.
ftrtai/tfuistur,'l
out to tbc !bi9 iitb thc t ild block or
buoy, the Offca!-in-chrrScmurt malc a|Ic tbrt cechpctlo! LrvitrJ
thc sbipi5coilctty tdlid ro thlt hc do6 Dotftr.lly lcrvc r shiPwith
p.oplc stil rbo.rd.
TbaFrlor in thc buoyshouldsit tcu downad 8r! p thc atcadiDg
linc, Whaohc ia racur aiglsl afutr|atiw, ad tbc CoarBurrdwill hrul

t29

LIFE.SAVINGAND DISTRESS
hi!| ashoreand then rctum tbe buoy for tha oan pcrlon. Normally
all womco, children, passengcrsand hclplas6pcrso$ should be
laldcd beforc the crcw but if communicationssre difficult between
ship ard shore, it may bc snsibleif thc 6lst pcrson landed is a
rcsponsiblememberof the crev. Most rcsc,uecompanieswill have
traiDedsigDalmcnand bc equippedsith VHF radio. The breeches
buoyis shownin Fig. 6.1.

Ltil

U* of nodct for T.nLrt or V*b n6 FhDn bh Spiril


It may bc crtrcmcly drngllous to fil! a rockct acrosssucha vcascl,
duc to thc liability of flammablcvapourstring pn scnt. Thc rcscu.
v6.cl shouldlic ro wbd*ard of thc trdkcr andfirc a rockctonly whcn
it ha9baar$cartaincdthat it is safcto do 30.Whcnsuche risk of igditioa cxists,$c di3t,6s.d trnkcr shouldhoistcodcfag 'B' rt thc rnasihc.d, usc a rcd lidt in thc samcpo.ition by Diglt rnd supplcoc
th6c sigoabin poor vilibilig by soundingthc lntmetiorrl Codc
group'GU' on the fog-signalling
whichmcans'lt is not
apparatus,
safcto ftl a rockcl'.
The codc group 'GTl' may bc uscd by thc rcscocvassalsincait
mcaas'watchout for my roclct',
130

LIFE-SAVINCAND DTSTRESS
Whcofiring a rockct a6os3rhc wind il b advisablcro aim sliShdy
do*nwind bcforcignitirg thc rockct. Thc wind will thcd act on thc
bight of rockct liDcand dcn ct thc rockct uPitrto thc wind. lf a diftct
aim is uscdthis dcficctioointo th. wind will probablycauscthc rockct
to missthc largpt(Fig. 6.2).

\-)--,/
I

i .-.:

+,'

r-1-\
*aor{c
f].g!.E!__!r-3
'SF.dli!.' lnt |tdbnal no.kt AlFlrlu.
Th. Sd.!!dy
Thc Mcrchrnt shippilg (Lifc-saving applianccs) Rulcs rcquirc that,
amoDg othcrs, ships of ClasssI aDd 7 shall carry a lin._lhrowing
apDlidncc.Thcsc arc ptscnsFr dnd non-pasacngcrrcssrls cngrgd in
lorig intcmational voyag6, and src gcncr.lly thc typc of v.ss.l con_
sidercdin this book. Thc t quircd rangc oflhc applianccis 23Om :50 vds
Thc SFcdlin. g.ar is a complctclysclf-cont ncd unit eith two imporover the oldcr pistoltyF of apps.atus:
tanl advanla8s
( | ) Thc aa!of four uoils normdly carricd by shipscan bc dispcrscd
at stratcgic positions through thc wssel.
(2) Each unit can bc fircd indcpandcntly as .cquirEd.
incotporalinglhc handlel
Th unit consistsot a plaslicbody/launchcr
snd containinglhc rockct,igtrilcrand 275m of rcady'
triglcr asscmbly,
flakcd linc. Thc unit is wcalhcrproof,bcins s.alcd al both cnds by
t.ansparcnt. polyth.nc caps. This cnabl.s thc datc of manufacturc of
thr roclct rnd thc ignitcr to bc chcckcd $ithout.cmoval. Full pictorial
instructions arc printcd on bolh sidcsof thc phstic dy and can bc rtad
by cilhcr .ight or lcft-hrndcd us.rs.
Pl.tc I shows thc SFcdlinc unit in rElation to thc sizc of en adult
hsnd and also th unit bcing firtd iou/ards a lifc-raft. Noticc that thc
131

9m ft

LIFE-SAVINO AND DISTRESS

IOlb!

9oz l0in

9mfr
la ft

optionalbuoyenthaedis baingus.d in thb axrmplc.Plstc2 show3thc


buoyrot hcadaboutto ba fittcd.
Thc unit hasbccndcsigtrcd
for maximumcascof oFmti6n asfollows:
(l) Rcmovcthc front cnd caplnd attachthc frcc cnd of Iinc to a
strong-point.
(2) Hold handl. horizonlrlly, allowingunit to natuElly assumc
thc corrcctfiiing rnglc (sacPlatal).
(3) Rcmo\|csafcly pin end squcczctrigScr lcvcr. Whcn rockci
fiics,holdcoDtainquntil lincis Fid out.
RockatJend ignitan shouldba rcplaccdcvcry thrca ycarsand it is
rccommcndcd
that thc Spccdlincunit bc rcplacrdaftcr ninc ycatsin
scrviccon a ship.
Thc lcnglhof thccontsincris 330mm,thcdiamctcris 190mmandthc
rotal wcidt is 46 kg. Thc linc hasa diamctcrof 4 mm anda minimum
brakingstrcssof 2m0 Nc*toDs.(A Ncwtonis thc forccwhichgivcs
I kB an acc.lcrationof I Ectrc F sccondpcr scoond.)
othar cquipocnrfor usaiD timcsof cm.rgcncfcomprisa:
Th. Pobt WcstexSchamuly'Marovefioatd:whichis a combinadday
dDdDightmarkcr,safcto uscon oil or pctrol-covcrcdwatcr. Ilk dcsigncdto bc attachcdto lifcbuoysby mcatrsof a lanyard,aod vban
rclcrscd it indicrtca its position by dcos. orsng. smokc ard tvo
wlicr-activatcdlights at 3.5 candcla.lt can also bc corncclld to e
bulthcrd-mountcdlifcbuoyandrllc3scdmanuelly.It produocsoraD&
sraokcfor 15midutcstnd tha two light! bum for,l5 minutct(Platc2).
ThcPaht w.tr., scbn n ly 'B'.oyndce' is sioila. to lb Ma@wt,odd siSnalbut withoutthe cLctric liCt3. It wouldbc u!.d whcrcit is
&3ircd ro i$tall scps.stlight lnd 3dokc 3rg[rls. Thc moutrtnS
brackcts6t both si8nsls(Platc2).
Thc Pdinsly.ss.t Sctwmtly'Prinpoirt'is a hlnd.hcld nd distrcsrnsrc
for uscin lifcboatsor lifc-rrftr. It burnalor 60saconds
.t l5,m candch,
w.ighr 260grem3rnd ir 2.5 nb loDg.TIlc frrE b crcalcdin r stccltubc
and is fittad with an intcg.al twbt-and-strilc frritrgmcchrdsmin th.
handl., $hich is simplyrotstcduntil two rnoer align.Thc .nd of thc
handlci. thm 3trucl a ibarp blow with thc pdm or otr d h.d rudrc..
Thc fia.c is hcld up, outboardand pointingdownwind.
Th. Pai$ W.tsct Schcmuly'Pod R.d' i..htid-hcld distclr rockct
which conformsto ltc r.quircmcnt! for both ,hip lnd lifcboct/nft
rockeb. It cj6ls a parachutc-suspcndad
ltd fla.E rt r haightof m
mctB5*hcn 6I!d vcrricdly .nd whichbu.n! for 40scond. tt /o,m
crndch. It bums out !l 50 nctrcs ebovcscalcvcl. Boih and caDarrr
132

LTFB.SAVINC AND DISTRBSS


rmovcd toScthcrwith thc safcty pin. Thc signrl is ihcn hcld firmly' thc
triggpr lcv; is squcczld atd thr signal is Pointcd diShtly downwind. In
loi cloud crrdilions, lhc roclct should bc lircd at 45 dcgrcsclcvation
to Sivcmaximumvisibility.
'Lilesnoke' is s^fe lo usc on pctrol o. oil'
The Painswestex Schemuly
covcrcd watca.It hasa mctal cas. and rclcascsdcnscorangcsmokefot J
minutcawith a silnplccoid-pullignition.
THE INII.IITABI,E RT,BBEN' LIFDRAFT (PI.t6 3 lDd 4)
Oo abandoningship into this typc of craft, thc following actions
shouldbc takcn but not n ccssarilyin this ordc.:
Rcscuc survivors in watcr aod takc abocrd if Posciblc'
Idtl,rrc thc 600r in cold wcath.r and lop up buoyaocy chaDbcrs'
Tatc chargcof alt strarpobiects'cap.cislly bclts wirh shrrp buckl't'
Examrncfoolwearfor similar haretds.
{4) Bail dry and carry oul repairsto chsmbcrs.Plug lcaks'
isi Conncit up to "tttcr rafrswhich may othcrwiscdrift awav'
(6) Scarchfo. missing Pcrsons.
(?) Issucentiscisickn $ Pills.
(8) DistributccrEwscvcnlyand buncblo8pthcrfor warmth'
(9) Rrg cmc.g.trcy transmftcr if aboard. al0t cii first aid and makc casualtiG comfortiblc.
il li Watch for frostbitc rnd hypothcrmia.
(t2) C-ollcclus.ful nolsam.
iiii tacntify uaics ana casl adnft' hsvhg rcmo$d uscful objccl!'
at4) Tek chsrgc of rcapons. potcntirl or othcrwis''
(lt Po3tloolou6.
(16) Rig litbB rnd clo6c wcathcr c.noPy.
(17) Tak charg. of Pyrotcchoics
al8) R.i! thc scs snchors.Stln colhging rranmtct.
iiii iss-ucrooa ana *atcr on s.cond dty. sicl rnd iniutcd mry nccd
watcr cadar. Rderve one apoqc for mop[iDg tP @odc6$in'
(Z)) ln a clos.d .afl, Dcoplcatr.ing w.t clothinS wil soon fud thrt thc
rir bccomcs saiura_tcdend tro fu.thcr cooliaS of thcir Mics
occurs. A hcat balancc ii achicvcd. An cxFrimctrt with lcvcn
mm in a lifc-rsll sho*d hcat bclalcc curritr8 !ftct 156inutcs' In
fact thc tctrtpcr.tui. thcn bcSBnto rilc aod el tro tim', althoud in
vcry cold conditio$, did shivcrinS tit plrc..
(l)
i2i
ili

Tiaac rafu atr meoufacturtd frort rubbdilad, rbrario!'tLiltlot'


rylon fubric, of higb-visibility 6a'|c or olaogc coloul Thcy 8rc of
lhrFpty Datariet otr tla huU two-Ply bcitrg ulad for thc .c.u{'lali!8

133

LIFE-SAVING AND DTSTRESS


crnopir, vhich st! attarhcd to thc eutomatic.lly-iofrtrd atthca or
columtrs.Thc rsft fu b0atld by carboa dioxidc gr. contdtrcd in r
cyliDdcr,or cylind.r!, attlchedto tha uldaBidc of thc hdl ltrf.tioo it
commc'tccdby a pull oa lhc oFr.tiDg co.d, whichi5 thcltat!.f ulad ar
a paiDtar.
Thc ralt ha! two rnsinbuoyalcychambcn,indcFndcntofcschothcr,
and cachcapableof supponingthc full loed of cquipmcotaad pcrloDt
in cascof a puncturc,!o thst if nac6lary rhc rtft ctn bc lm% ovlr4 fir lordcd. An rrca of0'37 m' b proddcd for..sch pcnon that thc rslt is
ccnificdto cerry.
Thc tcnt fore.d ty lh. c.tropica,b.iDgof doublcthich6s, providlr
idsulationrgdrst cxttlmc laarFraiurc3,ProtcclioDftom thc rFathar,
but is capdblcof bcitrgopcaadal aachcntrAtrcsto admit fr6h rir. At
tbc iditial iDfrtion thc catropyadlrarcas.Ic opcoto frcilitat! boatdin&
Tt|c ioor b doutilskimr4 .!d iofatrblc by mcaD3of hrnd bcllor6.
Tbb not ody p.ovidcacxtra brroyancybut abo iDruhtiotr flon cold
sc-ID thc tropics,by kccpitrgit dcdst 4 th. iat .ior ofthc rrlt Eay bc
kcpt cool At cachcntr.!c. a hddq or rt p it provild fo! bo.dirg
purpos.'.
it i5 caacotialto makcrur! that thc opafatilt cordi!
In an cmcr8cDcy
to
r
strong.poitq
snd thisshoulds&ob. rlguLtly cbkcd
sG[ accurcd
whilc at !... Thc ratl, complctai! ira corteimr, fu thcd tlto$rr ovF
vr ahrtt
boqn4thc cordpulld out b iri full lcagtb,whsrupon tlt
80fr pull actullas thc irnrdotr procss. Thc lcoSthof cord i3 25 m, but
sbortcr o. longc. cordsarc Frmitcd, to suit thc sizcof ship.Undcl
no circumstarceshouldcordsbc withdt.wn snd short DGdby ships'
pc.sonftl. Thc l{ft, a.ftarsbout 30 s.cond!, i! suficicntly iDfutcd for
survivorsto board it, cithcr from thc wstar or di$c{y from lhc !Np.
ft is trot cotriidcrcd SoodFacticc to iurop otr to thc c&opy. In thc
psrt it har 6used rcrious itriuty to thocc 8lr.dy rbord. A
rall which has infiatcd in thc invrnd potition, mly ba ridtcd by
ltrnding on thc gas cylidcr and hcavi!8 on thc rigbtint-linc or
6triF.
Tbc irft mry bc mrDcuvrcdtoctald!awiomcf!or oth.r r.tb bt ulitt
tbc FddLr, o. .hc by rcp..tcdly h.aving thc dro$c i! rhc rEquird
dircctiod.nd pullinSo! it. CsrtiDgthc dtogp! it 6!i.t ifit i. wight.d,
aeywith i 8boa.
Ar roon sr th. occuFtrt boerdtlc rrlt thc padro!itr a6[8. Oottld
arrmirc cvEryMy'. footst.r to Elta rur! that tbc aol6 |!d Llab
co rir nothitrgwhichwouldd!D!8c tb. lilb..ft n||d
AlLr r6qr., thc rrll3hould bc rlcorclrd or abcd6troyd.If thir it
not dona, lhc ampty lifG-rrlt will attrad tlsqrat! atrd c$a gr! t
troublc and aoricty.

LIFE.SAVINOAND DTSTRESS
Saoi|!.
Tbr rrfts mulr bc stowcdso thrt not ody cln tbcy bc spccdil,
buochcdbut will lbo fo.t cL.r if thc rhip fourdc.t b.forc lrunchinS
ir posriblc.ThGyrnult bc fully prot ct d frorn Fint cort min.tioD,
rrt!, haavya!as,,alt-wrtcr rccumuLlion, fuolckxheust smokcend
rparta, atrdicirg cooditiot$.Pt$ctrlcrs .!d childtanahoutsbGwrmcd
of th. dsng.. rhi:h Eay ariacif tha ralb !r. trmFrcd wilh. Lifc-r.fts
Fckd i! caNsi viliras msy bc .torcd on F fo..tcd pbtforms,8rdirga, i! suiti.blydrainaddropsidc borcs,or in colbFitlc dacksa r.
Thcs. bor6 shouldtia aoftcicDtlysmallto pcvcnt chafard Pcfcrably
psddcdoD thcir iatamrl lurfacca.Thc r.ll is sto*ad wilh thc lifting
hrndlB f.rdy acc6ribL.
All ncw containersar markedwitb the last scrviccdale, lenglh
of painter, maximum slowageheight. launhingirlltrucliorls. thc
of the rafts is
maker'snameand a srialnumbcr.Tl|e entic success
depndentupon their bing releasedaDdjcttisoned quickly. Sorne
vesls incorporateramF inclinedat least20degreeslo th deck, at
the bulwark or rails, so that tbe rafts, which are stoweduP to thrce
itr numberon eachlamp, clD be rolled oversideduting condirionsof
adverselist up to 15degrees.Th rampsare fitted with rollcrs, and
the rafls are securedby webbiogbclts. I! aomecarcseachof the
three tafts is capablcof being releasdsapantelt. Agafu, th belts
are releasedwith one hand-movemcnt.
Thc cylinddc.l thg-ibrr contsircr fo. r ri!8lc r!ft i5 itr h.lv6
boltrd togetbar,aacbbolt ircorpor.tilg a rbr-pitr aas.orblyro that thc
cortrild bur.b oFn on irfrtio!. Oth.r 9F u...pcdd joitrtt ofc.lcrt t d bu8titrg thngt!.. A trccl crrrid csn bc supplicd,bolt d to
tbc docL,to rvhichtht coitlirar ir tccurEdby Dranr ofa wbbitrg bclt
.!d S.ohous.tlip, with or withoutr hrdtoltrtic td..!.. With thi! tyF
of conililcr no fMhar paotrctiotria lcccslary.
Thc r.ft rhodd ncvcrbc stox,Edvtrtically, for thc 8r. cyliDdcrvil
wort ita wry to thc botioE of thr conrri!.t |od cslfc ttc fakic. Thc
oFf.tint cord nutt bc kcpt scq|rrd b fhc alip, for thco,if tlc ttald
foudcn Morc tlc rrlt crl bc butrc.hr4tbr buoyucy of tb! contrinar
will pull thc cod, acluetctbc iDnrdoonl.chdsn at4 whcoin&tad,
tbc buoyrrcyof thr rrft will mlp tbccod. Tbccordiad..igDcdto aosp
uDd.rr stcss of 9m l& |nd al/c,omc aiSht-Drarallt rvill havasufr- zm lb
cia r.acnEbuoyaocyto achic$ettir. Thc reft cra ttcd foat fr.c of thc
,hip. lt i! impcr.tivc that thc lrhinS. ur cut or c.tt otr (if ao hrdrc
strtic rdc.sc i. ittld) b.fot! rlc vcad fou[dar!. lf rhit i! trot doDthc
n l rvitl prob.bly .ink with thc .hip, .!d rlil .tt cicd to iL
ldrtatta nft! muti bc r.wi.!d ty apPoiliad !8.ot3 about otr.r r
ycu. The crte ahouldlcsl! thsn iLic{y alola atoat for cbtiry rhc
hfiing,, lhc p.or.dion !fiofiLd, lld lhc rtdorrgt of tl|a oFr|titt
135

LIFE.SAVING AND DISTRBSS


c.rd" At bodtdritb lhc mct[od ofopatlrio! thouldbc dcarly cxfhincd
to cvtty Ecmbcfofthc c[tw.
ta tbc plaEao raft it ilulhrtrd hvinS a ccotal column Thi! Lta
tb sdvaategcrof artctinga c.tropy havi4 r l6a.f, witrd lutfrc. tht!
tha atrh-tyF mft, providi!8 s b.ct tuFott for Frlott tittiDg in ita
cctrtE of th! ioorr ! foot-briqr fot othdr, a vinual plaltfrrtic j.ct if
tbr faft i. inwttr4 .nd a tnrll.f, rtovrg. volu@. ThiatyF of nlt bra
a! infa&d c rrlcc rt4?. A tyF ddig[cd to acconmodltr twtoty'iva
399!b 365lb paGonswci8h3160kg itr r 8Lsa"fibrccontriler or 163lg i! ! cravas
vdila.
rl|E IJJ). TYPts M MC, $NGI,F'POINT SI'SPENSON,
INII.ATAXX,E ITFETNAFTFOR N'LLY LADntr IAT'NCHING
tbiF, .sFcidly
Thn raft hrs b.c! btro&cad for u5cit Pettctrgaa
thorchrvinSe hish frtcbo.rd. Criricilm hsd b..d lcv.Ucd.t in!.tlblc
lifo-t'.fi! in thc F3t b.caulcsurvivotsettE rEquircdto daaodbddcE,
or to lcapftoo M8[tq bcfoc bordinS. Thc z) Mc rrtl obvilt6 th6c
cfrorl!, .nd it b thatdorc auitrt c for Fs'.rSlts of dl sgrt rnd in a[
trd6 ofhcalth.
Ttc raft i! itrfstcd rt d.ct lc\El' rd by thc u!. of. .itrtlo..rn dryit,
i! lowrld ftly Ld.tr, by 8r.vity, to lhc rdct. H!t!, it h rd.tt d Ntooaticrly. Boardiogir fuilitatcd by . o..iuo .F@ Y'&it rdv.r Oc
drd purpo!. of bo*in8 th! '|ft frDly b rh..hiP'. .id! itrd FoviditrS
a Srngray. Thc lulpcolion Fovidat thc Ecr!, of tlcoEilg thc ra&
comphc with rorvivon, by hoittin! it .bo.rd tlc ft.dr- .hiP.
Thc d..ig! of thc r|ft folos ttird.rd Fbdd.r, bd ft i@tPonb.
. .Firl d!si8! f..twr ofr builbit, .itrlb-poitt tltp.orio! di!& Th.
ir daifErd iDtbafoto oft b atttDa,r nr|ob.f dxtkt rfr
ruapaodon
accErtdto ltc orfri& ofrba titoyrey cDaob.t rtd tt ttodldcr to
th. ulpct Aoorrorh.a lhc rbrla cr8 at th. rF dlbr ,inth oolqn!'
rt ehi:h poirt . titrdc hoittin8.h..&L it itr.A Tbc lorD.l octlod of
hllcning b lot pftclud.4 for ift c....ry ltc r.ft c.a b.jctd.o[.d i!
ib v.tirc |'d itn r.d by !ttli!8 on ri. o?.tarrbgoord.Tb. F.k d r.ft
thodd bc .torcd !c!r thc tLvit laat i! loclctt, stt' or on r|tDF
Thi. twcnty-pcriotrr!fi h!! r dianat t of 3'? m, i hailht of 2m,
t2 ft 5 ft
m lb |nd s elifh! in . canr:$ vrlirc, of l'O tg.
tHE IJJ'.

IIr!I.|FT

IE,EASE GEAI

Thi. i..hoe! i! Fi& 6.3,.!d it trdl bc.c.o tb.t it c@.nl! b.tbly


of tso !i& pLta* r hooL,ad r locldaglcvcr,Siocctb.8..t ir fol ur
io ufavourau! cooditioD+thc opcratiol h.| bocofcat I .iEFb aa
l36

LIPE.SAVINO AND DISTRBSS


possible.The D.o.T. required a rclcasc whidl sas itrltantaneous
c|hcn thc full weight of the raft w.s waterbomc,but not so al to
jcop.rdis the 6afetyof lhc raft and its occtPaoBin lhe crrly slrgs
of boardirg, sboutda wavereachth boardingstation and t.lc th.
eight of thc raft.

o
O

i.F.o loTora^Trc TELEASE


Hoor
S FE WOillNG

LOAO 2170 16

E!-q!!EJL3
to bav! lhc rdcda abaolddy raf. u$l
It 1l, tl.[lforo Ear',
Thit @aitatad a
bo.rdin! raa ooDd.t d ard loeatilt coDDd.
Efcty-Diq o. ib .quiv.Lot, r,tioh would not b. ortdootd ir .!
cd.C.ocy. Th. rd!.! i. !oti...tL h Eri.,(
Itlddotrdto lt davit
(l) Th. trL.r tr r i. ttoolrd ft6 ft! .totrgF .dlet
Fd..nl tt FIb! 6. hlFrd rtich of.nt tb [ool.
(2) Sith 6. libr.n .t th. d..t .dgc, tb. hoot it do..d 6 th. iD
gcadoarDrotlo Fcudilt
fto6 tt top of rb di.a Tb...iioo oa
do.&l! rb. foof .rn@.dc.try tp.itrSt ov.r tb locbf bc .!d ro.
drl| lha rdaaa aab.
137

LIFE.SAVING AND DISTX,BSS


(3) Thc drvit f.ll ir ni..4 iairt'rotr of lbc liflr.ft folorvr, rld thc
lif}rrft b boetdcdriib arFndrd oE tic ridc" TDc |hct of th
iDfrti!, l|ft arrot caulcthcrdcalc to oDao,tcifh.f, crtr a waE trtitr8
O. full wiisht ofthc rrfL
(4) Whlo boadilg i oondctc tbc bowiirg li!6 aI! l!L.|ad lnd thc
ralt ir rcadyfor loGitr& aDdtdra$ s! .oon aait ir c/aErbomc'Thc
rsfcg lockioglcvr Euit ttcrtfor! bc bov.d ro thr tut@rtio lrlcolc
position,and this is eddevcdby I puUotr the laryard just bforcthe
raft rachestbe water-lcval.In future devclopnrcotdr book eill be
'coat d' to thi! pGitior by tlrl ettac.hmcat
.t ttc ttsvit h.ad.
(t At th. DoDcDtttc lifcn l i! wlt ttomc tla hook oDad!und.r
ttc action of r prir of spdngr.Thcsaro* i! trd.m, tcfliDg e dual
fu!.tion of holdingtt locLinghvq ia it two politio!. of'srfc' .!d
'auto-rdcalc' rld opcoingtbr hoolc If ooc rpdlg faib thc oth.f i,iu
csrry out s[ tlc fulcliotrt, but tht llLalo load will bc helvtd. Tbii
rrlcrs g..r ir r loxFloid rckara; thlt i! to r|y, whcothc lold i! rca0 tb duc.d to rouShlylE lg thc hoot will opcD.This rlight loadii ncc.G.ry
lo owrloac wind cfracton rhc fdl or drift, of thc r.ft. If tha tdcatc
frib to opcrrt it catrbc o!.a.d blnudly by DG.!! ofthc hoy.rd. A
,m lb herd pull otr this can oFn thc bool cvc! with I lord of l&) kg on it.
Shoutdi rrvG Nt tharaft durirf d6c.ot !d tatc i|! w!i8ht, lhc hook
wil oF! andrhc nft win d6c.rd with tbc sit!. Thar!l.!c it conosion-rBirrut.trd bai ! srfcty flrtor offiva
DAVIT
WELIN-MACLACEL N IIrX-MrT lrrl,l,lclllNc
(Fi& 5-4)
fhir hr! bccodr.iglcd to leulch lifc,ralb froD Ft!.4ac rta,&,
whcrr !p..4 tsfcty, ald thc 'trinimumof oFrtirn rtquiltoaott rrc of
parrmou idpofilaa
Thc n|ein fcatur fu thc .utoo.tic !r$m of tta fin from ttc rrtcr
l.v.l, |ft.r tbc rafl h|! baanr!.lcaaad.Tba autoDrtio{daat hoot
c!!Brl' ttrt thc oFatoa eil lot bc.rpcc'iadro ohaafiEth rd aftla
10-50 fr it lcav6 thc cmberlrtioD lavd for tic *!tcr, whicL l!!y bc 15lD
b.low. Th rutoEdi fdl-trcoEtry arrura! ttat th.r! it to &!ca of
tfc t .frb. hool thrlrbitrg !ftlr thc nft ir dcrro( or rlnrhilt.t
liDG,or on r dowDyardcoutlc to dtn B! rhc lifcl|ft c.tropy,or oth.c
r!ft!"
Tbc rccoEry mrb od th. Drio&Uind FindeL, ttc @8f crtatcd
6G90 ft by thc lorcring rlft (at Z)-30 n Fr mioutc)it utcd to reovar lia fdl
!I)-3II) ft rr. !p.rd of 6O-rOn F tritrtrtc uDtil it rc.c,hcar
Doritio! wn.tc it ir tuf,pcd .ufooataaly. DutioSthcaotircloadin! |!d
outbard, ud odt lbr
tb. d.vir h..d @i!.
l,.|mchiagoFrtid
hoot ir Duld ilbodrd by r trici!8 lilc lo rttr.t t!. follo'iq nn
138

Eltv rror
IIE|I'IG

HANOLE

.#'lIo
i?,.--- -\

iaFt

loiaEo

"

art-.- . --, ,.ii'iti!-.ii

ll{

rott |lc
\
outtE cH------j .\

rruHrffi!-ulllArI
Flcuil a.a

LIFB.SAVING AND DISTR,BSS


Mallal tloorrltt i! ilto dlowcd for, tiougb rt I dorlr !!.cd. Thc
liDct br! r dEifir8rl brlkc .!d dlo . dcrd-m!tr mdr br.kc. supcrviri@ ir pGiblc by only onc O6ccr !t cacJrcobarlrtio! point ttu!
rvoititrg cotrldidory i!!tn crionr.

M.i.a d Ot rdI fi

(l) Tum out thc drvit to givc 03 m clc.nrca bctelc! rhc curtd!
Fhtc .d rhc lifcnft. Whilc thi! i! bcitr8don tb nft! aro uap|ckd
.td p6itio'rd doogridc thc cmb$krtio! FoitrL
(2) Cotrnc.rtbr fal to tbc lifcrsft rhrcuc ead irfrtc thc r!i- A!
irirti@ occur, thc oFrrtor td... sp th.,hct i! tbc fdl by D..r! of
r .Fi.sitd!.s h!!d .rut o! 0!c dnch. wh.! tb. nft ir ilt t d tbc
.i[ ofthc. r.!cc drp wiUb.lcvd vith thc d.ot.!d th. r.ft i. bowrd
itr to bolerdt.
(3)OccuF!tr cmbart, bowritrglhc. etr rdca!.d, rd tbc rilcl
b!*r lilbd. Th. nft i! loc,t[d to t[c w.tcr undc.tbcc.otdfi4rl ba.Lc
co!tso|"Thc hoot rrlaraa autondically, rlturla to thc dcolqi! trbd
i!, ald aacurldto thc aacondr.fL
rl|E IIYDNG'TATIC R.EI,EASE
Lifcrefts may Dotbc lashcdin poditiotrudcss a hydrostrticrclc$c
b fttcd. Thc ooly cxc.ption to thi! is thc smdl lifcnft c$ricd
forwatd or aft (oo an al-rft or dl-forwerd vclscl) which shouldbc
lashcd down iccrrl.ly eirh a rlip incorporetcd in thc L![i!88.
The lashingsare shackledto thc drawboltwhichis alsohookedon to
a ring on the cnd of the operatingline. If the ship fouders, the
releaseunit operatswithin the fust 4 melresof immcrsiooatrd tbe
&awbolt is released.Not or y doesthis castoff the l,.hings, allowio8
the laft to foat ftrc in its container,but the opcratbg line is now also
ftec, epart from the wcak litrk. Thi! is a smtll pieoeof cord ot wire
dcsignedto break at a stressof mKg t 45K9, wbich forms a
sccondary.tlachmnttretrvcenthc line atrdthe teleasaunit. Olce the
str6sScnented betweenihe idating reft and the siDting thip
rceedsthis 6gure, thc link parts atd the raft becomcsaddft. The
uDit shouldoot be pcrmaaetrdyattachdto thc deck and shouldbe
surveycdatroually,unl$s it is of a typ which fu discerdcdaftcr ao
expiry date. Eachlhould be markedwith thc datc of manufactur,
thc depth at shich it will releaseand en expiry date, if a[y.

140

CHAPTER VII

DAMAGE CONTROL

o) coI,[,EroN D MAGE
(.) AJ Ar.io. a lto..4t
Whcnr rcscl fuafthorcd or r.curd to buor! tharcit vcry littlc tbet
c.tr bc doncitr thc drtrt of ao iDEinant colbsioacxocptto vccr lery
otr ttc cablc,or Doo.itrgwirla, r! npidly r! pcitlc rod ulc thcruddcr
(ifthcr. is s currldt) to lhcarthcv.s!d swry frornth. dan86or to m*c
th. blos r glrncil8 oe. Thc qudtion of dippirg EooriDStor cabtrc
brdly adlai rincathc t !k rcquiB r,tlurbL tinc, rdd furthrr, coginci
rnurt b. lveitsblcfor illi.trt urc. Shouldit bc pcritlq how!t!t, to dip
thc mooritrgwi!r. froE tbc bitt! rlly rrpidt or to tdaaratbc *i!dL$
br|l(c quictty, thb mayp.ovcb.n dcid i! thr it sil slow rbcvt .d ro
mov! vith thc impsctrrthcr rnot! thl if shcscrt stll !ac'ut!.Wttartight doorr lhould bc clo6d imncdiltcly thc dtngpr i.r rc.lilcd aad
EmcrSrncyStatiod ahouldbc ligtrtllcd, Tbc rapid ura of fcodc(ri! of
plllmoutrt inporLncc.
O) Al S..
Lokout! rhouHbaord.Gd to h|il thcO6ccr ofthc sata.ha$ty ha|fhour or & oonnulic.tc with him by tclcphola.Tbayahouldrcport
to hiE Floadly wh.n rElicvld,h v!.tlt eb.fc balL |r. tDldcduriry
thc oight rhc loolout i. oftld i|'rttuc't d ro rcpc.t tbcm citbd on iba
tcLphoocor od thc cfow'a-lcatbcll Thc lookout Oould &port crlry
nevigrtionn rt, Eht, ud uridcntifld objcctcithrt by !.Iphonaor by
ildicrting oo r bdl onca,t*icc, ard thrcctiE6 for objaattaiSltado!
tlc rt rboerdbo% pon bo*, rad dcedrhcadnrpccrndy. I! los vitiHforw.rd |Dd doft--tartkirhtty tha
lity cxt r lootoutr lhould bc poGtod
httcr iftD. fo8 i' low-lyin&
acflDcboth t!.hort .tould ba h gp tti.d colritio it
Ia a*.horiog
'It y Dry botb ba loal but t coliriotr D.y rl[ bc dldrd.
innio.ot
It ir bcccrto lola bo6 andarordr oollkiotrlhrtr to lo.c onctld rct a
collirion. Oa tt othcr hrod. ttc 06..r of tha vrtch ahouldbaaai!
DiDd lhc fact tlrt thr ur of or rac.holoey ncll cautaa baoadtial
ahEarwry froD ttq d|'t!f,, rlaultilS i! r draitrg Uo*, l! rartow
141

DAMAGE CONTROL
wrtcrsit mrt rlso bc prcfcl{blc to run thavcascla8roundaod60avoid
demaS!to both ships.This shouldba dotrcby drivitrgashoc b.ad.on
to avoiddatrEgcto thc bilgcarnd anarp{rt of tha ship,whcrcdamsgc
is dificult to rcpair.lmpactshouldbc rlducadby ascm movcmcntof
thc cngircaatrdthc us. of both rnchors.
If collisionis unavoidablcthc blow shouldtE madca gldociogonr;
bow lo bow, quartrr to quadcr,or bow to quartcr.If di.rct inpacl ir
inavitabLthc othcr vasrclahouldif poiriblc bc struckforwardof bcr
collisionbulkhcad.Thc lattcr cia thcnbc shorcdup, thc vcsscltdmmcd
by thc stcm,endslowhcad*?yrcsum.d.IfE vcasclis struckamidships
in thc rcgionof hcr laiSastcompaflmcnts,
scriousaoddisashousf,oodrn8may occur.
Il. I..t
Undcrlhc Mc|rhtat ShippingAct thc Mes!?ror pcrsonin ch.rgc of
r vassalirvolvcd in a collfuion6hrll,providd rharais no dangd to h,
ship, crrw ind passcDg.rsrardcr to thc othcr vcssclrll po&riblc
rssistatrccto savcthc ship rad hcr coDplcmcntfiom dangcrarising
from tha lllision. Hc shallstatrd-byuntil auchassislaacc
is Dolotrgcr
ncccssary.
Thc MastcE,or Frsom in chergc,shallalso:
(i) Exchangrnamcsof vcsscls.
(ii) Notify cachothcrofports of rc8istry,dcparrurc,anddacti[tiotr.
(iii) EnIc. a wit[csscdstatcmcntin lhc Ofrcial Logbook.
(iv)Notify thc D.portncnt of TRnsport @.o.T.) within 24 hous
of arrival at thc rcrt porl.
f,fur IDF.f
(1) Oo6a all watcrtight doorsaDdiDiorm thc engin-roomof thc
situetion. EmargcocyStatiotrswill cDablc 6re, boat .Dd daEage
coDtrolpaniasto bc bdefcd.
(2) lt is to bc hopcdthar id thc cvlnt of r collision,both shiF will
bc going ful artcm bcioacinpdd. II a ship strits aaotbcr bow-on
sbc lhould th.a stop .qima aad, it thc sea is iliA, rcmrin
aobcddcdin thc grsh to allow the otlcr lhip timc to ,rsaa! daoaga,
pirpalc for Eore f,oodiDgor to abcDdo!thc vcracl. It o! lbip ir a
l oadcdtanlcr, wittdrawel (vhich otr occasiorsh oot poaciblcatysay
vithout thc hclp of tugs or othcr sbiF) cen bc crtrancly brzardou!
duc ro ftfutiod rnd sparkfut. DrcDchitrtwith fo6D Ery bc rdvbablc
foloc/cd by a total cvaertion of pcrsoMl froD thc impa.t erc.. Itr
atrythingothcr fhr6 r dight sca,the EovdDcnt of thc two shiF may
widctrtha g.3b atrdproducctrussivesparking.Bcar h miDdtbat tbc
Mtsrcr of r sbip which holcsr taDkcrcatrrot be expoclcdto rcmsin
cmbcddad.Hc hasa clcar duty to bis own ship,crcw and passcngcrr
142

DAMA(;E CONTI.OL
whictr may bc lccn as aI| immediatefitbdirwal rrgardlaacof thc
othcr ship'ssafcty.
(3) Swingout lifcborts, enswe that tlo pramaturcebaodonnt[
t kc,rplac., .nd prcp.rc lifcrafts.
(4) Ctcck for c8sualtiesand missittgFtrons. Mustcr palscntcls.
(5) Hoirt appropriateshap6 ard showcorrccl lights. (Rulc 27)
(6) Asccrtoinwbcthcr anchorsand cablcawill still tundion.
(7) Tr.nsndt MAYDAY or PAN-PAN siFab. Evcn it rot in
distcsr, thc usa of a PAN-PAN docs alcrt shippint to a pcsible
fufirrc disrrecacall.
(8) Rcpon aoy oil polution to thc ncarestcosstradio station.
(9) Asscrso*r ship'sdamagc,includingthe possibilityof sprung
hatchcs,and lound round. Commcnccdama8econtrol, counictflooding or pumping. Litdc damagecontol is possibleon nodm
shiF and somcof what follows in this chaptcr is now of histo.ical
itrtcrcst only. Even so, a I sq. m holc situatcd4 m bclos scalcvcl,
will admit 21,600tonn6 of watcr pc. hout. The flov h proportiood
to tbc araand thc aquarcroot of thc dcpth of thc holc. Thusif thr
hole can b raiscd, thc iow is rcdoccd. It catr bc helvcd by hstfpluging thc holc. Unfortunatclythc mcchalicsof flooding rrr such
that thc dcpth of the holc is likely to indcasc asth. silu.tioo chaogcs
advcrscly.
It shouldbc dccidcdquickly:
(a) whcthcrthc pump6caocopcwith thc initid inrolb ;
(6) if thcy cannot,whclhcrplugSingtu rapidlypossiblc.
If in thc lattcr cascthc dccisionis rcgativc,thcn th. v6scl mustbc
ibandoncdif it is coGidcrdthet bulkhcad arcliablc to collaplcutrdc.
thc pressurcofwatcr in lhc fioodingcomprturcnts.No dogmaticatatc
mcntcanb. madcwith .cgardto tbc abatrdoaingof shiF-rh. Elttcr
is cnti.lly in O handsof thc Mastcror Frson itr chargc.Thc podtibility
of bulkhcadsholding and thc ship rcmainingscrworthy should bc
considcradhorrcvcr.
CoftCoo iLr. (ghaL.l InLtr.ra)
Thescmay be madcof thick ropc: thcy vary bclwccn3 and 4 m E.nd 12ft
squarc,andhavca cridglcsplicrdi o cact corncrto whichbottomaod
top lio6 arc sacurd.Somcarc rradr ofsc{c6l laycrsofcrnvas, phrn
on thc outbo.rd sidcandhavingt n rdr otr thc inborrd sidc.Thrumbc
arEpicc6 ofyarn pulcd rhroughthccarvs ro that thcir bigbtsprotrudc
to givca sotl c't8hioningcfrcct.Thcrca'l petcntcolisiod matsavailabb
ofcanyasconstructionwith thruEbs,but haviDgscvtrelgelvrnii.d-iron
bat! sccur.dac.ocithcit lcdgth,prr.lal to oo. alothcr. Thascbrr3 trot
oDlyassistin lhc riggingrnd storingofthc meli but alsobceragltrrt
plating,thusstiffcning
thcdamagsd
thcmat.
113

tf2-io

DAMAOE CONTROL
A collirioDmrt couldbc madcfrom lcvcrd thiclac|r.3 of c.trv.tnrch .r trprulinr---cdgcd vith ropq tad hwiDg wir! ropc aaiz.d
$ound rhc Gdgclo givcrtitrcni!& Thc mslirS of rucbr Drt o! bolrd
r d.mlgod lhip vould bc autlc$rcrt to at L.!t p.nid plu88irt of thr
holc.Thc Eats srl prima.ily idt odcdfor bclow-wstrrS.tbGr,fbc id.a
h.i!8 to rig rhc Dat at npidly a! po*!it{c ro rt to bri!! tha infov of
wrt r utr&r ttc cotrtol of thc puDp.. It ir not tug86trd thst thait urc
will atoprh. i!.Eow---{hcrc
wil bc cdso-Ic.L!rld alto !..page to co!iadd rvitb Gvaoalt r rhc Dat h& bccarilgld ar cficicotly sr p6!it{a.
Thcy at! ulcd o! tha aisuDptio! lhat |ha d'mgad pLtirt blt bc.o
tumcd i!*uds, thc d|at bcitrgurrolld o\ar thc outr pLti!8: lrot
lcnglhsof l2-l6tirm wirc ropc (rortor! ,it r) at passcdortr thc bow,
uidar thc forcfoot,rDd drsg8oddt to thcga3h-lct u. r!.uEc thcLtcr
to bGon thc pori sida Tbc ltrrbortd ca& oflhc IiDA ar! Dd&d o!
dock&d thcpon ctrd!sccurcdto thccri!816 o! thabottoo of lba rrlal.
Tvo sidilar tqpri'r.r r! aac1|rldto rhc cri!8Lr on th. top of tha o|l
md lcd wcll foreltd rDd .& !trd bd.y!d.
Ttc Drt, wbbh ha! ha.n tcpt rolhd up, ir sos loxE|td o}ta lh.
dd! lo tlc top of thc F![ (..!iDt o! tbt toDlic),.trd ir offolLd ovri
thr rrlh by h.rving on tL. bottoE lis fro6 thc .t rbo.td rido. Al
lioca .tl thc! .ct up vcry tight It ir .h.olutdy c..otid to l(cp tb.
littb iE ii!.tion
botroD litr6 b|r tight throughoutthc oF.tioF-.
wil |'sht tbc radcrto vi6udit !tr uDdcaralaa
nrt $,ilb rarac poudng
throughua&r grrat prtsaut+-fhc rlightattc.riry of th. lilca sil catr.c
thcD.t to barwaptilto thcS$h aodripFd Po$ibly ltc coDD.rtDcot
hr! ccaladro !ood, ao&rr pttaauaawithin |!d withouttrl Gqud,Tba
riggiq of t[. drt i. t!c! riopliicd" Horts, rr rooa I thc pubDr
bcgir to Fducr thc lcvcl *ithin tbc coEFrrncnt, I prc3srt! otr lbc
outlidc of rhr mrt wil bcgi! to foflr, itrcftr.irg a. tbc lclll ir louE ad
i! rtc comprnmcdt.Thc r|'t mult bc .blc to rithrtand ttia nuirt|u'!
pEraurr.
T.o!..tt
f.t irr
whao 6timrtinS thc cxtcot of drer!! it shouldba bofnc in Eild
that it ir litaly ro occNfit pLccaquitr rlmotc from thc rtr. of ioFct;
plalar Eay bc ra, ,rp,rivctr mry bc ahcarc4piF m|y bafr&iut!4 ald
tha puDpios .yat @ d|trls8cd. Bilgr. |trd hnf! thould ba aoudrd
throufhout rtc rrs|cl rftlr coli.io! and &pcarcdoodtilr&udy u il
d.aod no !ong6 lcca*rary.
A Sarhdot/G thc wrr.di[c wil t^vc to bc cload Gitbd ritL a oolli
.ion mat or with rratdr. SrlvasrFtotrtrd ulc thta pilclra oo uldaa*491 a-ne!., but thir ir lot positrlc i! ti. c.!. of. vr.d d.D{td .t
.ca aid eith ao dirt't avrilrt la It |.F D|d for th. clry of oe ahip,
hortcr, *ho rctudlynrd& r divin8-.uit frod c..!vrt, rfid.dtly i[14

DAMACB CONTROL
itting to coot is aL for t*o or thrlc Di[utr3 diviq at . tiDc, trot to .
vcry grrrt d.pth ofcours..
A i,rlt had! pstch ir witbin thc rcopc of mo6t thipajt trL. tiDc to
codrtnrct, but thi! will trot Eattcr, sincc thc gaah i! rboy lha wrt rlcwl. So&c of thaacpotch.a hrE bc.o |o cfr.clivcly mrda rld inad

PUoD|l|lia

!oLt

!Ig!!E-l-!
tr! bcanisircd by Lloyd's3urftyof!.
tbrt r C.rlitcata of ScawonhitrBs
Thc D.t!.ir& @.ary alc Dor lbtld. (It it 8.uDd that tbr EdgiEr
c.otupply rtr cl6t ic drill atrdr fcw nuts,bolt!, and a brcbr* aith
yhkt to noo\,! o fav pi)c6 of .trlh.ilon froe wh.fc rh.y wiUtrot bc
trdg.dfor thctin bcin&)
A hfc picccof rtong canva!:
rcwrd lcaSthrof ulitoru tinbcr;
. qu&tity of oakum,cottonv8tr, or jut ;
galv.lild ntik;
aodc d..l 3ht3;
Nt3 rtrd boli!:
acFral pi.c6 of &glc.
Tha crlY|r b rprcadon tha dack---lh.ara of tha oalvra muatbc
cotrilrrt{y la4.f thr! thc atla of th. gr.h. Tba tiobart ar! out to
rb .!d lrid od t!. c.ny$. Tb. dser of th. tiDb.. (.ll rood !h.
145

DAMAGE CONTT,OL
ycry
tbi*ly cowftd with thc o.k|rn o. coir, atc.,
arc{arlh) ar! now
iha cinvt' th.o bcint broutht ov.r thir pddi[g aadneilcdto ttc rinbar!. Bctt i rrilt lotr8 6!r!. tobt n or rrrddryr rtould bc mdc,
Thaacrcmblc citrva! tub6 siutr d with ookum. Tbc puddiqs arl
tbctrLid rlog thc cdg6 of ttc tiDbcr.trd thc cstrvdradhd dowtr!!
bcfoE(!.c Fig: 7.3).Tbr ridc covrrrd with catrv8will bc thc outcrside.
Thc timbcrr atr now tid by lbrougi-boltirg iroDrht on thc itrbocrd
dlc to adglcstitrGdcr!otr ttc outboed sidc.
A holc i! now drilbd ttrough .tch rtrtL, th. hoL .rt oding rifit
tbrouth thc rinbcr, end thc at d 3lator thc othcasidc.A looSbolt ii

llool

xl.t3

4.9!.$-Z-3,
thcDF!ct|l!d, or nada to fit c.ch of lhraa hoL!. Thc patctri! now
nadt, fot tttitrg.
Iti!phc.d ole thc outridcof thc la!b' with thc DuddinlrtEtiDSon
iound phint (... Fi& 7.1),Thc lalt pic6 ofindc i! row drilld to ict
$ . troqddct lnd lhroug!-bolt d with thc loDgbolg,.!.hom. Th.
potd shouldb. lhorld up Aoo withitr.
If thc hoL ir oli.r tb.tr loog l'd Drtrov, or if tb. pLting ir thit,
thc u6a of a atronghck ir oot pBibla Id thcr. ctq|olt.naar tDc
Frcb, orrad I it i! lomctimctcrld, i! nad! itr af|ctly tL,aEc vay
but ir hool-boltd to thr tuficd-i! phtiry I thoetr in Fi& 72----rgri!
bcinglhocd froD eithi! thc coDpsrlo.dt
Th. nttiDgof ttG3cFtdcr bdofl tha e|tlrli[c it ! Drtt t aithd fo.
diEn or &ta.$rnt to ba.atri!!. lhd. ittcd bclot tha t .rLvd wil
bc rubjlarad lo acwrc cf,t.tnd pr.'oft. *tad rhc cotEFttDaot ia
plrTr.d out, rld for rtL rrato! tb tieb.t u!.d mltt ba c'lritEdy
146

DAMAGE CONTROL
stmog ind thc petch wcll shorrd up from withir. From thc point of viclv
of Iha scafarr.who will only bc deliDg with rbolcwatctlinc patchcs,
the us. of sborei i! still advisablc.Should hc, howcvcr, fnd himsclf in
Oc poiition of rcpajriog his b.ichcd vcascl,vcry catcful rcgard should
bc p6id to thc str.!8th ofthc nat!.ials u!.d.

t{

' l i l

t i

= -

-i

7,3J

=
t'

,"?t

:=l"l=4t

-4.F:L

tf'

F
F'|'

tr,

r '///
l

:+-tsH.

-l

l-r

1"t..-ll
l.---1.

I i.i/ i :

ttxaER3
t l c u R E7 - !

F.d.alnitt
A compa.tm.trt *hich is 901fllcd with cargo b said to bc l0%
pcncabh.T1j6 a ot @utlc' sssuminSth.t thc cargo itsclf i! not pcrDaeblc by vaia..
A 3m mt compenmcnt which is l0% Frmcrblc will thrEfotc l0(m ftt
admil a mrximum of 30 mr cubic fcct of \^'atcr'i.c. spp.oxrmardy r m f t ,
30 tonnswcighl. Fu hcr, lh. Prcs.DccofcrrSo will netcrialy assistio
prcvcatbg lhc rctti!8-up of drcb rtrd ta[k toF duc to watct Prcssunc
[.iow. ll b udifcly-thst a gcncral cargo, bowcvcr ucll 3towtd' or for
rh|t oatLr |av othcr cttao whicb lormally ftquirs vcrti:al dutrDaga
oa thc bulkhcadr' will prcvcDtthc collFc ofa buthcad. Oo tbc othct
h|!4 if tbc caB; wu-tightly stoucd rtBiost thc bulltlid sod u!.blc
to Eorc rvithitr itsclf, thco r bulllcad m.y hol4 Thi! asan impottant

to

DAMAGE CONTf,OL
f.ctor wh!! dlcidi[t upotrcocf,f!! y plug8ilf ofSrlhcr prior to DuDp
tD&
CdF .d Ah
A foodrd comFrtmcnt ehi:h for uy rc.loa culot bc pumpadout
Dry hrv! soDcof ib buoyalcyrqtorcd by rdrtittitrg conp&slcd lir
.bov. thc aurfacaof thc wrtci io lhc campertmc , thu3axpclir! thc
v.t.I lhroughtta F!h. ObvioudythcrccomprfiDant!oult bc c.rprblc
of bcirg nadc sittight, lnd is dry crrSov!.s.b th.tdor! tbir praaicc
i! normrlly rtstric-td to tart!. Ta.ta'r lcnd thcrftalvta!!or! frtaly lo
thi! Dcthod of rcgrining buoyucy, duc to thc largcnuttrbcrof conprillctrt! ir thc .hip whici |r! ciprblc of bcingmadcrinight. Thc air
dry bc admittld throud tuk,ol|lditr! or rir pip6, .trd cvcnlhrough
lhc stcem-irj.ctionvslvca,Ir somccrsasprrssuft3ofas Iow as 0't of
an rtmosphcrhavcaufrccd(that is, a totsl of 1.8atmosph.rcs).Th
building-up of cxcssivcp..ssurr6 should bc evoidcd in casc thc
companmcntis ruptorEd,e.g.thc dcclhcadoi t&nktop maybc a.t up.
Thcscshouldbc shorcdin anycasc,from abov..

!in

Croadt
Gcocfdly, t[c ula ofccmcntby raanranfor &pair *ork ir linitrd to
lc-*-rtoppidg. A lcak shouldbc stopFd .! rfici.ldt r! porliblc rntil
thc inforv fu rmsll A dlri! systcdi! ttcn lcl up fron thc lG*, to ttc
tilgcs o. othar aalily-pumFd lpaca. Cordmscr tub6 rtr oflcD ulad
for this putDosa.A c.rrrl ,or--{ timbcr frtmcrvork-i! thcn built
aroutrdtha arla of thc hak to aupportthc cotrcrrtcwhil3cttin&
Crmctrtus.d by iticlf ir vcat, andfor thiarcrlor it i! elw.y! mixcd
with ad 4ggrat (sa.ndo. grivd) to forn r concrctc.Portllad canctrt
is slowcrsattingthrn 'C'DcMrFoNDU'.Sed fuknowtras6rc rgg!gr&,
and l2-mm gavcl is chsscd!s coorsctggtlgrtc. Thc Fopottions uscd
u!: I Frt ofccmcDt,plus2 prtl. of6oc aggtlSatc,to 4 Frt! ofcottc
$gcgrtc, tll pstu by volur,rc,A quict r-sctriu DirtorE k I pttt of
@.ot to ll parta.sci of [s.trd co.Ila Thc.boE Dixtltrra rt! ody
a gqidc,E try pcopl! brving tbcir ow! nrn ifua! on thi! DltEr, but tba
FoponioB rubEitbd harcara vlry cfilctivc. Eolh warn fiiah iatct
ald wuhidg rodr rr! aaidto arpcdia lbc rcffi4 of lhc Dixtur!, What!
th r|tcr ir ddcd to bring thc Dirtu$ to r wottitrg ooriataocy tha
yoluDawill rcdoccby rbour os-ttitd.
Aa rooB |! tbc dnin i! furclioiing artidacrorily, tb. .oocillG ir
pour.d ioto thc bor. Onoaral rhccodoflhc drdD tubccrDbapluffd,
or cbc witMnwn rltoFrhci, lnd tbc holc itr tbc coDciirtcplutlC wilh
. ruititL phcaofaoft-wood.
Thc uraof cadanti! lot trooDmctrdd fof balt io lutfacc! whici atc
lirtL to dor,! id a r.avay, lor for oily, piirtad, oa Sttaty ruf|!aa.
148

DAMAOB CONTROL
P.iltrort thould bc tou8h.oo4 or cLcttorouShlyclc.ncd t[ rtroq
lods &lutiotr!. A rulty turfaacis idlal

I..t
For amalllcrk! $hich do lot wlrrsnt thc ula ofr patd a! dlsaribcd
pnvioudn thc folloviog cquipEcDti3 ulcful:
O) CrEctrt box6
(2) Softwoodplugr, l|F!4
.nd &ivEA into torll holcs.Ir v!f,y
cfrcclivc riDccthcy quickly 3wllwhcowct.
(3) Picc6 of stlcl Dlrtirg msy bc pLccd ovtr roall j!88.d fnctut!.
on thc outar plarin& cu.hioncdwith oatu$, ald rightancd-ry
inbord ulirg an |trglc .troogbrct boftadrhrougl thc phrc. A
rtout piccaof timbcr wouldru6ca i! daca of thc atccl Fovidcd
it ir of au6ciint rhicknds to idth6tald cxlamd srtc. prlrsultt.
(4)A canv.r mst ery bc erda, pliin otr thc iobodrd.idc rtrd
th$mbcd oDthc outcr si&. It i! rhc|trplacadovaatha holc,fron
hbosr]4 strd aborld up, uring a picccof rtccl platirg or tiobcr
bctrr.o ttc mrt and rhc ctrd of s lhorc to act ar r rupport oa
,ar'pndr.lhir rllo dbrribulr. tLGihtust of thc .hott
$.Itd ntnn
A rivct hole may b cssily pluggedu3inga trFrd softetoodplug
whichyill soooswllandbe giipFd by the turroundint mctal. Othar
methodshavc beanusd:
(1) Yearsa8g,ralvageworlcrs and lcamcn ulad an cnraorditrry
mcthod cmployitrgwhat they cr[.d . Jitt-Dotr, shorn it Fi8.
7.4. A litrc wasposscdout throuth lha holeettaclrcdto a picca
of rod ctrabliogthc line to hary down. A boat'scrcw woold
thctrfuh for lhc rod, hoistit to thc turfaca,ettachthc fsh_boll
and tbc latter soold rhcn bc pullrd i o lhc ahiPat|df.stcnrd.
Wharc thcrc {crc no bilgc kccls to foul thc cxcrcisc,r pcg ol
*ood wasuscdin placaof thc rod, obviatinglhc nccassityto

tuh!

(2) Ycsts agotoo, I passcda &vicc aroutrda goup of rtudaDt!but


it di.rpFared in hansii. Po.siblythc qrlFit hopcdto brandtuh
it at an Exrminer statingthat hc ncver travclladreithoutotr.
Thc dcvicc k similar to a modcm wall-fastaningrld is rhowD
i! Fig. 7.5.
'A h a Ectal fub. brviq four ctta i! ita adboard .od 'B',
Fn of tbc tuhc hcitrgthtr.dld .!d c.nyiry r Dut'C. Thro!8l
fic tutc ror r r!d, Orlada4 rld crryiDg i n|tt at itt ilboaad
lad 'D', hrviDSita outboardard codrl |nd of ilatatlad atoarac.tion"lb croaHaatio!'E' b gtt 1.r tb|n tL! iloca ato.}etio
|rra ofthr outaan$a,

DAMAGE CONTROL
Thc bolt ir p.i!d tbroughthc phri!8'F, rtrd thc nndl trut rt
'D' tightcocd.Thc innr rod movcaitrborrd, it3 conir.l cnd crpstrditrglhc oulcr tubc dSainstthc plstitrg udlil thc ft fu wat rtight. Nut 'C' is th.n scrcwrdtiSbl

!E!!!_.L.!

S..ng
Sub.qu.ot to collbiotrdana8p,o6..rs rhould tlaon to ahoritt |!
aootrr! posiblc, ifcoDsidcrcdnac6..ry. Sho|ls str urcdfor rupponiD!
,l-n-g.d or wlskcod itnrcturl , watartiSbtdoora,trt h!!, phtirg,
bultL.dt rnd tanttoF uadcr pr!*rurq parc.hdrnd prdr covcrinS
ft.rturl., otha(Lat-atoppiDtdcvic.s,snd for rliDfo[citr8drcl!.
Racl.ogulrr Enic.l allar utrdctprlrsurc, auaha! door' .trd bul}.
t .dr, Oould bc 3horldup at e lcrcl of rou8luyo!.-third oftlc dcpth
of ttc wrtfi ciuailg lh. pn .urr, Dc.tutld fnon th. hr of tbc alrucup I m
6 f t 2 f t turc, i.c. a dooaundcr3 m of *Etcr pr.3sulcshouldbc shoaEd
fto6 ttc b..c. oo thc othar !id., Tbit i! tDccadtrt of P(l..uta tbc
ahors doutd ltlt o! Fdpi.s, fst piaaa of wood which diatribulc
th. ttrutt of ahastorcr avrolyqvcrthait a!.4ShoFsrhouldlot lo.Ddly bc long.r tbr! thirq tin.' th.it di.o.tc..
Wcdg.3rhould not bc ulcd ftl ly to tilht@ ahoEa-tbc utc ofttoltt
whici |rG t o.rd(ic. lol8.r th.tr str cxaatit) i! conlilctld a batt t
pr&{hq Wbaorr.ortcd to, rEdgpr arc ulod itr !.iu lDd h|[m.tcd
Bcforr riggidS3horcr,oily tudrcct
towrds aachothccaimultrtrcoudy.
'ItGy ur ltaDpadatrinlt ! tiSid ilrue
aLouldbc tprintld with asrd.
trrc |trd lot o! urrulport d plsti!8; a dra&rhould b. ahoFd uP by
rtopilg thc bcsdrrad hccbofthc |hort rgd!5t thr barm!'
I! tb. .hGcc of rilid parb plctrty of Dodpi.c.. .houU b. u!.d'
sho.ilt $ould bchrpcc{.d firqurody for .i88 oflodcoitrS.fpo.tiblc
r ora rlould bc ia coutaot itt!ld|!c. Shori!8iailustntad in FiS.7.6.
150

DAMAOE CONTROL

E!g!!r-zJ
(A BEAVYWEATHEADAMAGE
WoodanlLach6
Ifbltchc' st! !ioE-i! duridg hasvyweth.r trrpaulits will6c rip?d
ard woodra btcb6 lDr.ho(L Thc bcfirg b.n, if tud, tdlt prob.bly
rldah irtr.t |Dd TiSSEAItr oda( to prcrlot furthci iltllh of wlt r
inb rhc coEFrto.ot, coDtiruld lo.3 of buo]4ircy, strd dtDlgc to
c.rf,o, rbc }lsld ahodd bc asurt of couts ao tbel rbc lia in s. ooDfortlbk . pocitioo I poariblc airh tro rrE conitr8 rbord it tha
dan|gld dra. (For artDdc, if No. I hatdar brd bcad ttotf+i! tDc
151

DAMAGE CONTNOL
$aa.l world prob.tty havcbc.o rtru4 nam lo ritrd rld ,ar whilc
cpair eork ua! crnicd out.) Siaccrttotrg roodcn batchd hal! b..n
rd$had itr, it wouldbc foolhlrdy to lttcopt to clc.r thc dcbri! bcfoE
l[c rtrrcl k 3nun8;
Thc dsmagrd.quipbcnt .hould bc clc.Gd .v., !.lving r'y yhol.
hrtch6, Bib6 rhould bc toutrdcdrnd pueFd out if n.c..!.ry; th.
c.r8o bclo%lhoughFobrtly w.U iorkd alr!.dy, 3bouldb. cowrrd
eith tarpoulilr i! oslcthc trcwcovcritrgod thr hatchwryrtr not vatdtiChL
A[ sp|tEh!tcha!, includilg .ly rblt catrbc lpNrd froD oth.r 'twtao
d.ck throudout thc rhip, rhouldb. brouSlrrb tiG &org.d ule rad
c1ltto it thc opctrhrtch*ay. Oncathc brrchsry ia coErrd, th. hetchct
rhouldbc ahorcdup froh balowuainSplcotyofpcdp 5.s. Thr6 trrpculin wil thcobaftta4 atratchcd,
|trd iccurclybcttcncddow!. Noxr
lhrt th. cov.G sr! ahorr4 thc warcl mry bc cotrtioud oo coursaOn
thc ot[Gr brnd, it Inayba fdt dvilablc to rcorid hov+to rnd ria] !o
rtrcotiodcdfor covrri4 rha
futhcr daErge.Tharrrprulirr, prGviously
o|rgo, shouldbarcdovd a! sootra! pocsitt itr ordcrto dlow thccatSp
to dry out---aomcrhltchcandod id ilc rrl.that will a$id lhia.
hdgDr!|g.
If crc6.ivc pourdiag h8 tc.n dloit!4 Fttiq .tlf, i! b.lh1 trin,
No. I bilg6 .houldbc rouDdldfrc$rn0y. Thccalaooclrr.d of r lt'tcl
i! ruch . coDdition,*ith hat forr Fak trlt fu[, rDd tufictitr8 hlaYy
po|mditr&ANr Esult oftir, h6 colliriotr bu[6.d bc.r& fnct!rcd
i! lcvlrsl placn, c.u5irt thc t ot to lcrt b.dly. No. I t ilg.. wrr fuU,
thc linbcfNbrd bccoforccdup, rd thc tarttop i! lho loslf hold w|t
a*t!h. Thc ta|tl ad ttc b slt rq! iro&adiatalypunpGddry .Dd tbc
d&r8c Eprftd rt tbc pon of dlatiratioc
ID liglt cotrditiotr!firqucot inrpcatiolr a[otdd bc Ddc tfl whatc
.r.6!ivc dbr.tiotr m.y ioducclcal..

nds
If platinSi! L.liry 11lapi)iitt tb. crcviccEry bc r.@tdy c.ultcd
with orkum or similarmrtcrial Thauraofwood.o plug i! ioadviaatta,
ainccit Day aggrvrtc thc.inration In aom.. thc lspjoint baabc.o
drillcd tbrolgh-just uf.far astb fafiry tufac.s, i'.- tbr d.!. tufrc.
which .ft togcthc, .nd r .tiff tunhrE of putty inj.c{.d thtoufh ric
dri[iag to sl thacr|i:a.
V.dh6dr
If thcsc arc shcaEd ofi or datnrgcd in hcrvy s'alihcr, rrmcdirl
aciioo Dust be ss,ift, cmployint voodctr v.nt'plutt aodor csnvlr. If
uonoticcd,a bslk carSpcould bccornct rtrtt atrdshift.

r52

DAMAOB CONTROL

(3)rl)ss oF tt DDEI'
M.!y at&mptr h.v! bao Erdo rt s to rig !p daLc$ift rtrcdry
dqviccswith v|ttilt dcttlq of ru@. Ecfor! dirqnrilt thaaa,a ptq
liEilrry wordon ruddcrrccid.oti it U[roprirta. Shouldthcrudd.( fril
to rlapord to ehcal molt|Darti, it rlay bc du! to frulty ltarain&8aaa,
or to e fracturld ruddar atock.I! both caa6 lha ruddcr lhddd bc
broutht uadctcotrtrolbcforcrcpairt 5tr attanpt d. Itr rbc crlc of rod
rd chri! 3t .ritr&g..r, if fdlur occur in, ray, rbc porl .t .ritrg litrL.gc, thcdthc wb..l shouldbc pla.rd h.rd oEr to drrborrd, cauringI
dEihr aalioDon thc ruddcr,aft.r rvhi:h thc qurdntrt catrbc rccurd.
b tha c.!c of a fracnmd .udd6 ttocL, thc rudd6 clnnot ba controlld ftoo itrbosrd,atrdvrdousDcthodsar! uscdto catdl thcruddcr,
includingthc lowrridg ovaridc of kdottld chrfu. Th6c ir! uscdto
catcbthc ruddq tr.ilitrg<dgc atrdhcavait to o[c sidc,anlr ebich it i!
sccurcdwhilc rcpairsprocccd.If e kcdgr a&hor is evailablcit has
prcvrd morc ,atirfrctory to lovrr lhia ovcathc ,idc ir a horirorid
position,i.a atoct vrrricat or wir6, dos! to tha hvd of thc ruddcr.
By cdrful bandlidgof thc wir6, thc fulc may bc caughtlgaialt tbc
rudd6 srl , thc ruddcrhovcbaRloEr, strd thcorac1rlld.
ID sll c.3c6thc vt3sclis stoppcdiEDcdiatcly.Itr rdditioD,i! hcsvy
wtathcr, thc vrsrcl Dust bc madauvlld ioto s coEfortttlc pocitiod
vhiL eork prlcaad!,Withoutr ruddcr,thcralal viu lllunc I poaitio!
bc.D-or to win4 which msy Lad to diaar'tto!! tfiaJvo ott tow.
Crrgo nay sbi& md cspsiringm.y occut Thc ,iip ahouHrh.r.forc
bc broughthcadto wind ss quiclly .! poltiblc. A D|t..hift Dirzcn
,.il mry bc rigScd,r a.a anchorm.y b. atr! ma4 but i! roo. caraait
hsr bc.nluccc*duly ecconplishcdby simplylowril8 otrcrtrc.horor|s
loDgscopcofcsbla
Occalioosly,cogiacrn havr bccdstb to clrt iato thc ruddcr tuDt
ad r.p.ir rha fractur. by ing.oiou! uacof c.L[F !!d dqtar ltaal
b.!d!" Thir ncthod is g.ocraflyli4itld to fr&turE. rbich .f,trad ovrr
a goodLogth of ctoclclf thc frrrturE oc.ort hclowthc rtrfilg box fhc
ncttod c..onotbc uscdudc.. thc vBr.l catrbc triomcd ruficicotly by
tDr h!ad.
JE traa6
W[!d rt aringwit[ arEha dcvica,rE .dr .houldbc dow, |Dd r. ao@
et tbc E or wcathcrcorditiodt d.lrrionta, ltc vlad ahor|ldbc hov+
to. Thb ef,l svoa aicaaaiv!ab.r!'' odtlc taana rndhhe,
Thc b.!b idar ofr ruddci ir tblt it rbdl Fovil. Ilai.trG to tbc
r'rt6 otr o[c lidc of lhc lhip itr ordd to i|ll tbc bow,ora& tbrf ddr.
For tbir rlarod, ary cootrinc rhidr ftElr tl& f!nc{i6 D.y bc nacd
aaa jury rlddct, It ir m6t inDorr.lt to noia,brlrta, ttat wbrt eita
t53

DAMAGE CONTROL
olc waaatvarywlliDdc.4 tr|&yprovcquit vsluclc$on anothcr.Matry
of thc nll-Liown and succ.ssfuljury ruddcn havc bccncopicd oo
othcr rlslcb |ad havcprovrd usclass.RiSt d6caibcdfor shiF wilh
ships.Aitr,
court r atrfls oey bc totrlly uDluitcdfor ciursar-siamcd
quitc
madc
for
small
shi!6,
but wh.o
ruddcrs
cao
bc
lrlidaclorily
iomc
copid on lrrfrr vssalr hey provcto bc of ioadcquatcstEngthdaapita
thc LrSrr eprr .vrihbla
b twio-scrrwshipcthc ltsscl may ba sbarcdby runnin! om ctrgilla
at coDltatrtrcvolulionsead varyitrgthosc os tha othar ctSlnc. Od
ailglo-.crEwihiF lhc lcrmaa mult try cvcryocthod rt his dirpocal.
So[E rtry loog voyagrab|vc bctd mldc utrdcrjury ruddat,bul thc
Scatmustbc coDstindy!u$cd, lnd thc tcmpLtioDto i*rrala a@

itr f.ir wE thct stroogly Eiiltcd. Givcn thc u!u.I matlfia& carrid
sborrd a ship,rnd a lumbcr ofcorcrprisiDgDcn, a ruddad6. $ip pill
toon ba broughturdcr coolrol, providd thc manarc tirclds .trd p.>
prEd to nalc two, or cvcnthtlc ditrcrrnt aiS!id ordcr to fDd ..utirfactoryonc.
Thc followitrgmahods arc outlincd bticfiy; lhay hllc rll Prov.d
iucc.ssfulin lhcir tiDa on . Fnic|rlrr !hip, or Fhtpa oa r rolll
trumbcrofship.. Th. mcthodofriggitrgEust baLft to thcFtron doitr8
thc *ork--+tr!t'gth of g!.r avrihblq Lyout of thc vc.scl,fttinSr, aod
nwid.as arcti! p.lroSrtivc, For thisrcason,only thc v.ty basicidcrs
a.! includcdhalc Whce.ctually usdcrtakiagthc trsk thc qucsliotrof
ri!8ing vil bc repidlysolvcd.
(l) Itr lhc htc l9Zh a jury ruddcrrs! mdufactut d fmm . &rdck
rDd tvo rtlcl dooB, in lhc form of at oa. hlving . box bLda Tba
154

DAMAGE CONTT,OL
doot! *lrc boltld to tbc ddrick ,omc dirhmc fro|D thc drrict haad,
!!d ftc tpa.. b.tE! tlc doon nr! pact d with tinbcr, througt'
boltcdto thc door&Tbc'ost' ra! hunt ovtttidc wilh thadooBvcrri6l.
tlas it!.d to tho top gudgco!utdrt tho cou cr st rtr,
Tha gooaotrGct
atrd lhc spidcrbad rt thc dcnick h.ad wa! uscdfor attachingport
rnd .t rbortd &crirg tiir6, ad thc toppiDglift- (A loPpir8 lift it
to wlt r
dacqBrrynot ody to cootroltia d@thtt whichtha rtsistarocc
occu3 brt rko to hcavcthcjury ruddcrclcatof hravyraai rvhcnbovcto.) Thc mcthodir illustntad in Fi& 7.7.Io th. ca6cofr ctuiscrrt ln
.omc thoughtDight bc dcvobd to usitrg8 aimiht ri& but with thc

;lcutc

t.l

seorcEt Fliig rhtou8i r holcmadciD rhc ar! phtin& thc 8006olccf baitrgruitruy rc.{rr!d irboard with a colb andpin.
(2) A !rn!$y h.. b..n ulcd by .iggitrgtbc.tc!6 in thr vEric.l phDG
rDd lr6tiq oe and..currly st tbc poopdact+dtp. Tbb l$hitr8 tr cdr
c.Fftt rlooth! .iocc tDGgatrgwrymult bc trty ac.ttlErgaiastmovcncnt both itr thc forGotrd-oftlina ard thc Eirhl plem' but it EUrt ba
fr.c to pivot froD port to rtaibdrd rbout lhc poopdact{d8a,Thc foot
of thaIrngwry will D..d to bc wciShtldwitb, aay,dcrrict 3petrc.hrirr or
tb. do.& of r ft!.o uchor. Stactriigeir.a |!d r toppbg lift r!! t|rd
(G Fi& 7.t). Tbc Lod.dct, ofrh...jury nrddcrrto lift out oftb. w.rri
tril bc D.rtly ooud...crd by sritititrg thc lorEr .dd |!d F dy by
.ordr! . loot lr.d for th. .lditrg wir!!. Tb t f,pioSlift .hould bc
riBad citb.r froo tha |ftcr d6riclr, tbc doctinS brid8r, or FrtrF

r55

DAMAGE CONTT,OL
ft@ . bo@ ($cn .t r &(ricl--dthouttr tbr di.gt nr .how. woodca
{, r) Foix,tilS oEr tn rtcm |! rhowtri! Fi& 7,11.Th. iolpiol lift
@t h. e&d to lla trolrlry bclowit! o.otr. of grvity. A t|!t*rt
Dry, ilrLa4 h !ts!.Ecd .!t tu !! .jwy ruddrr.

roliP#6

ttoct

[lglll-z.l!
(3) A 1..!, l|.F ooil of h..vt @oti!8 rcr., !|'dy rou!&Lr[aq
torFd o! itr o*tr Ftt It b@n6 alotly t a&
b baaorsfuly
loffcd rnd nrtidlv rinf+ tot.l .i rge b.io! Prrvrot d tv th. tFd
of ib. dnp (diloug! .!oe) .!d r roFpiDSlitl stsils liocr |tt {|i!
!!d lo ha.v! it to polt or atarboar{ Tbaaanaacilt virc. .t! onanbd
156

to

19

coutaa

DAMA(;E CONTROL
to two conffitcd warpitrSdrubr dtd woutrdin oppo6itcdir.clioo3!o
ttrt by mc|trsof otrccontrol,onc wirc ir slacld at tha rrmc sFd .!
thc olhct i! hovc-ia.
This ruddcris lhowa h Fi& 7.9.
(4) It is possiblcto lashtogathrscvcrdllargcoil drums.Thc drums
|'c aubmcrgpd
by prrtiely ilittg ttcm *ith watcr. Thc bascof rhc
cotrtdvaDcc
Day bc rltighlcd ir rddition---{eywith atr ancholstock.o that thc rig i suitrbly subdcrgpd.St .titrg wirrs rnd. toppinglift
et nccGsary(Fig. 7.10).
Wilh thc abow mcthods.duccart shouldbc trkcn to makcturc lhat
thc glar do6 trot foul thc propcllcrwhcnthrc$rali! atoPpcd.
(, Bt dru8t Grg,7.l2). tn b a mclhodwhjchis vcry wcll kDown
itrdccdaod is suitrblc for all shiF. It b cxtrrrnalycfrcctivc.Two f,at
dragrart madcfrom timbaror sEcl plst6. Thcyarc ricightcdoDthtir
bclowwrtcr frorDdcrricksswungovcnidc.
lowrr adg6 |trd suspctrdcd
In thc rbrmcc of dcniclq boomr or spdtacauld bc rigSadprojcctidg
horizotrLly ovcr thc sidc,ro carry thc hoilting tacklcs.Forc_end-ell
motiodi! ptqctrtcd by rop6 tuuing ftoD thc dragbridlcsto th. for._
cerdc-hcadLa&, Whcn it is dcsitadto f,hcl coutlc to port thc port
drar fuimmcrs.dand thc.tarboatd oncliftcd-aDd Yiccvcrsa.lf spacd
rcddetioa i3 ofDo itrrporl&rccotrccouldbc lcpt immc$.d at r 6rad
lcral rd thc othcrroiscdor lowrFd a! dcsircd.
By rnaling thc bddlcs of uncquallcn8h, e3 showD,tha dragswill
vccr aw&yfrom thc ship'ssidcs.Onc man shouldbc abl. to opcrat.
thc dra8t, cvcn \rithout rcmotc-controlon thc winchcs.It must bc
apprcciatcdthat nojury 8Ea.canbc cxpcctcdto stccra sbipothc. thitl
on r vlly alow ig-rlg cou.sc,Ofi-cou.la yrws of up to two point!
(22* dcgFcs)shouldthcrcforcbc considcradquitc pcrmisiiblcbcforc
rhcdracsercrFadiustcd.
(6) I; the late 1y,0s, r small ship rigSeda tury steeritrSdevie
co;istinr of a boomfitted $ith all inflatcd air begar eachend(of the
typc usedto chock off cargoes).It wastowed astem' lying alhwatl
and aft linc, atld wilh a steenogwire ettlchd neat
tii shio's fore'ffie
devicptovd most successfulfor that partiqtlar
bag.
eachai;
shiD.

158

CHAPTER VIII

STRANDTNC AND BEACHING

f TIGN a vcasclis groundcditrtcotionrly lhc ir |eid to bc


br-hrd.If rhc i! groutrdcdrccidctrtrly .h. ir rrror&d. A
l^llrl
V Y vcssclir uluslly bcachd wbco shc it d.msg.d to tuch st
cxtlnt thrt thcpumF .rE urblc to copcwith thcrataof noodi[t Thctr
b thc&foF alery! rn i cryrl oftirna, horvaErrhorl, durhg whichtlc
adion of bcachingcm bc conlidcitd. EvGlif s! cmcrgloctaf,i,!$,lbc
hc.hitr8 crn still oftanbc controllc4 s[d b.trccthc pmblcmofrloaring lhc shipmayrqolvc itrclf morGcalily tt'tr in thacatoofa atraldad
v6s.l. Thi! i! paovidcdthc Frlotr cxccutingthc ntrcuvt! lcLat hia
hch, sad mcthodof rpprorch, wilh a vi.w to tuttaquant tldotlilg
Thc wi3c!.smaD,howcvca,eill sa6tc littL tiBc in coDidcringtuch
paoblcn3ifdsngcr offoundcrit8 it intmim .
A v63clwtrichhr! srrrndcdm.y bc itr cootrctwith thc Srould at baa
bow,hci atam,hcr mid-lcnfth,hcr cotircLnglb, or cvcnrll rlotrg olc
3idg with tbc othcr sidcio dac?eltrt. Othcr rholrr or rclr bay atilt
cloaaby, hrtrlFidg tha rdortilt; currcot! rtrd wtrthcr dry bc advarscard thc.r mry bc unfevourrblesiltingiupa! a rc3ultof thca.clcmrDB; advlrscrvcithcr msy csulc h.' to ddva frrlhcr rground,lld
rbc ney dlo bc dsdrg.d, All tlccc prolicnr meyc.utc tbc rafottilrt
to bc ar cx|'lmcly compli6tcd opcrdiotrc.lliDgfor tta tlc of ttourdtrcuc, or tug!, or d.cdgitrgcrdl or ctln lightct! into whic,hto di}
chlrlE c..go, or FrbeF rhc h.uling powrr of lugp vt ad!, Any conbiartio!, or Frhep. dl, ofthdc forE of.ttiatarca 6ay ba rcquiEd.
IndadLra aadoo||Io rf.rditr8
(1) The enSine(s)shouldbe stoppdand put astcm if the lide is
faltng. Somestudentsworry that this aclion could tear the
bottomout of rn alreadydamagcdshipand shewill sink asshe
movesastem.It is mo6tunlikely that goingastemwill movea
shiD off rock o. coral but in the imDrobableevent of it
oo;rring. end founderingseemingimminenl, tbe vesselcan
be rc-grounded,or beachd.If the tidc is fallitr8, possiblyon a
sp.int ,ide, this maybe the very lasropponunityto re-floatthe
ship. Spring tides are not as welcomcas they may appear.It
f

159

AND BEACHING
STR,ANDING
wasthoughrthat the Toncy Coryon on the *vcn StotrcsRee{
would re-floal on a rising sprinS tidc lnstced she inpaled
hcrsalf still morc on each dccrcasint low_waterlevcl. Therc
havc tEcn someunusualinstadccswhcrc ship6haverelloated
bv &ivinr full ahad, a.r6s a shoal afld inrc decFr rvater
shouldthe ctr8ine(s)bc run
bivond. 0ndcr no circumstancca
stL
upsilt andsandwhidrcan
perio&
a3
this
mey
asritmfor lonS
blocl oordcnsci. Not ot y canthc mainpropr sionbc putout of
actktoin this way but rcftigeraringmachiicry may ba similady
aftarad.
(2)
' Th Martei n|tsl bc calcd to dra bridgc and the engine_toon
itrfodncd.If tlE cngi! b rufldn8 a!*cm, injccrionlcwls rlrculd
bc chanrad!o rducethc .isL of silaingcondcnscB.
si8lrl for ErncrFocy
(3)
' ' ClGc varcniglr doors and tn tc th
Statior!. Thk-will cnablcfre, boatand'l'tugc conEolpanicsto
ba bricfcd. It sho affotdr 9n opPottunityto drcck for casualtias
snd missingpcEotrs.
(4)
' ' Swinc out boets. This it ahrays a wise prcaau[on l! any
ericrgpry in cascthe dip lisrsand ptevcntssomcboalsbcing
swungoui at a later stagp.In somcvaascls,Ul|happily,this has
bcan; siEal for someodthe crewto rbondonshipprematutcly
and with6ut any authority. Preparcall lifesavingappliances,
makincsurethat ponableradioequipDentis readyandcomwhoshouldbesuilablydre's'sd.
mence-manhalin!passcngcrs,
(5) ObecrvcRulc $ ofthc Rulesfor PrcrrcnthgCouisionatrdshow
tb. apPrDpri.t lightsad shrF.
(61 Alcartein tbc Fotiorl of tba lhip 50lbtl
iZi el :OO<or p'lx-peX tn .s.8F ct! b. lrant@irrcdb !I rhiF
srd coat radb srstkt3. Thc rdvrntep of scndiry an ugeftt
firc*agc b thal n ahttr shi$ttrt to tbc Friblny of s nnurE
diltr ca[. If thcrt b no &t8ar whararcllo pellool oo Doct!'
thcna SECURrAY tr|.lsegcday bc dboght a6citttt' to vlm
otlEr vcssahthst tba groondaddfp b a dan8.r o oaviglt*m.
Obdxrslv if dtc ituation is or|c of gr.vr aod imrnitrdnddgcr'
!o 6rc didtlss rodacBeod prrpaE lor
tbco it miv bc ncccssary
lclicoptcr or urcccbcsuuoytso&. Sitra shiF 8o agroutrdh al
*t.thlIs, thc studctrtmui codi&r evqy P@:bility. ff . ship
docsgormd in bedwtathcr, dsny s5mcn lakc dlc vicw thattbc
witl|outcatEfrrl
CdDaofteDlhc sef..l placcto bc andabandonitrg
in r vcry bazaflbus
ftdurtrt mav ptaccthd crcw ad parsanStrs
ptigbi. So fuig es rhc sttip is not brcafing up rEidy' thc bcs
adviccis to 3t!y on boord.
(8) N@ thrt th F6ition b ktorvtr, the l'lastei mustd.ci& *hcthcr
to cal fot tugsto staftdbY.
t60

STRANDINGAND BEACHTNG
This
(9)
' tf tlE ves6clb <lafiaeFd,oil polution mry be occudng
mosl
dlecountry
shouldbanDortcdtolhecoastradiostrtionsof
lilch to bc itr clcd and, uoderth McrchantShipdng(Prcvettion'of Oil Poltution)Rcgulations.a[ pocsible!re!6 dpdd be
talcn to drvent or minimilc the oudon' of oil
Sntqcd

rdd

whar sllouH be dassdI irrvrvdie Nd subs.qucnlaclitn is very


mucba mattet of pcrsonalopiniol and cltoicc.For that rasonthes
and guidance'
t*" .""ti*s O* tt'cta"a arcbffeIcd for consideration
(101The OelerCcharteren dEold be informed.Theymay wish!o
@nt!41l@l SalvageArsociatiorFior adviccand perhaF lo
anancc for the dip to bc seh/edon the bes(possiblebasis'
Ttc; may a fulfll;nt of r chatter or a mail conEactto be
coGiderrd.
Of
' ') In the United Kingdom,a Rceiverof Wrec*will ptGrd to a
anArak chargeof rscuc@crationsBut hecan
srraodedveaset
intcrfcrc bctweena Mastcrand his cf,ewonly if thc former so
The MastermayrcpelanypersonattcmPtitgto board
rquests.
his stripwithout audnrity
(12)
' Thc slip sbouldnow bc iramin d for danage.ncverforgetting
thtt thifortc of impocrmayhavecaurcdhatchsto spnngaway
tDm tlEir scatin8sard alory watcrto entrlater.All bilgesand
renk3shouldbesoundcdandlvebcarcfi y checldagittst the
hst rcordcdficutls Remembcrihat damagcmay occur ln
alrss quite re;ota fiom lhc point of irnpad A ship hat
enonnoosrnomentumard whenthis is d$royed.FrhaF ln a
Le src@ds,damagci5 alrnct boundto be inf,idcd uponthe
shio.No.mallv,tbc-ChicfOffccr *i[ berclponsiblefor damsgp
control.m doubtin co_
mixsrncnt an'danyattcrnpsar demage
'nrcy mustdccide*hcther
oDarationwith tl ChicfEnginccr.
dic damaqato tlle vasselprcdud6 sl|y imrnadialeattcmPtsat
rc0oalhr (in whidl cascslrcmus ba *rll'6cq|r!d to thc ahorE
to E!r.c accidenta!rcooeting).or wbcthcrshwill be ablcto
g"it aoau"at r.*oooly wc[' or rcthcrdanrgc contol is
fcasibbwith tlrc crew&d 8et. rYailable.
al3)
Soulditrr! C}d d bc cetri.d our ovcrskl and a Scncralsuvey
'
of lhc ai.r (westtErpcmining) wiI coabletbc Mastcrto srscss
tbc bcs dirdbn in whicl to tty hauliDs'ofrSonrcarc{s are
of
$bicar io unDcdicratlc r@uttts of thc scrH' tbc @ntours
'Ite
panklrl.dy
wcrthl
in
bqd
*ttiilt canatitlrc a-oe dailv,
nalur of tlrc aeibadshouHbe notad!o tlut MinB powcl of
adlors canbc judged.
161

STRANDINGAND BEACHTNC
o4)It b m6t usefulto readthe draughtsof th slranded$ip and
compatethe mrtr with the flotatiod draughts.The ditference,
multiplid by the tonncsFi d! inmelsion, Eve,sa rry rough
ila of lhe arnountof h6t buoyancy.For inslat|ce,if a vessel
f,oatingat 11 rn drawht gmundsand her drauShtmarls now
strow l0 m of water, then cleady she has lo6t l0 cm of
buoyrncy. With a Trc of say 20, we now lnow that
approximatelyZm tonnsof ship ard crgois restingon thc
scabcd.It is mod u| ikely that aDyvessel,or evncombination
of shiF, canhavc Zm tonrlesalonSa sabed.On firm sand,a
Frll of 6m tonnswill be neededatd over coral or rock the
cocffcientof ftictim may be as high as 1.5, givinSa rquired
puUof3m tonnes.Thefirsrtaskis to reducethelo6tbuoyarcy.
o5)Thc localtidcashodd nowbe examfuedveryclcely for range,
tim6 of low and highwaters,strcngthof cuents andrvhether
rhesituationis sprinSing
or neaping.A risingtida,spccialyone
whici is spriryingoverth rrcxtfcw dals, aouldreslorea grcat
&rl of the l6t buoyancy,unless tbc drip is badly ard
erteBively holed. ln an atawheretlrcre is little tidal range,
lighteningof the shipis the only altemativc.
(16)Ijghrcningwil benefitany stranddshipof ooursebut is easier
saidlhan donc.Thesimplstwayis to dischrrgeeI balastwater
aDdalty Aeshwatr for which therEis no immediaterequircEadt. Makc slr that distillatbn plalts are furdioning before
l6ing ft3trwaicr. In somelatte passenger
ddF, buoyancywas
gai&d by laurdtng m6t of the lifcbortsladenwith pesrcnSprs
(wcethcror r3c1|cservicesFrmitdnd. lf the ship'sground
t!.&lc is to be laid out, that rcductbn h weight *iI be to
dilcharSingwil be a
advantSe.As far 6 cargois concerDcd,
sloiw prD6. It rvil oormdly be donc with li8hters---an
4cnsive oparation.It wil be neccssarythen to arfttrge for
stoiageof the cargo,or FrhaF a trarshiFEnt. In thc caseot
Frishable carBos,cob storagc,rra$bipncnt or l@l selling
arc the usoalpriorities,itr tbat order. In the cvcnt of a ta[ker
havingto bc ligbtdcd, thb rnaybepocsiblcusitrgoil barges,or
srn I shalot imught cossaltatrke$,and0criblc h6s. These
craftmusthavesufrcicntdepthof *ater to dcar thc arcawhen
badcd. It drould bc pNible to off-loadtud oil usingthcse
nclho&.
(14 Sfrouldbod *c.lher, or a sadl dl,el@ whilc lhc ship b
agmotrd,shemay stan to novc a$oad and sfiitc the gound
hcavily, nith the tbrat of sedoosdanrgc !o lhe hull. She
fuM V quiMrcd downby Aoodingsone tanls sith balast.
162

STRANDINCAND BEACHING
Thb calt ba dMur8pd af any latq tilr|e with no advdseefrecl
on thc rcf,ostingDrocess.
tank to
(l8l
' ' CoGsidcrnF dg'Aui& withi" ole shiPftom tank to
produces
snion
whi:h
a
seabed
oo
tlE
trim.-In
clunce
lcneral,
on tf,e hul. suchas-softsand,mudatrdevet smallsbingle.it ls
bctterto lichtenthe sarsad endso asto tducclhe suclim on
tbc fat D6; of ole hu[. If sheis liftcd on to thc sttetrdedcnd,
broken.Movin8wat r or oil carlacbicre
siaion is progressively
she
is
sittinSoD a led89,it msy be bettq to
lf
ifiec.
a similar
lghten thc standd end or evendift wcight to lhe scawarg
oen.

F I G U R E' ' I

(19)
' ' Crtoutrdtackle nray be laid out in the dirclion in which
rfostinl seemsn;l bencficial.By this iBdrcantdr laing out
of anclnis, cartfully placcdrt consitcrabledistanccsfrwl fte
shipaad omacctedto'her by hcsvyrvirehawsers'FrhaF also
rdir sme hncthsof her dain cable.HeavyFltllass 8rEolen
*taJrca o di ccar, oftan scoritrg the scond3othe haulinS
oI tbc tusr:Thb gt'resa fnrl vclodty .atio cqlal !o tF
Dart
'Drodut
d. lfu tro sepantevbdty ratic and obvlouslythe
ebo nultiplicd logcthcr'Tbe 89ris
;dsnaal advaotsccs'8rc
sel uD tirh and eirhcr hovc otr or left tiSht to aweit Orc
erlor;otE-fott.3 whkl win bc geaeraiaditl tbc Seatby a risiog
tidc or otr6horcs*ell. Grould tacua is Probauytbc grrlesl
3irdc h.tor it eiditr8lbc refloati4 of r ,hip. G|outd tr'Ue also
bcf o prsrcot fi[ther grounaing.For hirrorlzl i crcst,I am
nori,inchidill aa muaof howe bowctancbotwascanicdout
163

STRANDING AND BEACHINO


udn! ship'slifebosts.Furthron I sbal erptainwhythc p:aciicc
is obeolescent.
C.tithg oC r Bor.i Ardo.
For thir it i! advhablcto ulc two bo r. Thc aDc.hor
ral ba slung
batrc.thoncboat but thi! will rEquircI grtct dcptl ofwrlcr thln may
bc ivrilsble Thc apar!bowcranchotcatrbobrokcnout ofira badrtrd
hoiltad ovc.sida ft will bc slutrgrt ib c.nlrc ot grrvity aDdlovcrcd
u ilju3t ru|lsh-in thc horizoot l politior"
Tha two boatr shouldthen bc cL{rld of all u[necrcarygearand
somc 2-3 fi aport manc.uvrcd
sidcby sidc,abouta mctrcapart,and hcsdingin thc ssmc
ditrction. Thc ccntrr of dotationof thr boatsshouldbc cstimrtrd, i.c.
thc ccnttr of gravityof thc wstcaplsnc,anda hcavysp4rlashcda6oss
sll four gunprlcr et lhis po6itio!. Thc lpar b laihcd to thc thwerts,atrd
thcguuwsLBarcpsddd sdthwidcpicccaof timt cr itr ordcrto dktributc
thc wcightrod prEv.otc;rushingof t[c bost. Thc spqrfot our bo!t!
ton 3 fr carryinga ttonn enchor,and I m apart, will havcto havea cross9 i n scctionof roughly23 cm diamctcr.If thc cacs-scctionis rquarc,thcn
the squarcshouldbc of sidcroughly 18cm. lfthis sparis not rvrileblc
wcshallhflrc to builds sFr, usingelry3uitablcpicc.sofiinb.r throughbolt d and round-larhrd.A lighr.t .psr i! aimilsrlylashcdecrorsthc
quartrr gunw"aLs
in odci to supportthc elchot at its shacldqsnd ro
kccp thc bostr p6r.llcl.
Thr bolts dowrpprolch thc alchor, hc|ditrgtow'r& its lhacklq ad
atr carafullyma[cuvrcd orcr !d alongitr lcngthutil thc dcnick fall
sbub thc ocDt'rl spar.Atr cficianl ropah5hitrgis Dowpr$d $ound
thc cantEof gravityof thc anchoron thc rbadk,aadrhc hcarrysDar.lf
a wirc 6tropis uscda lr.tcnt rlip mustb. iDcludcd.Thc aDchorshrcklc
b lighdyh6hadto dtc aftcr spar.If thcrEi. lufrciant d@thof wd.r wE
mayDowctooscto Galathc ccat'&llalhitrgI thc dcrri:k fsUfurlsckcd
doen iD o.dc. to lubmct8ctbc Mchor. Thi! will caus ! dilpleccEcnt
of wd.r end e adrll but hclpfirl upthn;t on tha uchor. If Oc aDc.hor
ir corrccdy3lu!g st it! cotrr of gravitythcrcOould, in ttcory, bc no
t2ft wciShtoo thc aftcr sp6r.If our lifcboalsarc l0 m long thcy will cach
havca tooocapcr-cmimmersionof .oughly 02, i... a wight of 0.2
tonnc will submcrgconc boat I cm, Sinccthc 5 tonn.s is distributcd
bctwccntwo boots,thcy will cachsink about 12cm.
Tbcbo6&rhouldbc .quippd eith r ctah cbccrk
rtoppcr,r lhrrp uc,
lod halE r clls of rbout tful. manir cech.Itrio tftc boa&Eu3t Dos,
5- or 6in bc l()adcd,andc5ldully fskcd down,thc big40.or 5cmm wi|r s,hichis
ro bcilrlly hovo-otr.Hslfcal bc phcadi! aachboat,'-tin8 surcthat
it i! c,Latfo tutr. fhc cDdfurly toitrg itto thc bortt Oould bc passcd
clar of ccrytbbg srd rh|cfid ro thc alchor ri[g. Ltrordrr to rvoid
hrviq to do lhi! pith tic sachorjult.ubmargaqit couldwrll bc doDc
tg

STRANDTNOAND EEACTIINO
beforcc6hr awavthc dctrict fatl' fia othcr c[d of the wirc is dradc
frlt to a ioi;mg fbrc ropc mcsscngcrwhichi!-cithcr Poidort sl&kly
from thc !hiD. or ftom tbe boat on it3 rctum. wc arc aasudutgat tnrs
itrrc trhrto;. boweratrchorhasalrc.dy bectrl.id'with a backitt|'uP
nii attacbcd(cqualto abouttwicc the deptbof rva&.)' and buoycd'
aslbostr ir Figdrc 8.1. Anchon will thus be laid in r,,r&n '

LIGN'

rrdura a.l
Thc boals c-en now hcrd out to the 6$t anchor site. Fi8. t.2.
ahowr thc twg borl! vith thc ancbor slutt in positio[ Thc bod! rlt
thowtr wktar !p.n tbaD in prlctic!' for thc lclc ofclrrity.
Ttc buoy irpi:kcd up end tha buoy-wiE hovc i[borrd. Evanrurly
thc cnd ofihc 25-mm bickinS-up wirr will bc broughl to lhc surfacc. 3'in
Tha r..d6 abould low idagitrc himlcf to bc in thc boat! .nd try to
ti.|ldita thc tr fit rtap.
hss thr end of th; 2tmm wirc (heving ctst ofr thc buoy'wir.) undcr 3-in
lba aDrrt mrtc a routd turn o! tha inchol ahstrk clolc lo llc hcr4
ard aircfb tbc wirE b.ck on to itt ow! pstt. Th. wirc ia trow bdck'd-uP
lo thc boi/ta |trclror ltd wil alidcdown clo.c to thc haid wbcd ltr.ttad
Soc1t'Ettc buoy-wiF to thc boslr anchol and psy out dt th. wirc'
165

STRANDINC AND BEACHING


rcfoating thc buoy.Msting tut! thc hcsvy*iI! i3 c.tcrtof cr,!.ythin&
payout sufrciartto at lcestrlach thc bottom,andpassthccbiF,hcck
atopFr ,oor.l',. Wc may ind it dimcuftto c6tid.r& how muchbcaw
i'irr re arr paing out, atrd if wc ur&r-6tiEatc it, .dd hrvr r tight
chain-chcck
s!opF., tbafalling afthor mayarcisti! rcmovingpsn olr
boet.Crit off thc L06hing
oDtbc sltra aparrtrd elcd thc bodb, cftfla.
Makc r ftral chcckto sccthat all ir clcar,rd cut th. ccntralhd nf
tbrough.Thc anchoreill dcsccndro thc bottom with tba brckitrg-up
wirEsacurcd,ard thc buoywi noatabovcthc anchorsgqDrldng rc-

F r c r r i El . l

covcrypcsiblc latcr if thc gromd.trcklc has to ba slippcdrrld hft


b.hind.
Moyc clrr, vecr the whole of tha virc strd rctum to thc ship
payhg out the m{sengrr.Thc aod of wirc i! now haulcdto tha shi;
atrdrigScdrEadyfor hesvitrg.lrl us assumctbat tbc ship i! sgloutrit
lorlward tDd our ground-tacklcbas bccDhid lcaditrt dght estcm.
tleavy purcbs!swil bc ulcd for stcssiDt thc groutrdtscHc, rd
usc_may be riggcd in many waF. Gcrcrally thcy rra .! havy .s
poisiblc ad ere oftcn riggcd with onc purch.lc a.Nfrd to rhc
heuling prn of drc otbct. This 8ivr e tbcortic5l mcc;hrdical
adr.lugr cqual to tbe padud of tha racpccrivc mcchrnic5l
edva rgca. Abo tllc rtrcas oaccss&yor ftc dDd heuling part i!
lowcrd16

STRANDINGAND EEACHING
Thi! hrulitrgpart i3lcd to lhc rtlcr witch6 o. caFtatr!. To disttibutc
thc sta6smorccvcnly,thc haulitrgpdrt is oftcoturncdrculd oncwlrP
inr drun asd tbcntimihrly tumcd uP oo lhc ncrt sct of winch6 for'
wrrd. Bot[ wioch6 rrr lhcu run togrrhcr.Thc L{d of thc hsulingpart
ihould bakcpt aslaarly esposriblcio oncstrsiShtI!a. Thc purch$cs
will ba ulcd to advaotagrri.c. puling in thc ditlctioD of thc movio8
blockr.If thc cnd of thc hcavywirEhasan cycin it thi! is mott con'
But if thc shipbGSiBlo mow,
wnicnt for.ttachmcntto th. purchasc's.
.nd thc hcavywirc is slowlyhovc-in,ho* it thc block now sccutcd?
no! by ooc alo&. A !uc'
Possiblyby scw.al cheinstoppcrs---.c.rlainly

L!!!-98:!!-!A!!E!
FTGUiE i.4

cc|lful bctbod is lo us. r woodaotoSglc.Tbir b e thon ctlidric'l


_wircis
piceof hardwood,bavinga large etddiametcr. The haatl
pocsible
The
iumed backoo its own pan. makingassmallaa eyeas
B
stroP
sclvatc'
toccleis DLcedthrourh this evealld a chaialacingor
The
tbc
blocl
to
and
shaclled
tf,c
togglc
oa;ca airuao ttc cyJ, over
i:hain tightcosun&r teDlion (Fi8. E.3).
whc!-ovcrhautingrhc purcliase, !.r, ral ctain stopFrs thould bc
oerrcdon to thc wi-rc,glil FrbF light t ctl.s u!d 3imilatlyto tbc
;r0od sho*! in Chrpt r I for hcavingup ceuc *hcn tha windlas!ia
out of action,
Thc at!trditr8btocksof lhapunhrlaa lhould b. mlda frst rouodvcry
.troig point , such!r hatc.hcosEitrgtlnj bitts.WiDchHs rt! aoEc'
dEJr;r.d. ihc $nc .pplica to chsin ltopFrt-ltc ordiorry dccl
1A

STNANDINC AND BBACEING


fttil8. at! oftGnof itrdcquata!t!dgth" Dittr rhould batrtchcd vcry
do..ly for rignr oflifting.
Wahsvr low ril8cd thcSaarllrdy for u$ lnd eil chrngcthalubjccl
for tb. tiDc bcitr&FiS,E.4show how our tscllc is lin8.
Cn pr$hg, thc ncthod of c.Iryilg r bo*!r rnchoabalowoac bort
itrvolvB th. uscofa cadttil sparhlhad to thc thwaru lnd rcstiDgon
p.ddd gmwdcai! yry of lhc ocotEof dotation,as bcforr. Thir tihc
l 0 i n thc sinkrS! of thc boat will bc 25cm. Thc snchoris susFndcdvcrtic.Iy, o. horizodaly, ftom th. bight of . witr strop p.!.i!8 rifht
rourd tha bort rnd rpir, Ot tlc lprl ltc rtop c],.a ar! joind by a
patdt slip,for lcttinggothc anchor.Noticcthat rhcltrop vill 8odol!
vith thc archor. TI|c sFr must projcct bcyondOc gunwrle sumcicndyto prvcDt thc boatsidcafrom baingcrushd whcdthc wcightof
tbe a[chor fomer oDto thc strop. Backingup thir adchorto a scond
anclDr will iDvolvclhc uaaof a 2tEtrl wirr pcddsntdrrady sacurtd
routrdthc shrak, rtd witt tha aodhcld itrb@n4rcedyfor codnccting
up. Itr lowcritrgthc aDchorto thc boat, r shon sirr Fodlnt s,itl bc
phccd bctw.cnthc aNbor atrdthc cnd of thc ailrrick fall Thc &dchor
dtrg is shrckLd to rhc wirr rttop atrdllc haavywirc ir s.curd to thc
&chor dtr& ThGtrrha dadbk f.[ i! slsckcddowtr!o tbrt thc rachor
sld6 dow[ tha itrop to its pGitioD of sulFarion. Thc p.od&t
Dowcorblcathc aochorto bc dctr.hd froD rhc drrick fal aDoy.
waar.,
If availsblc,| 6rp.d&dr rtopDd i! a vEryulcful picc. ofcquipocnt
fo. sccuriogthc hc{vypurchslcato thc5(lmm wir!, This tyF ofstoppcr
i, canid rs stlDdqd cquipbcotin Nrvd wb. It i! b.!i:.lly r hollow Ectrl boiqhidg.d at t[c ccotrEof oDcridc aoar to oDasout into
lulvs" Thc oppoditalidar ofthc box!E rot FrdLl but dirqga ,r6oad,
In orc hrlf i. I groov! to takc tbc wira I! tbc othcrir a alidhg matal
wldgr whichhr! thc $Ec taDars| thc tid.. of thc bor. Thi! w.dgcir
groovld aod iB aroutrdtha wir! shrd thc box ir closcdsod &6pcd
rhut V/hc! drcwi& i! .ttr rod thandg? taodrfo bcputhd in thcditrctiotr ofsuBr, iB Sroovcgrippitrgrhcwirc brrd6 ar t[c atrss inrrt.!.r.
Thcbto.rdadd of thcp .atlfoppcrlu!aabrhffiIc otritfortEl[irg to rtroogDoirtr oo thodacL-io osr calctlc ffilc Ely bc rhlcklcd
to ttc purciasc bloct A rFr! vldgc i! urudly rupptcd rith cac.h
ltop'pcr,havbg r ilificrmt t.oort. By ci.ngng wldgcq i difcrlnt dzc
ofvirc Dry b. flr-rld h ftc atoppcr.
IIIE UIT OF II,'GS
Io cord tidd wrtcr| it i! grocfrly rilc to rrdio fioatuSa$iataloa,
.iroc ttcy lrl quictly d,rilil,b. Th6c fug wil bc rblc to !t'i3t ttc
168

STRANDINO AND BEACHINO


ltraldad v.!'Gf in rcwtrl way* but in rll 6!ca tbc Mr.trr thouldavoid
.!y foncid bdrSridlg anditlirt upo! sitlint Lloydf $&.8! Att!.'
Dr[t on r '!ac1|!c, ro-pel,' b6siahcforcg6siltlncci! rcDdcrrd
Ccncrrlly spcrkin&mosltugr cancxcrta pull offrom 5 to l5 ton&s,
i,a. .oughly I toonapull for cvcry75 kW powcroftha cngin.s,thou8h
soE rtr, porcrful ,.tYttc tugt cal cxcrt uP to 80 tonn6. Tlra rafc
workingloid of r 5Gmmf,criblc at6l *irc ropawill bc roughly15-18 6in
tonnca,so thet in many casasground-tacllcis morc cffcctivcthan a
tug'spull. Furthcr,s tug will ril. end fall in & sa.way,andthc att ii in
hc. towliDesill b. continurlly charging.Itr thc c{sc of lxound-tacklc,
s swcllo. !.s c5n bc vcry bcnaicial,sinccprovidingthc !Ea. is kcpt
Isut, thc risiDgof thc watcrbomcP|rt of thc shipin thc awcllproducas
surgiog,itrcrlalad strBscsin thc tecklq which tioc end timc agdn
hevcrcaultcdin movin! a ship.lt is for thit rcasonthat gtound'tacklc
mustcompriscthc hcrvicstgr3r rveilablc,sinccif kcpt tiSh! thcrcwill
bc no spring in tha lincs to abso.b suddcnjc'tks, and str6lcs niy
A ftr cdnot-ntlc us of lharabcndcid forca+&rd fol thi! tlatotr,
aatvali oF ort dry lugt6t tha ura of ground.tacllcitr rdditio! to
tbch aw! pull lo thir aaaa,thc tu8| ca! bc utcd lo hy out thc dip't
|!c.hon vcry tp..dily, ald thut arE coonilcnbL tillc atd ttoubla
Ooo. tb .hip i! rrnod.4 tbc 8..r drt, hrE to bc dipp.d ud lclt for
Ltai rccovlry-haoccthaulc of buoytto rutk thc rmhott'
A tugaay at|o bccEployd i! t rterg, i'c. ulirg tbctttlad ofwrtar
fron b propcllcror propcllctr,diEclcd at frl dow! rt po$iblc, to
rolr .rry ti. .c.-b.d vbi:h ir rilting up tbc lrudcd bull lt i! oft.a
tlit siltilt tbkt ptoduc.t .ao!8 rrlioo, holdia! thc .hip irnly i!
pl&a. Scouib! wil ba acployld wbao t attudcd tbip c.ntr!3 bc
iror,td by hrr ou po*cr, by grould-trcu., or by dllct towirli It
Eay bc u*d to oat I v!..1 tafllc da.F itr th! *rtrr |trd b.coDc
r|irtorra, c to dEdscr da.p cbrtrod lo.cawir4 or to dFdgcc.vi'
t'F b.o..lh rhcto.I Aly t4dl crrtt hsviig . ruitrttlc ciE by thc .t t!
nay bc utc4 a,gia tsrwlcr.
Tbc arc. rhould bc rougblyrurvlyd bcforccoEDaocitrgand tbr
dcpthaaub.cqu.otlycbactadfrq|mdy i! c..& utrdlainblc b.trtilt i.
bciagc.urd by rhc acourilg.lt i! quic pocsiblcfor a|!d to baacouttd
fim rtc fiD'r riL .trd c.u* r atoal to form ro EP|r4 If thir i! lot
catrfrly c.h;:to4 ahatnry ttnDd agrir do.tly aft.r ndodinfi For
drcdgilg cavitici bcnceth. kccl,thc tug should h.v. no morc ahrn
2 m bclowhcr proFtlc.. For frccingthc &r!e .long bc. til8!3, 8tlatcr
&prbe-up to t ; tod dcpth--fir F nilsibb. Tbc rug i. ..curcd 4 falhorn
to_rlrcabit by a hrwrcr f.om lhc towinShook,r msnih haw.crlc.diog
from cachqurracrfor hcavi4 thc tug uP rnd dorvnthc shiP'6lcngii'
.nd a hc.droF from cschbowfor slrcriDsthc tug'r inclinrtion to th.
169

STRANDING
AND BEACHING
ship'sforc-and.aftlitrc. Thc tug shouldalsohavcboth hcr anchorsout
AsuEing tl|. u!. of two tus!, if tumclitrg bcocrth thc fod, both
crrll vill bc acqrlld on otrclidc of tbc shiprd rt .bout 70 dcgrr.r lo
thc!hip'3ridc,ThisLr8p inglc prcvaotadcfactio! ofrhc !rr..m ofwstcr
by thc bilgc.r!a. Thc crafi arr !.curd .brc$t of thc or'b, sitrc.cavitic3plduccd hct! rril lot unduly*trkcn rh. hu[. OtrcclhGcrviticr rtr
bloptr through,thcy ltt grdully rvitlco.d.-iur rrot d!.pcocduaduly
--by movidgthc tulr If, o! rtG oth.r hra4 thc hilg...rc lo bc dcaEd
of.ilt, thcothc tug' wil b. !.cutd rt i rDilct Entb io tb! rhip's lidc
--rbout 30 d.8rcs----ud wil bc continutuy worlcd fton enllrhipc
to*.rds both ctrd! of thc hull Blttrturly tbc rhip nay bc lcft rtrriag
on i ridgaof a..-tcd wirt dccpcrrstcr oo both ridc!. By hcrvinSon
bor or quarLr |trd by ulirg ihip'r cngiaarand ful dtrcltlug rudd.t,
tha thip rtrry bc alowlyrocfrdotud bacon wlt!|rbofla. Cortnry to
irrt thoufit, thc ctrgidrtar! uladat c4 oihcrwilcthc thip wiu bccoDt
ftb&tcd.

If.couritrS . chrmd to !.d9rr4 tla tu8 ia sltrtd to th. thip u.itr8


r hlws nrd. fllt do.Gup to thc tug', pivotirt poht TbG$g i. .&o
.Dc,ho|!dto a singLlnchor L.diry rhad. Ar har aogi6 d! rorkcd
rh.!d thc i! aloely how foytldr th6 randada[ip riib vrcriit bar
owtr aabh, dcwin8hcr st m froD aib to ,ida to f,idao rtG chllttrcl,
and buoyingetrdloEditrg tt channclab. t! n.king
Scouringia rtst icicd to cartai! tlF of F-h.d--.rtrA thind., ind
Dud. Stitrchy i! udluititrL. A rooty bottommry xdl b. corald with
e ihin hycr of loolc .ilt, givilt r f.kc iEpnr.ioo tbd rc.uriq ir
po.tibla
Ar r mrtirr ofbtlllat, thc ptiri& ofrcouriry wrr ftrt uad h tt9l
io Port Sri4 whatrr ahip'aanlin6r &scd$bd a boiery of pip.1
lorrrcd ftcn ovrcridcuadl rb.t 9t|rc iDbcrtd i! lta batfiog.rouod
It hE4 |'d puDp.d rd6 .t bift pr!.an! thtoufh tbro, th. piF
bcitrgFfodt d. Th. dtins e|| loqctrcd ud tb. rbip h.d.d h.rdf
dcar.
TJSEOF BOATSWEEI{ STMNDEI'
Atthowh mrk has bctr includcd in tbis ctraptcro! thc ulc of
ship'sboat! for caryiDg out anchorsit is Daidy of hirtorical iftarcat
rod FrhaF for th occrsionrl craminatioDqucstion. I am of the
opinion lhat lilcboats c{tr *cll bc urcd for suracyworl arcund tltc
stiendcdshipor for fcrrying Frrotrncl in thc dra but that dtould be
thc limit ol their u!c. FulthcrmorE, I hava alwaysrdvocatcdthet
ship's lifcboatc (cxcept when there is a dir dncrgcI(y ruch as
ftandodtrt ship) shouldnot bc rcnt awayin thc opanrca rrban the
vind ir abovea ccrtsin lcvcl on thc BaufortScalc.I cvco dcviscda
170

STRANDINGAND BEACHING
sliditrt scile to imprcssthc point upon studcDts.Winds of betwen
ForcesI and 5 are for prudent saasco, Forces6-8 ale for budding
hroe6snd 9-12 ere for th foolherdyonly. ThiBis Pllrelyfor $hips'
boab and crewsand doesnot apply to sborrercre servicrwho are
bcttcr equipFd and fa. more erFricnccd h that kind of worl.
Sometimca
a boatwill leavca shipin a Forcc4 atrdhaveto retum in a
fteshenhgForce6 aod it canbe a very haardous opcrationhookingon in sucha sa.The useof nyloo pendantson the boatfal blocks(a
requircmentfor passengership emcrgencyboats) has rrduced the
hazardslightly. The frct thrt ca8ervoluntaersrle availablshould
not dctcr a Master froh hi6 reluctadceto dispatcha boat in poor
wcather.Obviouslyin casesof distress,scamcntlke more risk, but
io a stratrdinSthrc is the addeddangprof the shallowwatcl effccton
waves,dakiog them shortcr, stccpcrand morc readyto brcak.
A numbcrof very good reasonscan bc put forward to sho* why
tha pracliceof carryingout anchorsin lifeboaB b obsolcrcent:
(l) Undcr somcClassificationSocictyRulcs,no heavywirc (towwirc) is rrquired to becarriedon vescelsof morc thsn 90m in
lcrgth.
(2) The lifeboats available may bc made of glass-rcinforced
Dlasticor similar malerialandmo6tsamenarc of the ooiDion
ihat thesc boats are unsuitablefor slinging anchors;ithet
acro6sor beneath. Stecl, aluminium or wooden boats are
bettcr for Ois rork.
(3) Th. lifcboars may b totally-nclo6din which thc boat's
compLmantenter throuth I door[Etch n'hicbis thenscald.
The boat is p.obablyfittcd with an extcmal water spray,for
nayi8ationthroughbumint oil or gasalld a limitcd air supply
is avaihbl to the clcw during this time. Thcc toab have
oDlya smsll lcdgaaroundthe gun*rle adiacantto thc domed
covcr and they arc quite unsuitcd to the carrying out of
anqtoIs.
(4) Evcn if tbc boatsare suitcd to thc work, the snclrcr may be
too hcavy.Not only mustthc Trc of the boat bc cooridcrcd,
but the sbceriob of handlitrt the archor may bc too much.
Tbis chaptq hascotrfioeditslf to the carryingout of anchors
which wcigh about 5 ton|lcs---or 414 totrtr.3 whcD slung
b.Iclth a bort. EveDthe6carl too heavyfor somcmodcm
situatiom.
(5) ff trone of lhe forcgoing .pplicr to a particulrr instence,
mattcrs c5ll itill comc to a halt if tro propc. lifting gcar is
availablefor handlingthc enchor.
(6) Therc may bc no largc purahasas
aveilabhior scttio8 up thc
171

AND BEACHING
STRANDING
ground tackla in shich caseoutsidc help is needed.Thcee
salvors*ill plec! the ancho.s,usin8thcir own craft.
(7) Even if the lif.boats .rc suitrblc, thcrc may bc only two, of
which onr ir a motor boat. Tbere is atr enormousdregon a
boat *bich rttcmpts to c$ry an ancbortbroughthe watcr, It
is as though clustersof buclcts hevc bccn rttrchcd to thc
kcl. For this rcaron, thc motor boat is csscntial.But if i!
Figurc8.2 only onc wasa motor boat, both ruddcrswill have
to bc well ovcr to coultcract a stecringbirs due to thr onc
cngoe. Eithcr both boarsshouldbe nechanicaly-propcllcd
or, if posrible, onc motor boat can tory a pair of nondechanicalboats.
(8) Thcrc is considcrablcri^rkto life and limb when undcrSoing
tlis work. Drricls or crrncs arc bcing ritged to ha[dlc and
swing hc.vy anchorsovcrsid, borh ate bcing ha[dled in
clGc proximity to the ship's side, rhcy rra bcing loadedin
unu$ualways,the work itself is totally alier, instructioo!may
not bc clcarly utdcrstood and folloeed, atrd Lom what thc
rcader hasaheadyseen,furthct harardserist rt the anchor
sitca. Atrcho.s have bectr carricd out itr shiF lifcboats on
occesiotrsduring thc last t*o dccadesaad onc of thc worst
calcs ocqrnd in thc llXG whcn a Ftrol-cngined boat was
biry urd for thc task. An cngbccr, who rva! $noking
aboaidthe d'aft. causadan rDk6bo and thc boat@Enurncd.
Thc anchorwe! loct. latcr, inothar bort waslo6t rFatint
thc crcrcirc. Fortuortcly tha lo6t afthor wasa lilht lcdgc,
stil carricd .bo&d an rgcing ship.
(9) Therc b risl to th. lifc-ssviogappli.lcrs, It could bc aqucd
that indirdlydlc boetsarc bcin8urcdto aavalifa hrt it b a vry
ttin ar$EEnt. Thc boatsarc beitrgurcd aBlorl-.reft ad that
is not tbe lrason why thcy rrE plac.d aboard.On thc otbcr
haDd,if it is obvi s that if andwhcnthc Essel is rdoatcd $e
wil inmcdiatcly movc into a nearty porr fo. cxtcddvcwork,
thcn FrhaF the boatsara cxpcndeblc.A Mastcrmult ar all
times cxcrcisc thc grcatcat carc in thc ulc of lifc-seving
appliencd.
(f0) Thc fnal poilt wlrich com6 to mind is thc rtethcr. Having
alre.dy mc ionad lhc drag oa thc boats csuscd by thc
subrncryedanchor,it is not difncdt to visualiratba problcrni
involvcd if, aftcr dfucountiotcvcrythingebovc,thc mchor is
saafor tansit to thc sitc atrdr Forc. 4 brcczcsFitr8sup. With
sltort seas, a 13 knot wind, a hcavy anchor bclow, and
FrhaF hervy ruddcr io u!., tbc boa$ coulde.[ bc rtoppcd
deaditr thc natcr. Onc Officcr told me that he and his crcw

rn

STRANDINGAND BEACHING
spent ncarly a ehole *eek clrrying out onc bowe. anchor
bctwentwo rteel lifboats,fightingcufients,win& aodseas.
Whenrhcy fitrdly beganto set the geartight, the anchor-to
their horror-was simply haulcd straight back to the ship.
This demonstrstedboth paintully and admirablythe valueof
onc anchorbackedup by anothcr. It is most important that
thh is clea y understood.
GROI]ND TACXJ,E RIGS
By riggiog anchorsin tandcm,it bcomcslcsslikcly that the gcar
will be hauledbackto thc strandedship.when an anchoris hoveon,
the pull shouldalwaysbe parallcl to the axb of the shark. lf thc pull
movsup only 5 dcgresaway from this aris, one quarter of the
anchor's holding poecr fu lost. Wben the algle incrcassto 15
&gcca, the holding powcr is clt to half. In tandcm, the irrthar
anchorcannotexperiencethis a[gular pull unlesslhe ncrrcr atchor is
actuallylifted off the seabedby the strcsson the gear.
Additionally, any tctrdencyof the nearcr archor to dr|g towards
drc shipis rgisted by the holdingpowerof tha othcr anchor.Ideally,
thc backing-upwire, or chain,or combination,shouldbc of ihc same
strengthas the rcst of the gar. Unncceislry rcducliom of strcngth
must bc avoidcdif thc oDcrationis to succccd.
Whcaa vassalir strandcdelongoncddc hcr cngiocsrE oflitdc vtluc
itr EfoatinS hcr. Ground-lrcklcwill havcto bc cmploJdwith o. wilhout towitrg.sristaiir Hc. rcawird aidc mud bc surrElrd to dccidc
whichcnd of hc. b to barlcwd clcia. Gcncrally,abcwil bc dccF.ft,
r|ld thc bow i! chosctrfrom wbichto Lad lic ga.r. Th. rtcm mry rEquirEra adchorand hawscrLadinS6carv.rd,i! ordd lo prrv.dt thc
rrlrt Gd froE drivingfarthcrashorca. shcir .vcoturly rlcrrld. Br*in8-upmry bc occurritrgrll slolg thc r.awardsidc.c.lliog for lcourinS
cfltl Fig. E.5shorvta mctbodwbc.rbyground-tictlc rl|aybc riggpdfor
$rcha ship.Shcwill n ada considaaablc
lctrglhofhrela! on hcrgoutrdt.ctlc, sitrccif shc wcrc, for cxamplc,150m in lcngth, by.thc timc
shc hr5 pivotedon hcr stcrn a 20GmwirE will lc.vc littla sc.oF for
furthci b..til8. If thc !trlouat of wirl .vrihblc L lot lu6cicDt, thao
somcchein-csblcwill hell to bc urcd,a! lhowtr i! tDcigur!. Thfutvill
i! uy crscbc bcodci4 bccslF it! rcifbt wil a$irr thr .ppliad .ll.s!
to rl nah prr.ll9] lo ttc uchor ab|at.
whcn c.rrying out a borcr anchor*ith, sry, . shrcllc of chdn'
cabL in sdditiotrto thc hcrvy wirq grr.t clrc wiu trvr to bc ulad *hao
D.yin! out thc crblc from thc bost!. A goodmfhod i! to ttop it atound
thc ouLi& of rhc bot! rd cr.t ofi rh6c rtoF wh.o r.o..rrry. Cat{a
hooh couldbc csrricdin th. bosB ifdcaiEd. A sbrckL of 6?mm stud

5(Dft
lqlf.thom

t5 frthom!

2+in

2!io

s*-in
tons
}in
tonr
ions
tons
4l-in
rons
2+in
tons
bns
lorE

STRANDINGAND 'EACHING
c.bh will lligh .ougbly2l todca, caulingi riDhgr of 5 cm i! ..ch
bort (t/50 Lg F n.)
Thc wirr ha*lcr i! Fig. 8.5 ir lort throulh r hlror Cand fairlcad
aod rhc purchrsaii fa3rto r hcavywirt atropp6alcdaroutrdr betch
carmin8.Thc purEhllc Oould ba aDcbord as frr el}ay from thc f&itlced rs pocsiblci! odcr to avoid frlquant ovihaulin&ard th.rcforc
of
No. 2 coamiagwill ba Plltcrablc to No. I coaming--{cpcDding,
cours.,upotrthc lcngthof thc purchalcfall, Thc coamiogcomaEarc
plddcd ryithtimbarto prEvcntcuttingaadcba6r8of thcrtrop. Stoppcrt
ar! anchoftdlo lhc windlassor virch bcds.Thc hcavyvirr htwscr ii
lomrtimcs buolcd r.longit! lcngth at frlqucnt idG aL, !o lhll if it
shouldpdrt thc rnds mayb. quic[y rEcovcrEd.
A v6scl str.trrlcddd-fsst docslot lcccssarilyrcquiE suchr grcat
lcogthof hrw!c., thoughin grndal it shouldrlmyB bc ss long as po58rc
rig for suchr ship.Thc purchasas
siblc.Fi& 8.6 showsa firggcarcd
rnchorcd to a sioglcatrop,joinilg thcir staodingblocks.trd p$sing
'romd tllc paddcdNo. 4 hatchco6miD8.Stoppc6arc aSrinltchorcd
io winchb(ds.
Thc trbovctwo cxaDplcartr iocludcda! r tuidc only. Thc vryi itr
srhicha ship may atreadrrE numcroussnd caoootba d6ll with individuallyh tbis cbrprar.Thc rcrdcr, [owcvc., shouldlow hrtt 3uftcianttDowbdlc to dcvi3c! goodhauli.og-rig
fo. sll ca!6.
As far as the gcar uscdis corccmd, the samanba8aI too litde
cknr. Hc eil Fobably have@ly on r{[y h{vy wire (say50mn),
and this may bc in two pais. It6 tota.lletrgthmay bc roughly250m
Tbc waryint por,.r of bi! wirchesis abo fircd, atrdhe thrcforc ba!
to salccla puchasc suitabL foa thc wirE atrdthe vinch. If he hasno
hvy porchasshe wil haveto constnrclonc by strappingloSpthcr
saveral3itrglcblocls of appropriaic.izc.
A3 en crample, suppocehc har a wimi with r wrrping powcr of 3
toDn6 atld a 45-mm hvy sire. The wira h8s a calod.tcd safc
workiDgload of 15toD!6. For bis fall, bc !cc& a yi'r havi4 a safc
worting load itr cx,46of thc winch powcr, saya 25-mmwirc witb a
safc*orting load of 414iondcs. lf ha rcvsthis wir! vil fal h a
threiold nrdusc uscdto advadagehh Frrdasc will belvc sith a
str6 of ror|gbly13lono6, whi:h i5suitatrLfor thc heavywiE. Hir Frrchse bloclisshor d bavcsafc worling loadsof 15-m bnnca.
ff his big sirc is 3tDm itr citqtmGrcrcc it will havca safcworkint
load of l0 tonns.Uscd vith tha samvinci, r sdallcr Purch! is
ncccrsary,e.g. a two-fold or doublcluff trcle rovc sirh Zlmm wire
a3e fall. Thc wire hasr rafc eortitr8 lord of 3&totrncaaDdis suitablc
for thc witrch. Usd to advrtrtegcon thG winch, thc PurchascwiU
craatca strcssof routhly 10lorn6, whichsuitsthc *irc hawscr.This
purcharc should hav l5-tonnc safe workiq load blocks. Such a
174

sr*nE

. !""''il'-.._

\
\

30 MEYiES

\
l

tons

ron!

ton
ll.ioe
tons
rons

STRANDTNGAND EBACIIING
purchascwould tr the guy of a 6Gtonnchcavydcrrick.
Thc iaarri! chrtrglr his pucbascout oft6p.cl for tlrc rlfc wotkioS
lold of hi! Dain biwlcr. If hc choolc! to crcccdthc lrfc worlirg lord
of lir 8..r it !|ay Frt .nd k$ad N, a[anc.. of brsvilg thav!.aclc&ar.
Horcvcr, faidy Lrfc arfcg f.aion qi!! thc cdc| rtrd brliting !t!.4.
ofr wir! topc bcitrglix tiDA ils ,afo wortiry losd'
Tbr aboE cxrrsph, tbao,illuttlt6 bsicrllybor' tha,aam!trlhould
arrufp hi! g!.r. lLtouSiout it! l68lh thc w!a!6t Frt mult hd! r!
adrqult! r.fc worti!8 lod.
b rhc udortunala amt of Do powErbclu avrihblc otr bodd tha
r,.aad,rhcurc otda!-ttow.r shouldnot bGi8Eorcdor dilEis.cd lithtly.
onthchawscrwithno
w. wishto rhaintain
ourpullof13tooncs
Suppos.
po*cr avaihbb, i.a wincbaq*i!dh$, or c.pstrn Ifs! act
mcc.broicel
up rDot[ci tbftofold putcillc uld to ldvutrgr otr tbc hattlingFrt
of thc othcr. then this secondpurchascmust produccthc sttcssof 3
tontrcsoriginslly providcd by thc warping drunl of tbc winch. To
providc this srrcss,thc hruling parl of thc sccondpurchascmust bc
rutrtcd to 0 7 tolnca. Tctr mcn of svaralacighr?0 kg could tupply
thiaStrcss;iffivc mcnarc uscd,thcnthe h&*scris sfcsscdto 6l tonncs
instcadof 13 tonnca.Thc usc of four-fold block throughoutwould
rduccthc numbcrof mcn rcquitcd,Man-powcihesbcanus4din the
pastitr this wayand provcdsucccssful-ifa liltla axhaustinS
Ir hlr b..! .3tiditcd tbet r shipwNch i, atntrdcdDrad3a pdl of
30% of hcr lort buoy.ncyto hcavcLar ofi r trnd r.a'bd , 9% i^ lb
cercof henl gnrcl, 6G{)% itr thc ca!. ofcorsl tdd t0-150% itr thc
caraof rcck.
Of intlrt6i ara two csr6 of unurud Edortitr& A lhip we! rgtould
rDi&[iF oDtand.Shcioodcd hcrtormrd tsD]& PullFd out hcrrftd
trnl* rug ful 6pc.d,ard movad.Doothly ofr. Arlothcr v6!cl_-_a!
Aocricu-littrally iEFld hcnclf otr str irohrld pimaclc of rook.
Th. tidd ru8. w.! t gligiblc. Co$id.r th. dificulti.!! Nothirg
dlurt 4 tha rock e|r ccE otcd i4to thc ihip, blastcdtbroughbalos
ria Lcl and thc thip Eovcd ofr--Lavicr, but wit[out s hrk.

rxiE or oTHn sHlPs


Whatrothcr r'rcta btE r thatrtuSq erEulcd to haavcI shiPofi a
b.!t, bcach,or lcdgg& rurvry lhould bc cuticd out !! bdorc, io otdc(
to Sivclbc a$iltiog thip | ,efc liDcof approrch.nd d.io tbc bcstdircclioa io whi:i to rrdoct thctFradadahip.Thcrca-bcdtlrt rid lhould ba
alcartainrd;if !o& tta ula of thc r6cuc vrcrcl'i aotitrB may bcnt !p
thr .trud.d hull rld pordbly hrt owD., rtdl
A rsfc Dcttod it for lhc tcaolevtaaalto trtttr atomon to tbc atrudcd
ahip,h go both h6 uc,horr, rnd Eor,! oely lltrfq \/!ati!8 a good
bF of c.blc on both rnchort, ebich .hould lic 6Dao! arch bow.
116

STRANDINC AND BEACHING


Wfut. rtraythanbc Fsscd acro$ to thc b.achcdship,citbcr by Dating
oortrcl btwrctr thc two !rs!.I! eith bo6tsor by fuirg I rockd lioc.
Thc wfurt sG horrcteut, D&dcftl saa1ttl,rnd thc r*uc vassalthcn
ba!i8 bcaviogioto rhort 3try, Thc bcachcdvassalmay havcto ha.E
otr hcr oetr lround-tacklcaswcll. Shouldshcnot havartry rigSpdrnd
which
tblrc i! lhc poslibility of hcr rcfioetingwith a rush---aomcthing
i! tbc cxc.ptiotrrathcr than lhc ruL-thcd thc towing lvirc! mutt bo
crpqblcof bcioginslandyslippcd.Whcnmakingtbc towingwirc! fatt
.roord bitt! a tum shouldbc talcn aroutrdthc bolLrd nc.r6t thc frirksd bcforr balayingth. wirr. ThfuavoidsaDu[duc strc$ on thc frnhct
bollrrd whichrniShtcaulr thc bitr. to lift from th. dcck.
A vcssclof D.W. lom tonncsfitlcd with TGmmspccialstclcable toff 2|.in
and an clcctric wiodl&ssof 48 kW powcr can,whcn hcaving,c&rt a
maximumstressof29 tonnesoncachcablc,andthcrcforcit is prcfcriblc
10passihc to*ing hawscrsaroundhatchcoaminStor dcckhouscs(wcll
p.aldcdwitt tinbcr) rarhcr than bitli. ID thc c5!c of a 3hip stratdcd
brordridc-oo,thc towiDgwirc waspasscdup ooc trrn'scpiF, dowothc
otb.f, mund r9in, ad finally shacklcdto itl owtrprfi. Thi! provcds
,acorarrr|nsadrot. Afgin, tha wiaacould bc shackld to r ltaDdad
rhip'. c.trlc if.hc wrrt dDilsdy b..chcdIftbc r.3inhs shipdridcr to u.a hcrcddnc pow.t.lotc hcr Mr!!.r
Dult dccidcwhcttrr to tow froD forward or from afl. If tlc bcsctr
shoa&rapidlyatrdit rocky it will ba utrvilc to movci! !t m f$t for
fcar of d{mrginSprofEUcrsaod ruddcr.Thc shiDshouldtbcrcfoE rP
Drorchthc ,trandcdship bow-oo,parathc towiDgwiE ot eirc3, end
thca w hcr astcrnpowcr.Thrrc aI! two mri! rdvantaga!ia thrt thc
ship, if sh strikes. wi b damaSedforward rathct than aft, and
ttc rhb i! Eorl aalily tcpt in poritior whib 'l otrlhotr wiDdi! ttlo*futg.
Th! dk!dv.trt!8. is that stcd powt u!.d ovcr. toft bottomwill Fob.
ably lc.d to ba ing up and chokiDgof mschincfy.Thc rdvadagc of
toeing froE aft, on thc othcrhatr4 futhlr lhc ahiPwil gcd.rallybrvl I
gtcatcrahcsdtbrust faomhcr propcllcrthan whcnrcvcrlcd,
EEACIIING
Thi. docstrot forE a! adtiraly!c* r61ion of thi! c.bapt6,,inca
.vaythitrt whicnhs3a&radyb.ctr discurscdwill bc eppliebb wh.a it
oon6 to rrfiootingthc ship.
If r ship b ia ioainc dogar of foundcringlDy tyF of bcaahi!
rkoma. Asiumingrhaidcal,i.c. a ccrtainamountofprpantory tirnc
ud r choiccof bcach,thc b.3t tyF is oDCwtich bat a frm su.facc,ir
frcc from rock, hr3 a gpDdcdoF, i5 fil! from 8trotr8currcntt |nd
!couri!& is not subicclto hcaw 8u4 atrdi! not too cxpocd to brd
vlatira. Fonuat irdc.d fu tha ac.Da! sho cadfud aucha baachal
tba rifht tirnc. Tidrl trng! i! adolh.r fsctor; thr& thould idcally bc
rona !o thet ovcBidcor bottod,damagpcad ba rcprircd at lorv-yrtc.

r77

STRANDING AND BEACHING


tin . vithout rb. .id of disr,
Whcnbcachiogit i agaiDid..l to do sort hi8hwatcror oDa fallinS
tidc !o thal the shipsct{csslowly,rath.r ihatl to drivchc. hardashoE
rd atrainthc bottom platiDg,Furt[.r, it is postiblcto somccrtcrt lo
controllha dcgr!. to whichshcis bcrchcd,by discrcctuscoflhc.ogincs
baforctcr kc.l closaswith thc s.a-H. Thcrr is, ofcoursc,thc datr8rr
of bdnkidgup aod alsodrawiDgsandinto thc machincry,so muchwill
dcpcndupoothc Daturcofthc botlom.
A d.n.gd ship lositrgbuoyarcyrapidly, if bcachcd,may wUb.
ebL to rdoat at a laGr high wrtcr aftlr rcpairshavcb..n dotrq com.
psrttr|cntspubDcddry, aDdhcrbuoyErcyrtstoEd.
lf baachiDsbow-oDwith a trim by thc stcm, a bcachwith r slopc
ltacpc. thatrthst of h.r lccl will cnablchcr stcm to bc kcpt buoyatrt
vaSllL t

xlrEo !t STEA|{

!!gC!!-!:Z
whilchar fot! cnd is goundcd. Fi& 8.7 (a) Bhowsrhisconditioa.If hcr
kccl hr! thc st cpcr slopc thcn bcr st m will touch6rst, a,rahowain
Fi& 8.7(r). Trimmcdby thc hcad,shcwill, whatcvcrthc .loF of thc
beach,takethe groundforward. Oneof the dangersin beachingendon is that cross-windsor clrrents may swingthe ship rapidly inlo a
broadsi& positionon the shore,makingrefoating very ditficult. Fig.
8.7(b) might preventthis ocqtrring.
A vBscl msy bc b.aclFd bow-onor stcm-oo.Wfuchcvcrmcthodis
cho6co,grouDd-tact&shouldb. riggadlo kccphcr !.sward cnd3t ady,
snd to stop hcr from drivitrg f.rrhcr a3horc.E4ually,shc shouldbc
If b.achcd
!.coftd to thc rhotl to prwcDthcr comidgofr uocxpccrcdly.
stcro-onshchasthc rdvrdaS! of prcsortingbcr atrongcr,fncr cnd to
thc forcd of oDlhort $a ald wthcr. Futthat, hcr anchors8JErcady
for casylaing and latcr harvinS;tlrcy cad b. cerricdout dittct from
178

STRANDTNG AND BEACHINO

thc hrwscpipcs.!d .tc!s.d by tbc windlst In f.ct h.8 |nc.ho..!!d


cabkacouldncl bc laid out *hilc mrliDg hcr appto6a[to thc baroh.
Providcdthcbcachb 6rn andfrrc fromrock!, thcpropdLrsatd ruddd
will ba unhrrncd, but hcr i6prat, of courlc, must bc as gcntlc as
possiblc,Stem suctionsmay be cholcd itr this position,howcver.
f bcschcdbow.onhcr vuh.ribb, morr buolEtrt,aodis cxporadto
s.{ rad *cathcr. To trap tha !tct[ quic! Srourd-trclL aurt bc hid
but thc vaslal
our from afl This is laborio$ whc6dola aftarbcsc.hitr&
couldwcll bc dnchorcdfrom aft asshemakcsh.r tpprorch (sc. ChsP
tcr I).

r ront{: I

FtGUiE !.4

Thc ,lenrn hr! r llturel inrtinc-tby whichtc stongly avoidralowitrg hfuproFllc. add ruddq to comcinto clos. prorimity eith objEts
suchr. wharvla,picrs,atrdothcr rc3lcls.Thc luggastio!tlat hc lhould
b..c.h st r!.oD nry wcll disgult hirl' but on clo(c co8idcrrtion thc
advaatagdat! Daoy.
Fig. 8.8 showstwo meihodswhcrcbya vessclmaysecureher headlinaato thc ahorEro prcrEntuocrp.cLd rE oding oa bctngdrivcd ofr
shorEby a Irlc.
Tbc atrlc! Eay bc of mcttl If wood.n, . timbc. having. nltul3l
cLrticig ia prcfcdblc, c.g. lifcboatortr trladcof |3h. Tbry 3houldb.
drivcn lo a dcpth of at lcast I m and at an atr8lcof m dcgrecsto the 3 f t
venical.Fig. 8.8 (a) $onf, a combinationof staLessuitablcfor a stress
of up to 2 toDnes.Fig. 8.8 (r) showsa herry Wor(a light derrick*ould
t79

STRANDING AND BEACHTNG


bc id.al) sccurcdbct ccs pafu! of atalaaalong it! lcn!t!. Tha atrtar o!
thc !.awa.d sidc must bc cxactly in linc so that aachbcaB r proponion
ofthc strcsi.*hich can bc uo to l0 tonncs.
Itr clo6ingrbis ch|ptcr I .m ircluditrg cxtrsct! from a dilo$siotr hcld
st thc In titutc ofNrval Archilcts iD 1950,Thi! took placca! rhc rcrult
of a t chnical paFr rubmitt d by Mr. Il L. Dovc, M.I.N..{., otr modcl
adchor t!st!, I bclicv. thst thc poi.ai! mrdc bclow wiU bc of particular
p.rclic.l iepoflaacc to tic s.witrS O6cc..

hundt dvligbts

'Rcferctrccha3 bccDmadc by a prwious spcakcr, Captrio Thomaon, to thc strca$ atrd kcdgc enchors, aDd hi! rcmrrks, I think, arr
worthy of thc closclt attctrtio!. IIc ststrd that for all thcir precrical
wonh, thcy might as wrl bc thro*! ov.r tha aidr ad dispcnscdwith.
Thc prcs.trt t'?s ofthcs snchorsfttcd in modcm shipg buiL ro thc
hi8hcst classifcation of Lloyd's, arc rEally Dothing but omamcnl$
How crn aDyoacbc crpccLd to lay out aDadchor *Eighidg possibly
| , tonncs from a ro*ing boat $/itb s3y,four or fivc mcn to handlc tbe
boat and thc anchor? Aftct ell, whcn a ship rutrs ashorcsnd a sttram
afthor has to trc lArd out in an cncrgcocy, tlc oFr.tiotr ha! to bc
canicd out by oDc of thc ship's lifcboat& I iircarcly hopc that iooc
day. . . vcslclr wil bc Droidcd with thc typc of anchor that llr! a
r!ry trigh cmcictrcyand at tha ,{Dc tima can bc a$ily handlcd and
laid out quicuy.
'Thcar must bc drny ca!6 ofv6acls hevirg bcanloat baaauscthcy
haw b..n uDabtcro ley out dochon *itb good holding powcr, quickly
id an cncrgpocy, Quoting onc calc e! etr cxemplc-thc "Hclcra Modi'ska", a vcssclwhich togcthcr witt hcr cargol'a! valucd at mo& than
a quartlr ofr rnillion pounds, which rvldt agrourd on thc Goodl'in!.
Srvcn tuSsfa cd to movc hcr mo& tban e fc* dcgcca, wirh thc rcsult
rhat io lying ecr63 thc tidc, thc .atrd scoutrd away from uddcr thc
bow elrd Btcm, aftcr which shc brokc hcr back. I arD $ru.rd by
fric ,3rr thc Admiralt that balfr doza rmrll but cftcicrt |ncton
of s wcight mcasurcdnot in lonncs, but in kilogrammeswould havc
had frr oolr cffoc'ttbln tlc 6avc! tugr, and thir vc6!cl, bcilg.blc ro
msiDtri! stcro to rll hc. cargo einchaq could probsbly hry! hrulcd
hcndf otrvithiD a fcw hou8.
'Thctr fu aLo aDothrr
SDod aitmplc of lhc fout-rrstcd bdtquc
"Archibdld Rua!a[". Thi! v6scl lidco wili grri4 vrs comphitrg a
trip from Aultsli! to lFwich, snd whcn cnt ring Hsrsich hrrbou.
i! tow' with a touth-cast hlczc and light ground i*!4 ruddcrly
took a vlry broad shc.. atrd erDt r3horc on l:ndgreld Spit. Tug8
failcd to movc hcr, rtrd it wa! avidatrt thet lhc wi5 prctty wdl banl
.nd fast. Fortua&ly howcvlr, orc of tbc Trinity Hourc rl.scl& tbc
"Alcrt", uodc. tla corDmaddof Cepteh Guy Jrfttt, hrppcod to bc
1gl

STRANDING AND BEACHING


i! thc vicinity,snd Crpt id Janctt,quic*ly eriShingup thc pocitioo,
hid out bis two bowcrancborsto thc cxlrlm.lcosih of tha cabLa'
coDnctcdup hb hcevytowing hetv!.r, ed lit nlly Lulchd t!.
"Arshibold Russc[" prich corneof to qui*l! that th. r@tpost ,lp
"AIrr,n",whichhadlo cltahartonropct.
'So long asv6rcls rutr lhc riak of groundi[gduc to fo& or othar
csuscs,.o will it bc rcc.ssatyto provi& thcmwith e.nchonwiti thc
highat polsibL holding powar,but of thc lostst wEiSit fot crt)'
hrndliq, and incap.ctivcofvhcthcr or trot thcybury too dlcDlyfor
ruhErqucntlittiog. It would bc far bcttlr to losctwo or th&a lithtwcighl rachors. . . if lhcncwcrr luly possiblcchanocof 8avil8 r
v!*scl ald bcr cargo,lhr| to havcoo bo|rd h.avy tcdSr or thaa.6
with vcry low cftcicnci6 , . . but wbich,duc to thcit sriiht
a.nchora
corld trot, io aaycarc,bGlaid oul quicklyi! atrcEargl'rcy.
'. . , it would lcctn r !|attfi of lhc utEort impotlrlco ead tha
Gponriulity of tbc ClsrrincadonSocictia.to lac thrt ship.itr thara
Eodam timc' src tadt to lae eith ltrcaD rld kodgcrDchon vhich
atr tlaly .6cicdt aod d.!i8ncd primarily foa urc i! rtr ctrLrSadqy'
(Mr, S.T. CoF, .x-PrincipalMooriDgOfrc.r to thc Air Midrtry).
'td codoarcisl v.ss.b, particulrrty oil tr cra,thet! ia UttL tuit'
$lc cquipm.ntfor hrldlitr8 th.!. .lchof! (Pr!!.Dt typ. ,t&eE trd
kcdgp)quicklyrnd cfrcctivdyi! Oc cascof eDrEar&ocy.
'Utrlikc bowrr aochor$thcactypcr would ody bGFquirc4 w!
tfl8! oDvary ra& occesiotr!,{rd ary artalaionof thc cxpatiDadtrl
worl oo loodijicd strd poslibly Ughta!typ.r of kcdgprtrd rtlaan
uchon s'irh ruitsblcholdingDovarwould bc warDly vdooDd by
oficci' i.rvirg in th..c v6s.b'(Mr. A, F. walkct, ttco A.I'N.4.).
It fu ironidl that 3ooneftcr thb i cr.sting discu,lion took placq
ftw Brithh Bhipswttc no lotrgrr rcquitld to carryrnything eorc thrn
thr.c bc&vybowcr enchors,An edditiorsl rcquilcmctrtof two light
anchoBwitb grlrt holdilg powEr,sucha! thc A.C.l4 or thc StolcaDanforth,would,I rm sutc,bc rrlcomcd by mort Ma3t.rs.

lEl

CHAPTER IX

EMERGENCIES

AEAI{IX}I{ING SIIP
tha
fr rll cfrort! to !av! a daDlf.d Bscl provr to ba unsucccssful
!
maDict
mutt
bc
cirricd
out
in
r!
ord6ly
eill
bc
.baDdoncd
Thi!
I
l|t posriUc Daintrhhg complctrditciplilc, titrcncqstdcl adhaflncc
to ordc.s,ard inmcdirtcly cootsollidgary cvidcnccof psDicor in_
subordilatioo,uing/or.. if trc4rary.AI Dcmbc(t of th. crcw rDd
pa$.d8pft wil bc rcquitd to cxancircaalf-cottrol cou6!a, !trd utr!o16!htr.$.Frilurc ro oh.crrl dl thcrcfac'to$mry r6ult i! utnccarary
lo.s of lifc. Publicaddr6. .yttcEr ihould bc fully utili..d,
wiu bc ttorc
Io rll probrttlig, tbc Lat Frlolt to sb.odoothc vaaaal
c6grg.ditr lrt-Ditruta daEaSaooltrol. Wh.n ttry Lav. rhairPGtr al
mlctincry lhouh bc doppad.!d wrtlrtifbt doo6 and hltchcatighdy
closcd.Otr pass.oScr
shiF, officarsshouldbc idcttifisblc.
B06|5rhouldbalocr.Gdwith r' rtr|ly FpL abolrd r! Po6sibh,and
rhouldthcdqui,ldy clc.t rhc!hip'. rllc 6!d lic ofrrady to .dbork $c
rodoitrS codDlatladt from ih. wrtat Tbi! rill lvoid r d.'8!tous
rvlitirg Fiod .lod8'id! th. !hip, during*bic! th. boet ir li.blc to bG
drnagrd .!d foul h.r fa&.
Erccptir mug[ slathcr, rhc boct3rhouldsaqt$ rbcmlclvc.togcth.r
itr group* cachSroupbcitrgtowrd w![ daar of thc wt!c* atla by r
poi,lr{rirtn bo6l Ar .ooD s! thia ir echicvrd,onc or r!or! of thc.c
postf cnft .hould cruilc thr alta to pick up ts,indng Nrvivon. If
usblc to c&ry sny Dorc Flotr! thc cr.ft caDprovila thc twidden
sith iorrhg wllclaga ro lblt th.y c.n cupDottlhamlclB until tuch
tim. e3th. othcrboat!cancmblrt thcn. SwiDDct!shouldSmupthahtclrE togcthc.rtrd ruFDortaacholtcr. Tbc groupi! lhctr Eorc Galily
dctcctd rbn hdividlr.l&
Wtcd Lavirg o rhip dirEcdyinto thc i'tl.c il i! prdcrrbL tojuop itr
fcrt-itt i h.r thln to diva Whrn eEsriDgr lifc-j.ctct, t[c MSht
from ehic.hrhc lc.p i! nadc thodd bc tcpt to a erximum of sbout
6 m, olhcnviscthc impsctof thcjaakct on tbc watcr is likcly to cau$
rtuDnirg or r brotctr !act. If a lc.p it uavoidrblc from a 8rcrrcr
ovrr thachc'r wfth thcbsid! chopcd
hcightthc arE! ttould bc caocscd
tightly dowtron tb. shouldcrtto t cp thcjrckct itr phc.. At.ll ti46
82

EMERGENCIES
thc bcstncthod of ao&rin8thc watcrfu to lowtr otrasalfon a lilc or
hddrr,
b e rtrory viod it i! prdcrablcto Lop froE tic wlathcr rida !'atbar
thenthcLc.idc rirc. h thclsttd casct[. rat ofd.ift mly wcll prcv.lt
thc swimmctfroD Scttirg clcaratrdhc msy bc ovcrcoEcby thc thip,
On lhc wcallar 3idclhcic ar. two DossibLhrrardr: lhc mi! mly bc
hldcd brct a8tiort thcshipby tbc acr,or hc mly find fitcl oil .rtlading
ftll upwirrl tr ruch! crrc hc hat two rltarrativc mclhod!fot ncgotirtitrg tbc oil: IIc c.a swimundcrxalar,tudrciDgtrow strd thctrfot sir,
but eh.l hc do6 so,hc mult sprbgfrod thc watcrwith hb ryc, tiShdy
lhtt ud uscr rrpid bFart*trokc motioato tbrut thc oil anEyfrom
hb frcc, Tha accondlocthodctrtsik rflioming quicldyttrough rhc oil
otr rhc curflcc itth a r.pid brrart{trokc motion,tha hcadbcinghcld
tigh with ttc moothclo6cd.h thccsscof bumirg oil thcformcrEcthod
ruchatrutrdclvatcr
ir thaotrlyprtclical o|rc.Whro aboutto @mtncacc
rvim hc.vy clothinglhorld bc di!.ardc4 sitrccit will rrorin buoy{trt
for at lc.!t a qurftd of!n hour. A lifcjrctct 6houldba liEilatly dircardcd,
A swiEnar must movoaweyfrom lhc 6hipas quictly a! pG8iblq
sitrc. wh.n it fourdr8 thcrc is violcnt local suctioD,togpthd t!'ilh tia
iutfrciog, idth grrat forcg of air ed wrlctsg..
Whcda rhip is listcd it i! prcfdrblc to lcap ftoD lhc and!. ff it i!
Dddcfrom rhc bigh sidcthc Esn i! litcly to strikc utrdcrwrtc.projcctiotr! o. thr hull pLtitrg; shilc o! thc low sidcthc Daa Eay bc rtsuck
by E sts,fuleb, vcntileto$, or samsotrpo6t!,ctc,, if lic ilslal ciP
siz6 bcforchc ir cl..r.
kocdlr rlthb tb Boalrt h.a.drtLo of crcr .d P.sad$tr
Thc iEportsncaof prcviou! trsiring camot bc too stronSlyaDphasi!.4 6incathiai! r dirl.'t frctor ia rcduciDgf.ar ad lhock. Evtn in tha
c.!c of FssqrSrrs,thair rrgular rnlndrncc st prwiow boatdrilb will
barc giwo thcn a c.rtain dnourt of corfdcacc snd frbilildty gbioh
eil ma&rially s.sist in r.ducingpaDic.Thc paslrdSprrshouldtrot tta
muJ&rld io ruchs sey rr to rcgrrd boatd.ill.3 rtr amu!i!8 sauy ot
forttrighdyrhow. Thcir activcFniciFtioD will bc of vrloc to both
rnd thc crcw.
thamsalvt3
o@siondly itr port, thc crlw lhould loc&r bost! sDdpull clcar of
thc ahip,Thc lameoFretion pcrformcdrt atramho.agcdnddgr slight
awdl or modcf,atcaaawill do muchto tdprcs! uponell concartrcdthc
dimcdiics ofclcrrbg a vcsscliD [adry re.slhcr-At bost &ils a bricf
word oDftrt aid, uaaatrdmaintaanccof lifcbott stoEs,rnd cotrduct
i! a! o@ boal i! eolt odvbablc,but r.grcttsbly rarcly pnctiid.
Idcally,r nr! shouldabqndotrlhip d$.s.d in warE clottirg covcrcd
with oibki8 sndpEedtrgbootsor sho.s,Thaclothingeill not only kc.p
183

BMERGBNCIES
hiE rsrD lad dry but rlso provi& prorcctiont8silst thc rutr'. rryr.
rtrd t@a
His hncr pockclsshouldcotrtainr chstrg!of undcrclothinS
tp|rr pcin of socks.OothitrShs! thcrdditioml rdv.ttrgc ofproviditrg
rt lc.it s qulrt.t of|tr hour'sbuoyuc, i! Oc ryitcr. whco rFlo ald
tin i! rv.ilrbL plcoty of lParl bl&lctt rhould bc.torrd eithi! tbc
boar
'uoatmulr baayrrpath.ticalyrtix, opt!
Thc oficcr in chsrgcof tbc
oilrig chc.rful.nd coDfdcnt.Hc shouldbc providd, if po66itc, with
i ,axtatrt,d wdch lct to G.M.T., r trauticalal|Danac,dctaib of th.
m!ck'! posilion,proxirdty of lhippiry lam. andlaod,aDdehrthrr or
Eachbort thould
Dota distrBscrll wastrm$nittld rnd actnorvlcdSpd.
p&fcnbly bavcr lccotrdomc.r to alsist,!!d Last tworblc !.aoco.
lfe aall*rs !c out bcforEthc vccrdwa! rbadond it it qritc potlitlc thrt il w!! rcccivcd.trd Dot rcttro*lcdgcd bcforc thc w'lcl't
opcarrorcloscddowtr bfu cquiprtrcot For thi! rllsotr, tb. turvivotr
dould.t dl timcshopcfor tlacua"It rh. call w!! s.ktrowlcdlrdit wiU
ba unvis. for th boct! to Dovr far fiom lhc !ft." bur if no actnorlcdglmcntwr3rcccircdthcncarprorimity ofa corlt rnry Datc t voyltt
i! rhc boati a morcrttraclivc propo,itiotrth!tr tt@tininSltitioolry i!
thc wrlck 3ta,
Tha onccr in chsrgcsbouldtlrrngc I daily muti[c eithid thc bodt,
rerrding cachFrloD r spoci[cduty, ho*Effi tms|l h']i'g tut. Oat
thc work fu carriadout Hc sill trkc cbrrgcof dirtlat ligDabto Da&.
lutr that thcy rr! not ulad indiscrioimEly, all tha rrtiolr, rld all
ruDon! potcotid or othcrefu.,includingbot srcaatd aFra arutahca.
Thc daily ratioDof food and udrcr mult bc i$ucd putrctualt,to rvoid
8runblhg aadirritrbilit, aDd.rch portiotr,houldbc prltcat d oFdy
h ful vicw of s[ brudr !o r! lo rvoid bict.fitr& Id.aly, a.ch Frto!
rhould hsvcldr osn drinlilg rr.!al, howcvlt crudc,Tht artw thould
hc dividld ifio tbftc Sroup!,ooc rt c.ch Gddwith an ofrcai, atrdtbr
otbcr|'ddrhips toglth.r with thc i[ |nd tou!d.4 Ar roo |t p6tittg
thabort" liorls rtrd cquipdaotrhouldbc ahcctGdrld r logboot codnaocad.
If awiodarr 'tr fouodthcy lhould ba hauld aboltd (or,!i ttc bo*r
or qurrG6) only if it wil trot codDglr thc.rfcty of th. boet ud |t.
FrsoB! or bo.rd. Bodicsshouldbc sllipFd of dothiDg;puttits Floral afcc$ !s'rdc"rDd d& garncDb dirtributcd rsotrg lhc bod'!
a@plcrnctrt,particdrly rh. ill ard wo|md.d.All uldul fobam ahould
barlco{rr.d froft thc .rl!, Fnicdsrly piccaaofcanvu !!d trtFulita,
providcdthfli i! room ryailabk.
TtG bort lhould b. kcpt dry .nd brtdl Ufc-jrclc.t! mry b. rcdotld
if tbcr! i! Do drlgrr of caFiziog ald u!.d !r cu!hio$, or pillowr fot
thc hclplc$, to prwcDtlorcsard c.brfaItr hot wrthc. it i! moataalaotia! to l..p cool. This is bcstachicvEdby rigginSthc prot..-tivccovct
184

EMBTOENCIBS
aciorsthaglrwdaa with o currctrtof air bclowit rnd kcapin!clothint
&nD dl d!y. Blthi[g shouldnot bc rllowrd, b.crulc it con.u6
bodiiy cncrgy.ltr thc l c rlt moonclothingsbouldbc drid out rc.dy
fo. thc cool niSbt
Duri.r .hould b. tcpt to s miliDub, .!d i! tii! rry' ot!.iving dl
tictc poitrt+FBpirint wil bc kcpt low. Ttr h..4 .tl1 Dout\ to..'
rld traa&Durt bc t.pt rbrdcdfron thctutr'3rays--{hbrpplid Fnicu'
hdy to tloac wto |rc utrsblcto shdtrr badaaththc lcrEd by vinu! of
thcit lootout or a!.criry dutiaa.
In coldweathera prolectivecovershouldbesitrilarly riggedto keeP
olt rri!, eind, rnd i.a. All Frtotrs shouldhuttdlctotatb6 for w.tEih
rrd Noid tldovitr8 wlt clotbitr&s! thit.ctioo will indE froalbit ud
.*po.urt. Thc rlm* Lf'' fcct, ad h|trdt .hould bc .r.trj..d ttgfitly
to kraDthc cftdrtion ttroD& Thc hedt .bould bo tcpt withi! thc
qst h, or tbrult uldcr thc .rDa. To lvoid frdtbit to fcct, tbc Pc.aoD
rhouldbc errrolpd in nrh a wly thrt aachola c.! Placchi! facto! thc
tar. rbdoEcnofr lcilbbour withiDtbahltc/. c.lottin&
Tha sdult body normallycontainsabout 45 litrca of watcl. A ntn
will losc5 litrcs cvary24 hourswhcnrcatingin r tcmFrturc of 35"C.
Ttc maximumpcrmilsiblc loss bcforc scvcrcdchydrrlion occursis
rbout ll litrcs.
S.e*etcr mustnot bc d.unk. DuringWorld Wrt Two,tha morrality
Irtc in lifrboetswhcrcsdt wstcrl,as drunk nngcd bctwcanru% and
8m% highcrlhan in boatswhcrr only frcshwatcre.r u!cd.
Rritr burt bc caugbtwhcocvc.poaaiblcitr dl avaihbb contlia.t|'
suchascans,trottlesand footwear.They shouldbe washedoverside
fint to removecncrustedsalt, Clothing can be spreadout and later
wrungmto a @nlalner,
stoty-telling,and reminis'
Il is a goodplan to organissingrsongs.
thirstand
cenccs
in orderto keepup morale.Smokingmayaggravate
fTostbile.
canb danlerousin coldweather.assisting
Ttc food-witbh e boat, bilcuit!, Dil*, rld butcy 3ug& or boilcd
It ha5r hilh coltadt
rsratt i! artrrmcly trutritio8 atrdcrsily diSpa&d.
offr! rtrrch, .!d ,u8lr, protciobciry avoidd, einccitt ditcttio! ctrtdlr
thc stotli rbouldlcttr bc
coBuEption of bodywrtcr. For tbrarcasoD,
rugDcatadudth mc.t, fuh, cgg3,buttcr, or chccsqlor lhould irh or
birdr bc aatrost ..!, u.lcat thc& i! smplcwrtar aldhbla
Wrt ( i. firltr prioriayoftost spscc,bccaulcr Den cancxitt without
food for r Eonth rtrd lonSrr, providcdhc is givco tuffci?dt wlt r'
Foo4 ho*!wa, do6 p.ovidecncr8y,wsrmth,rtrd hclF to mlhtriD
$odcirq .tionof lhcblood.Gcn.tdly,itir bcttrrfoav.rdafulltLily
l|tiod
h?r rh|s to r.duccit ,o thrt rhc suppliaaLrt lorSrt A E!tr
should idcrlly havc sbout E50millilitrcs of watlr par day, with a
midioum of rbout 425 millilitrB. About I 12gramtrr! of ..ch food
185

l0 trl

r.ld
2.5C

l.J pint!
O75 piat 3.J oi

EMERGENCIES
with
a minimumof 50 grammcsof clch pcr
1.75oz aft dcsi.ablccachday,
dry, Thc rDidmuo qulstiticr quotcd!t! rhodclcc.as.ry to rultai! lifa
Wri.r thouldlot bc isrucdon ttc 6fit dry cxccptto thc i[ or idultd.
Scarichc$ wrrtca body c,rt r, .rd stould bc rvoidd if Doasibla
Whcrl r ncdicalrrDcdyi! swihblg all Fsorr mustrakciL It b c.3cntful to coDbct,casicln63eithir rhc frst rso or th&c daF.
A Gco.d rhould ba tcPt of daily ratiodsrtrd cxistitrgiuppli.r. All
food rhould bc cafao6loi,ly ild wa&r kcpt itr thc mouthfor a! lol8
r. poriiblc, 6!rly grrglirg with it prior ro rwslowirg,
A! tood 3! pGsiblc.ftlr t*ing to thc boat , thc lifcboatrldio ttrl!nind rhould bc us.d, if svrihttc. This shouldquic.UyFrid. rricr.
.biF rld.ir.rft
!o thc!c.o. ofth. wrcck If &oririrg withitrthcul.
thc a.auchor abouldbaatrtidad in ordcrto lcap lha boqthaadto !c.
.trd 16!.tl hcr lcc drill. lf thc .C3setl too hc.vy foi this to bapotriblc
lhe boer should be run very slowly before the wind, streaminSthe
seaanchor.If oil is availableit shouldbe used.In ihe absenceof an
oil bagthe oil canbe pouredinto punluredtim slungover the bows
or quarters.
The four basicconcptsof survivalare cotrtrol of fear, the will to
survive, possssion
of someequipDeDtand knowledge.Survivalis
morelikely if rhecraft staytogether,sharitrgtheir equipmDtandthe
erFriis of personnel.Theyshouldbe contrectedby paintersandthe
occupantsever y distributed amongrt them which will assist in
attaininga uniform rate of drift. The exccptionto this may b itr very
cold wellher when crowding together producesthe advantsgeof
buddy x,amiq. If the boat is to proccedto land shc should be
heededon as comfortablea coursas possiblc,which lright itrvolvc
somezig-zaSgingif the mo6t direcl couse might rsult io shippirB
warer.Oin shouldbc u!d onlt to cleara ship itr the veotof ctrgine
failure, to mad(ruvrehto the path of a rai[ showcratrd.FrhaF for
lsndingon bcaches.While in very cold westhertheir usmay help to
ercrcise limbs, it must be balarccd agahst the loss of hcat ftom
Mies. Everyoneshouldtry to Flt his fet up for aboutfv mhutes
eachhour. A regularwatchshouldbc rct, cachhavinStwo lookouts
or hclmsmento supponeachoths dudngwadnesr.Any suspocrcd
sightingsof othcr shiF or aircraft shouldbe rcportcd to thc Ol6ccrin-charge{,bo sbouldthenusepyrotechDics
oDlywhcnlavcrel pcoplc
havc agrced and confirmed th sightitrga.Sherkr and l'Igc fBh
can damageinflatable craft. They should not bc annoyed and
nor should food be dumpcd neer them. Elderly ocqrpantsof the
craft may not be as aware of thi$t as olhers and crr dehydratc
very_quiclly.Their consumptionof rationsshouldbe carcfirllysuperA lbod indicrtion of thc proxirrity of hnd is !trordcd by low-lirg,
186

BMER,CENCIBS
ia
r
clcrr
aky, this beinS cotrrlatioirl or oaoStrphic
lradodry cloud
birdr io thc .arly .raoiog is .bo I good
of
Thc
f,jghtiircctioo
cloud.
itrdic.tiotr of thr bcarinS of thc l!nd.
Tba n corat ofS0rrlvct
Tha ftr61lc ship rhould britS thc survivoB ebosd by rtry ol gavdll
of tha followitrg dtho&:
O) By hoi!ti!8 thc aurvivors' boat! aboad to8cthd wilt lhair
cr!lr/!, uling dcrtich. Thir fu o.ly poaliblc if thc bodr arc trot
too harvy atrd $itablc liftitrg grar i! svrilsblc.
(2) AltcmativEly to (l), by lowrriDg iha v6scl't owtr borb, tratr!'
fcrdnS thc aurvivot! into thasc,ald hoiltiDg thcD ilboard.
(3) Scranbliig (cargo) lcrr and laddlis mry bc ri88d ov.rsidc, lod
thc $rwivort c.tr climb thasa'
(4) In (3) thc Ercolnty trot havc toficicat cd.rgf, snd thct mu$ thc!
bc hoistld rborrd in caovarding, boiu!'s c,haiE,carSpbalkctt'
or by mcans of whips rove through blocls on davit hcads. It
should bc notcd that in sa watcr of attout 5"C a man can
su.vive for about f2 hours depending upon his fitness and
build. To Drcscwcheat. he should not swim or takc ofi clothcs,
cxccpt to fill thcm with air. In frccziog watcr, thc fin8.ri b.comc
frozan in about 4 minutes, consciousncssis lost aftcr about
7 minutcsand deathgcncrallyoccun within 20 minutcs.Thcs
tim intcrvalsarc all takcnf.om thc initial iostantof immcrsion.
(t A foatiDg stfttc.hctcspabL ofbcitrg hoistld it ulcful for bringi!8
iniurcd Dcn dboard.
(6) ic.rfp lct can bc alurg oveFidc bctwt o davit!, with itr lo{!t
G|rdpady submcrgcd.Thc drrvitsarr swuDgout aad whipq F!}
iDg throuSl block! attachcdlo thc davit h.ad!, lrG t qrttd to t[a
lowar cribgld ofthc oct. Swimmiogsuavivon cra thad matr(lwrt
lhcrnsclvcsacror6thc aubmsgad nct tnd thc whiF art thca urcd
to hcavclhc nat, togcthcr with thc mcn, up tha ahip't sidc' Thi!
bqllcd prbtrckM(7) Survivon b thc witcr ca[sot Dcccararilybc Iltqrd togpthcr,
and to make the waiting period more comfonable. a side
boom or a derrick should be swung ovcr$dc in lhe horizontal
Dosition having a net attached to il. The net must b Partly
i,ubmergcd. Tde survivoB can thcn cling !o this net and awail
their tum.
(8) An isolated swimmer might be recovercd by csreful us of
line-throwing rockeis, fired well overhead.
(D fndeteblc rubbcr liferatls mcy bc dtopprd by eircraft or by
rbipr which, for any rcason, stc unablc lo tfiord immcdiata
187

EMERGENCTES
(10)To pick up suwivorritr thc wal+rwho arc g.oupcdtogcihci,!
2-!io lm farhons
vcry loog lengthof. say.25-mmroF-up to 200m-may be
streamed
vcsscl.
Thelastfcw mctrcsshouldhavc
by lhc rescue
scvcrallife-jackcts
attachedro il, and thc end shouldidcally
trcsccurcd
ro a rubberlife-rafi.howcve.small.
Itr lhc abccnccof sucha reft, two'or thr.c lifc-buoyrwiU bc
sufrciqnt,in additionto tbc lifc-jackcts.Thc sbipis thcdhc.dcd
eclossthc wlnd, i.c. with rhc wind on rba bow, makiage iidc
tum wbilc str.aminglhc linc. As tha tum downwindis complctcd,thc hcadwayis chactd andavcotuallythc ship*ill cona
abrcastof thc arrvivo$, mskiDgaboutI knot otrly,andldth thc
lina fully str.amcdabcam,acrossthc witrdandwitt thc buoyant
atrdclo6.to thc mcnitr thc wetcr.Thc shipwill now bc hcading
do*nwind. Onccthc mcn art safclyclingingto ttc jackcb, thc
linc maybc hovc-i., tati.ogcatt trot to uscthcpropclb
Ilc racovcryof survivoErnustbc cffricd out wcll clcarof plopallars
add ovcBidcdischrr!6. At ligit ..archlight!, siglaliog larnps,ind
carto clustels, if availablc, may be urd lo augmctrttbc availablc
lightiog.
A.ssooDaslhc Frlo|rs arc safclyaboardthcymurt bc givro frst aid,
a chaogpofclodriD& rtrd wrrmtb. Fucl oil is not poniculirty brrnful
ro thr stio, atrdis g.oerallyttc lcastof a survivor'sworrica.It ced bc
cL.nd ofrwith r d.tcrg.nr,but thir tGatmctrtshouldaot bc uscdovcr
buma,lorc$ or othff wouDds.A 8ooddtitrk wil bc thc initial.cquirc
mcnt ofe aurvivor,and shouldbc tro&alcoholic,Both food and drink
shouldbc takenas slowlyas possiblc,rhc food bcinglight end rtadily
dig6tcd. Erpodurcvic'timi ihould bc plscadin vaan rcomr, with tha
emphasbotr walmiry thc torso bclorc thc limbc. Rald hcatingmay
caurcpein aad injury. Fr$tbitc shouldbc thewri out in cold wrtcr,
avoidiry any typc of m8saSr. Futuc warEitrg of thc affcctcdpan
mustbc vcry gadusl, aid rc-coolint may bc trcccasary
for a whilc to
rcducaDaid.
Thc ofrccr or pcrsonin chargcof thc rurvivoF must,a6roon !|5p6siblc, itrform thc o*Dcrs of thc vrctad vassalso that arrarucrDcots
oay bc madcfor rcpatdatingth. crcwrnd forwqrdi.gpaslrog.rsto thc
oridnel destinatioD.On a British ship, tbc DcpertmcntofTmr$port
musibe givena rcponof thc accident.
ln all casesof w.cckit is of
grcatimportancc
ro salvag
lhe Ofrcialand Deck LoSboolsbeforc
fnal abandonmcnr.
n..cd!g iL CI! |[d h.s.[t.tr. of r DbaDld Stb at S..
Tlds opcrationdcFlds upor lcvcralfacto$, Damdythc coDditiotrof
vind ad sca,thc rbilty of thc s.3manto hsDdlcamall borb, thc
uf.ncy ofFquircd rssislstrcc,aDdwhcthcrany hclp is rvrilablc from
188

EMERGENCIES
tta oarsofi on board thc distt6rcd rcslcl. Frotn thc commaoccmcatof
thc r6cuc it is impoatant for thc Mastcr of thc wrcct to aUowhiDaclf to
b. dircctcd by thc rrscuing Maltcr, rincc this will dvoid ulncelrry hc.itatio! aDd confusion. Communication should bc etablirhcd by rrdio,
codc fiags, or by lignalliEg lamp, rtd bolb Mas!.rs fully acqudot d
with thc conditions ard syslcn of rcscuc.
If boet! src to bc uscd thc rascuc vcsscl should caukc thc 3t!r to
.sc.rlain whcthc! thcrc is h.s\ry wcckag. add ffotsu about which will
hsmFr end cndangcr boatwotk. Thc r6cu. vcsscl should, idcaly,
m.ocuvrc into thc wakc ofthc driftilg c,rcck rnd stoPhcr cogioar' It it
thcn an casy mattd to dctcrmioc lhc rclativc drift of lhc two va$al .
If thc rcscu. v6scl srrivcs during thc hours of drrknca! thr Mattrr
of thc w.cck should cndcavour to hold od until daylifht. lf, hoervar,
thc wcathcr is stcadily d.tcriorating, such sn ac.tionmay bc crthar irn.
possiblc or unwisc. Both vcssclsshould sprcad low-viaclaity oil frccly'
If thc wrcck is urablc to do this thc rcscucv.ssal ihould s&am around
lhc arca and sp.cad copiou! oil in thc fotm ofd circular rric* into l'bid
thc wreck will drift.
Thc lifcboar sclcc{cd for thc rclcuc opctetioD rhould h!'/r aU grtr
rcmovcd vhich is indcvant to thc rcacuc procldu|q snd hava it Ddtialy rcplrccd with life-jacl.6 ard lifcbuoys, bllntca, a lhc
thrdwer,'digocablc balait. vHF rrdio, and FrhaF crtra first aid
gear and a loud hailer.
Bcforc lowcriog thc boat (fully manDcdwith thc c'rc* rvclrilg lifd
jackcts), thc wsscl ahouldcacat a3Soode lcc for it asp63iblc, b.itrgitr8
thc wind on thc opposilc bo*. This action will rbo srrc to rcducarolling, r.hich is aDadv?rs. frctor in thc lauochinSofa boat. Oil ,hould bc
sprcad frccly from both sidcs.Thc tcscuc vcasclshould at this aL8. bc
lying to wind*ard of thc wEck. Mattrt$ci should bc slunS ov.nidc
bclw.ctr ihc davits and 3ccurcdaL eod ebovc thc wa&r&vcl ia ordcr to
prcvctrt thc boat bing stovc-in during atr advcrscloll. A c.tgo Dcl, .lro
slung bctucrn thc davit! ard trailitrg itr thc wstct, $'iU bc ofgrcat t!,i$.
encc to thc c.rw if tha boat should caFiz. rlongiidc. Thc Pdinlar i!
riggcd and kcpt tight throuShout ro as to lcap thc bort i! po.itioo bc
low th. f.llr. It is . vcry good idce to conncct lighl lilci to thc two
bottoE frl bloclB and m.l thcm otr dock. As soon rs thc blocts rrc
rclc$cd thy c.r bc haulcd clcar of thc boatb clre.
Just bcfor! thc boet rschcs thc wrw crasls, th. crgitc rhould ba
strrt d rnd th plug chcck.d. Thc fall-blocks .r mloocd, aDd th.t io
onc rapid lcqucncc thc boat i! Iaunchcd, fllls alE rdc*cd, th. c[gioc
put into fonvard grar at full throttlc, lnd thc pointar lct go, uii[g tha
tillcr hard ovcr towards thc ship's 3idc. Both lowtr fall-bloctt mu3l ba
rclcascdsimultancously,tha mcn on board kcrpitrg lhc frllt rtsolutal!,
rl.ck. If onc block jams or cannot b. rclascd baforr thc boet d6clndr
189

EMER,GENCIES
into a lrough thc c[gioc mustitrstsotlytrc r.vcrsadro briDgttc bost
uodcl tta drvit hcad!rgsin. I8tced of thc fa3tblockhcaviogth{t cad
of tha bost Mily out of thc vatcr, rhcwightof thc bort will ovrrbaul
ttc frll baaausc
it ir a[ sLck o! toard. Thc dcxr mustkccp$ll do*tr
in odct to avoidthc suspctrdcd
block! a6tha boetclcarsthc sidc.Thc
opcratiodis crtrsEcly lricky, aod shouldprcfcrablybc canicd out in
ahsolutcsilcncc,wirh tlrc o6ccr irr c}erfp givbg hfuotdcB clca y rnd
coocilcly.If thc vcssclhr! vcryrlidt hcadwayoD8t thc tiDc of launchiDgthc tightpeitrtcrwil cDsblcthc bootlo talc I vcryrspid sh6r awry
from thc !idc.
By trorr, a colsidc.ablcrlick will probctty cxist towrrdt lhc altck,
addttc boatEsy Focc.d dowtrwin4sFlading rdditio&l oil artcm to
prrvcat shippidgs.a3h tic damlhca&.Thc trim of thc boatshouldbc
rdjustad!o 6uitthc cauEcrclrtivc to thc s.a. ID a shortsc{ thc itccting
mu6tbc vcrycompctatri,aiDccthc bostwill t od to brodch-touadc.thc
slightcatprovocation.If s big s.. furpproaabingthc t Dpt4tionto Lkc
il os thc boo shouldbc rEistrd ad thc boat haodc4at gaody3r pos.
6jbtq dircctly at iL
GcDcr.[y,codtactby bost with a vttct is to bc rvoidcd, but ifit is
ircvitrblc rhc boat shouldoD Do rccoud rpproachfrom thc vlath.t
lidc ofthc attcl, whct. wavc-bsttrirg idll occuf.Ncithct.hould ihc
approachthe lce side, wberc hcavy n'ftrlagc may be accumulating
andpqhap6falling. Furtber, the drift of the wlcck, whicbmaybe uP
to svcrallnots, will usurlly prove to b a trap for tha boat, atrdit
will bc cxtemely diffrclrlt to gct clcd. In additionto thsaproblcrns,
shce the vreck, if ccotlecrstle tyF, will be ling witb thc wind
.beae or slightly abaft it, shc will bc roli!8, pdhapBheavily.
Fi& 9.1.bow! r wrct lyitr8io four dificrldt politiont Glrtir lo thc
wiod, with hci litcly dirclio! of ddlt i! .ach ca!c.Thc bost lhould
approschat lrcr La crd !B showtrfor cachpo.ition, for thcnt sppi!8 of
thc bo8ti3 urlikdy,
Thc boatDay r..1ltr to thc *t!ck, .od-otr,by Ec.Dt ofa lidc, rcddy
to 80 astcmat a EoEcot" noticcshouldrigt! of brorchitrg-torppcar.
A men ahouldstsndby thc linc with itr ara, redy lo cut it a&ift in
ruch dn cncrgrocy. Oacc fast, thc suwivon Diy lostf, thcdlalvlt
doun rhc lim to thc boatss repidlyar polaiblc.
To rvoid actuslcoDtacteith thc wrlck, rhc bost Eay lic ofrIl.ed to
wiod atrd!aa, btft{rritrg oil, rd wil th.n pick up thc lurvivon from
thc astcr. Thc r!.c1rcdcrrw add p8lrdgar3 mustutrhBitstinglycrtlf
tbc wat r wcarhg lifcjackats.Und6 th6c conditiotrqs lifo-buoyhrvitr8two, stloD&buoFtrt lrrving lilca .ttrcb.d c.n bc ulcfrrlfor hcavitrg
FrsoDsf.oo v&ck to boer,onclitrc bcingabosrdcr(i cralt, thc buoy
bciDgp.ascdbdckvadr and fortrl&.
Occ.sioualy,it rnry bc prEfcrablcto drcp r boat downwiDdto thc
1q)

EMERGENCIES
wrcckon a 25-3Gmmnbr hawscrhavingonly two or lhrrc mcn in 3-or +ir
thc boat.Pt dty of spar! liic ltould bc l.ft in lh. boet 3o0rrr ft! crcw
cadcontrol thc bost to 6omccxGotahouldit suddcnlybccomcnccca.ary to drop furth.r downwind,A goodmcthodof signili!8 mult b.
nainlaimd bctwc.nth. bort .d it! parcdt3hip,Thc bo.t i! kcl h.ad
to eind aad s.a by thc hewrcrsnd staatldwith r st cring oar. If tbc
r.scucshipfumrtiDg a SEatcrdrift thanthc wrack3hceill havcio ula
cogiod in o(dcr to mainteinhcr dbtancc,This callr for vcry cffcicat
shiphandliogif thc bo.t is not to bc hamFtld.
Onccthc boathr! bccnscatrway to lccwerd,unlcBsit b rttachcdto

Dttfl oa l ltcca.
to^l LltEl colllact
at to3titotlC
al6utE t. I

ibpdrcntlhipthclsttlrwillst .mtolccwsrdofthavrccttladytopick
for thc boathavinglo dlkc
up thc boatrgain.Thi5avoids!try ncccasity
prolotrgcdhcadvayinto thc witrdatd t ."
Whctrcodmudcalionc.trlot bc dtabli.had by bo|t a raft mry bc
tox,Eda6ossthc linc of drift of thc wEck utrtil th. tovlioc foulr that
cnd of thc vrcck whichwouldDormallybc approschcdby a boat Tb3
su.vivorsmtrstthctrcfllcevourto 8ptholdofthc towlitr.' tld boardttc
r.tL Fo. thfu purposc,.tr ioittlblc rubbar lifc-rrft i! bctt r t[!tr o
drctd, roaLsbift !ypc' whicheill brvc i wr! sndl r|trgc ofttrbility,
!trd from aboardwhichruwivor! rrc csily mahd ofr' A r! t Dry ba
simit.rly disparchcd.ftcr 6tablfuhitr8cotlmuticatior by roclct'litc.
191

EMER.GENCTES
ADotbarDcthodi! for thcrlla|c t!3!d to &m broddrid!or lo tbaeftck
(ttcir forF.nd{ft litr6 bcinSFf.lld), but h ruc,h!tr lttiludc t!.r th.y
eill pdlr daar ald ctrd-otr.In thi! ery, rh. ahiF mry sfdy rpproech
vcry clodelyfor the purpoceof estabfshitrgcontact by liDe. In all
ca58,thc rcs. e ship cat| try stesmingaroundthe other vcssclin a
circularpeth, streaminSoil on achvindward pa!s.
Mmy bthci octhodr-rrc Focaitlc, crcn dclcodi4 upoa tbc prcvailing oonditioB.Thc aboE tart .ppli5 cqudly rdl to vE{cb whi:h tta
rtrandd. Tbcrl b thc sdvrnt!8prhrt orc vcrsalit atarioury, ald th6+
foll oDlythc ral! ofdrilt ofthc r!sq& v65cl tra.dbc conaidccd.Eortwolk i!, howsvcr,hampdtd by thc lack of i,atlt ldjrcctrt to thc wttok
ad thc proxinity of rocksaod rcefr. with ra outorc *i{d thc bort
rhouldaDchorlo winde|Id td rr.t do*n toeerd! thcrrcclq maitrtrjo'
ing s contiouou!loundbg of ttc boltoD *ith a boot lcsd-litrc.Aflio,
ttc lcc sidcshodd bc svoidcda! an epForch.

45|rl
,|8mftt
5(nft $ft

TIIE I'SE OF OIL TOR QT'EITING SEAS


Oil iorts aod rprtrd! rudily ovaathc tudacs ofthc $a. It raducc!
thc crqt-formhg tand!trcie of wrvls, but har !o cffcctupona lwcll. It
doar,hostwr, lcsrcaOc lilclihood ofe ltip or boat lhippiog !aar.
Lw-visc.rity adinal, rc8rrrblc, or tlh oib arclhc bc3ttyparfor this
purpolc. Itr thcir ablctrca,lubricatiDgoil ory bo u!Gd,but fucl oil
ahouldlot bc cmployrdud63 it fu ablolu&ly unrvoidablc'Parrolcum
i! of r,!ry lirdc vrlua itr plwcnting lhc forlnltio! of wrw cGst!, but il
nsy bc usd to thitr ! hig!-visco.ityoil, Althoughthc fittt-mEcd oilt
ar! 16! h&mful to rwi[mcr! thad t[a o$ar tyF, g.ocrallyrPcakin&
all oilr urcd for qrrlliag rc!. rhould bc dilEhrgcd witb ctrc sod in
modcration.As a rough guidc, it has bccn found thar 2m t!r6 of
tubricrtias oil dilahargd dowly jutt rbov! tbc lcvcl oftha rc! ru rcc
ivbilc rt.EiDg at slow rc{olutiotr! bta .ftc-tivrly rcduc.d hra}itrt
lrcin ovcr ao atlr ia cxccssof 45q) nr. lo tcfms of lhip wli.rpltn.3,
howcvcr,this is not rs largcan arceNsi! would st first spFlr' for it
amountsspproximetclyto thc rrra occupicdby two vcssclrcrch of
150m in Lngthand 15m abarm.
(tn vic* of thc dctcrioratiagctrcctof oilr upo! thobuoyury oflifo
j!ckct!, trpok i! low rcquitld to bc cDdoad withiDacaLdPolyvitryl'
chtoridc(P.V.C) covclopaa,|trd tro ottat b!ot!tr'' Ddrtitlr ar! d'
loFld to tc u!.d ud!!! tbay.rr iEhunc froD thb ttoubL.)
In coldwr.thcr oil! ahouldbc wrload it ordd lhlt tbcir dirtributiotr
dly ta mldc Eorc ca!y, but it lhould ba borDoh Eind thlt carrri!
oib, includingooc@utoil rnd .odc fth oib, will co4ral o! tb. t .
lorf.cc id l@-tadFetutl conditioB, strdtbayrtt tha of no 9alur.
Thc oil 6ay bc dirtibnt d i! lcrlrd wiy..! follo*!:
192

EMERGENCIES
(l) Ey flliDg rtr old, sp.cislly punctut d hoscwith oil, s.alitg both
Gn&,|ad t rili4 it ovcrsidoil a positiol closcto thc hotiz.ntdl
i! ordcrto obtlin at wid. a covcrag!aspo$iblc.
(2) By fllitr8 Lrtc, punctur.d,snd r&i8ht d cadva.tbagsloos.ly l,itl
o6kuD,tlpot, or c.tto! wastc,6lli!8 tbc b6$ n'ith oil, s.alio&
.nd toilitrg lhce ovlBidc'
(3) By placiry s s-lGlitrl tio fllrd with oil, aod punctutd ot iu l-2-d
ba!c. i o r wsrh-bario,bot!, showcr,or watcr-clolclptn. Thc
oil is ihc! 3tcrdily iulhcd ovdsidc by mcansof wttcr rulning
throughthc !oil-pip6. This mctftodis mostcfrcctivc.In all cas!!
thc amouatof puncturiogof thc oil containcrwill rcgulatcthc
oow. Thb will haveto be modifiedon shiF fittei with sePtic
llSal
tatrksor similar devices
In (3) thc tiD Dey bc !.alcd and trailcd ovcriidc. WhcDstrcamin!
oil from th. bow utrdcrcoDditio!. of a hcsdscaan oil bagis liablc to
b. to$cd i,cll out of thc *rtcr, .nd it shouldbc hcavily*!i8htcd. lf
forwlrd .oil-piDc! atr availabLthcy will providc . htcr maan!for
dirtributioa.
WtcD runningwith thc eitrd old scarstcm ot on lic quancr,lhr oil
ahouldbc altla;rd from rillt aft, thc wcalheror 6otl bowsand thc
c,lethcr or Dor, quartcrs.This paovidcsplot ction from qualtarly!ca!
in lha cvctrtofyowi!!.
Whcnrunring eith ttc wiDdrnd 3crab.od,thc oil is sttlarrladfrom
both bow!, and shcd it is abcto, or whc! lhc vcssclis hovc_toor
drifting, ii i! dilbibur.d from alotr8mostof lhc wathcr sidc,prcfcrably
at intervalsof not morcthan 15m. Thc vcssclwill makcSrcatcrlatwty 50ft
than rhe oil, and thc lattcr thcrcforeappcarslo spEad uF/ind, so
Drovidinr
DroLclioofrom thc risht diEction.
'
Whco-aiuchor a blockand;dhs whip is s.currd to thc crblc, thc
httc. i! vccrcdrtrd sn oil bag hovcout to thc block atrdthc watcis
.dcp, givilg oil dilttibutioo froD wcll thcad of thc .hip.
Oil mry dso ba ulcd to rdvadtagcwhm crocsidga t ar, man@uvring
bo.b rhroqh surf (rlthouth thc idncmo.t surf will lot bc affcctcdby
oil), aad whcl *orting boalr alo4ridc in hcavyw.athcr. It5 ulc hs3
alft.dy bccnec ioncd itr c.odcctionwith wtlck. Amcricadship6atc
comFllcd to crrry en rEoun! of stom oil, dspcndinSupotrthc Stoss
ro agaof thc ,hip. Britishshjpi rrc only &quircd to carry6uchoil as
psn of lifcboetcqoipmcot
STNVIVAL IN COLI' WEATBER
In haoy respec{s,this Faints a Sreatcrchellcngethan survivinS
exremc heat. In thc lattel case,the modernsurvivalcraft provides
amplc protection from th sun. Cooling of the My is easy by
193

EMERCENCIES
dowsingvith scawater, albcit vith somcdiscomfortfrom salt sores.
Tha Eri! problemrviu be thirst. In cold waathcr,hoscver, thc only
solutionis for tbe bodyto be warmed,and if everyoneis in a similar
conditiotr,tbc outlook is poor.
In a propcdy managedliferaft, or totally-ncloscdlifeboat, it
shouldbc posribleto crcludc manyof the outsidcinnueDces,
huddle
toSetharand maintaina reasonably*arm atmosphcre,allowingfor
pariodic vctrtilatio!. It ir whenthe rituation is lcs6ideal that scrious
troublc adscs.Do ,ot ffiolt , It rcducesthcbloodsupplt to hanh ond
fet.
HtDoab.nrh
This can occlrr at temperatuncsabove freezing, Thc My's
mctabolictemDeraturccontrol bccomesunstableat around34'C al|d
may be compfitely lost bclo{ that level.The victim, or hypoiurmb ,
iBpale,very cold to thc touch,hasa w.k pulse,is confusdin sFech
aod movcmcnt!, no longcr shiversatrd a3he driffs iDto a comatos
state, his pupils dil.tc. Death can ocolrr ev.n bcfore the body
tempemturc droF to 31'C. Hypothermia, and indeed any consequctrcof cold scathcr, is litely initially to affect hcavydrirlels,
poplc with poor citculalion and anyotrein poor hcalth. Thosein
chargeitr survival craft must be alcn to the abovesFptoms aod
commencerapid treatmentwhcre possibl.The hypothcrmicis so
lontcr ablto hclp hirnslfad wiu die if hc doesnot obtar! warmth.
Othrs must huddlc ataiDsthim rnd try to impart thair own body
heat to him. If a hypothermicis brought abo.d . ship, it ir no6t
imponatrtto warmhis torsobeforehis limb6.Warmitrt the lattcr will
bring a rush of icy blood to thc hcen causiryar.rdrop atrdparhap8
death.Remcmbcrthat hypothermicsare mostsuscelible to fro6tbite
and that l0% of My heat can bc lo3t th.outh the hesd. Crver lhe
cat: atrd nosif thet are expoddto exttemecold.
Fm.f t
Thc ftaazingof stitr atrdsurfacclssucsi! sometimcscdledformit
or supcrfci.l frostbite. Deep ftostbit. ocors v/hd the ftcczing
cxtetrdsto trcrves,muscles,cartilate and tr,one.The affcctdarcacan
bccomeftozen (as hard as wood) quite suddcr y after atr irtctrsc
stitrtitr8pain or a prickling se$atiotr. Sometimesthc onsatis not felt
at a[. Oert.ir y it is unlitely tbat the sprcadof fro6tbilc will bc felt.
The rppearadceis opaquc, of a wary-white colour and may be of
vrryiog svcrity.This is Dot alwaysktrowDuntil thawingoccus and
blistcrs appear.If thesare Fcscnt, thy may bulst up lo tcn days
latcr. If day gansreDesetsin, the affecled parr turDsftom gry to
blact and may bccodc detachcd.To avoid ftostbitc, keep exposd
prr$ covared,esFcially handr,fcct, checLs,earsandnosc.Keepthe
194

EMERGENCTES
facemobil to preventfreczing. Placecold handsin the armpit! or
cn ch. Wam icy feet inside other people'sclothit8. Do not rpply
ointmcntsor massagc,nor direcl heatftom stovcaor fires.Iro6cning
clothingnay help cirolation. Rapid warmingbringson intenspain
snd may rced to be aided with morphine. Most mcdicd opinions
regardthe outlook asbeingmo6tfavounble whenthe aff.led areais
lhawd out as fast as podsible. Again, survival leaders must
encouraSepeopleto look for symptomsin eachother.
IDnttrdoD f@t or hrDd
This is broughton by prolongedexposureto water,wet clothingor
wet footwear. DamageoccuNto th skin, nrvesand blood vessls
and the appearanceis white with numbness.Toes and fingeN are
hard to move.The situationworsensand swellinSbegins.Therc may
be blisters.dark Datchesand broken skin. The vidim mustrestwith
no walkiDgor staidinSand the affecledareadried and*armed. On a
ship, a warmstreamof air from a fan heateris ideal. Apply cleandry
drcssingsatrdperhapogive penicillin.
MAN OVERBOARDPROCEDURE
Assumingihc ac.idc[t to bc obscrvcd,it is moti importantfor thc
ob.crvcrto cry, 'Man ovrboardto port (or starboard).'Thc omccrof
lctioff: hc should
thc watcbshouldthcncarry out thrrc simultencous
riry stan&by,put thc wheelhardovcr towsds thc sidenom wtidr thc
farc
rtranfcll, rnd rclc{scs lifc-buoyto whichis ettachcda sclf-iSDiting
or a wat.r-aciivatcdclcctriclight. By day,thc uscof oacrl5o cquippcd
with an omngc-smoke
ffoat,burningfor 15minutcs,will bc.to Fcat
advsnbg.. Lookouts should bc postcdas high as possiblc,prcfcrstadoossoundcdaod . bort
ably supptcdwith binoculars,cmcrspDc?
prcparcdfor lowcrin& lnd a g.ncral urg.ncy si8lal trarsmittcd to
atl shipsin thc vicinity. I! busywatcrsIntcmrlionsl codc f.g'o' it
hoistrd.Th. Mastcrshouldbc noti6.d a3quickly !s po.siblc,ttouSh
doub(lc$sthc abovcproccdurcwill alr.ady havcalc.tcdhim.
Tbc rllcasingofa scondlifc-buoyfu ofqu6tiobablc veluc,sinccthc
manmay ooly sightthc morc dislant onc and bccomchclplcssbcforc
rcachiogit. Funh.r, wh.n thc shiprctumsto thc erct n wiUbc dificult
to datcctwhichbuoywesiDitiauyl!Iaa!!d unl6s th.y r'l providcdvith
dificrcnttypcsof light.
Th. maD,who initially sinks,los6 thc bcncfcialectionof thc bowwaywasherd comcsuDdcrthc imElcdirtccfrcctof proFllcr suction.
If hc h rblc to dctcrmincthc diEction of ftc ship'ssidcupodbccoming
submcrgcdhc will instinctiwlystrita out tovards it, whichwil rggrawtc his denglr. Whcoqrcrpossiblc,hc should,wim rrpidly awayfrom
theship.A vessel
oflcnglh l2l nr tra\ellingrl I2 knotswill lravelats il00fi
t95

BMBT.OENCIES
sndif thcmadfallsowr fo$trd ofamidships
ownlcnglhin m scconds,
for him to rc&h thc proFllcts,
it will takc bctwrcnl0 and 20 3cconds
DuringthisFriod, atralcrt anginccrmaybclblc to stopthceppropriatc
proFllcr from rcvolvin&but this will bc our of th. quastiotrin e ahip
cquipFd *ith turbinc{rivcn shafting,whch will tekc up to 5 dinut.s
to tun down,or in e Diclct cquippcdvcsral.
A8rin, th. rtoppilt ofctrgilc! and lba ulc ofimm.dietc hclm i! of
quaatioDablc
valur i! protlctirg ttc roat i! tbc Frt a,for ro litdc timc
b Nrilablc. Howlvra,if hori!.. to tbc rurflca bcfor! &acbinglha Fc
pclla, [c will ilveriably loat cL.r, cm thoug[ hc may Fsr dirtctly
ovlr it If thc thip it roling or pitchinS;cauli4 tbc proFllcr to brcak
ruxfacsor lpprogchit v!ry clodcly,thrtr ha i! ir SraE dd8pr.
It thc etrgiics arc maintained,asfar aspossible,8t full rcvolutions
aod thc ehccl i! kcpt hard-over,drc vcsslwill then folos a ruming
circle,taling asmll6 as30minutcsto rtumto the arra shcre thc man
i! ritustld. If thc lhip i..high-Fwcrrd ald quick-tumirylhc will prob
rbly aniv. withh . rhip" lcoglt of thc m!tr, ltc circuht psth wi[
'tturdly bc govcmd by rhacxiltidg wathat cooditio$, partio arly in
a baavya.r, whcDit wil bclacc$rty to Educcspaadasthcr6!al h6d!
up ilto lba w!8.
If Fcovaryh to bc Dadcu.itrga boatthi! mry nfaly bc dotrcitr hort
rc. corditio!3 whilc thc sbip har bcadwryoo hcr of up to about 3
trot!. A kc ttould bc madr for th! boat, ard if rhc lcss rtl b&Qkitr8
oil shouHbodiltributld it letll qu&titi6.
cDSiDca
at rooD|r
Ifibc vqscl ir stoppcdurdct thaactiotrof rcYErrcd
thc man ir clcar, it modcrat! slathca a boet Bsy idDcdhtrly ba
towatd hinr, guidcdby radio or morle stnals
bord ad matr@vrEd
from r lootout aloft. If thc E!! it lost froo dght rhc boatshouldFo.
c.cd bacLdolg thc rbip'r track on a comFlt coutla Io rrvailio8 b.t
.dgin . lh! rhip wil h.v! d.dc lido lrtcnl vdy ovtr th. 8rous4 but
.ly hc d.ift Dult bGrloerd for eh.n uliag aucha oonFra coulF
Ttrrc d!, iEoog othcG,thEc ulcful ncthod! i! wbichttc ahipnay
bc hradlcdro tbat rbarcturu lo thc Er! id thasstca.M.thodr (r) rnd
(c) brvr rutoDstic+turn f.afit!, ud s[ ett iUustrd.d it Fi8. 9.2.
(, ft. wI[.Dd
lt!
Thi! rr! d.vircd anddnnoutrrLd by Codmandart. A. williamlo!
of ttc Uoitcd Stil6 Naval Rdcn'c io 1942.A n!tr in thc w!tc. fac..
th&c trzadr: drowlitr& D!trglitrSby thc proFlrfl, rld rbindofircnt
du! to no o.rtior" Tbi! hnn vat orighatrd b ord.' to rcduccth6c
dllgclt to s miDiDud, In d!d(nc!., poo. viribility, or bsd wc.th.r,
ald whaotbctisc of tbcracjdadtit DntnowD,thaaxaartio!of tlis tun
nry bc rclicdupotrto brinSrhc v6scl a! clo&ly ar po6iiblcbrct to hai
origird track.
196

stEtDY ON RICtPIOCAI

arrlL8Eu

couR3a

lfi-t'iir^M-soN-Ju-ffil
AFTEFT MIIE DLAV

E!E!!.9SIE!A!!-9-!!8U

aTaArcHTrur| ol{ RclPlocALcoullE

EMERGENCIES
Thc hcle is ioitirly phccd hrnl oEr towud! thc lidc from wbich
thc man fcll, spedis not reduccd,ard the vsslis tumed unril dt
hr! dtcrcd couFc60dagtt.5from thc origidrl coutla.Thc arylc vrrias
for difrcrc shipe,rnd ahouldprrfdably bc dctqminadst .ca trial!.
Ar !oo! I t[i! dcviationis 6itai4cdthc hclm is plscrd hard.ovcrtlc
olh.! woy .!d tho vlss.l broulhl rrpidly .ou!d to th. rcciP.oo.l of
hcr origrnalcourse.Shcis sleadicdaad lhc cagincrcvolutiomarccrFfully controllad,for thc mancuvrawill bring thc victim vcry ncatly
dcadahcad.
Thc Williamsontum takcsthc vcssalfarthcrfrom thc manthaomost
mancuvras,atd may takc up to 5 minutcslonSpfto cxccutcthan a
norrml lurningcilclc. It will b. s.cn that at somcstagcin tha tum thc
stcmpass6acrcssthc linc of sightto thc man,this, howcvar,bciogDo
gratdisadvanlagc
in vicwofthe ultimaleobjcctof tbc turn. If thc matr
can definitclybc kept siShtcdan ordinary tuming circlc may bc p!c.
fenrd.
In four cascswherathc Williamsontum hasbero ustd, thc avcragp
timc duringwhichthc victim wasin thc watd wassixtccnmidutas.
(b) Th. Silgle Dcl.y.d Tun
Here the vesselis continuedon coursefor one mile and then put
into a tuming circle. She is allowed to swing past her reciProcal
courseby aI| anglethe tangentof shich is the tactical diameterin
miles.E.g. if the latter is 0.54 miles,thenthe total changeof cou$e
is 200 degres.Studcntsof trigonomctrywill otserve x,by a run of
one mile is made.The manavre, in theory, is an autcrecoverytum
of the simplestkind.
(c) Ttc Do le Tulo
Thc manin thc watcrremainson th. samcsidcofthc shipthroughout
thir mancuvrc.Initially, a turn is madcundct full hclm towar& thc
victim aDdthc shipstcadicdon thc raciprocalof hcr origioalcoursc'A
straiShtrun is then madeuntil thc man is approximatclythrc! poiolr
abaftthc trcam,wheoanotharfull tum is madcusinghclmovcrtowards
thc msn.Thc ship is agah broughtround,but this timc i3 stcadicdor
thc original courseaod placcdsliShtlyto windwardof lhc ma!. This
tum basaulomatic-rfiumfcaturrsonly if thc man'spositionis know!.
Thc victimshouldalweysbc rccovcrcdo! thc 6tst epproacb,particu40'F larly in sca-watcrbrlow 5'C whcna manb.codcs numH and hclp'
lc$ within a quartcrofan hour.To achicvclhis, thc ahipshouldalways
bebroughtto windwardof thc manaod allowcdto drift downto hin.
to lccwatdhc wil bc mi!s.d, and no timc musi
If thc vcssalspproachcs
bc lost in hcavilghim anorhcrlifc-buoy.The Sch.rmuly'Spcldlinc'
198

EMERGENCIES
Unit, fittedwith the buoyanrheadto thc rock.t, msy trc usfulin sucht
c3se.
Laddcn and ncb should bc riggcd on thc lcc siale,altatrdcd by volunteers *crring lifc-jackets and safaty lincs scurdto tbc ship, who arc
prcparad to enter the water in ofdcr to hclp thc na! asccndor to slcurc
a whip or safcty bclt to hill. Ast m movcmcntscloscto tha matr ahould
bc avoided, sincc thc propcllcr washwill t.dd lo throw bio away from
thc ship's sidc. When Iowering a boat, or approechioga victim, thc ship
will invariably have lost headway whcn lhe ProPellcr wash from thc
rcverucdp.opellers abrcaststhe amidshiF po6ition.
ln log Oe lvilliamson tu.n is lhe most prcfcrable man(ruwc. If this
is not uscdthc vessclshouldbe stoppcdquicklyand a boat lowercd.It
shouldstccr back along thc ship'strack usinga compasscoursc,and
a foghorn.a radio and a radar
shoutdbe equippedwith a megaphone.
rcfleclor.The parentship shouldmakeher fog signalfrcquently,and
follow tle boafs movementby radar.Thc negaphone,hcld lo lhe ear
inslcad of the mouth. providsa uscful meansof ascrtaininSthc
direcrionof sounds.pamicularlya man'scries.
Fo. lhc viclim, the b.st advicc is to float rathct tharl swim, in oldcr to
cooscrvccn.rgy; rcalise that the ship will rapidly disappcar from vie\r
d e to his negligibleheightof cyci neverlosc hope of rescue:rnrain
as c:llm as humanly possible.and when reschinga lifF_buoy'slrike
it otr onc sidc only wirh both haods clenchcd. l! will thcn tip ov.r his
hcad and hc cao support himsclfon it by his elbows. ProfcssioDallifc_
savc$ sdvisc swimme$ to strikc a pcnistcnl shark on *hat may bc
considc&d to tre its nose,the rsullant rapjd actrcatbcing his rcward for
such cool couragc.
'O'
Ifthc ship frcqucndy sounds in Morsc codc on thc sircn it will do
much to raisathc victim's moralc, cvcn though thc vcssclis out ofsiSht.
Its us. in foggy, uamc watcrs should prclcrably bc avoidcd unlcssus.d
in conjunction with a lrdio urgcncymcssagc.Whcn usinga bost in poor
visibility, thc ug.Dcy 3ignf,l should bc folto*cd by a w&rniag of thr
boat', movcmcdlsand approrimaic Position.
Mhrirg Pcrc
Whcn a pcrsonis .eponcd missingat sca,lhc Mastcrmay dccidcto
s.rchthc ship bcforeturningback.lfih Frson i! found to b aboard
thcn ofcours. no lime hasb.cn lost on ihc voyagc.On thc otherhand,
if lhc Frson is not found. thcn ih ship'till havcto b lurncd back
Bccaus.of this d.lay. the prsonwill bc in lhc water for a period of
timc cqualto iwict thc duratioflofthc searchcomparcdwith a similar
cascwhcrcthc ship is turncd atound al on.. clcarly lhc lattcr ection
is to bc Drcfcr.d,

tv)

EMERCENCIES
Thc shipshouldbc searchcd
by asmanypcoplcaspossiblc,lookingin
thc most unlikcly placcs.lonccfound e missingmanin a cattlcpcn on
thc poop. anothcr biding in thc chaiDlock.r, aod a third crouchcd
undcrgatings in thc shafttunnclovcr *hich thc scarchparty waswalkin8! Thcrecanbc no hardand fastrulcson ihe subjeci.On e pssscng.r
shipthc omcrr on watchuscdthc publicaddrcsssystcmat full powcra!
3 a.m.and locateda missingboy aslccpin a toilct. Thc shccivolumcof
soundawakcncdthc boy.
Whcn thc pc.sonis missingin hcary wather,thick fog, darkncssot
frcazingconditionsor whcrc many sharksarc sbout, oi *harc it is
known that thc pcrsoncannotswim,thc Mastcris facdwith a scrious
dilcmma.Howev..Foplc havcsurvivcdfor graatlcn8hs oftimc in thc
watcr rclardlessof thcir agc, lt is an occasionwhcrc thc pcrsonality
of thc prsonvirtually govcrnshis survival.Thcrc is t rcport of an
Australiannaval samansurvivingfor 17 days in thc PacificOccrn,
havingfallcnoyerboardwcaringa lifcjackct.lt must.|ot bc assumcdof
coursa,that bccausaa pcrson was last sccn say 4 hours ago, that hc or
shc fcll overboard 4 hours ago.

ITEAVY WEATHEN
thsn onc whichfu !ot,
A wavcwhichis b&akingis morc dengGrous
olthoughthc lrltr can bccomccquslly haz.rdour if it fu uDnrtllraty
brokra upon irDpecteilh rhc ahip. A brraking wrvc is high6 dtd
stepcr lbatrotrcwhrchrcmain!utrbrokcn,andwhiL tbc motio! \rithjt
lhc bttcr i! gcdcrallyiD ttc varticalplancody, tha formarvrvc projccB a largcvolomcof watcr dowtrwardrand ahcadot iac4 c-ruliDg
suddcdhorizodlalmotiotrofs buoyantobitt, ,uch6! a troal In dmost
all r.a conditio$ ttdr t o& to bc a cyclcof srvr dcvclopdc rtrd
dctrriorrtiol wbid i! uluilly ru6cie0dyrcgularto cnattas r.lDsa to
pcdict r shortpaiiod ofmodaatirg r...
In opan,daapwat6r ehcr! tia witrd h|t a lotrS/.rcr, i.c. r !tr8p,
$looth arca ovcr vhich il may blow without mactiaSob.tructioDr,
wav.sarc highcrand thcir 3uoc.ssivc
crcst! ar! farth.r epert,thc distanccbetwEnlwo suchrdjaccdtcatstsb.irg knownit thaeawlaqth.
WhcDtbc wavclcdglhitrcrcsr.s,so docathc limc irtct93l bd\r,Ecnrhc
plsagpof two suoc.slrwcFst! pasl r ir.d point, i.c. tb tw perbd
of lhc sav6. If ttc p.riod rcmain! co,3rrn! thcn thc vclocityof th.
wav6 muEa
mcreiSc.
Ilrgc v.sscbbchrvcbcstio s rhort sca,whilc aoallcrclafr at! morE
coDfortablcin a lonSrc5, i.a onc hsvinga hrg. wavdcoglh.A lotrg
v6scl, supportcdorly st hcr cD& or rDidshiF by wavccrlstt, ia ruts
jcctcd to scvcrbcDdir8strcsscs,
rtrd a shortcrwavclcDslh
b lbcrcforc
pcfcrablc.Thc acamstr
cancsiimatclhc wavcchaBclcristica
oncchchar

EMEROENCIES
found tbc truc Friod bccausc:Thc vclocityiD knotsir roudly cqurl
in scconds.
Thc wavclcntthin mc(rcs f.ct
lo thrcatimcsthcFriod mcasurcd
is roughly.qualto thc squarcofthc pcriod(in s.conds)
multiplicdby
1.5,c.8.a tsccondwavcsystem
hasa velocityof 15knotsanda wavc- t
l2Jft
lcngthof37m.Thcscveryclosly
approach
thaobscfted
charactaristics.
Thc pcriodof roll of a ship tu thc liEc Lkcn lo roll from, ray, port
ovcr to starboatdatrdbackto port. It maysimilarlybadcsribad
a! lhc
tiDc iatcrvalbctwc.dthrcc suoccasivc
traDsit3of thc 'rrst tholgh ttra
vrrtic.l planc. This pcriod b largdy govemcdby thc nclrcaotric
*ith
motionb.ing associated
bcight,a ahortroll andad uncomfortablc
t ccrtr of lreviry positiotrcdlow down in th. vcsscl.Sucha vcssclir
dclc.ibd a! bcirg rtifi bcr countcrpartwith a long pcriodof roll sDd
hilb st& of gravily bcing known as t.nder ot crar*. Thc lattar'r
rnotioois morccasy,but both cxtremcsarc undcsirablc.Thc pcriodof
roll is incrca.cdby distributingwcighlsfarthcrawayf(om thc fot?rtrdafl lirc of thc ship,thc procc$ bcingknownas lt,irgirg-olt w.ights,
ID s limilar way thc Friod of pitch of a ship is thc timc takan to
alcctrdfrom rhc lowlst positionand rcturn to il oi tha timc bctwccn
traDsrts
lhrccsucccssivc
ofa fircd pointon thcstcmthrougha horizonld
Dlra(-Thc apparatlpedodof thawavcsis thc timc intcrvalbctwccnth.
posslg! of two succassivc
crcststclativc to a shipbomcobscrvcr.It is
3omclimca
cafledthr p.rrbdof .ncofiteL Wh. a ahipis runningbcforc
thc truc pcriod,and viccvcrsawhcn
r scalhc apparcnlpariodcxccads
thashiphcsdsth. !ce.ThcpcriodofmcouDtcris thc intcrvalwith which
tha 8almanis mo3tconccmcd.
Snchrol&m
Whcnthc roll pcriodis equalto th. apparcntwav. pcriodcachroll it
lollillg is sct up.
boostcdby thc wavcsand a conditionof syochtonous
Within a minutcor ,o thc v.ssclrolk lo lar& ingl.s, whichprog&s3ivclyincrtesc.Shiftingof thc cargomay occur,but in cascswhcrcthc
rlsgc of strbility h smallthc v6scl maycapsizc.Thc conditionmustbc
rrcognfucdimmcdiatclyand couNcaltcrcdrapidly in ordcr to chsnlr
$c rppdrcntwavcFriod. Thc vcssclis mostvulnc.ablcwhcnthc a.ais
lbaam, and in thb situatiotrthc truc and appercnlwavcpcriodsarc
cqurl. A! iDcrr3scin mctac.trtrich.ight (or lowcringof thc cmt . of
grevity)c,ill idcr.a3cthc Nmplitudcof6yochronous
rolliog.
pitchingoccirs *hcn thc pcriodof pitchis cqualto thc
Synchronous
pcaiodof cncountcrand causc!cxcrssivcmcing of thc cngincsa! thc
proFucr cmcagcs
faomthc watcroaapproachcs
thc surf{cc,longitudi
tralstraininSof thr hull, and hcavydamagFduc to thc shrppingof 3c$.
A.ltciationof sp.adwill dcstroythc condition.Thc wa!.r rcabtrnccto
pilchirg is gEatcr than to rolling, and thc pilchinganglcdocsnot bccomcabDormallylargr-

ml

EMERCENCIES
A v6scl brokcn down and lying helplessin thc wavc trough is cxtEmcly vulncrablc to synchronousrolling, and m.ans should bc adoPtcd
to bring thc vcssclh.ad to wind and sca as soon as thc cnginc frilurc
Gar.rd B.Srviorl of tte Ship
A vcssclhcading inlo a bow sahcals owr lowards advancingwavc
crcsts, ind this part of hcr roll is damFd. whcn runoing bcforc a
aurrtcrly sca thC rcvcrsc is troc and shc hccb avNy from oncoming
scar. tn rhb cotditioo thc rcsislarc.s to rolling ar. lcNst .trd ler8cr
drglcs of roll arc atteincd, itr rdditioD to *hich rhc wav6 travcrs. thc
ship'! lcngl.hmorc slowly thaD if tbcy apProachfrom ah.ad. Thc combitration 6f th6c two factors rcndcrs tbc ship liablc to ship hcavy scar
rrl r pilc(:3s koom sPooptg.
Frorn ttc Drlviou! tcxt. wc now !..lhrt th. abifry of s lbip to ridc
coofortlbly dcp.ods upol hcr courlc and spatd r.lativc lo thc wavas,
bar rtrcogth, hcr raDgcof stability, hcr wcight dblributioo rclaivc lo
rbc fort-;d-aft liac, Lcr pcriod of ro[, tnd the pcriod snd wevclcngth
ofthc ra{s.
Whcn st aDiry h.sd to s.a thc ship k subjcctrd to Pitchin& tacing of
cneiD6. lotrrituinrl srrcasas,slsmmiog atrd pouoding st thc forc cnd
dri to wrvc iopact, aod tbc ihippiog of watcr. ldasuy, thc ship should
bc trimmcd a littlc by thc 6tcf! so thtt tbc scrlvs and thc rudder arc
idm.n d to thc maximum a|ld thc bow rcsistsa tcnddcy to bury itscf.
All thc hrzrrds of pitching arr rcduccd by loecrinS thc spccd of thc
vtsscl. Occasionally, such s rEductiod in spcad may advcrscly afr.ct
Dirchhr. for it mat causcthc priod of cncoutrtcr to apProachclolcly
itc pcrioa of pircl, scnUg up synchrod.m. Fron this' it follows thal
"" irrc occasionr an incrtrsc id !p.cd wil lEducc Pitchin& but this
action wil incailably producc delgcrous 6lcmmiDgof thc fotcfoot.
Thc ttndocy of e vc$cl ro pouDd hcr foFfoot is most lrarkcd itr
Iistf fut-bot6ncd ship6, particularly whcn t[. forcfoot bccom6
ancrgc+ ft is accrcas.d by rcdlrcio8 lpccd, but iD vcry ,hort wav6
cttr"icly lo* spccdr may provc a rcvcrsc cficcl Ccrtah shmming
o".otr cvrn wicn thc fortfoor is butiad dccply or asc.trding and is duc
to thc ''Did variation! of thc prlssul! rFtcm which rlweys surround
a bu[. Tir6c vtriatioN arr csuscd by thc lhiy'3 spc.d, rnd ha'/r bccn
ur.d itr Dalt hdtiliti.3 to dctoDatccc aiD typd ofminc.
tVhca ruaior bcforc thc s.a a v6scl ulually .rpcricDcd dificl|lty in
rteriar. mniciarlv onc hsvbg a high couaLr s&m which i! '$ily
liftcd bv ihc rca" producing ao alalmhg yaw. UDdar tbcrc conditions
wi& th; s.s rd.r;, if tbc v6scl is situatad in thc trough ofr lar which
b ovcnakitrg bcr atrd brc3kitrgsbci! litcly !o bc PooPGd.If thc 6hip ad
wr6 haycaual vclociticaaod thc v6!al is lyiag o! sn advarcing wavc

m2

BMERGBNCIBS
.lop., ic. rrrrrg, rhc ir litcly to bc rlcwld violcndy,hccld oec.,!trd
swrDFd, Thc procasrof dcs'iDgis tnoe! astroa?rirE-to.Thc audd.o
edditioa of toFwrb[t wat r wbcnhcclcdov.f to a lrrgc iuclilatiotr
oay tlduF tha srglc at which positivc stability di..pFa8 to th.
.rt.'ti'qg.rgL of h.cl, .trd capcizi[gir rbc! lilcly.
If thc ,aa ha! a wsvclctrSthootrsidcmblygllrtc. or lssthetr thc
rhip'! Logth, i.c. a long or lhort !cr, hct motio! will bc rsfcat,rld ir
follorNrthat thc Srrat rt daogprfrom a quartcrtyot sttrn lra srir..
whao thc s hr': (c) r irrl,rlcnglh clo6clyrpprorthiDg thc thip'r
lcogth,ad (6) a vclocitycqualto or 8l!a&. thao thc lhip's rpaad,
I! thasacirqrmatrnccait i! wis. to rcducarFd 80 thal thc !a.a
oErtak th. v*rcl rethcrthsn ruo thc risk of surfnSard btoochinS-to.
Id.ally, thc spcrdshouldbc found at whichthc d8!8pr of poophg ir
rlso 16.t,
With a 3c{ abcsm,allowarcaEusl bc rn.dc for lc. dtitl, whichDey
h.vc. rrlc in crc6s of2lfiot!. If thc w*c is sightcds[d it! dillctiotr
codpard sith thc couracit crcdthcrlgulrr ditrcMrcasriUgivar clo,a
approximltioo to thc nccdsaryupwitrdrltct'ation of lha thip', hrad.
Altadtion! of {pccdsil hevclittlc cficct otr bchaviourin r ttar& r.r,
but cousc altaratiod will rcduccthc amplitudcof rollitr& Whcttcr thc
rltd.tioD fuDadcinto or rwry froe lhc lca will drFtrd upor thc wlE
chsrsclrdstiBrrldiw to tbasbipbLntth.ad spc.d,atrdon hct ltrown
prlfcrlncr for a bow or qurttarly !ar. Thc uscofwrrthcr-lidc rtorE oil
will FoduocI vrluablctlick sp.ladio8to wiidr4ad, h rvbi:hrhchttalitrg ofr..! i! midimilcd.
ftrh8 | Y.rd h HG.vt waabai
Thi! rEquirEtbc utDoctrcorac, ofjudSpmant..od e krowlcdgcof
th. ship'3ch.r.ctcristicafu ansGirt hclm 3.trdcogira Dovcmb.
Thc cofie i'd cir.rirg dcpanmcrt! of tbc thip rhould bc infodcd
|td thc dccb clc.rcd of mcn.Bdorc tu.ni!8, a 6tudythould bo Dud!
of rhc mvGdcvElopdcntcycl6 and tbc arrivd of a Dodcrrtilt raa
pcdict d.
Whcaturdtrg downwitrdswayfron r hcadtaa it i! dlaiaabLto aNFhcG rhcrclativccalE wbcnthav6aclb lying i! tbatrouttr ard crbmcocisSthc l|st hrlf of th?tu.!, for thi. i. th. Fiod et o.hc j! litcly
io bc svsmpad.Thc btt r hrlf of tbc turtr murt bc c*eutcd rr npidly
a! lo.siblc.
Whcnruldlg bcfor! r aai ard wishingto tnt! upwitrdit ir daaint{a
to crFiaocc thc rclativccalo durhg thchttcr hrfofthc tura whaotha
ir awingingup itrto lhc wild |Dd t .. f lhb rwitrgir cf,cqrtrditr
vaaaal
vlty haavya.asthc lhip mry rufrcrcxt olill drm|!c. For thi! rlaton
lbc htc. hdf of thc tum shouldrgri! bc curicd out rt qui:lly t !o.-

BMBRGBNCIES
aiblq so that thc ahipis fully prlp6&d to oaat onc.oeingicaa ehilc
3!ardy.
I! both cald rpccdshouldbc rcduccdbcforctumiq |trd bold hclD
u!cd. thc tudt rnustbc c.nild out vitt rhc midouD of h..dmy,
ard tha ruddcr is rcrddrd oFr&tioml by uritrg lhort bunt of fulllhaad rrvolutioN, Thc ordcriogof fuUahaad!d full hclm bar cvcrythirg to rccommcndit providing: (a) thc miliEuE of h..dt y i!
grthc&d, drd (r) tbc retc of rwing kcpt low if DisjudglEcatcillra! tla
arrinl of hcavysc3!rt r criticrl stagp.In thfuavcntit t!!y bc p(.flnblc
to llaudc counc rad dlakce aacordatLtrpt. Thc uacof stoamoil ia
of glat Ydur io thaacm3t(.uvrc'.
lI .fiC{o
A rrslcl hcav6-tovhcn, duc lo thc sttrssofwlathct thc voylgc i!
tcmporarilydis{ontinucdstrd lhc shipfu DaDcuvrld so r! to ridc out
tha atorE in ttrc rnost codforlablc po6ition.Gcncrally,a ship wiU
bcbrr|r b6t h onc of thtla poaitionr:(a) wilh thc scson thc bov and
aEaningrt r rEduccds@ suficicntonly for stccritrg;(t) vith thc laa
ab.ft thcbcrmsad at a ,ihilady tduccd spccd,or (c)ttopFcd.nd drift"
itrg to lccward.
arr pEaantbut thcvl.$l
Itr (d) thcd!trgr'! of pitchirg.ad shtr|tDiDg
wil probablyerkc littlc wayovct thc groudd,ald thc rnirudc is thtrq
forl r wis. orc ehco thcrr is litdc !.a rooE to lccelfd. It i! s difiqrlt
politior !o holdwhctrin lighl conditionif thc bow showss ttdd.ncl lo
pay ofi. Itr (r) corridcrablcwey is mtdc to lccwardatd tha danlpr of
poopingcxiits,Thc attitu& is thcrEforcrccommcndcd
ooly whcDa rhip
h', pLnty of lccwrrd scaroom ard good stl'Ifug qualiticsin suchr
cordition ofquartcrly saaand low .pccd.ID (c) r lc$cr oboult ofdrilt
i! mrdc to lccward,buf dBpitc rhi! r rcccatcarashoeld r Ftticulsr
w*el, itr ligLt catrditioAto cxFricdccs tato of5 ttrot! L. drift in ttit
afiitudc, ro ttd rglid rmple tcc acaroom ir dcairablc,Tha rt.a.l eill
Fotebly rol tcavily i! lhi! porition, md synchroni$ tlly occut,ro
thst rt all tin6 tte Elacl .hould bc caprtta of baitg rwEg rapidly'
The risk of I shitlitrBcargois prrscot,rld rollirg mty bc vcry yiolcnt
if ltc v6scl i! atitr Thc mcthodir oltctr cEployd in low-poEd vr&
lcL whhh rr! uDms ga.blcio positiotr(r) ald whichr.c itrc.Poblcof
tumisg tead ialo thc cxistitrgwitrd,Thi! may bc duc cithc. to r Lrgc
wild aurf.ccforva.d or thc itr4bilityto gthct 3u6ciatrthcedeayio tha
cirrrD3taDccr,
In all ca!6 ehcohor!-to thr ula of.torm oil will do duch io rcducc
b|zatd!.
h.lrht
ll. V...d ld H..w W.d.r
Thc vBscl Eust bardedc8 scaworthyar possiblcbcfott t[c onlct of

BMERGENCIBS
badr/lathcr, poyiDgparticldarattlotioB to thc followiagpoinb:
(l) Thc ch.cki!& anddoubling-upif rc.rsrary, ofau d.ck lashirg3.
(2) Tha tiShEDtugof boatgriFs.
(3) Th. b.t!.ning down of hatchca,Lockitrg b6.s, whclr ittcd,
rhould bc tight y sct up and co!3idcretioobc Sivc! to thc
rfttchiog of qtr. tarpouli@.
(,1)whcrc thc rdmi$io! of contitrurl fr6h air to cargolrcld! i!
urtrcoc&llryor Dry bc tcmpomrilydispcqrcdwitb, vdtilatort
shouldbc covlrld to prcvcn!tbc ed&issio! of aar.watcr.This
pedcderly in thc cascofa c.rgo of woodpulp, wh.rc
aDpuaa
axpaisioaducto ectting crtr bc up !o 50%andrupturingof rha
ahip'sridc or dcckcanocclrr.Wct grainprovidcss aimilerd!!.
gcr, thoughtrol havingsucha Ircat cxpa$iotr.
(t Lifclin.s of 2!3Gmm fibr! roF shouldbc riggcd8!d 3ct up 3.+in tlu.oila
tigh{y tboughout thc cxpos.ddcck. Whcrce longuorupportcd
spdni incvitablcthc linc ahou.ldbc stoDpcdto thc rdjecantdistatrt stlong points by rhort lcngthsof litrc of prcfcreblyaqual
6t!.oglhlo thc lifclinc.
(O lftiEc pcnnitr,utrprotcctldaccodmodrtiotrstormdoo$ sbould
bc hosc-tls&dadd aDydcficiaDcyot rvrtartightoacrDadc good
with lhc uscof wdxcdcaulkitrgfclt.
(7) Thc sccuringof s[ d.r.icks mustbc rbdoluta.
(8) Thc axistadcc
of wet r or oil fu.l whichia loosc,i.c. it is ablcto
washfrom aidcto sidcof thc !hip, Foduccsr/r.. sttfac. cf.cl
rcducingthaltability of thc ahip.It sbouldbc rcduccdto r minirnu&, prdcrably by 6[ing ta s, for thi! addsbottom wight
dDdlowr.r tha ccntrc of grevity of thc ship. Any ioodiry or
pumpingmustbc do[c wcll bcforchmdwhilc thc rhip is 3r.ady,
for thc flling of aDcmptytr* h itlclfproducrs a frl rurfrcc
cfcct in additior to aoy list whichrlay bc causd by ofr+otr!
loading.Thc dctibcrsrci roduction of fr.. rurfaccrwhilc O.
rhip is i! r rc$vayis s practic.to bc avoidc4unlcssthc vr..cl it
lidl itr whichc.sc hcr Darginof *ability is ulually high.
(9) If th. stabilityof thcshiptu&ngcrourlylmrll ducrcgrrd ihould
bc p8id to thc jcttilonirg of dcck crrgoG if thc foodiig of
doublc-bottomtlllk3 prov6 irruficictrt. Thc filling of e d6.p
tatrkwill bavclitdc cfr.ct itr lowcriogthc ccrtrc of gravityof tbc
ship.Othcrwisc,ttc dcct caigo6houldbc sccutdyIashad,rnd i!
th. cssaof livcltock, smplcprotccliol bc 8ivctrto thc &imdr.
A largr .upply offood |trd rvst r sbouldbc providcdio cslc Dco
ert ur[blc lo rcachthc ldmals st tbc hcightofthc ,tor6.
O0) Thc w$cnighllcas of thc spurlingpiF, lcrding to lh. chriD
locler, should be cnsued. SomeotficersDrefer to remove

EMERGENCIES
haws-piperrorn phEs in bad weather. They have been
known to come adrift with great force and fly aboul like
scyanes,
( I l) A[ looscgcar,iDcludingropcs,shouldbcclcarcdfrom thcd.cl!.
(12)Si8D.lhallisrdsrnaybc sLckcncdh aoticipationof thrir tautroing whcowct.
(13)All doorson cxposcdd.cts .hould bc tiShdycl6cd crccpt fot
ac$3!ca.
aacommodatioo
(14)Dcadlidb (rnctalscr!.ds) .hould bc fixd i! placcOvorPorl.
hol6 ald lcutda&
(lt A lwinmi.g-both shouldb. drain.d, sincclhis, whcn full, adds
roFwigbtatrdfrcsurfaccafrccts.
(1O A h.avy wathcrroutiocshouldbc adoptcdby thc C-hicfOfic.!
to ctrsurrthcmididum of mcn(ifaoy &tall) bcingo! dcckdudng
thc storm.
(l?) All lifdrafts rtrd othcrbuoyatrtalDsralusshouldbc chcckcdfor
frccdomof jcttisoning.
(18)Should the cargo be tommed or shored in any way' this
shouldb checkedbeforethe stormto makesureit is in Place
and tisht.
(19)tn an;der shipwith woodeohatches.
all sParehatchboards
of a
shouldbe madereadyfor immediateusin anticipation
harchwav
beinqstovein.
(20)AwninSE_oult
b. takcDdowD,olhcrwisclbcywiu bc ripp.d aPart
and rhc sprrs drmagcd.
IM.. of lhc OOc.r of 6. w.tch
Ilc Du.t eroid atcamingtoo rrpidly into a hcad 6cr, tad rEducc
hrzatdstrt incrcasbgdcapitcthc fcar
tDaadcarlyiD a.ltettitudc!whEnc
of uim coodacrcdow..cautiou!. Hc Durt bc satisi.d that thc 6bipir
rhorouFly rcawonbyEadst all timc. kc.P r clo.c watchfor syncbmni!trr. Only thc b.st bdmlmctrshotddbc adployddutitr8thc storm'aDd
if coodiliotrsarirashcrr il iaicc..ltary lo mccacachwavc*'ith thc hde
hGEUstco8idcr lhc trcc.*tity of rcliavingthc hclmsmancvcryI hour
to avoidrEariacss.Thc clcst-vicwlcrctos shouldb. t6tcd bcfoEb&d'
tog.th.r with thc fog.siglaltingrpparatuai! anricipstionof poorvfuibility. Dilircss rockcBshouldbc to had.
IITNDIING DISASLED VESSEUI
A v6scl whichbr! shipp.d coBidcrdblcvstcr will bc morc dccply
lsd.d, |trd shclley bc bolh liltd rnd trinncd by thc hcad.Chept r III

EMERGENCIES
shouldbc rcfcndto et rhis stag.,*hcrc thc handliogabiliticsof 6bip.
i! thalGoondition!all fuly discursod.
A twi!-scrcw rhip wiU h.ldle quit! wcll with hcr ruddcr and oua
proF[ar. If bothlcacwrarc availablcfor uscshccatrbastacrcd,in thc
ct/rat of ruddcr lo!8 or damagE,by varying thc pon aod starboard
dginc rcvolutions.A sirglc-scrcwshjp without thc uscof hcr ruddcr
wi[ bc tcmporarilyhclplcssunlcssa jury ruddc. is riggcd(Chaptcr

vID.

Atry shiphavi!8 troootrw powcris compLlclyhclplc$utrlcssa towiog v6scl is aveilablc.Thc vcssclshouldbc broughthcadto *ind and
s.r sr rrpidly e! possiblcin ordcr that shcmay ridc comfortablyend
with thc mioimumof lcc drift. This ncccssitatcs
thc uscof:
S.. An norg
In aDchorinsdcpthslhc casicstandquickcstwayof bdnginSa vcalcl
hcadto wiod is to trail a lcngthof chaincablcalotrgthc sca-bcd.Thc
anchoris dctachcdfrom tbc cabl. io minimisathc risk of it fouli!& If
onc cableprovcainsuffcientthc othcr shouldalso bc u!ad, but ii i3
prcfcablc to kccponc anchorrcadyfor uscitr lhc haw& pjpc id c.!c
ofan cmcrgcacy.
Thc cablcahouldbc rcrdy for rlippi!8 add buoyiog
shouldit foul sn undcrwetc.ohBtruction,a{d this b b6t achicrcdby
locatiog. joinjng shacklcjust abalt thc upFr ctrdof th. ha*!c piDa
SincElhc waithcrcnlailingthisproccduEwill bcvcrybd, !o attahpt
shouldbc madcto hengotr thc atrchor,sioccthis idvolv6 r.ndirg r
matrovcrsidcin a bosun'scltair. Thc aochoris thcrcfoE h,!hd itr itr
stowrdpositionwithin thcpipcaddthccablcfucsscd.Thc lprrljoining
shacklcjust rbrft tha aDchorshacklcis brokcn,and thc 6blc is EaF
handlcdout tbrougha forwardfairlcad,thc PaoamsC&al ryF baing
idcal.In lhc absatccof sucho lcad,a rDooriDgchockwill hevcro bc
usd,but rtry damagcto it will bc of smallmoncDtif thc shipi! !av.d
from majordamagcor stranding.Thrcc,or cvcnmorc,shacklcsshould
bc raDgldalongthc sca-bcd.Thc uscof thc slstbcr cablc,if only otrc
is to bc us.d, will prcvctrta coDtitrurlbad lip at thc cmpo.t. This
mcthodof scaaDchoringis ulcd frcqucndyby somcMastcl! of lhortscatradcrswhcDcncountcringbad *.athrr in thc North Sca"
In wat.rs of all dcptbsothcr mcrho&.rc fcrsiblc,providcdtillc rl'd
suitrblc gcaris availablc.tD prst daysa Ery cfretiv. aaa.lchor wsr
madcby lacingr trysailto r boom,wciSbtingit at itt low.r rpar--thc
tack of thc sail-a[d srrcamitgit ih6d on a roF bridlc. Nowr&y!,
suchao &ppliaDcc
would havcto bc mrdc froD apdaircaDva!,or terpuliq atrda woodcnspar.Thc httcr b not al*ays avsihblc.Thccasva!
will tat. colsidcrablctimc to prcpa.c,snd ft. atrangfhof thc fnirhcd
eppliaaccwill bc doubtful.Thc followirg src ricd mattods,but thcy

2m

BMBROBNCIES
mayprovcu$uitrblc fot Lala $ar.ls:
(l) Thc attramitr&onr wirchawscr,ofucraralcargotu*9s or cDpty
oil drumstiggcdin i clustcr,or ciln an cmptycontarncr,
(2) Th. ltrcamhg of a wood.o ratt, wtiSbtld 8t i$ lorv.r cd& sitb
!pd! chai .
(3) Tlr strcsoi!8 of a tritngulrr_Fiin hatch t dt hlving it! apcx
tlmovld and its brsc lttrtchd op.d with two cro6cd awdnS
rpsrs. Thc atrcngtbof tbc 6p6.swill gowrD thc lifc of thc taa
rnchof.
(4) Thc rtlaming lhcad ofr c,ltcrloSSrdboat;thc fdlr ei ptobabl,'
Thc
havato bc cut adrift aod thc bo.t mly ba non_rccovctlblc.
us. oflifc-ssvhg appli!trca!itr thk wry mayrdl bc rcgatcd rt
a htcr stagc.
(t' Thcrtrra;i!8 ofr voodaocergodab hrtch,i.a.6v. or rix *oodto
hrtch.a dt .ay ftappcd logpthcrwitt !tr.l shtr hto r &cralglc
about2 5 m squarr.lt mustbawiShtcda! its lowrcd8! so that
8 i rqurc
it lila rt|'lic.ly itr thc wetlr'
(O Ttc tittilt ofi brt .bift miz.d !.il to itrcrrrscth. wild !u a.r
rtl
ctiE .td tsoublclori8'.!dtbcii
Atlrhc..d.tiodttrtccoltidcnt
jattiroding irvolE &nSEr to thc qtd ia hravy st ttcr. Tbana!rG'
iro'lvlr, cas rEporad*hcrc r vBlal ha! ba.o$ccqsfuuy tumcdh.ad
to tild by loltrilt @c or both a!c.ho|tto a consid.td c drPth,lh.
rt..al m.taa haFry whilc har alahorr Lnd to itnlin vcrticilly abor'!
a frad poirt Thc bowt ltc thaddowly rwurg bto lbc witrd.Tbr lowll
tbc d@thto rvnichthc.lcborr rll v..t!d, tho bdtlr $'ill bc thc rt tlt'
duato tbailat .!.d *at.r t'rrlrra It ir ptrfcr.blc thcrcfot! to rficEpt
thfunathodprior to cobaaocitrgE nuftcturcofrr rPplialcaofdoutl-ful strcnSth;life, andemciency Until thc a[chor rcachcsthc levelof
dangcrof it damagingthc hull platingas
tbc kccl ihcrc is coDsiderablc
tha versel rolls. It would bc $wise to veer more than ebout four
slFcllca of chainon eachanchor.In cxcessol this, the windlassmight
havedilfcl ty h liftiog the anchorand chain.
tdt
n to a L. Sta.
A r.. rf,or?i! otrctowrtd! vhich r rEotr8wind ir blowin&Oocationr
! shoE andi! uarblc to
rrila eh.o s }l3scl i! attonfly rct to*!td! auc.h
wry out to lcrwald.
otdcr
to
E*c
frvour.blc
tum hcsdto wild in
Thi! riturti@ ia moctlitcly to oact|ritr r Low-Porrrcdv.*!Gl,Prtticu'
hdy whco in lbht coddition ID rdditiotr to hc. lcc*ry, thc v.8i.l
comcrundd tbc iniu.occ of a tutfaa! drift currot cratld by thcidnd'
FoviLd tbat tbc whd ha! bloen ulrrctilgly fot trotc thrtr 24 hou6.

m8

EMERGENCIES
h hith btitlrdc. thi! rlrift ourtlot ir lLly to b.vr.! rvcisgcr.t cqud
to 2% of tb. wild rp..d, rrtd 4 %i! thc celcof lov Iltitudci. lt ir th.F
forc po6s:tlc ro Fldicr, in low Ltitudc.! r drift i! Dil6 Fi d.y roug y
aqud to lhc wind rpacditr knott, ag. r 3Gltrot wind mry pll'ducaan
rpploriD.t drifi of30 niLr i! olc dry i! lorv Ltitud.3.!d 15bilcr
pcr dry id highlatitudat.Erccpriorr to th6c frqucody ocqlr, p6rtbuLdy rithi! rhc hdirn Ocaarat ttc tiEc of tha !outh-q,r.t EoDtoo!,
wb.ir &ily driltr of 160mil6 c'! occ{r. Tbc a/6tcm coartaof tha
U[it d KirfdoE |t! rltrowrrd lcc lhorls efLr s Friod of louthrlttcrty gatcr,ald aautiorsry notla sr! prhtld oo thc rpFopri.tc
Addtnlty ctrrt b rhi! cfict D6pic thi!, a v*r.l lrouod.d in
rccantF.rt Jtcr bcing aftpt to Lavard, $dU thc lo.a of dl hard!
roSdb.r sith thc c{!r of th.loc.l Royd N.lioo.l Lifcboatl$titution
craft. Total lec drilt in excessof 4 knots is not unusual.
Tharcar! four balic vayr jn wh.id r r,slalm.y stiro|Pt to cLsr r L.
rhorc:
(l) By.rpid uscofa acr anchorto swilg tbc v6!cl hctd to wind.
(2) By lcttirg go both rrchors, whcn itr suitlblc dcptb, loubbiat
tbc bow3hcad to wind, ud stcamingout to laswrld, *!i8hin8 hat
archor! |! rhc doc3ro,Ifthc ec'tofwciglinS elrc.hora
ir liLly to r*ing
thc borv' ofr thc witrd,thcn prcfcr.bly oncr'chor ody shouldbautad
on a lolg lcoF rtrd slipFd from tbc d.ck whilc procditrg out
(3) By turing drough 2m' doeowind uod.r full rp.d .ad h.lm
until lhc rt.rcl hadr tic wind.I! .siling !hip6thfuia l(novn r! r ir.ring turtr. Thc mcthodir hz.rdou., bccrula if it flila tbc vBtcl lir.
muahclo..r lo thc codsdircand,fuithcr, thc momcotumof hcr twitr8
mun bc Ddnt itrcd in ordcr for it to ba ruccGrful,!trd thit itvolv.s
bti!ti!8 ala bow! vcry rapidlyinto e hcevyaae.Thiafu liLaly to c.u!a
arfaotiE dam!8a,
(,1)AFn froe (2), thc ncthod do6t litcly to ruocccditr dGGp
e .r
ia a! follor!:
Tbc adti!. i! llrtnd ald tbc vclrcl, stich i! auorrd to gttcr oDly
tbc EinirBurtrof it mway, rur! hc. stcm into tbc viod'. cyc. Thir
pocitio! ir rhc[ hcldwhilc doodingoftha aftai cornpartmdb ir c.nicd
ouL Tbc fooding of tbc rttcr hold alooc will, thouShi&d.rsiog thc
nddr( |!d propcUcrfurrhcr, c!a.t a! relerld trin ptoducilg |!
iDcrrilad sind surfrccforward.!d ary bcocotm.y bc lost.Ifonly oac
hold can be flooded, the one abaft the vssel'stipping centrc *ill
livr ric bcarrr.ul$, h i! dcdr.blq howcvcr,to iood a! rD.nyall comFrt[cot a! posiblc. Thc holdr rhould bc foodcd to jun balowthc
Lvcl of enyBheft-tutrneltop. Thc tuMcl thanrct$ asa vashplate,and
frerrfacc rfccB rtr Educcdto e ouertcrvrluc,

EMERGENCTES
Thi! aa'tion,than,aink tbc v*rcl bodily,rtrd thc grlrtlr thruatofthc
srfl tolpthrr rvifh ttc incrl|lcd ruddcr!.alitivig ofrlctr ary rdvc.lc
ctrct of uiE. Thc ioodilg i! carrii out by mcrn! of hos6, ramovidg
lorFrdum vrlv6 aad pumping tb.ou8[ tbc bilgc linc with linbd
bodd! (bilgpcovcrr)rsnovd,md/or fooditrg up throughthc doubla
bottob tarb *itt ooldc doora utrshippcd-Any othcr sveilabl.
Dc!tr! lhould ba us.d itr rddition. If lh. dolblc-botton trils contain
fircl oil only thc irrt two mctbodsarcu!d. IfDossiblc,r[ loosctinbca
.!d gc.l thould bc takcd itrto thc 'twrcd dock,but in sl adarsrDcy
trothilg rbould bc sllowrd to iotrrfcrr with thc rrpid foodiDg.A carc
on rccordshowsthc two aftcr hol& of a vcssdof 5@0tonncsD.w., in
lilht conditiotr,to hrvc bc.n suficicntlyioodcd io fony mioutls.
ODo.thk i5 achicvcd,r tum i o thc wiod i3 sgrin attamptld,prcfaF
.bly to pon io r 3hglcrcrcwshipto makcuscof taanrvrnclhrust
It i! mort uodcsirablcto gthcr too muchalamvayinro Urc.q fo[:
(a) thccngitrdwiu raccducto pitchiq; ard (r) thc ruddcraDdproFllcr
whcaundcrhaadwayatc paotcctcdto somccxtcntfrom wavcimpoct
bul undct stcmwaylhcy atr cxttEmclyyul&rablc aad ar. litcly to bc
fr&turcd. A caschis occurrcd,howrvcr, of a vasscllying s&rFto 4
hcovy6.r whilc mainrsiringhcr pditioD ofra I.. shorc,atd with hct
scalwturting ovcr at vcry slow tEvtrscdrrvolutiotrsfor 36 houB. Oil
wra usadio p4vant brcakitr8s.a. strititrg lha bladc!,end DodrmaSa
wrt sufricd.
Ifthc vcasclhaslow altcm-poptr, shcmry hevclittlc ch!trcaofevoid_
ing strandingdespiteher following the abovemancuvre. A vessel
of 7000tonnesdeadweightwas headingin a northerly direction ofl
the Califomiancoastat light drauSht.At noon her po6itio[ wasfited
a.trdcolditiors wrc calm.By 2000hourathc wind wls Cc forcc aDd
frBhcnin& wilh ! hcavylwcll on thc pon bcrrD.HcI 6ta.ringbccaDc
dimcuh atrd at 2100hoursioodiog of No. 5 hold er5 comrDcoccd,
usiig four ho66.By 22m houB thc wiod spccdwesatlout 55knotselrd
firll hctD h.d trocfccl. A wcarhgtum ee3rttcrnptcdtowdrdslhc laBd,
to no rvril. At 23(X)hoursthaan8'ncwa! rEvcB.dat ful rpccdandtha
vlaralraa hcr ttcm up into ttc widd.In thi! situsiiotr,duclo low altrm'
poecr, lhc wasuoablcto bold hcr p6itiotr aDdvinudly sailcdbcfoE
thcwird. Visibilitywrs rpFoachingnil- At Oy) hoursa rccfwassttuct,
r.arinSscvcralbottomplet.sr*ry adjaccntto thaforwardcDgitrr-toom
bulthcad.At 0120houn thc lrowsstruckrnd thc vcssclb..amc fasl on
l5o yds a rock 150m otrshorc.Both anchoN*re let go.
Ttc ari[ng clmpoocll of dfu.blcd !bip6
Considembleresearchhas now been carried out on the sailing
qualitiesof largelankers,asshownin Figure9 1. Whendisablcd' it is

2t0

EMERGENCIES
not unusualfor suchshiF to make a lee drift in excssof 4 lnots.
Tbey are largeenoughto achievea significantsailingcornponentand
the two innuencesproducea resultantmovemcntto leewardslanted
towaadsthe downwindend of the ship. This resultantcan be further
iniuenced by changesto draught,trim andlist, beiring in mind tbat a
movinSship tums naturallytowardsher hiShside.The walkingback
of an anchor to say four shacklesof chain might swing the bows
towardsthe wind and alter her sailingdirectionyet again.Seafare$
fa@d with the prospectof a certainstranding,or a drift towardsan
island or reef, should seriously consider whether infueDces as
describedabovecould be usedto lessenthe damagein a strandingor
enablethem to b)?assthe isolateddanger.
A 1g),m0 tonne tanker with rudder amidshipsand a trim by the
stem of 5 m, calt dlift in a lsf direction when headingeast and
stationaryin a north wind. By headingwest,the drift becomes21f.
By swingingthe ship through 180 before motive power is lost, her
drift directionc{n be changedby as much as 6(f.

DANCERSTO NAVIGATION
but which
A drrcr!, fua vcascl*hich hasb.dcorbplctclyabaodond
rsneins .foat. Sinccthcir lighE will usuallybc wilhout powcrsupply,
c.llilioD is possible*ith thcm at night aod {ri[ iNeriably bc cnd.ol
rt full sp.!d. Extcnsivcdsmagrfu likcly. A darclictcanbc trtc! i! toe
sward.
andr claimmadcfor r salveSp
dcrctic! thc Mastaris boundlo cornmudiOn sightingr daoScrou3
cltc thc informetionto all sbiF in thc vicinity rnd alro to thc Dtatltl
coastalAuthority. It muslbc rlportcd to thc local R.cciycrofwrcct.
Thc traoslhilsionwill cotrsistof. safcty sigdrl atrd mey bc in plain
luguagc (p.frnbly English)or in IntmatioDtlCodc.Thc m.ssrgpis
frc. of cbargc1olhc ahipconccmcd.
Tbc sr.!a obligationsapplyto &nSarou!ic., etryothc. dit!61drn8pr
to Davigation,r tropidl storm, s.wl! ioc accttionlsrocistrd witb
gal6 aodsub-frczirglcmpcratuEs,atrda wind offorcc l0 or abovcon
tha B.eufort !c.Ic for whichtro wsmidgha! bccntEccird.
Thc informetiontraBmitt d shouldincltrdc.io thc cascof ica,d.rtlicts aad similar&Dgar3i
(l) Thc kind of dar8probscrvd.
(2) ThcLrt ob6arvcd
pGition ofthc daDgdandlhc GtcnwichMcan
Timc .nd &tc,
I! thc c.sc of. tropicrl stormthc trrnlmi liod shoulditrcludc:

2tl

EMERGENCIES
(l) A 6t tcmcnt that thc itorm ha! baancncountcrcd,or that thr
Martcr bclicvcsoncto crist ot badcvclopingin thc rrcs.
(2) Th. datcrnd tinc (c.M.T,).
(3) Thc ship'r po3ition.
(4) Thc bdonctric prlsrutEand whcthcrit h&! bcancorEctcd.
(5) Thc b6romatcrtrDdcncy,i.c. thc changain thc last 3 bourr.
(6) Thc wiad dircc{ionand B.aufort forcc.
(7) Thc statcof sc5&ndswcll.
(t) Thc truc counc .nd 60..d of thc ship.
Thc Maatcr shouldthcn transmitfurthar rcports prcfcrablycvaty
hour,a[d in aDycalc rt intcrvelsof lcasthrn 3 hoursfor ss long rs ha
rrrnaioi utrdarthc infiucnccof thc atorm.
In lhc ca3cof windsof forcc l0 and abovcfor which.lo wamingha!
bccd rcccivcdthc m.ssagcshould includcall thc abovcpoints with
thc cxccptionof (7). Mcssagrsconc.mcdwith icc eccrctionshould
includc:
(l) Thc.position.
(2)Thc G.M.T.
(3) Thc ai. tcmFrature and thc acatcmFraturc (if FacticabD.
(4) Thc wind forccand dircctioo.
Thc followingarc sp6imcnmcssagcs:
TTT lce,Extcnsivcbcrgsightcd46m N 5lm W 1200GMT April 30.
TTT Derelict.Der.lict sightld low in watlr h.clcd about30 degrccs.
Narncuokoowrr.3J00S I l0l4 E 0300GMT Dcc20.
TTT Naviption. MiDGsighlcdS3 N I02l W 0930GMT Junc15.
TTT Storm.Hunicancbclicvcdnarby dur south.1500GMT July
22.2002N 4O0lW. Corrected
baromctcr
74cn. Tendency
down
5 mm.wind E force8 squally,Heavysoulherly
swellveryrough
sca.Course252spccd15ktrots.
TTT Storm.Witrdforcc I0 no warningrc.civcd.1,100
GMT Fcb 12.
5006N 1005W. Corfectedbarometer
74 cm. Tcndency
down5
mm.WindSWforcel0 veefing.
Coursc24Ospced9 knots.
TTT Sevcrcicing occurling, llm GMT Fcb 22. 70 N 12 W Air
lcmp - l0 Sirtemp l. WindNNEforce9.
WRECX AND SIVAGE

I.EGII,

ASPDCTS

In rhc Unitcd KingdomOmcersof lhe DepartmentofTradc sup.rvisc


matlcrspcrtainingto wrcck,and may appoinl Receivers
of Wrcck.one

2r2

EMERGENCIES
tobGsituatediocachwrcckarcr oflhecountry.Thcy areollcn Cultonls
Offic.rs.
wcck as ! tcrm also includcsrtotrat, i.c. goodswhich havr bc! lost
ovc.board or jcttisoDcd and which arr rcc.vcrcd bacauscth.y rcrntin
^float; jettam, i.e. similar Soods which arc washcd ashorc; /t?an or
,rg@r,i.c. goodswhich ercjctlisoncd aDdbtroycdfor latcr rccovcry; and
dcrelict. All wrcck must, if found by a Frson othcr than the owncr, bc
dclivccd to th. Rrc.ivcr of Wrrck. This rpplica to w'ck found outsidc
lhe Unitcd Kitrgdom watcrs and btouSht into thc country. If found by
an owncr a full nrport mus! bc madc by him. Wrcck b usudly kcpl for
a Friod up to onc ycar, but smellcr 8ood3which &r. noi of sufrcient
yaluc to b storcd may bc sold. Unclaimcd wrcck will b.comc thc pro'Dcny of thc Crown.
Tirc Rcc.ivcr of wrc.k must proccd to any vcssclwhich i3 stranded
or io distrcss,on or ncar th. Unitcd Kingdom coasts,and takc chargeof
rrscuc oparalions. Ec cin ittcrferc bctwedt a Maslcr and his craw only
if thc formcr so rcquasts.Thc Mastct can prcvcnt by fotcc aoy pcrson
boarding his ship wilhour his permisrioo unlc$ it is thc Rcccivcr of
Wrcak, oa hii rcprcsctrtativc.
S.lv.g!
If a ship, livcs, or cargo on board arc savcd from a daDgcr,vo&.'t.
rdrill and succcasfully,thc pcrson so doin8 carrics out a salvagpscrvicc
and is cnlitlcd to a rcward.
In sDiteofthe fact that a Mastcrmust,by law, assistaly vcss.ltlut
coUid; wilh him or whichis indistress,hc is still rc8ardedasa voluntccr
for thc purposa of salvagc.A passcng.rcqnnot claim salvaScunlcs! hc
chooscsto rcmai! aboard and assist,iu sPitc of the offcr of rcscuc.A
mambcrof thc crcw is hund by his ag.!ment to ptcscrvc his ship, and
crtr clsim s.lvagc only if hc b ordcrcd to abandotr hfu ship (thc ordcr
bcing givcn with no intcntion ofrctuming), but latd r.tums to it.
Thc Royal Neiy may claim salvaS!; Coastgurrds may do so if thcy
providc a SEatcr scrvicc than that to which th.y ar bouod; mcmban
ofa R.N.L.I. lifcboet may claim salvegr if lhcy find tlut thcir lifc{rving
,arviccs srl no! &quircd 8nd they choosc to grvc propc(y'
Evtf,y salvor who contlibutrs to thc ultimatc auccaasm|y claim a
ihrrc in thc rl\vard, but initially lhc M$tcr ofthc aalvcdlhip may 3cl6't
his.slvo.! if sdcral arrivc upon thc scna O!h6! mey $3ist latcr if bc
dccidcs th.t thci. srrvic.. rrc ncccasary,but o ly with his Pcthiasion.
In thc cisc ofdcralict, thc first salvor to srrivc hrs conrplctccontol rnd
3olc righti; othcF mry itrtcrfc& otly if hc Prow, to bc thoroughly
ircompctctrL
Thc ulc oflloyd's St ndard Form ofselvagc Aglamaoi bctwcnthc

213

EMERGENCIES
Mast r .nd hG salvorssavcstima, ber9inin& end rcfcrsrll dilputr3
dirEc{yto erbitratioD.No filaDcidlsumtr.cdbc mcntioncdi! thcrgrtc
nco! it bcinSdccidcdlatrr by thc Adr ralty Court!. I! lhc crlc ofr
relvlgc claie bclowfano thc Rcccivcrof Wrcckvill probablyd..l with
il hiElclf.
Aesr& r.rr ulusly paid for thc salvagpof liv6 ooly if proFny ha!
bc.n sevcdrs wcll, bccruscthis thcn providG r lourcc of firlarcc. b
Unitld Kingdomwetcrslifc salvagcin thc atscocaof proFrty rdvrgc
may bc rewardedby the Departmentof Transport (D.o.T ) out of
Trcasuryrcsources.

214

CIIAPTER X

TOWINC

re typc of towi[g discu$adin rhis ctrphr fu rhat cmploycdin oFn


wttcrt by a w.scl whichb lol a tug. Itr thc tcxt tbc E$cl which is
bcidgtowd will bc rcfdr.d to ss thc tow.
I.EGAI ASPECTS
In ccrt in cittumstancc!a ship which rcquls to bc towd lDry
Dottrcc.ssarilybc in diatr6s,&ld for thir rrsroq d Mrltcr Fopoairtgto
low hcr .hould arc..tii! th.t btuChrtt r-Frty &d/or Bi[! of Ldilt
rllow him to do so it sucha ca!c.If thc vdrcl is itr di!ft&!, thctr 8ha
couldbeto\red to a placeof safcty,but the towingMastertheDhasno
dght to coDtitructowinSfor tha purpoacof compLtings snccclsful
lrlvagc opcratior unLa! tho .bov. docuEcDttFrrlil hio to do ao.
coasidcr:
Alsuntiagrhrt thc towingM.rtar is ulr6tri:tad, bc ahouLd
(d) Thc durationof thc towingvoyagc,
(D)Ary D.i cortract to wbichhc nay bc a D$ty,
(c) Whctbcrh. eil bc rblc ro $rivc rt hir oriSinald6tilrtion bcforc
tla cancclingdetcof thc Chartq-party.
(y')whcthd hc hascnoughbudtcr3atrda safc'trcrvc.
(") ThGcfccl of dclayoo bi. owtrcargo.
(, Th. porcr of hi! cngindt,
Itr lddition, hGshould:
0) Notiry hi! Owtrcr!,whos,ill hfore Lloyd'r !!d thc Und.rwribrs,
thc httcr po$ibly rcquirint a ltt8.t prloiuD.
(2) IdorD hi! ch'ttrrcr, if rtry.
(3) Eot6 ilto r Lloyd'3Stlod.rd Form of S.lv.8. Att!.6cal
(,1)Prcfdsbly Dekc for a pott whancthc Britili lrt of lrlv|gp
rPDlic!.
It hr! rlraadybcaananrion d ir CtrrptarIX tbrt aalvat chiDr .tc
oDlyadDilaiblcyhctr a d8rrr Gxiltad.Tha flci lbat a lraacl mry bc
dirrltd i! catr 't.lhrt dc trot dctractfton thi& dloa |t tct atoft.
at! co!!us.4 or ttc wr.tDrr drtdiorrt a, r Fil .riF.
215

TOWING
On arrivalal lhc dcstioationthc ofrc. of a$istincc from tugsrhould
not b. r.jcctcdund.r thcimpE sionthatcxtrasrilvoBarcihcninvotvcd.
!f rcqui&d, thcy shoulddcfioitcly bc cEploycd,bccauscthc rowing
Mastd mustconcludethc opcratio! succassfully
ir ordcr to submiti
claidr.Thc tug! mey bc cdgagcdundcr ao orditary towrgr contract,
and this docsnot !trtidc Ocm to makcsay lelvagcclaimunla$ a dcw
pcril ariscaandthc tugspc.forD uscfulwork ovcrendabovcthet which
it dcmatrdcdby thc lovagc co racl.
THE TOWLTNE
Litdc ca! b. Iaid dowtrrcprdiog th. Dcthod of towio& lincc thi!
dapco&upotrthc typ6 of ,hiF, thc duratioDof thc toeing voyalp,thc
ecathcr,thc routc to bc follow.4 rld vcry largcly upoo thc urgcdcy
with whichthc tow mustb. coemrrccd.
In !om. casca,whcrclhc toving shipis ofa suitsblctypc,o[c of hcr
snchorcablc!b mtrlcd right eloogttc dcckto thc stcmrril, eharcit ir
3hacklcdto thc adc.horcablcof thc to*. Thaercboris lcft itr thc towilg
rhip's hswrc pip., prd.rrbly with h.avy woodd p6d! bctwlcd ihc
futca ald lhc bo$' phtiD& to ec! a! a togglc.Thc cablcmolt bc wdl
ractd to bittr .Dd othcr stron8poiotsthroughoutthc v6sal'r lcngth,
TimtH rnd catrva!shouldbc usadcopiouslyto minimiscchrfc.
Probrblythc id.al towliocfu onc erda of mrnila fbrE, for thir po,s65.a8ftlt dasticity,whichb vcry rcc6srry itr towin& whcoiuddcn
stn s.s rrc likcly to bc applicdto thc linc. Sucha litrq ;towvcr,would
bc vcry bulty, cumbctsomc,strd tubjc.i to rottiag aDdcxccDtioDal
chda If ltorm oil wr3 ulcd fhc Danih eould dctlriorat ir *rcngth
onc. ir had bacah co ad wirh thc oil. Wirc ropcof cqud ltrcqth i!
lcarbully, asily stowrdrtrd hrldld, and is lcssrusccpriblcto rottirt
eDdw.{r. It posrcss.s
Dcgligiblccl.lticity, howcwr,md wil p6rt uodcl
s suddcdapplicd strcss.Itr ordcr to providc cl.3ticity, a cotnposit!
rorvuncofwirc rd mrnila msy bc uscd,thc maailqbcidgofcablc hy
(tbtc. lcft.brndd ropcalaid up rog.thc. right-bandcd),whic.hii DorE
icriblc sod w.tcrtitht th.! a haw.cr,A.implc hawscr-laidroporhould
lot ba uscd,sitrccit tcnd! to utrLy whcDutrdcr rt$!r atrd derclot
srdou! kiDkswhcn thr str6s fu rclisrEd.Tbis c5n, ho*rvrr, ba pra
vantld by usiDglwivcls et aachaodof thc hawscr.
A lo*linc c.tr bamadcby sccuringtwo hasvywitE pcodeot!to ..ch
9-in cnd of e spccialstrop. This slrop is madccndlcss,of TGmmmsnila,
rad thc two pansar. w.ll scizcdtogcrhcr,lcavitrStwo thimblcdcy.. at
tco f&hofi! thr co&, Swivck.rc aSsirtlcomlrcndcd.Thcrtrop, forDingthabiddlc
20 m of thc towliDc,providcsvaluablcclesticity.
A vcryquic.tlytiSgd .nd fEqucr ly ur.d towlitrci! fonrcd by !.curiDgthc iowing rhip's towingwirr to ooc arrchorcsblcof tha toe, thr

TOWING
Iettcr vasscl$ill rctaining onc anchor in thc hswsc PiF rsdy for rn
crnc,Smcy. This nccessitatcslhosc o0 board thc tow disconncctingthc
anchor from thc cablc and prcfcrably bringing thc rnchor on dcck.
Altc.natiyaly, thc anchor may ba hung ofr bclo* the hawsr pipa and
s.curcd by tackt$ Lading from thc dcc&.In r! cmctglncy considcration
may bc givcntojltisoningthc anchotiD ordcr to lavc timc. Thc Gablc
may now bc lcd throughthc hawlc piF and shacklcdto thc tow_wirt.
Naiurally, thc anchor could bc l.shcd in lhc hawscpipc' and lhc cablc
tcd tbrough a fairlcad or moorin8 chock, but tbis may c3us. thc c5blc
to bc badly nipFd, quitc spart from probablc dtm.8r to thc chock,
which is not intcnded for c{ble usc.
In such a composit. towlinc thc csblc ahould bc vcctld bctwen thra
and, say, scvcnshacklcs.Tbc wci8ht of thc chdin causrst[c to*linc to
lic in a shalto* curyc callcd a catcnary, alld thb providqr sprin& fol s
suddcn strcsswill be absorH as thc catcnery bccomB motc ahallow,
end normally bcforc the catcnary dissppcsrsallogcthcr thc tow will bc
surgcd ahcrd, tbur rlicving thc strcss. In this wey, two matcrial!'
ncithcr of wbich postsrcaus.ful clasticity, may bc combiocd to ab6orb
shock. Tha tongcr tha langth of chain, thc gEatcr will bc thc rhock'
rbcorbiDs DroDcnv of thc to*linc. Using matcriali of cqual 3!rcngtb'
wirc is e6o* irnififth of thc wight of chain, thc airc of tha wirc (irs
diamctcrin mm) bcingrorrghlyiqual lo the sizeof th chain(thc
diamclcr of lhe link bar in nm). To mrinlain a suitablcatenary,
thc lolr/liDc should mver bc allowed to closc or brEak surfacc; on ihc
olhcr hatrd, it ahould D.vcr bc 5o gr.at es to foul thc boltom, si[ca thc
linc mav thetr Dort.
Thc iowlnib bound to bc nipp.d at fairlc{ds, and qrcn if th. I..ds
rrc id facl fair, chafng will occur. Thc chafing Pan should bc rcnDvld
from thc fairlcad rcgularty cithcr by valring or short.nitrS thc towlinc.
Thi6 is cAl.,d,fr.theni'a th. t7, and in lhis compositc mcliod ia c.asily
Echicv.d by rr|cjns of thc tofs windlass,providing thc tow fu rnaodcd.
A ei.ority arc of th. opinion rhal thc usc of thc cb&inc.blc Promotct
liot rEar, but tbc srighi of opioion is ihs! ttr warr ii coosiddably lcar
than thrt c.ulad by . ship yawiq at a singlc a&hor, lnd i! roy c|!c
tha tow fu morc vahablc thatr hcr crblc.
UDdcr Llovd'a Clarsification Rular, ody vessch of lcss thatr 90 m
in lenSth ard required to carry towinS lines. Certainly larSer shiF
Bicbt-wcll bc abic to tow usitrI sylthctic 6btc mooriog ropca wbich
arJimmcnscly strong and elasaic.Tvo Roysl Navy frigetes clgagcd
b r towitr oDcration in tbe Meditellancrn Sausidg 1,8m mcirca of
88 Em brefdid tryloDrop. wilh a brcakinS load of 165toucs. A total
dist&ca of 3.om'milas ia! covcrcd atd a wo d rccord lovitrg 8Fd
of 23 LDotswas claimcd. The spccd was attained in tests to dctcrmirc
thc noi! produccd by towinS a dead shiP.
217

TOWING
Otbci Fovd mcthods of towinS includc siuckling thc towing wirc to
both .lrchor cablcsof thc tow' usinSthc chains ss a bridlc. Somclimca.
thc towitrg ship provid6 a wirc from cach quancr, thc cnds bcing
30 ft shackledro rhe lowing wire abour I0 m beyondrhe srern.This is i
bridlc and avoids lhc to*libc excrting a strcsson oDly onc 6idc ofthc
ship, or cxacdy amidships, both of which have bccn found to hamDcr
stering. Thc samcrcsulrmay bc achievcdby shacHin8thc low-wiralo
scvaralparts ofwirc looscly sacuredacrosslhe poop dcck or around tll
stcm ofthc towiogvesscl.Itis virtuallya bridle,butis koowo ase ryarr.
Suchi spao may also bc achicvcd by lcadiog a hcavy witc out from onc
quancr of thc towing vesscl, whilc thc main towlinc is lcd aboard
through tha othcr quarter lcads.The wirc is shackledto the to*linc aod
hovc-itr so that thc lattcr is bowscdin rowards th. oppositc quancr to
its lcad. This agaid appcarsas a bridlc, but is tcmcd t span, by leiting
8o thc wirE, the span is insrantly rcmovcd.
Whcn thc tow ha3full morivc powcr but is .uddcrlcssa mcthod somctimc6 usad is for hcr to tow thc assistiDgship, the latter shcc ng from
sidc to sidc, as rcqui.cd, to stccr thc disablcd vcssI.
Nylon roF ofcqual sizc to toF.8rad. manila is about twicc a3 srong
n! lhc lattcr. For lhis acason,a manila rope can be rcplaccd by a vcry
6 i n much smallernylon line to provide equal slrengrh,a 5Gmm manila
4+.in beingreplaceable
by a l5-mm nylonline.Sinccnylonposscssesetaslicity.
il is idealfor towingpurposs.
brt asyct is usedfor sucha prrposonly
by tugs, aod as a pendaot sccurcdto a wire towlin. in largcr ships.It is
light, esily bcndlcd, docs no! fraczr whcn wct, and is, to a vcry largc
cxtctrl rotproof.

mdrgr
Thc strcngth of lhcsc must bc in dircct proportion to thc to*ing pull,
which in lum is diroctly rclated to rhc motivc powcr ofthe towiog vcis.l,
thc spccdof toying, thc row's displacemcnt,and rhe inclcnency of thc
wrath.r. Ifthc sccurity of birts is doubful thc liDcs should bc bclaycd
to acrcral pairs of bitts, all as ncarly as possiblc in on. straigb! linc.
By beckiog up thc tust pair of bitts in rbis way, providcd rhc b.laying js
do[c evcoly, the strcsson the lincs h evcnly distributcd.
Olhcr strong points includc wiochbcds, thc bascs of cargo-hatch
cotrDiDgs,dcckhouscs,supcrstructurcs,masts,and samsonposts.Thes
arc mo& casily madc uscof if thc v6scl is flush-dcckcdafr. Whcn using
|!y rtrobg point, particularly in thc casof bitts, thcy should ba wll
lhorEd up and staycd, to providc addcd rcshraDcein thc dirEction of
3tEss. lf thc dcck is considcrcd too wcak to withstand thc applicd
3h6scs of towing, thc hull of th. tow is sometimescomplctcly girdl.d
with wircs frappcd to tbc dcck cdgesand shackledto thc towing wirc. If
thc tow's cablc is bcing uscdas a componcnt of thc towlinc hcr wirdlass
218

TOWINO
utrduc
tttaa!6 providd u adaqultecetcD3ry
ril trot ba rubjcdrd to
bc
hcldfroly on OGbraf.' udngdlaill
thould
i! Drintrilcd, ThGc.blc
cLr4 BLkc ltopFrt, guilotiacs,sd al olhcr svaihblcEar! to aci
I Drlr&otqr!io Dro&lthawindhrs.
ivith r.I! d t6 uc to*tioc, ib lizc lhould bc luficiclt to Provid.rn
aoDlc facior of lafcty utrdct ttc towilg cotrditioa!.Itr practicc,thc
rv;rp Ecrtb|trt shipulutlly c.ni6 olly onctowingwir! ard thcf!'
forc his no choicc.uolcrsscvlrd Dartsofa soiLt wirr srr t!ad. Thclc
towtiD6. aarricdu[dcr ClastiicltioD Rulcl ar! oftco tnoet' a! ,8r,roe vri.at,tb ori9;nof thc tcrm bciagobrcurg for Lloyd'sClstiicetiotr Socictyis dot rtr itrcurdcc coopsdy.A clsscd v6scl will, hower&f, !o doubt cam Educd iDrurancrprcdiuE! taom hcf, uldcr'
writlrrtt i! dthratld rhst a tug cquiPpcdi,ith st aD rcciProc{ing Dotiva
Dowtr csn, in cnlmncathct, cxcrt a pull of rooghly I tonnc for cvcry
?5 kw ol cngincpowr. Thc forcc rcquircdto low a ship is natur{lly
incrrscdif ihc tow is damagpd,yawing hcavily, bedly foulcd on
hcr utrdcrsatd plati!& or h bdwlrl&ar. Itr ttc calc ofr c.rgo \'!$al
of IOO0O
totncs displac.mcnt,in cslm wathcrand with a fairly clcan
hull,a pullofvcryroughlyI tonncF. knotoftowingspccdis rcquircd
uDto !p..dr of 6 lnob, Abovcthi!, rhc proportioodilrpF5s, and I I
t;nnesare reauiredto attaina speedof 8 knots.A shipof 2000m
a towlinslressof lm tonneson pickionneswhnl;wed Droduces
184toDn8 whennol steerinS.
auirage,
but
o'|
uD.60
'whcotonnes
coulc'ting wiFr, lugl.a! or lugfEdjoioinf 6hacklc!ahouldbc
ulcd i! Drdcrcncato thactlcs fittad with *I!w!d Pina.Csblathadlc.
at! idcri for this purpolc. If sctt*cd 3hac.ld6must bc u!.d tbo Pils
lhould bc lcwtltwircd to tha sbacklcjawsto Plsvcntthdn looaaoing.
Thi! tyF of.h.c{c i5liablcto foul ia fairL.dr ducto itr projcctingpiD,
ttc ceblcrhacklcgol rhc olhc. had, arr daaiSlcdlo plw.ot suchrn
ooc|rtrtocc,A s*ivcl mly bc usd *hcrr c.haitri3colncctadto wit!, and
Iti!, lita a|l othcr6ttinSr,durt bc ofcquivalcntstEoglhro thc toslinq
for thc towingpull DUlt alwly! bc coDfncdto thc lsfc worE!8 lord of
lhc rlr&art compoDatrL
th IA|i of |ic Totlh.
Ttir bsrkdly dcpcodsupotrthc dcpthof tha wlt r, rtc it ta of thc
&a rld rrcU rad thc r.a rooE availrblc.Th. grcatlr tbc lciglh, thc
Dorr ablc ir thc lirc to ahEorb!hock!, aod for tldr rcalotr thc lcr8th
wtcn thc faclor of safctyia low, whcothc lorv b|! a
Durt bc itrc-rtasad
LrSc di!pL..dcd! or whdthc towlie i5 lthr ia wighL
ric d!.p U8!r, i.c. thc
Thc lc!8th riould trot bc cxc.ssive,otharwiBc
ttc vcrt Last it will
foul
thc
bottoE
ad
or
rt
may
o.itolly,
Frt,
r shoat,hccw towsn
rddcd
rrsist
Dc.
fo
towinS.
Gllctsly,
Fovfttc
219

TOWING
liDGit bcttd tb|! r lo!& light orc ia rhr it Gllbl6 thc OiF to hrvc
grt t.t Daoaluvrdbility. A. a goidc, thc ccntra of tta crilory i! bcrt
20-30ft 10ft kcpt about G9 m bclow scalcvcl, incrrlsrng this figurc to 12 m in
rowh qathcr,

Waar
TbroughoutthatowiDgvoyagr,chafcmusrbc k pt to a trliriDurn b,
ptrEc[irt bawlat3rrith crtrva3,liaiDg fairlcs& eith loft vood .rd
cr!r,.!, and uling libcrrl amouat!ofaoft loap ot grcalc.Crblc F$i!g
ttougb r fairlcadmcd only bc lubricatd. Nips of hsw&B rhould b.
fr! hcrcd sbout four tie6 a day id calDrw.athcr, etd tholc ofcablc
rbout otrc.. d.y, To .void b6ddpr, thcfrirlc.d! lhould bcpdddd with
mctalor piccasof hardsroodin ordcr to lcasanth. rnglc oflaad. Bol.
lrtd. rhould ba of adaqust!diaDctcr fo. thc br$lat bcing baLyrd,
idcallyat lesst12 limcs thc sizcof thc linc, Csblashouldnor b.
bclaycdto bitts, sincc to prcvcnt a nip a I m diamctarbollard is
ncccs.aDr
for a 50mmcablq andlhis siz! of bollardis not uauallyfittad
to mcrchantships.Inslard, tha csblcis rackcdto scvcralpairsof bitta
or aroundslrong points, uriog ha.dwoodpsddingto round ofr any
sharp@mcrs.If chsin cetr bc uscdin fairlards in plac. of wir, thc
amountof w3rwill bc diminish.d.
Plof.o.ir
Thc rrrirtamc to towing oficrcdby loctcd 3crcw,bsy, panauhdt
in twitr or multipb8cEw shipqcxc.cdrhcladcrwatarrcsilt lca of th.
bull. Shallingshouldbc dirco!trcctcdin ordcr that thc propclc(r) mry
t ril rtrd r.volvc frlcly.
ST'PPLYINGPOWEN,TO TIIE TOW
If thiav6rcl i! aquippadwith al6-tricpumF and b!! no pow avail$lc thc towitrgv.glcl c.n tomctiEcaaupplyclcclricity,providiosthc
currl atrdvoltegcofthc two ahiF is idaotical.Thir may provc inhlurblc, bccsuscthc cngirc-room3trff of ihc tow arEthm in ! porilioa
to cofltct rny list or advca$trim which Esy othcrsirc caulc acvaia
yewi!8, Tha powrsupplyshouldbc rhroug! oac lclfth of cabL, bo
causcjointsatc udlikclyto bc wafcrtight.A lcom wirEroF rhouldba
riSgcdbctwc.nlhc teo ship! r! a j.ckstay, cootitruallyadjwtlblc for
cooditionsof roll and rdativc drill. Tlc clcclricceblcrust baltopDad
i! looaabiShb to Oa jac*stry, parccllioSboth litrc! ehcrc .ciziD9
occur.
MIS|SENGENS
Th6c rtl u.uallyfibrc rop6 usa.d
to sctd e hcaviarandnot! c1|ebar!om. litrc to a disl,.ntpoint. Thcy .r! of ruficicrt ltrsngth ro tupporl

zm

TOWINC
thc htsat lhc, but |r! luficicntty rrltl i! lira to bc G.lily utd o! 3
wrtPiogdnr!,
MAXING CONTACT
Tho mctbod.tlployd h.rc Du3t dcpcld ls4ply upoDlhc tyF of
rhipr iavolvcdald thc wcathcrcooditiont lf thc YJ.a.hoi. ""ry 4d
rni thcct ir no inmcdiatcurgcncyto cotttmctcctowingit i! PEfartblc
to rrit for r Dodantior, std h darlncasit it eilc to pottponccor acl
rttcdDtr utrtil &yli$L
Mr;h h.! .l&rdy b.cn dbelArcdh CheptcrD( rcgetdingthi! ..p.ct
of &aoalrhip. fhc cogind!) of t[c lowiDgvlslal thould ba rtoppc4
bcr way rutr off, aod har &ift rrlativc to rhc othct rlstcl ca! ftcn bc
..rid.ird. Thi! is probsblybcstdoncwhiL litrg otr ttc lroc hcadins
a! thc othcr lbip end with aU n|!t! i.o litrc. lt EU.t bc nocobcr.d,
howrvcr,thrt *Lco E euwing ia rhc laoofa dilabld thip otrc'! owtr
Icc dritt rir. i! di8ltfy tcrardcdduc to thc protactiotrf.od wisd dfordcd by thc otbcr vencl siEittrly, if Ertrctrwilg lo wind$rd of r
driftiag rtrip,hcr ratcof lc. &iR is likcly to bc rcduo.d.ltr r[. circuo'
!t Ga two shiF havingcquallcGdrifl rstcswha! eEll t psr.tld mry bc
csulcdto clorcachotbcr.Thc blncuYrilg Maatarmult thcadorcbG
to ulc full rcvolutio and hctr to corractatrytuch trndcocy.
DFeatrd
'
tiictoar uscafor natiag conlactmay iFJudc:
(l)
- Mrncuvrirg closc Gdoughto thc ctlm or bows of rhc tow io
ord.r to cestr hc{vi!8 linc. Thc rod of lh toi' to bGspploachad
eill bathc samcrs tbrt lhowEfot 6lifcbort in Fi& 9.1' stnccthi!
wiu binimirc rirk of calilion' If thc Brcb rr! t nding to dtifr
rpan rcvrral lincsmcnlhould ba statdi[g by in casct[c fnt
c.st fails to crtablilh conltcL
(2) A buoyrd lisc attech.dto r lifcbuoy mry bc st&ancd lo LG
wttd ofthc tow. Thc crrw oflhc httct v.ssclcanihco SrrPPlcfor
tha linc s! lhc ship drifu rcr6s iL Itr thc rbsctrccof a SrrpPliDg
iro!, ! lifcbort rnctor eould D.ovat good .ut6titutc. Thc tow
could rimilarly sulam luch a lilc to witrdwltd, a! aic drilb'
strd it c.tr bc pictrd uP by thc aiav of thc to*ilg w.Gl'
ebich wil prooaadpelt clo.c to wiad*afiL
(3) lf th. prdthcr i! ruitablc,cootrcl rnty bc..tiblirh.d utbg r lifc
boot
(4) Thc $ricLGrtEcthodDtrdcr.ll colditio8 will Paobdty bc to ult
thc rock t litrcthrowilg applietccfroE rithcr Bscl' Tbc crlw of
rhc [rfFt vr.scl vill 8rcetlyfacilibta thi! oFrstion if thc]'loslr
thc mri! ndio raaitlt Thc foulitr! of r mcl(ct on lucl obctruo
tioDr it d! a too fiEquc occ1l'&ooc,and valusblctiDc ia
wrrtad"Thc rockctrhouldbaird domeind'

nl

TOWING
ID css.s(l) rDd (4),if thcrock t h 6rcd,or thc hcavi!8lio. c.!t fron
thc fo..casdchqd, rhc Mastd rvill hvc bctrcr mdtr(ruvrirSooataol,
siocchc viU havca cl.ir vic\r of thc att Napt!.Throughoutthc lilo
wo.k bctwlaotha two vclsals.carcmult bc cxcrriscdtrot to rcvolw thc
proFll.(s) until th. lin.s ale cl.ar of thc watar,Thc ura of storm oil
will Srcatlyassistthc malrauwin&particuladyifa Ufcboeti! q!cd, but
lia.s wNch bccomcoily will bc dimcuhto hrodlc.
Wlcn passinglincsit is ruostd6ir.blc rhd ncithcrihip shouldbavr
aoywayor othcr thanlecdrift. Naturaly, rly ddrgcrousclosingofthq
teo v.ssclsmustbc instaodycor&ctcd,but ncvarlhalc$,thc g8thcring
of scmway or hcadwaywill cotrsidctablyhampd lidGs'orh Fu har,
thc dcvclopmcntof stcm*ay itr conditionsof wind will rcaultin tbc
rtslcl commcncinS
a swin&
If, in casc(l), thc t*o vcsscls
havcdifierinSr.tcs oflcc &i& lhcy rrry
bc b.oughtclosccnoughfo. linc-casting
by usitrgthcplitrciplc!how[ o!
psgc 192.Thc towing vcsscllic, to wiodwardor lccwad of tba torv
accordingto whcthcrthe laltcr shiphasa slowcror fastrr 1.. drift '.t..
A v6rcl drifting is likely to havsomchcadwayor stcmwayducto h.f
rbility to sailrhrougl tbcwatcr.Thisha! aLady b.cDshorb id Fig.9.1,
to whichthctrldcr shouldrcfcr,$hcrcthcrclultert motio! i composcd
oflc.waya sailiDg-way.
wlrcn castinga lioc, or fring a rockctfron ttc to*ing rhip, Oc linc
whichin tum fu lcd slongthc ship's
lhould bc sccu.adto o rr|cssangpr,
pqsscdin throud thc towingfrirlcrd ald
!idc, clcarof all obstruc1iotrs,
aEcuftdlo thc to*lina This cnsblGlhc towlitrcto bc passdb.twran
thc two v..sclscrtrchcly quickly.
ClmEunicationshouldbc arlanSrdbc$r!c[ thc two ibiF citbcr by
loud-heiler,signallitrglamp,or by the
w/T, R/T or VHF, megaphone,
Irtcmationel Codc of si8trals.lf thc vcs.sclis a dcrclict, it will bc
advisoblcto scndthc Cbicf Ofrccr aod Chicf Engincaracroasby boat
(vcrthcr pdnitting) itr ordr to aurvcythc possibiliticsof towing.
litcr a bosiccrrv cqtr bc put eborrd for stc?ritrgand wrlchtccping
rtrd tcndingmvigation lights. A mcmbcrof thc Crlcring DcFnmcnt
shouldbc includcd.
SDCI'IruNCTHE TOWLINE
Thc heving- or rock.t-lidc wil b. t cu&d to r crFfuUy laLd a..scngcrwhichwill bc Fssrd to th. tow as npidly a! po$iblc. Ttir ir
rhcn lcd to E w'rping drum &rd thc tow-wirg or I lsagcrmclscdgaa,
hovc a6oss. Id.ally, whca passingthc masscrSlr*hich ir dirccdy
shouldbc !.dt
rttachadto the torvlinq atradditionrl sirdlar mcasaogrr
rcros atrdkcpt scurldto both vc$cb throulhour thc towitrt voyagc"
A dtuatioDrDayarisa,sucha! lhc parri!8 ofr lidq lvhcl thi! r.cond$y
liuc wiUsavaveluablctioc whichwodd trormrlly bc lo3tin dtrblitbiDg
222

TOWING
frlah coDtact.Thc linc must bc kcpt vrry sleck sDdaitctrd.d througbout
th! voyag! 3o that it oatrba iortandy wtd ar soon as tt towlinc Frts.
If riis i! not d6nc thc mcssdgcfitsclf wil brc.k.
lf towilg otr s chri! bridtc froD thc tow thc LdSth of cach bridlc
lcg should bc at lorg !5 poasiblcro as to rcduo. utrcvcDsttrssd, which
arc bormd to arisc cxccpt whcn thc tow is situatld i! thc towing ship'a
wakc. Uloally t[c tos ridd rt a st ady str8lc of shcd asay f.om ihc
wrta Sucha shccrshould trot bc corrc.td by shorrcDingonc btidl+I.&
for a b6d trip is t ouDd to occur.
If lhc rofs widdla.ls ir dama8pdthc ceblc should bc scll frtppcd
to acvcralpairs of bitts, making usin addition of othcr forccasdchcad
strotrg points. Otr thc othcr had, tbc chain cablc dccd lot bc u!cd, io
which c{sc thc lov may ulc a wirr bridlc; tbe ab6aaccof alry chain in
thc towlitrc will trccGsitatca grralrr lcngth of hawsrr rn ordcr lo atbio
. suitablcciLnsry, A wi! bridlc b oftcd uscdwhcn thc wsscl ha5to bc
toc/d slcmflst. lf thc tow b not cquippcd wilh maoy itong poinb od
hcr forccastL hc{d, or if thc cxisting poiots atl coDsidcrcdtoo wak,
lhc towiag hrrvscr may b. pas.rcdthrough h.r bawlc pipcs scvcraltimls
and iarlly shacklcdto iIs owtr part. Both a[cho.! will havcto bc shiPpcd
otr dcck or s.clrrlly hung ofr.
ln sn cmcrgpncy,such as towbS r buming vdscl clcar of othcft, a
m.thod soEctim6 cmploycd is to pa$ thc cyc in thc towing hawsct
(makisg such rn ryc as rapidly e3 possiblc if thc cxistiDg oDc is too
srDdl) ovcr r lutc ofthc low's bowrr aochol.
whco s.c{ritrg I hcavy s,irc hawscrit msy bc bclaydto trro or morr
actsof bitts oDthc samcai& of lhc ship, An cficiclt dcttod ir to takc a
tound tum on cach of tlrc flst pair of bitts ald bclay tta barvlc. to thc
ruccccding pairs. Erch tom on a bollsrd must bc r.cu&ly bovc teut
and lightly lash.d to rhc uldcdyitr8 turn bcforc pa&tiDglh. lcxt. Ifthis
i! lot donc thc wirc will quictly 3priry ofr thc bitl3 rtrd p.ovc utr'
mrnrgpobla Chaio stoppcti (or carpcotd' stopFr!) 3houldbc a.curcd
to.ach p6ir ofbitt!, rd a cbab chack-6toppcris ri88d just inboard of
thc fafuLad, for usc itr conEouiog thc wirr whcd it ii bcing surged
arould lhc bit$. Whcncv.r a bavlcr i! a.cu$d to thc bitb o tum should
bc pass.d eround tbc bollard trcarcstthc frirlcd baforc bclayiag commcnccs.FrilurE to do thb will r6ult itr thc 6rst tutr occofiing at thc
fa. bolhrd, sld thr sct of bitb may rhca bc liftad frolrl thc drck.
TAXING T'P TTIE TOW
Thir ir probrbly tbc mo6t critical phrlc yct disculscd,for lhc towlinc
has lo bc strlssad al e vrry slow, itrqlaling rtic, aod a daod loed of
somc l00m-m0m bnncs startcdinto motion by this slrlss. Thc towing
Gccl should ho\ slowly ahasd s.ad vcar lhc towing hrvscr to thc

D3

TOWING
rcql|irld lcngrh,eod rt thc samctimc thc calw of thc tow catrvtcr thc
cabL to thc prc{ctcrmimd tcoF. Thc v6!cl mult bc atoppcddcadi!
thaertcr whilc thc towlinciNsccurrd,and whcorll ir rc.dy thc ctrfie
fuworkadahcadi! shortbur,t! of dow rcvolutiorr, aayflvoto bo, An
oficcr ir strtiorcd otr thc poopto cantinuallyrporl lha laadild ltata
of thc towlinc.for on Dorccouatmult it bc allorrcdto brak 6udaca,If
it do6, Or ulc ofalt m rcvolutioormaycaulr thc lirc to foul thcpro,
Fllcr, Grcat poticocceu6t bacxcrdrcdurtil thc tow baSir! to movc,
Evcnat thi! atlgcofincrcariag
whcospcaddsy bc grrdur.ly daeclopcd.
GvolutioDr,car! i! Lcarsaryto avoidloain! rhccat oery|trd hrviagto
stsrt all ovcr agdiD"
Ifthc two vlssalsal! on thc sa&Gbaadin&a! thc tow ir tatcn up, rhc
ltrcss od thc liDc is uacdto eovc tha toe bodily llrough thc wat r.
awsyfrom thc
SomaMastaB,ho*cvcr, prcfcrto hard$out 90dcSrcs
tow'sfor+and.aftlinc in ordd thrt thc initid loe strcs!ir us.d to tum
the toe, rl'd ft I bodily motiotri! not lciiclrd utrtil thc !tt!a! i,r tu6ci.ody d.vdopcd.
THE I1OWINGVOYAGE
The toe mlllt bc cquippcdwith proFr ligbt .! lsid dot! it t[c
Rcgulitioni for Prcvcntionofcolisio! !t Sca,but ifshc it rct rnrDcd
rnd Iro poscr is availablcoil lN8rp!will otly burt for about 15houtr.
Tbc uscofa icarcblight,trrincd by tha tositS t!.sal to illuDilrtc thc
ro$ wi[ bc D.c.ssrly io thc vicinity of oth.r rhippin& Thc towiDg
v.$sclmustalro bc .quipp.d with th. proF light, !! hid dowtr
During thc voyaS!thc bight of thc towlilr Dult b. kcpt b.low tf,c
audrc., .nd it3 lctrgthshouldbc rdju$d iD r hlayy aslll ,o tblt thc
two stip6|tE ,,r'' r, i.c. th.t rila itrd fll iinultalaoudy. Thocetcofy
mustDotbcallorrd to foul thcsca-H, lanicululy rvhotofli!8 lriort
thc widd atrdcutrrol, for ifthc shipa.rc tovitrg ilowly !!d .r! brouSlt
up by Orctowlinatbcyeill bc .ct dowtrwitrdor ttrrrE and tiU oouib,
unLss ttG linc cro b. qui:kly rlippcd. Tbc niF lhould bc ftlrh.n d
rcgularly,sod grerc agplid to frirlc.d! rt lc|tt twioc! wrtch. An,,
paddidgo. csavasmu3tbarcarrcrlda! rtquiftd.
If thc towliic trD& to brcrk turflca apaad.houldbc rrduocdor tbc
litrclcogthaod.Itr haavysEarharthcrow(ifuling chrin crblc)Dry v!.t
llr .xtra ahacklcor ro, in ordcr to sdd wight to lhc towlilc. I! taavy
wathcr thc foaEas
dacccsrryto tca\roto, or ,Lae hard to witrd,will ha
too grlat, rod thc lhiF ahouldcithar tcmpoiarilyru! downrvindoi
alsathc towlinccould bc rlippcdrd thc vlssd! sUowrdto rltift uttil
thc wrrh.r modqst ! tufici.ntly for rhc voy.gr to bc co!ti!u.d. la
rb|lloe sstcrs with Namoothsce-bcd,if thc todisc ir rlippcdfron tho
tosing 3hipthc othcrBtcl will hrvr .! adEitrbL ,ci alchor.
2U

TOWINO
Grlat cdc mu3tba ararcisadiB allrring coutrc,a awingbailg cot'
t!oLd at onca.At tlr. slow6pccdroftotiog thocficct6ofvind ald curEnr will bc vrry dotic.ablc,ard for thia rcalotrthc lhortaatroutoEry
not provGto b. th. qul*cst. sterirg i! litcly to bc difiq t bcc.ut tbo
towlilc ir trot !.curd at thc .hip't pivotilt poitrt, .!d llc t!.m i!
tbcrlfof! lrluct trt to movaswsy ftoD thc dLrciio! of th. towlina.
If thc tow ir u|rablcto st .r rnd hcf ysw it 8rca! chafc, uocftn
rlrr3!.r, endbadoiF wil a.i!c. ntc cftcts of wi!4 !c., frcbo.t4 triD'
lbt, udcrflatlr projcc'tiod!caulcd by daetSc" dtaufb! atrd suFr'
atnrcrurg a[ Lod to causcyawiD&Utrdoubtcdlythc gtt tcat singl.
factoris oordwrsc ttiD,
A dc.Pdrauslt shipwil yawLts thttr orc whi:h i! lifhdy lad4. Thc
cficct! oi witrd srd rcr upoa yawingcan bc Frtilly diDidahcd by
dtrdng coutlc or tpc.d. A itascl triEmcd by tho b.ad itiU nw vary
badlyutrlclt ahcfu towcdltrrtrffit. A lirtcd vc.rcl laddt to thc.r oon_
tirdly roesflL bcr biShsidc,thc tcnd.dcybcingoofllct d by a losiidc wind.If thcshiphe! utrdcrsrtlf projcctio$ forwrd of lhc pivoting
is that of a triE by thc hcad;if tboyGrfutofr Oa cGtrtF
DoiDtllc c.ficc't
iinc of thc rhip shcwill shccrtox/ttdr that .ida
Ylwin8 mat bc contctcd by trimbins rhc vlalcl by tbc !tcn' !trd
thi! dould bc doDaby trud.rtiog wEigh6 rrrbaa tb!.o by lordhg
rrt!f, b.Ur.t piich wil itcllalc th! aEE. on th! towlitrc"An ilctEa*
of rD..d tcodr io corrccta yawdil.c{y cautadby lid, thiL i dr.rroo
in .;.cd oftaorcduccaa yaw groduradby rdvlrrc tri!. lf thc tow brr
r coo..tantltrllc of shccrro oncd& of th. towi!8 lhipt wrlc ir Dly
bc corrccLdby &ftiry thc tov'r tuddd st a irad !.oda Tbit h.a thc
diridra sgB towcr, of cEatidgt! rdditiold dng otr ttc towlinc.
Id r tsiD-..!cv 6hip s yrw to ono ai& cr! bc odrElrd bt' tnilid!
ody oDcFtopcllcr,!d itr atl thiF tuch a ab cr! ba tlduo.d by
rissins ! brgc rvdng ra I t!il, cittd d thc bowor al.f!.
la rough wtatbct thc u:c of lroar! oil by both .hiF will alaiati!
n.ting oonditiotrtDot! co@forhblc"
$,lPPtNG TllE rOW
Alranrpo.ott mult bcnada for dippi!8 tbc iorlila i! a! .@crgmct'
Su.h .! cmcrlEdcyEiSbt bc th! fould{itrg of tb! tow. Ilr drtllorv
wrta6, if tiDc FrDib, tn litrc Dty bo huoycdfrttt,lltiog r buoyrirc
roftiltly hr.vy to rrcovlt fhc Gadof thc trw&(.
L.llha fp li. H.f,F rt lt. Dt&lb
Tti! i! ddon r! dific|rlt .! LLilg np thctoc. Sp..d nltt b. tlduccd
vlry gredusly aorbrt tha tos doc. trol oEa-tidr ttc othar dip. Thir
Oeig.r ir Fnly rvoidcdby dlowitrg lhc towli!. to dr.8 oo tb. ...+cd

TOwlNC
(if tDooth) fo. it wif chcckthc tow'shradwey,perticularlyif thc linc
irludr. r Logth ofchein. Thc crsw of thc tov shouldbc irrparcd to
kt 80 rn slchor idmcdirtcly this daogcrrdrca ard uscit to chcckthc
h!.d*!y.! dd.n:bcdi! ChaptcrI (Archori[g rt High Sp.cd).
Ooocthc wry h!! bccntskco ofi both 6hip3,thc towliocmry bc calt
oq talirg c.rc loa to EvolvcproFllcE whilc hcavingthc linaabo6rd.
If tbc low b'r bc.o usitrgcablca! pdn of thc towlincthis is hovc-inon
tbc wbdh!. atrdtbc wir!.art of.
PNACTICAI TOWNG
525tr
A typic{l cxamplcoccurrcdin May 1959,*hcn lrocrr:rcu, 160m
iD lcngthovcrall,165(ntonncsdcsdwright,ladcn,snd displdciDg
somc
2l fr toons,otr paisagcfrom Singeporcto Rottcrdam,cxDcricDccd
a
codplctc br.aldown of thc main propulsionunit whenin thc Indisn
556ft too3 O@n. Halia, 170m in lcngth ovcrall, l80m to[ncs deadwcight,in
bNllst, rtrd bouadfor thc PcBirtrGdf, procccdcdto hcr Garat&ccatrd
succcssfully
towcdhar,at on awragcspccdof 6.5koots,a total disLence
9J falhoms6in of 1222rnil6 to Trinconalcc,using 190m of hc. own 5&mm wirc
105farhoms lowlinc conncctcdto 210m of anchorcsblcfrom lrr.rr:r.r.lJ,
Whilc divcnidg to Trochirdn, Halia took on additionalballist to
attri! a full wirtcr-brll$t @trdition, so ar to hsvc a dirplacce.nt
.iDib to ttc vqlcl to bctoc/4ald rhcfollowioSdct.ilcd gqrratior!
ffir put i! haodto uDdcrtakcthc toe.
Thc Ylmm towingwirc waslaid ou! or dcckon thc stalboardside,
6in
wilt thc.od! at t!. sftcr cld of thc pooprtrd th bightalongthc mri!
l&in dccl. ODccnd of this *irc wassccurrdwith sir turns rourd thc 40cm
l+in towing bitts, with bacling lurns to thc capstansand 35-cmmooring
bittt, !trd it ir of itrtatlst to Dotcthrt i! took ovcr 2 hourr to corDDlct!
-hovc
th. fltt pon of thi. oFrrtioq cachof thc aix turn! bavingto bc
taut a,ith thc cap6tr$, edd lalhcd, bcforr coEmcacingthc trcxt tum,
Thr caFtalr wcrl thcabaclcd ot to thc forwardmooriDgbitts otrcach
aidaof fhr poop sdd lhc towitt bitt! racuEly shoEd from thc rollcr
f.irlcrdt, .GcFi& l0r. Thc Panamalc{d, tbroughwhichtho cycof thc
totvlila rrr! h4 w|! dio ahord frod cachsidc.
At lhc aamctimc,a 3Gmmwirr mooriogropcwasflskcddownon thc
!!in
Dortaiic of lba poopd.cldousc,oncca8ainwith both ctrdsat thc rficr
aod of thc poop,rld a chrin stoppcrriggcdto conrrolthc wir! wbiL
Fyi!8 out, accFig. 10.1.Oncandvas thctrlcd throughttc porr quarrar
friric.d to thc PslaDr lcrd o|r rhacrltt! Iirg $hcrr it *,r! 3hscflcdto
lbc towirg haw!.(, jult clc.r of thc rdditioaal scrvio&Thi! mcthodof
aerriDg rh. tovilg haw6.rcosblodit ro bc shackld oDto tlc aochor
r+in cablcwirhoutfrst havingto dilconr.ct thc 3Gmm*irc, scFig. 10.3.

MESSENGER
FOFEOECK

25

i ; r w r F EM o o R l c
!INE

FLAl(ED IN

50

F I G U R I O , I

IAYOUT IEFOAE TOf,ING

TOWING

SHORING

LAYOUI DUAINCIO*IXC
FIGUNE IO,2

3+in +in Thc othcr cnd of thc 3Gmm witt wls mrdc fast to r 3tmm roE
paTgg.' which!.d b..o Ded! rc.dy by budr8 ir atongthopott ddc
itr bigbB, clcarof a[ ot6tnrcliotr, to tha fotrdcct, wbclEit y|! bcnt
on to rhc andofthc roctct-lilr.

TOWING
I! lhr D.altinc, Lo.iirda ird litlcd h.r rt rbo.td rtr hor o! d.cl
!!d disc.ucctld thc c.blg whichE! th!! hovlup throughthc h!e!.
pipc, wh6. . joirirg rh.cklc wrt prtpuld for rnachilg tb. cahL to
tlaria'r towirg xrirr. A roF er! Dldc It dy for hcavingthc Ec*lcogcr
fron th. towitr8vlclcl up thmughthc hrwsc piF usitrgthr fow.rd
witrchoo thc Daid dacL.
Trodrlrc{rwassigltrd otrttc momirl! of23 May,eDdCsptaiaR. R.
Pottcr of Adrna66blilhcd cortlct with Gptain J. Davbonby radic
tclcphodgcfhcrrupo!thaprocadurcto bc follo*ld va! fuly diacu.*!ad,
I/aria ca6o i! for aa approschfrom somc3 milc! dcrd altcm of thc
diratilcdrlllal whicher! roliDg rld yawiogbca!-on to r long;low
rwc[, ald cucd in clo6cundq hcr La (rtarboard)!idc. DuriDgthis ruDin Fiod, whic.hwrr accoEplirhadot a varydow spccd,ttsr wastida
toes!..s lhchr llidg quslitic! of d4rt4 ondcrthc FrvailiDgcodditioa!'
lnd alro to obacrvcth. drift rod dovcmcDtof ?ocrir.z3. Itr thi. ia-

at m, it trrtr3pircdthat comidgup froD &tart srssthc bcstspproach


coursc,but this cadot ba tdk n rt s hard-odd-fsstrulq r! r difrcrcot
Gt of conditioDsmey cotrsidcrablyiDfuoca tha etglc of approach.
taria, in fect, passcdsbout20 m ofr th. stsrboardsidcof thc tow and 70ft
cvcrtuslly cemcto r.st abu! 25 rn ahcrd of hrr. Wbila prssiD&a 80fi
*&r n!!dc
lircttlowi4 r6tcr wa! 6r!d froD ,lsrl4 snd coDncctiotr
bctwc.otha tso rlarb. H.rg rhc forcthowht that bad ba.tr epplicd

229

TOWTNG
to thc wholcopcratio!,rld thc carcwith whichpGparatiotrahadbaao
dadc, bccaEcboat qrditabty svidcot,ald thi! eill ba &adily rpprcciatadfu that I I Dilutaa aftacthc rcclct hrd bc.o ftd aaf,oaa
rhcfotq
drck of ?rocr&dr thc tow xl|ir thrcl'lcd up.
A! slrcadymcnlio[cd, thc towlhc wrr laid out dolg Oc strrboad
iidc of tdlid's nrio dcct, .Dd a! hgcoiou! mathodc/a! dlvitcd of
payingit out und.r complctcco rol. Thc bight wss rovc througha
lGin
25.cn snatchblockat thccndofa mooriDgropalcd to thc winchor tbc
alba dcck,.!d it wa! thu3po.siblcto.-r"!cit out to thc towingLngth of
95 frthoms
!90 m withoutfcar of kinkingor of tekingcha.gc,scc Fig. lo.t.
(Atdlbr't Notc:I hrvc dnwn Fig. l0.l lrith clarityin mind, but it must
bc rpprlchtad that rwo difaclDt dacksrrE involvd. Wlc'l thc towliDc
croa!6 thc brcal of thcpoop,travy wood.opsdsvcrr ul.d to prcvcnt
ch!filg of t[c wirc on rh. phE rdgrs.)
Althoughfroclbcr.r yr. loodadwitt high-fulh cargo,suitablaprt
cautio.! wcrc ncvstbclGs tilcr agaiostfirc, frc-hos6 bcingriggrd,
porteblccxtiaguishcBplacd i! strat gic positio8, and all pcrsonrcl
not rcquirrd on dccklccpilg uadcrcovcr,thcrcbaingan .vcr-prascnt
tist ol thc two vaascls
natitrg phylh{l conlact.In I far esetrydalgar
maycxistfrom thcactualfiring ofthc rockctlinc, it is dBireblcto point
out that thir may t cotrsidcrcdncgligiblc,providcdttc hull. ot both
v6&ls atr iDtactandall tmk opcnitrgipropcrlyclolcd,
A3 &on a Trcchitcs had shsctld on. hr starboerdcablc wa!
105 falhoms wallcd oul to 7 shacklcs
(I93 m) at|d s.cur.d,and,in 3t minulcs
fmm tbc tillc tba rockct-Iitr.w!! irrd acrorsfrom tcrA, tbc towing
actuallycomhcnccd.Thc Eathodof r.curhg tba cablcwa3by lcavitrg
ir oa tha wi[dla!3, sc.!wi.g up both brrlaa, putting oo thc dcvil'!
clewa,aad tigh&airy up lhc botdc-66cw!.Thc commcao.mcnt
of thc
tow w|l I rNat c.itical pcdod,whcoa rashcngiucmovcmcDtor hclm
ordcr would hsvc coDplctclyundonchoursof patiaotwort atrd pr!.
Pa!"atioqrod migbti! facthavcclua.d incFrablc dam|8. or 1o3!.Thii
riik c,|! avoidcdin thb c5.Ica , from bciagstoppcd,thctlst ordcrwas
5 rcrcludo!3 F minutc(0.75knot) gradurly buildiag up by ltcPs of
5 rcvolutioB st tmituta iotdvsb, to 50rwolutioN pcl miDutr,wbich
Itr& an cDgincaFd of 7.5 knot$ Similrrly, couBc wr! slrcrcdnot
morc thar l0 dclrce at a timc sad tbc tow rllowd to lcttlc dowtr
bcforcrny additionslaltlrrtiod iD coutlc *as hadc.
Slidt troubL i'r! crFricncrd idtilly with thc to*lilc vcarin8
throughthc chdng pd in thc Pallna kad, but thir problcmwr! ovcrcaECby thc d6igo rDd prcductiotrofr potco!mulli-alccvcd
clsmp,!a.
Fig. 10.4.Thisconsistcd
of thrcccuFFshep.d
r.ationsof l.tmm hard
copFt. ahcct,onc of 1.5-mmsoft copFr sh.at, and an inncr shcctof
lrin
l.t nm lcad, with sll friction surfsccslhoroughlygrcascd.Thc clamp
l-in
*a3 irlt ligbtly s.curd roundthc torvli[c on thc inboard!idc, eDdthc

2T

TOWING
towlinc 8i!cd clcar of thc lowcr sidaofthc frirlcad by mcansof a iltonna
c,b!i! trckl. lcculd to thc ho.c.hrdliog dcnick pcd.ltal. Thc tl.rvc
wr! thetr rlid i[to Po6itio[ sod thc packilt pi@s pbccd utrdcmcath.
Cltapad on ttc wir ovcr a foundltioo of thilc coia doolmEt8 rtrd
cight thictlaalar ofcrnvas, thi! arrutcrnatrt waafound to bc cmiocody
cficctivc iD rlducilg chafa,
Th. initid t odcncy of froclircrrr to yaw, putiing ao add.d strriD oa
thc towliog wr! nullifrcd by strcd.g iD thc wrtc of tarir, atrd thir
provcd satisfactoryat a towirg spccdof6.5 knors, utrtil a frcsh quartrrly
braazr was cxpcrimced towards tha cDd of thc voyag!, whcn it wa!
found that thc tow automatically scttlcd dowtr a couplc ofpobtr od lhc
quartcr. Thjs samc &trdctrcy to yaw was obrcrvld whad spaad 9!!
tcducd epproachiogTritrcomalc. Ilarbour, wh.tr c.blc was storlaoad,
and cxpcricoccshowcd tbat all pbas6 of allcridg coulc rd rrducing
spccdhad to bc ceutiously achicvcd,stlp by rtcp,
Ofr port' thc scrviccsofa harbour tu8 wrc obteincd to prcvctrt thc
diseblcd v6sl ov.nunoing thc tow whil. thc cablc was hovc-up and
thc towing wilr discomcctcd. Slowidg down a tov of thb sizc rcquircs
cotrsidcrablc time and itvolv.s alDosl as much carE ss whcD gcttitrg

30 CM

C O P P E AC L A M P

-'- '.i-.-i -:::


r'5
SHEET

3 C O F V E D' H E T S O F
r.5 MX GtrAsY,HAiD
COPPEAOVER
EIGHT l-AYEFI
oF c^xv^s.

231

TOWTNO
uddc.way,A,t!f slippin&Ldrrd'r tow virt et! rccor&Gdby adopdts
r .imilar proccdutr,but itr rrvcrlc, to that ulod whlo oo!!ccti!8 up,
atrdit workcdsdootblyerd cfickotly.
It Eusl itrdccd,b.vc b.ctr r rclicf to bolh Mart r! to i6 thcir .hiF
safclyi.nport, ad it is Dosnal tributcto thc rcaDlDship.!d .bility of
sll c.nccmcdthat rhcvoyaScwa6complctadwith ro lifdc uoubL.
CIh. abov. cranplc ii from tbc Sl,,'tlMqozln , rd ir bos.d by
NauticalDivisioD,Shc[ Ta*c(s Ltd,, oDrqroru froo rhc vlaacLca&
crrn.d andfu rproduccdhcrEby thc courtciyof thc CornFly)

CHAPTER XI

FIRE

A N outt|rlek of fll occuF whctr sumcicrt bad is rppliad to r


A aaftnebla mstcriel withitr sa etmosphsr frccly chrrg.d aDd
I IsuDpliad vit! oxylpo.Thc frr. will cortinuc providcdthcacthrt
clcmcDtraI! Dillaot ind logrth.. thcy form whrt i! known a3 thc
Itrc tdagh. Whcn onc,idc or clcmcntb rmoyEdthc trirtrglc or ft!
catrno longrr cxist.Thcproo. of ftofghtiDg iovolvcsclimiDatitrgo!.
or borc of th6c clcmctrt!.Eat msy bc di$ipetld by cooliDt tha arca
with wr&r, lsDmsblc natcrial may bc phyaicallytrboved aod oxygan cad ba prrvcntadtrotrt rcachilg thc f& by plecioga blsdkct of
auiteblcmatcrirl or las bctuacnthc burnilg 6ub6tanc!lnd thc atmosphcrc.
OXIDATION
All substsdc6,whctrsuboittadto vrryilg dagrc.sofhcet, cmii grlcg
from thcir sufaccsasparl of thr dov chctrricalconburtion |.ovr r!
oridatior. At r c.ttsio tcmFrltut!, knowtrar thcJ?ntrpolnt, gt it
cvol'&din iuficicnt quartiticarvhich,whcDmixcdwith lir in ttc coftct
codburtiblc proportion,will irlh whca s Dakcdlight ir ioduc.d.
Wcll rborG thir lcmFntull cxiltr thc Sporl@r.o/rlgtritionT.mpcr*
rrrr (SIT.) at wbich,providd lufrcicot rir ia ailrblc, th! tutstlacc
will burat idlo iama *ithout tla introduciio! of . Dakcdfrmc. Thc
6aahpoint of Ftrols ia bclow -18"C. Bccauscof this, pctrolcumis a
highly datrgp.oussubdtancccvcn in Arctic conditions.Thc S.I.T. for
mostFtrolcum oils is bct*aan260'Ctnd 370'C.In thc UDitcdKiDS- JUr rnd m'f
dorn,substa&.swith fash poin$ bclowz|'c etc dccmcdatd mustbc 73"F
lebcllcd,,tgrr, dsmntsblc.If lic iash point is bcfivtco 23" rnd 50'C 7!' aodl4l"F
i! considcrdirmEablc.
thc aubEtstroc
All subElrncas
shouldba stor*d in ship! !o tht uadct oormalcotrditiod thay calnol balontch.at d ro thc f$h point. In thc calc of
highly tunEablc goodr thir ir dimcdt to achicvcothcr lhrtr by cold
ltoragc, rnd thcy shouldtharcforcbc in airritbt conteiDcr|ftlc from
.c.EagaProvidcdri. canbccrdudd ftoo thcacsutrstrner,thc vapour
rt thcir surfac.!will batoo richfor fllhng to occur.If too muchoxygca
233

FIN.E
fucombircd.suchasat a co$idcrablcdist .cc abovcthc fuid lcvcl,lhc
mirtu$ will bc too wcakto flash.lt ir oDlyat som.srDalldistanccabovc
thc ludaccthst f,ashingconditiotrsaI! possibl..
DESITRUCTIONOF TIIE FlnE TRIINGIT
L n lorl'g lh. H..t by it .a of W.b
For 6cvrrall!aso!!, wotcrir thcidcalnstcrial to schicvcthi! purporc.
Ithat s-hi9htpecifich.ot, i.c.it rcquiftsr grcslsmoutrtofbcrt to chatrF
ib tcmpcrofirrcoDcdcgrcsod nccdsa funhcr idput of t() tiEca as
muchhaatto cbangait from boiling fuid into sh.rm. Undcr trormal
pr.ssurcait cannotbc hcatcdabovclm'C snd canin fact
212'F &tmosphcric
thclattcrrcquiEsto bc hcat d to dc{tly
b. boiLd in r prpcr bagbccausc
doublcrhistcrDp.raturcbcforcit will bum. hovidad thc bsgit porous
srd rcrrain3wat, combustioncantrotoocuaWtrcnu3ing*etar to cxtidguhh r 6rEit i! thrFforc impdrtivc to kcc! thc burniry Eatcrisls
latualcd. If thcy anapoo. eb3orbcrsof wstcr, suchr! hardwoodor
rubbcr,or non-atEotbcr!,6uch'3 mctak, thc saturatioDwill occurat
thc aurfacco.ly, atrda coatitruou!6prayb nacaslsryh ordcr to dilsipdtcthc hc{t Ccrtaitrmctrls will bum if thcy comcioto coolrc{ eith
watcr,suchrs sodiumatrdpotassium,and thascmurt bc irlecllcd in
p'ra6rr (kcroc.nc)in ordcr to cxcludcvotcr vapour.
In rddition to its coolitrgFoFrtras, rvat.r uscdfor fuc cxtinguisbing
ir cotrtitruoulyyaporisinginto staam.Thc volumcof staad cratcdir
rbout l?00tima! a! gFrt sr thc originalvoluEcof wat r, ard tiDccit is
rn bcrt gar,thc fr' i! ltaflcd of oxygcD.
Thc urc of r.a-wrtir shouldbc avoidcdwhcrcposiblc' rircc it will
quictly rpoil goodsrurroundingrhc fti zoDc penicuhrly foodstufis.
Not ody wiUit corrodcstlcb, coppcr,atrdclcctric.l DrchiDcrybut it
i.t abo slow drying rdd ftrally lcav6 r coro6ivr t6idl|c oflalr& Tbc
c.hcmic.lactioo of 3cr-srataron o ftohlsc. frc siu rrpidly producc
toric fuoa3.
AcidsaI! dilutrd
Tbcula ofwaEr i! thcvicitri9 ofacidsb daDgcrour,
by addingt an slos'ly to walaauntil thc dcrirtd mixturc is obt itrcd,
If, howrvcr,t[c wotar,and prrticuhrly sca-estr, is adeittcd into a
largcquadtityofcoucaotretcdacid,repid hcating;spluttcriD&aDdthc
cvolutionof todc nrmcaoccu8.
CarbidcsiD clDtsct with wdtcr will grncrr& cxploaiv. 8nd 64mEablc accglcdcgr! in additionto hcat.
If wlrcr is spplicdto buning coalor cokcthc grncrr&ditaam,ud6s
rdc..cd quictly, wil caurathc Gmi$ionof drnSproo!and higblycoobustiblcgss.s.
Atr oil fI. msybaqtin8uishcdby applyinga wercrspray,but tbc usr
of a s'atla/, wiU ,.attcr thc buming oil, which will foat aDdcrulc
234

FIRB
itoLtld outbrsti offrc rvidclydispct!.dtround thc origittd fra zonc.
Thc usaof watcroDan oil flr prlscor ccrtsinptoblcmswhichart di!_
culscditr tftc sutx.qucottEstmcnt ofliquid fucl fiirs.
mctr vator i3 ur.d to iood a cofipattrncot thc followiog points
thould bc borncis 6itrd:
(l) Flooditrghifb io thc vcascltlduccshcr ttability.
(2) Floodidgat thc sidcsprducci e list.
(3) Floodinglow itr thc sltip tcn& lo ilctlasc hcr stability.
(4) All loodiog; uDhs! \vsr.r is b.iDg riensfcntd withid thc ship,
thc fEcboardetrdthc rGaivcbuoysncy,r,hjlc it elsrys
rEducaa
c&atcrr frcc rutfrcc cfrcclrvhich&duc.36trbility.
(t lf thc ltability b.comcazcm or lcgativcthc ahigwill loll ovc.lo
onc sidc.tf thc frc zoncb thcn titustcd on thp high ,i& of thc
ship it mty bccomcquitc clcdl of thc watcl l.vcl, cnablingit to
rpE{d upwlrdr througboutthc ahiPo! thc high sidc.Thc hi8['
lida platilg will rhcirtevc to bc cut oFo to admitfurthrr ettcr
atrd thir, fovilg to rh. low sida,will funhcr iDdrala the li t
uutil crFizitrg BoY occur.
(O If cuttilg holcaid thc ship'r sidcto admitdockwrt r, it should
bcrrDcDbcrrdthat thc v6scl canbc f,oodrdonly up to thc lcvcl
atryfurthcrwrt r rpplird by
ofthosahol6. Onccthb b echicvEd,
hos.*ill lcrcl out vith thc doct watar.Th. vca$lis nowitr suoh
. prcdicadantlbst shcmay hivc to bc foodld in othci lould
coDpdrloantaia ordcfto iocraalcbcrdbPLcanaotatrdiDmcrra
rhc holct.
(?) Atry liquid fucb ehich arc buming will f,ort oD lhc rurf.cc of
thc wrtlr atrdwill grrdually6l! thc uPF coDPo.tEantta! thc
wrtar lcGl ria6.
(8) tf r ,.., foodiog Eay lcrioudy impairtha3af.tyrld erlcuvt'
rbility ofthe,hip.
(t) Th. iDctioD!srl likcly to b. chokcdwith dabtri, .nd otcc tlc
tbc Foblcm |tir.s of bos,to puoP ttc codirc is cxtinguishcd,
panm.ot dry. Io thit codcction, r pumpcanotrlyqtqrtce coDpLt! yrcuum,endsincaair prtssurccat|bc maasurcd
by a va&r
brrorrarar10.3m in hcight,il followsihet r pumpcanlift wstcr
ro itsclf only if it is within 10.3m of thc wrtcr lcvcl.In preclicc,
a hid<ficicncy pump mdy bc rblc to dcvclopa lift of ? 6 rD
whilc othcr pumpsrnry lchicvc o'|ly 6.I m. Thus,if thc watcr
kvl is morthan 7.6m bclowatr cfrcicnt pumpthc l&ttc. will
baof no valucudcsarrrrogasGnt!canbc mdc to lowrr it and
allspaodit clo6crto thc surfacc.
oncc thc pumpis rblc to dcrclopa lift of watcrinto il! body,
it Dry thcDbau3adto diachrr8cwltcr.t somchrlhar Lv.l, rd
235

3{ fi
34ft
25ft
a) ft
25ft

I b/inr 2 ft
30ft
l5 lb/in2

tof!

FIRE
in thisconnction
it is inErrstingto notethata prcssurc
of lm
glammcsFr cml is ncccsssD,
io raisc the walr I m in rhc
discharSrhosc.If, for cxamplc,it is dcsir.d to dclivcrlhc watcr
l0 m abovclhc pumpthc pressur.at thc hoscootlctwill b
I lg pcr cmrl.ssthanat thepumpdischargc.
(10)Watcr uscdto cool thc bulkhc{d. rld boundaryplatiDgof a
conp'Ihcot, itrlidc whichr irE b bciaganoth.rrd by stlaol
wiUinq!rc thc ratc at whic,hthc latt r clttaora! o! thc inaidc
of Oa pLti!& Thc atran, iD cotrdcali!8,s,ill cofiisct to oncscvctrtrn-huldtldth of ib volnma,aod thi! origilrl volusc
of occuFatiotrwill t trd to tiacoDca putisl vacuuD.Thc cficct
of this mly bc to ilduca air dtsughtsthroughcrcviccawhich
prcviouly admittd no rpprcciablcquadtityofrir. Thc irc mry
thu3obtaint ncwoxygcdfcrd,

Fitr puEpr, whcthd ruxili[ics of thc meitrpropulliod uDit or of


in&Fd.ot Di6cl typctercUsudlycapdblcof.upplyidg froE $ to m
Jo lb/in'
tonncspcr hour.A hosc,dclivcdngwatcrat a pr6surcof 3.5kg pcr
cmr,nay passabout15roloesof watcrpcr hourlhroughajct nozzlc
lDd !!ady doublcthir adoult throwh s rpreylozlc ducto tholowcr
rqiatalcc in rhaLttar ca!a.
h a drydockful n$-fShtiDgpGpsrrtiotr! sbouldbc mr& rs sooo
rt tbc vr'rcl docki 11066a'r diftcult to rus from thc docbidc to thc
rhip strd ihc opcrationtltcs collidcrablc tiDq ro thcy rlDuld bc tclt
FDatrGody riggcd.lf pump3d. uldct rcp.it..upply of *ot r lhould
barrr.ngrd fromlshorr cithcrthrough!c!rar6td88!dhoa6 ot by ncalt
of oDcho.c coupLdto thc rbip'r fre nail or rra:hdcck lim.
WhcoioodinS s fr! in a &ydockodv!.rcl thc cfcct of thc add.d
rEight ar rcry icrious.Thc rrcssclis DanrrauyunrtabL whib on thc
bloctr, a[d rtry iooditrg will sggovatcthir corditio[ In sdditiotrto
lhiX bigh tcat stslsscsaI! sct up. Thc fact that thc huu Do Lorgarhsi
thc coolinS.fccr of ,urroundilt aaa.*rbr o6n! that a 6r! ia likdy to
rprlld npi y to adj&ant comparlocot.
thc irc DAi! ru!. throuSlhouttbo v.sr.l, o! botb .idc!, .rd h!3
hydrut outlct&Thair! hoaaa,
ehadrcquit!4 rra racutld to tbooudaa
2l in by mcansof instrntrn.ous couplingsof 6.3 cm diirlctcr, T*o jcts of
wdcr src capcblcofbailg dircctcdto atryo[o conFrlm.ot by ttc frr
Erin, Thc litrc i! lupplid by Evrrrl puDF widdy dirDdrcdto thst a
fr. wil nor rc6d.r tbcE dl out ofaaiiol. Ifthc fr! Erin b dorgcd thc
atopvdrls otr cith.r ii& of tbc fnrturc shouldbc clodcd.Thr w !c i3
lbaoby-F6d by corDcctitrg
r h6c bctwr.otwo hydtutr, cict bc!,odd
thc dop valrc!.
Thc hoscsarc tttad withjct or jct^pray nozzlcsof l2-mmoutlct dir!'o
D.d.f,. Th* ahouldncEr ba uld for Lrttilt or haeEa.iot i! !!

FIR.E
corigpocy,ald rhould bc trc{bd xdtb !lpccaat all tin6. Thc hoacr
|rl Dormsllynadc ofca!v$, thc us. of rubbcrbcinSFobibitld, Thcy
|tc rot to ta ulad for eay otbcr purpocc,murt bo dniord atd &id
bcforcstosrSpiubs.quctrtto flldthti4 or drill, .!d mult trot b. lcft
ro[.d up for loot Fio&, Thcy ar! doinrd by rsiritt thcD to rbout
shouldcrhcilbt atrd thcn *alti.!g ilowly forwsd, uadcr-runni!8thc
cdtirc lcngtl wrtlling oDtlc'l wil both drait and funac rtun v.f,y
cficicdtly. Thcy .hould not bc peitrtcd,w$hcd in slrong clcsrdng
with oil or grcsc.
fiui&, or coaraminatcd
2, Stloah..lS b ErclqL Ott8.r
Thr followingerGthc suhftrtrc.snorEallyu!.d for thi! pu.poia:
(r) St .E. This ga5is li8h.r th.n air, dd will lhcllforr lcck lo ocIfthc 6rc zorc ir 3itust d rt
cupythcupF. voluDcofthc cotrrp&rmctrt.
low lcvcl thc st rm will bavcto bc idjactcdfor soraacodidcrabL tida
bcforEit will Factratc all thc crrvicd within thc fur. Its Gficirlcy rvil
bc lowrtld if aa air fc.d cxist! at low lcvcl, sucbar a danagld !hdttunneldoor. ^ttarnsmotierint is not ollohledon shipsbuih after 19&.
I! a f!! arcaeharcpack!96 .r! loosclysiowrdthc starE Dsy cfcctivalycoDtroliatoa, but duc to thc highi.rnFrenur, wbichwill loi h.
bclowlm'C, oxidationand slowcombustio!ory coutinuc,rcDdcring 212'F
thc cohFrrmcnt liablc to irlhing whco oFncd to ttc ahorphcrc.
Somccargocs,
ruchasgrainatrdwoodpulp,mayswrll cxtldlivdy uldca
thc hot, moilt cotrditioDs
ofstaaE sDotbcri.n&
Id thc carly stag6 of stram injlclio! c.ltiouou! coldao!|lior sill
061rr,rtrd rtry rbvaporiratiotrofthir Doiltu& will dsirt i! coolinStho
firr zoDc.With rrgatd io thc c.Ddr$ation, goo& whichrrc lurcaptiblo
to *itcr &Dsga wiu baba.ncd by thc rpplicationofrrcao.
It ha altrady bcaanantiolad tbat ,t6|n iljcc'tioo providcrlitdc or
DocoolitrgGfrcct,rod hcatconductivitywill cotrlitrucfrcalyto adjaaadt
coEpirttnsotr, shrf,c funh6 oxidrtioo and lilhing nly oocur.For
this rcalon, firhnrble matcriclsir adja.cnt comps.tmctrt!lhould bc
rlnovd or kcpt .pr.yd eith wat r whilc .xtirtuilhiq r ft! eith
rtaad inj61iotr.
Tbr injactior of staadidto a burni!8 itack of coalor coto produoca
dr cxploaivcrnd highlycobbultiblc *ttar 8r! ,ucha! i! Foducadin ilc
rclortr of! gra worb.
O) Cinc Dbda.. Thb fe! i! hcovtorlDrn ri! .!d i! r no&up?ot
tr of combultion,aoit eil ctrGctilrlybhnlct s if. atrd.xcludc thc
oxygrnfroE thc bumingmatcrid.It h8 thc rdve tgc ofcau.ilg do
&m!gc to goo&, but it wil Epidly b.coDchc.ird .d t[dtfot! co!duc-thcatto ldjrccst coEp|ttDctrt . Thc g.r will tcltlc rt thr botton
of a compsttDcot iDcr.ssiDgid dcpthas thc supplycootilula. Ar ib
237

FINB
lcvcl rilca, air in thc vicinity is drivcn to thc top of thc compartmcnL If
thc zorc has bo.n cldcd to lhc atmospher. it is possiblc that thc prcssutr of thc crrbon dioxidc in thc bottom will b.comc cqual to that of
thc air laycr, rnd should thc firc cxist at high lcvcl it wiu bum until lhc
.ir fuaxhiustcd of oxygcn,during which time thc smothcringgasis of no
value, ncithcr can morc bc injcctcd, Id thr cas. ofa vcry hot firc, howcv!r, thcrc will bc suficictrt turbulc[cc to mix thc gss Pith thc air, and
rs soon s3 thc mixturc has a 3(HO% conccntration of carbon dioxidc
thc irc will bc unablc to contiDuc.
It is lot advisablcto iDjcct cirbon dioxidc and stcam togpthcr sircc
thc cool gas (-79'C) will condcnscstcam, producingvacuumand
ca.bonic acid.Thc two gascsarc not compatiblcin firc-fighting.Th.
normal lcvcl of carbondioxidcin air is 0'031% by volum.

2-r'l
l$ or 30tal

Starwtion of Ait. Gciqally, thc usc of cirbon dioxidc or stcam as


s smothcring gascalls for a scaladcompa(mcnt to complctc tha coDtrol
of oxygco, but utrLss lhc comperhcnt b a tant thc bcst tbat ctn bc
hopcd for is a panial stiflidg afrcct snd s rctardation of oxygla inflow.
Whcn frEfighte.s arr wolkiDg ia a compartmentthe stiflcd air flow may
at limcs havc to bc incrEasedin ordcr to dissipatchcat atrd smokc.
Id compartmcdb adjaccnt to a 6rc vcDtilstion should bc maitltaincd
normnlly or cvcn incrcascd in ordcr to dissipatc hcat and Prcvcnt
oidation end fiashiog. This docs not apply 1o tanks containing
liquid fucl, which should prcfrrably bc prcsscdfull in ordcr to cxcludc
rll air.
(c) High-Ex!.6io6 rnd Dctaigr Foms" Thcsc aft manufactu.d
froh wastc proteio matt .. Shorc firc-fighring briged.s ar cquippcd
with nachincs which can injccl this tyF of foam througb po*crful
fars, filling a largEspaccwithin minutcs.Thc edvrntegc of this matc.ial
is !h&t ;t is unlikcly to caus. damagc to carSocs.Complctc blaDkcting
of thc firc is achicvcd. On t&nkcrs, dctcrgcnt foam can b rnadc by
d8wing contaolled amounts of the basic dctcrgpnt concantr-alcinto
branch pipcs fed wilh high prcssurewalcr.
(d) Ctnicrl Foan This is gcncraicdby solutioDsof sodium bicarbon_
atc etrd aluminium sulphate io combincd activity, and will rffrctiwly
blankct a firc. h rnay bc supplied ditcct from s g-litrc potLblc cxtinSuishcr, by hos nozzlc from 45- or l3tlitrr cxtidguishcrs, or in vcry
larSpquantities f.om a prDencntly installcd appantus, vie pcrforatld
pip6. Whcd uscd on a buroing liqurd fucl it should bc vcry lightly
sp.aycd to avoid scattcritrgthc firc, o. clsc dilEctcd at t ncarby surfacc
30 that thc strrm dbirtcSrales and iowa gpndy ovc. thc fucl.
(a) So&b. Fireproof blsnLalr or quantities of sand may be throwtr
ovrr smell ircs, such as buming oils or fats, io ordcr to cxcludc lhc
itmospbcnc.

238

FIRE
Thc uscofrll smothcrinSmatcriah, q,hcthcr solid, liquid, or gascous.
providcslittlc cooliogctrcct,and il is th..cforc impcrativcto maintaio
thc smothcring utrtil thc firc zonc has coolcd sumcicntly to prcvcnt rcignitiod *hcn starvationccascs.Brcathingapparatusshouldbc worn
whcn cntcring a blanlctcd comparlmcnt,cven whcn hightxpaosion
foam has trccn irjcclcd. lf a facc mask should brcak, thc fircfightcr
shouldinstantlyswitch to continuousair fccd and ciqrpc as soorlas
possiblc.Thc body is uscdto brcathing0 033% carbondioxidc and a
conccntratronofonly l0% will induccrapid unconsciousncss.
Oncca firc has bccncontrolledwith lhc uscof smotheringgas,th.
inflow should bc maintaind, at a rcduc.d lalc if nccc$ary, unlil tll
dangcrs of rc-ignition a.c past. If lhc frrc is prcmaturcly considercdto
bc cxtinguishcd,o. thc zonc sumcicnllycool, and injecdonof gas is
ccascd,a reocwedfrrc may bc an cxtrcmcly diffcult onc to bring undcr
control,particularlywhetrsupplicsof carbondioxideare runninglow.
3. R.ooriry Fh|rn$h Mtterid
This .ntails clcaring the cdgc of thc fire zonc of all combustiblc
matcrial. lt is rot, ofcoursc, sugSstcdthal blazing mat rial should bc
movcd,sincctbis is ssfcrlcft to burn out, cvcnifofan cxplosivcoalurc,
Fircfighting is conccntrat.d at the firc zonc, and any scattcring by
cxplosionh far morc easilydcalt with in that arca rathcr than clscwhc.c, whcrc a bravc man, attcmpting lo jcttison blazing cxplosirc
mat.rial, rnaycausclossof life, ncw outbrcaksof frc, and divisionof
the fiI!fi ghting strcngth.
Providingthc outskirtsof thc 6rc can b starv.d of naicrial food,
controliill b. c.nain, but by outskirtsis mcantnot only thc immadiatc
viciniay but all adjaccnt compartmcots. Cas cylindcrs a.c likcly to crplodc duc lo thc cxpansionof th.ir cotrlcnls undcr hcat, end should bc
rcmovd from thc arca or continuslly spraycd with watcr.

sorrRcEsoF nnE
Thcsc aac too numcroul and oftco complctcly {ncrpcctcd, to list
rta$ivcly, but a fcw of thc motc common soutcesarc includcd:
(.) L.rt.g! of Oil5 on ro Hot Surfrces, Prrticdrtly ntti! thc &|gitrF
.rd BoiLr{oo
Tbii somctimcs occurs whcn scttling tanks ovcrflo% oil hot-filtcrs
or oil supply lin6lcak on to .xhaus! uptakcsor boilc. surfaccs.Suilablc
ovcrfow alarm dcviccs,ovcrflow guttars,scrlcns, aDdadcquslc lighting
will P|lvctrr meny of th.sc frrcs, which hav. causcdthc loss ot scvaral
shiF and meny livcs. Any boil.r-room supplicd *itb ao oil fccd should
239

F!IB
hart tr muc.h.cccraa! po*riblcfroD thc cogitc-rooo to corbb 6r!irftitrl to bc ctrcctiw. No woodworl shouldbc Fanitt d i! bofl.trimr-or corino-roonr rufplicd *ith oit, t trt topa rd ioor Phtcr
cLa!, !try oil ahouldbc $rtd up rt oncaald
ahouldbc acruDulourly
tbc oily *r!b d!.troyrd, ti!8.. .houtd bc kcpt !t fitc .! po.siblcfron
oil, .!d dl coDbu.tiblcE Eritl tcpt wcll .soy from oil-fccdli!c!. Firc
rpDliucc. thould bc rcgutariycrlEilad, t[ FrlooDcl aldc frmiliar
wiih rhcir usasnd loc.liotr, and fodo spplianccskaprawayftom high
tcmpcisturs,whicbmaydcstroylh. proFnias of thc ilgrcdicnb.
O) WdahS rd ()6.. n D.hr
Tb..c producc.p.rlio& rtrd portobL.ni,ttui.hcf3 shouldb. kcpr!t
hrnd, bolh ir thc rEpairataartrd o! thaopporrt iidc ofthc ttpoir work
(whrn porsiblc)wbltt a frc i! likcly to brcat out duc to locattraring.
Thc coEpdrthcDtrhould bc iDlpactadrc$larly bcfPratrwort shifts
for rigls of rdouldaritr&
(c) S..t t! of n !tdf.
V.Ddt c ft& ho AdFc.lt CorFrrrad rkt WdhS b h Pto!r.. d tttatc lta! arc fuou!8
(O Ib fh. of f.db or k&r EldF.na
Thir ca! inducacufl r at vlry bighalcc{ric.lP.l!sut!!, andshould
thctdot! lot lr. workcd vbao lordidg or dirchtrSi4 inf,'nn'|lc
ruttta!(t!.
(.)SddC.rhdd
MrDy frr!3&od to bc rttibutld to lhi6 ph.oomcao!,titr tro padon
ir iDctrilvolvrd h bl!.Da Probablyi! trirc crlcr out of tad tha frt
oridlatad from rodc othlc casle oft.o c.rdcrt tdoki!& lhc &4pt!
of whichc.rnot b. !tt!a!cd too fEqucrdy. Cartah ibrour aub6tatcc!,
rtc! imprlllltcd *ith.uihblc oil& ru.h !! jutc wilh colzr oil cotton
rrstc with fird oil, o! caltt! wit[ pdilrt, do bccoEchcatcdsnd Day
..tch ftt, Frttuuhtly if tho h!.ti!g ii aoc.ldabd by locrl ulrggcd
rtaao piF or oti6 tot turlboaa.
Thir tyF of comburtionnay 061rr*'tad orygpni! ataortGdst t[c
rurfacg ofoocl prtictlarly shao bituDiDou3andf.lclt brolao, a[d io
$rch cssesthe tisk increassat tcmperatus rttovc EfC. The coal
.hould b. tcpt !r coolI poetitL sad dl lir .uppli6 bloctd ofi crc.pt
for aurfaoavtorilrtoF, whi:h |tG !t d to rloov! thc a4tlolivc Ecthrnc
fa!. Tbir g!! ir drlSrcour pt o coldtrdcd 5% in !ir.
A[ nr.riab *bid art lLblc to rpodtalaor|!caDbultiotrthould bo
rltotldy t atadfor tadFrrtulc' c.Fciiuy vbco Qrricd !t cstlp. Ri!L!
|t! dwrF Eiaidild by locrl cooliDg.
2&

FIRE
(f) ELdlc.l It .
A itort+irsrit, rt f.ilurc of.d ullclt drd fu!r, ot ov.doadi!8 of
eid!8 mly n$lt in . f.!. outbrcat.Whctrcvctr flt ai!t! i! | .hip it it
pocliblcfor illulrtioo to bccon charrcd6t thc fur ro!4. Thc t6ultitrgihort{itcuit, i,e r pathof vcaylotvr6ilialcc for thaqnrcdt, raaoltr
ir a surS!ofcrclasivacurrcrt whichrDayovrtloodthcwiritr8rd brat it
tuficictrtly for it to bum. Suc[ .n outbrcik mty o6ltt rt lbc lwitcF
boerdor cvaoat pha6 cbcwbcr!ard quit! rlnoro frcE thc m!i! ftt
zo!4.
Whilc a 6rEGrirt!, aod for aonc couidcrablctiEC !ftli it hra bcco
cxlinguishc4thc switchboard6houldbc clo$ly rvstchd fot 8i8t! of
ovaaloading.
C) St dc E dldtt
M!try ful3 havcatartcd.! ! r.sult of sparkacaBcd by tbc dischrr&
of ltstic clccrricityrt high yoliagc.Ar arrbplc occ1rr!whcofriction
silhin I flling ho6rFoduc.r st tic clac{ticity,!trd tha p.t$l or othar
ftrcI polsiot tbrcughit i! ignitrd. Both thc bodccod .ld Oc flLd t!!t
thould b. lccurclycrnh.d, a! shoulddl othct Gquipmc N,hichi! !ubj.c't to ltatic chlrgin&
lb S.a d I Xhti
G) F|othg O[ a P.col o tb Scl.c. ot. IE
Thir Day bc ignitld by . canl63ly thrownci8[ttt ctrd.Thc bhzing
by mcatr!ofs foae lpnyi or it crtr bc driw,tt
fucl Dry bc cxtinguishad
ckar ofthc rhip cith.r by powcdulrv.t rjct! or by thcpropdlcrwerhof
t .mdl leuach.
by anrrla ofboraitg fucl on
A vBsclitr collirionrnsybc aurroutrdcd
thc wltcr sudraa.I! s curEtrt thc vtscl nly ba broufht qukkly to
atrchor,and thc ltrcam will thcDcarry lla fual cl..i of thc !hip. lf tro
cuncd cxistr,tlc vassalrhould, if poarittc"bc Dovld rrpk t cfu.t of
tbc flc zorc,
0lSt rr PlE.
Th6c ihould ba llguLrly chcclcd to mrlc arc thcy at proFly
Ie!!ad. Suchrurf.cls, if unprotacLd,nry qui:trly atatt a fr! rDong
Nnoutrdbg eltarit&.
(r)HoaBoLH
Thc.Grtl cqudlydsdla.ouaiflclt Etrilluht d, A calcoccu.tld tvb.rl
e hot ctrgircrooE bulkhaadignitGdtbc cort i6uhtioo of an ldjrccot
holdcontahiaga fuu car8poffroz.tr buttcr.Tbaorly poa.ribLDcthod
of cxtingDilhingw&t looditg of tha cotirr conFiEanf FonuDtdy
iha pcrDaattlig of thc hold w!! vcrt lofl, duc to thc codFc{ ttlocl'

ul

FIB'E
|toa of th. butEr, '!d thc rplra adltilt for wEtarw!! djlraot to thc
ilrdrrio!. Ody r rdtU aoou[t of*!t!a *rt lcadodto food thc bo|A
aodtL ir! *t! qui:tly put out ftc saaiwalcrdaDrgcto thc buttd ?ar
la rh! I7- hf th. ut of .it.t .thing on th..!8i!FrooD tih of lhc
httt .4 or nh(}drs iarnrdo! wilti! tt hold, vodd h.r! g!.Uy
oilioi..d rb. ftC ri.t

0tr-dfi.tba

laL c.! b..voi.L4 or .t lc.tt nduc.4 by tqulrt oL.trilg ofth.


arhrult upt*aa. Eumiry of awritrt', lifcboatt ald othcr dcc.kcquiF
@i it thlo L.! lildy to ooq|t.

(d rhD..
Thi! i! vrycoDbudblo,old ,hould bc ttowd sdl ctrer ofhot turfr.6 !trd fucb.

O G&r rft..
TbcraarErot |rncoDmoo,srd alr ftlquaddy csutcdby tha boflilgoE o! to hottht * or rl! iitiotr, of l,!.tt od.d c.oLingfrt!. Gr&t
toodr rbould ba c.Le[d rcgu&rly lrd trot allo*ld to baoomaca]cd
rith grrur, vhich nsy bc frd by h..t uptakc'
(c)hfi
Thir is vrry combutiblc, clDtainingsDd cvolvi[g iaEdablc .ubdG.
Ia rhould n ,vcr bc tlowld othcr thrn in thc o6chl paint
loc&.r,wbic&.houldb. rrU e{sy ftoo hcit .r... IloLtld PobofDdint
H ltitrg.bout ttc .hip c.Dstifirir | ftc ri!t.
tdaaly, prirtrd aurfrcd rhould banrittlitrd with thc mhimuE of
coatriDorda(to &drE ttc smoudtofpcrErnadt combratilrlcbatatial.
hint dl bor! }try repidlyi!d.44 snd ct! quictly t|rrtr alcobnod.'
tioo ilto rtr i crDo.Th! u!. ofhcat tlsiltant Pltrtic hsinitad Dltcrid!
dccoratio!.
ilpdcrsblctopai
(t) l.lEl..
ltaaa cvolvcan crplo6ivcsDdfsdnaltc gi! ard rhould bG or,!d
i! wdtltoriLt d cooloodparrmcntscodtailin8a portablc.iti!8ui!bcr.
(q) L..fy, H..rfr. P.e.8F. Codbbt n nntDL ltt ltrlrlt
Thaac|rc cxttEDclydrqcrou., Fttiq rlly ehco rtocEdin th! hold.
on roodcd dutorSp.All $r,h cootailcrt thould bc Gjac{ad.

C)srfrr

Tti! h|t cauladttc totd lolr of rbipa'|Dd .!y trSulrrioo od bodtd


r rr cl F!.tdi!g lhi. hrbit.hould bc.dhcrcd to.trittly' Cifrtltt!
242

FIRE
aodt Dult ba propcrlycxtinguirhadtnd not throrh on to thc dact or
ovarthcaidc,Itr bothca!6 thcytDrybc blov! throwb dooB,po hol6'.
d lrdtiLto.s, cludng r fra Snotirg id bunh irr crulcd loat of lifc
thouri ihc 'Inot.f prc68tutdy frlilg adcc?.In no citluDrt!.traaa
rhoutduoliaf bc pcrmitt d i! hold!, for i buttritg citrtrttc cod n y
rooutdaabaocathsawdustald siDilrr tntcrirl for Elny dlya bcforr
tic rmolc i! dct ctad.It i! for thir rraiotr thet mrtry fitlr' diacoEtrd
whctraaw6l d46 out of port, lrr thoufhr to bc dua to spotrLtrcou!
conburtiotr,ainccfcw pcoplorcelilathc Lof$ oftinc wbichc.D cLFo
bcforGi caclc$ly thrcwncigstctt! atrdwill sLrt r d.r..r4rrt ttic.
NNE PATNOIS
Tbrsr rrc rcquircdro bGcstri(i out rcSularlyin Cl4r I ahiF. (htrt
c.r! ahouldbc crcrcilcd io rclcctitrSPttrolmcd, for thcy shouldbc
Dhwirllv rnd D. allv luitrd to ttc t|lk rod wEUtraiDcdi! modcm
hrJfuhdig tlchDiquc!.'Erchmansbouldbc providcdwitt a wbistlcor
dcvica.ElrcryFrt of lhc thip lhould bo
othcr-portrblaahrm-sigoallitrg
viricd ar lcdt oocair cwry hour, .nd Ftrolrrc! lhould rcport at I
Dhcawhichir mr$cd at dt timc!, whcE sll dc&ciio! ahrm bclb rin&
|!d whichi! Drovidcdwith rdrqultc ftr appliracg.
DXSPENSALOT GEAX
Tbc irc epplianccsrhould bc widclyditpc.lcd througbouttha ship
atrdiu sucb; wsythat thaymry bacrlily fouDditr conditiontofadokc
oa drrtl.ss.
GDNENALACTTONtN TIIE EYENT OT FNE OUTENEAI
Thc Dcrto! f'tt ditcovcrita tb. 6rc thould illtltrdy r.i a thc tLrrr
andcoEEcocafshti!8 thc i!dc.. lfit iartpidly ard oorft.dy sttoclad
il Dly rll bc rcstrictd to r ,mtll outbt6k, r.ndcri!8 majorEsurtl
bGtunt lhroughouttba
unE .rt Alrrn hcllt shoul4 if trccaasary,
rbip. r continuourriagitg b.ilf thc ulutl ai8td, baadq i! Ditrd 0!t
too mrw ooroor rt thc rccla of thc ft! mty cautacoEftrdoo.At t..
cDcrr.ocaatatio!! rhouldbc.ouldd andthcboat!ltyr|tg out Erdy for
bs;ng ;f it ir ltouSht thtt thctut 4 or rviUb., ofbejor PtoportioDr'
tt ir iDFrrtiva to 8ri! raPidsc...s to a irc' but i! daiy cac thi!
Dry ba D;ldtrlc odt froD iborc, lhcr! molloclL .rr hDFql bt
rililr aookc ard baat.Ev.ry cDdcrvoutthould bc Dsdc to ditoov.t
rhalcr rhcfrc har rn eir fcld rt low lcvcl.If thiait |o, rsd i Dcatlt of
rcaaararilB, thcirc ,houldbc foutht from thfuLl!l, whcccr cool'frtrh
dr aupplyril ban ir thc f!6!ht ia. If Doaca,'r of.ccaat adru, tlc
243

PIRB
air fccdrhouldbc bloctod.A boaccatrbc lowErd faon rbovr, od linal
ald dittaLd st tb. !.et oftha it!.
ClrttitrghoLr h phtitrg to gritr aoccaa
c.u!.. r! ait fcadald daatroy,
tbc.hip'r wrtcditht htagity. I! an a&Dmo&tio! irr aaaaaa
oay ba
obt i!!d by losarirS r ho6ahrndLr ovcr tho rkL on i bodta.wai!'r
ct|t !o tbrt baca! ditlc-tr wstcri,t tbrowh a portbolc,
Cclcr.lt& th! Ono.' in ch|rgc of fftffhti!8 oFrstiotrr rhouldlot
t fc Frt in ttc ..ru.l fShtitr& but dould r0Erd thc cotir! pclioot r
of tbr frr zotr. rd t .p hio.lf fully hforEcd .o th.t tc i. tlc id..l
Fno! to dirrc-tFlonlal
Hc rhould:
(l) Matc rur thst t!. ftr i! stif.d.. c6ci.ady !! po63ibLald th.t
\EdtilstiDgfrni arc rwitchcdof.
(2) Alt6 thc coutlc oftlc vlracl !o tbt thc 3pp.rrnt wi[d fora.coD
boardir dl, unlcardcn a ,oolo i! hrDFitrg oFstiolr,
(3) DiloorE wb|t ir bulai!& .od.ko thc !c.t of ttc ft!.
(,1)Mut r .pplirE .r !cc.$.ry.
(t Fild dl F.dti. o!.a of act.
(q Arcarlrin that r aoficiart rrtar $Dply rxiltr, ulirs coarg.ocy
FmF.! llquircd.
(7) DilcoE ehcttcr d.4.'ou! gu.. srt pEr.ot aod aquip frc
fShtrB with hlrthitrg rppdatus.
(t) Eolutr thc safdy of th. frtfi8h&r&
(9) Alwly. bsw . .Frc brr.tbirg rpFrrtu! rvdlrblc out idc tlc
ftr,o[c, fot rtaaorvort
(10)Spny rtl rdj&.ot bultl..b .!d 8eod!.
(ll) Spr&yor iood aly .dj...nt nasEzina co[t idng dllg.rour
loodr,
(12)Mlrtli crtrr nftfghtln.nd .ppli.!o.... !!o....rt,
(13)wrtc.h for.try coDplic.tiort thrt Dry [i!c.
(f,0 Cotrtiourly E tcl for riFr of th. frr rprqditr&
Ot Rloorc .ny .unouldin8 E tldrd, ntict ate i! d.!F of
ignd!&
(lq Mrb ur. of tb. .hip'. colrtr$otiod to F.mt it! .p.!.d
(lO Conrirk thc.hipl.t Ulity.!d Fnpilg6rrurg.d.ntr, ifeit r
b bci!8 !! d.
(lO co!.id!' oltbiaf! ofdccrri..l ffr..
L por! llc loc.l Firc B'igs& rhotrldbc c.[Gd if thc Gtl ir b.toDd
th, cootrolof tbc rhiy'! rtof, Fnicd.rty in drydocf. Liii o! baslcn
thcChi.fFir!Ofic...!d thc.hip'rOfiditrc.h!r8ai!mortinporir,
rnd tbr forn.t nurt borcqulirtcd {ith lhc folowitrg frclt:
(a) When the fire rvasdiscoverdand its locatiotr.
(D) Aclion taken so far aDdwbetheranyooeis missint.
244

FIR,E
(.) WLt crfo i. bumi[g .!d whetDat rirb .r! !..r by.
(d) Wtctl.i aly fr?roof bultlc.d! cri.t
(r) whcth.r wotilstor! rr! clorcdrDd whctr thcy at! locara4
(, Thc puEpirs c.prcity both on ttc 6ro,uail ud otr thc t ilt di&
chr4aa,
6) Th. wcis[t of *.!.. vhich i! .blc to bc pumpcdioto th. thip,
b.riog i! Dind hct rrability.
(r) &!ib of tbc lbip's coqtrudion whichn y.frcct ftdShtitr&
(, Aay lighting.tru8rtlcntt
(t) whcd thr coDpartn ot w|t lrlt oFod(0 Wh.th6 rdj.o.ot phti4 b b.cotriry hcrt d.
l.t|E ND(ISSITY FOT. A,IIIDTHE USE OE BNSi|MNG
APPAIATUS
It ir Eo.t iEportalt to rppEciatathat a garotlt it dcaiEladto ftt i
oxySlofroE . foulcdrtmo.phcrE,If !o oxySani! prl'cnt rtc utc ofa
!!r m|.k will id !o wsy prsvcdtI Fro!'r arphyxirtioD"A btratbi!8
.pp..|tu| rhould thcrrfoE bc utc4 .!d *ill uludly bc .itb.t oE i!
*hich the wearercarrieshis own air supplyor elseone in whichair is
rupplicd through. !o!8 n rit c hotc, citt r b', dit c't rwtiol oo tho
Fn of tha wlarcr or by foot opacrtcdbcllow. ID dl ca!c! lha wrall.r
ur.. . lifdiDc, rnd Eay .i8Dd to thoccat iB oth.r .dd by givi!& ..y,
I pult to Ec.n 'Morc rir rcquitrd', or
2 Flr to m.rtr 'shck thc lifclin ', or
3 pulb to m..tr 'Gct Ec out quiclly'.
If th. ot[.t! giv. thft. pulb on thc liac lhb could bo ur.d to itrdic.tr.
to tbc Ertt, 'Cooc out rt ooca'
Thc lifclin ia usudly lGmm hcdrplioc with &wir hcsrtrdd r brlol- l}.itr
inA slr6s of I tornc. It i! rt lcast3 m lotrgrr thrtr thc air llolc, If tha to! l0 ft
hosEis morcthan 27.5o loogit mustsupplydit by mcrtrsof bcllowt. 90ft
CtassI ship6carry two brcathing sppetatu!sPlustwo for every
spaccsof wNch two mull tre of lhe
80 m lcocth of DassDcer/scrvice
air-hosafupe. class T ahiF carry otrerir-bo! tyPearnonga total of:
2 a@at.tulcs if lhc ship is beteeo500and 2499grocsrons,
3 aiiaratuses if between2500atrd 3999Srosstons, atrd
if of 4(m grosstonsor more.
4 apparatuse,r
Tho rclf-coltaiad rpplr.tur has thc dilrdvrntaSa of supplyinf .
limitad quaatity of air aDdwhcn the warcr is climbi4 out of a comFrtdcot hir cxcrtioB will dcm|trd r lar8.r amoutrtof oxyFn tha!
thc apDliucc Day barblc ro Fovidc,
It i! DostiEportdt for lhaer.tff to lvoid a citltrLr prlh ehaogop
ilt itr e rDoky or dr* ttmo.phcrc,for hc rDay$dndhit lif.lim .rourd

a5

FIX.B
pillar!, ctc.lf hcc.awlsod rll fou$ biavilitilig witl baimprovd, liacc
thc rmokcisconlitrurlly rising.Furthr,hc will rvoid thc rilk ofrtudblitrgald injuriDghimlclf. Hc mult alwryt movcv.ry ca$firlly anddaka
surc that thc surfrcaahaadia quitc frm.
If brcarhingapFretus is uscdby a pcrsonsportinSadylhinglargrr
t[rn a ,mrll bar.d, watcr or gr.$c sbouldbc applicdto rhc baardto
rnelc 8ur! tbat thc fa.c mask6ts tiShtly.
A fittdSbtq lbould b.sr in biod ttat wicd ditrcting hir wd.f jct
througbcrcvicd it oay luddcolyttrika rt ttc r.at of tbc frc rDd thctr
i6 likaly lo bc d vioLot blow.backof hot gr!a! rnd rt .m.
Carbonfucl!, ehcn buning i! a pLotifrd 3upplyof oryg.d, .volvc
carboDdioxidc8ru,wbich,whilc Doitoric, b unrblc to lulrsitr lifc !trd
whcnconc.ntratcd9 % ir air b likcly to provc fat l. If thc iaoc fu.ls
bum iu atratrho6pha&
stawrdof orygad,aottat corrbu(ioD ir iocomplcta, odourlca3,tastclcss,and h&hly toxic c..bod moDoxidcgrr i3
cvolyd; t% of ttir grs in air ir frbl N.ady .[ cohburtiblcE crisls
ooDtaincatbo!. Ifthc 6lr i! burnins{/![ eitb lida smokcttr ibundtnt
rupplyoforygro i! pGaaot,whilctbc rsvrrlc i! truc wbro thaftr buto!
bodly, coihiDg muct rEokc" Itr thir htt.f c!!c frtd proporfionr of
both carboagraaart! pnobHy prcrcnt
Fatrolqta funaacaobafaralvhcn in a Gl % concaotrdid *ith air.
OxyfE wiU bc iD lhort ruDply both ficr a! cxdo6iotrrd whco
cntrritrga coEpqrtDcntwbi:h tlt b..o cl6ad for loDGtiDc, prni. hrly if frlsh paht.ri b, rine thir.ipidly rt o.b! oxylptr.Thr lrtc of
prop6 bnathing !pp6ntu! i! inpafrtiv!, both whadf'r crb rnd
whatat qitA o ,Evlt o|a8d to* at po, ol rotttul ittp Ddrra I! both
crs EDrccaalary
aarurltiasalr ivoidcd rrhirh, in tbc indrnca of ft!,
will rcrioully h.mpc. rhc cfortr of thc fgilars.
A fltfShicr wil 6rd r .prsy noulc urful for drivirg lDokc !.had
of hiD.

rHE CONITOII,E)

TIIE

wh.d thi! i! bdicnld io bo trE, th. follwilt


conri&Fd:

poiob rhould bc

(l) Whcthcrit i! ,afc ro opcathc oomFttmc itr ord6 io rlot]lto


|trd iolDc.t.
(2) Thc bF.tiD8 !p .!d dta.tinS eitt r.t ( of i[ .douldiing
d.brii
(3) Stcprto bc t lo to prrwtrt r.-iflitim witti! tic f.G roDG,
(4) Dmrgc to cer8o,lhc.hip'. stntc{m, ud cl6ldc.l citr{itr.
(t Thc llmoysl of wltcr frorr tbc coDFnmcot,
26

FIRE
(6) Th. imt!.dhb ,crvicingrld rcchlrgin8of.I ftt |ppli.!c6 i!
calc thd! ir s fr6h outbr.ak
(7) ThGtr..trDcrt of rll butnr b),frst si& PainthouH bc rclirvrd by
ldriniltlring norphir. Thc but! .hould bc Protrcird froo tbo
rir (whichprornotBpain)by fta!! ofclcaddrt'dtlsri4s, natilt
tro stlcrnptto clc.oor touahthc burn, or to tamovcaly clothidS
rdhcrins to iL Viclimsof thock .hould bc laid flq tcpt w.rn,
aadgillr hot, ,vc.t d.iot!.
IITE TTPDS
cdl
0)
A fr! withitr buntcr or c..go coalmry bc vciy dow.buttritr8;!trd it
msy Ltc rcvcr.l dryt to c.trhol by ulitrg c$bon dioxidafEr, .LeD
bcirg uBuitsblc. Oft !, il i! of auchDriot Proporrioo!thrt thc trr
ca.nnotbc cxtirsuilhcd,.trd it ia thcrEforrLPt uldcr coltrol utrtil tbe
vl*3clrlach.. por! whcnthc rcrvic.t oftlc loc.l Ffti Brifida ar! am'
ploycd.H.rE, thc dang6 of flshing Gri!tr ehco rtc cobpartdaot ir
oFdad. Thc edjrccntDlrtug mun ba lcpt cool rDd t coBtstlt etbh
lcpr oDbousdarytcoFl.turt'.
The D.o.T. advisethat the companmentshouldbe totally closd
acainstthe entl of air, if firc is discoveredat ser, and that clrbon
ioam shouldbc iojccredinto the
diori&, inen ga;. or high-expansiod
hold. Watcr or itcam shouldnevrbe applieddiraatlyto burningcoal
but may te u-!edfor boundarycoolinS.The sPaccshould rcmain
salcd until lhc ship reachesport, when spcrialist advicc may b
obtaincd.
(D llqdd ft.&
Ecfoc th6c c.ab. ignitcd,vrpoutt Dust ba .mitbd in tuficiant
DroDortioD!to form ao erploiivc rad codb8tiblc Eirturc wilh rir.
Tbii oocun.t thc 0a!h point, aDditr th. c.r. ofFEol will bG tutF
u.lo EmpcratutL.
Pctrol vaDouii! hcavicrthat rir, rtrd .t tla lurfsc of tha iuid thc
mixturr ir too dch to bur!, Justrbovcthr tufa.a ! coEbultiblceixturc
of2-7% of p.Eol v.poui iD .it Dry b. folmA stilc rbo1t lhir lcwl
tbc Diitlrr! ia too wcakto bum. It ir for thi! ala|otrtbst it ir uludly
Frfcc{y lalc to irc s rockctfrom th bridSpofr t DLGi,cv@ otrcin
whicha lcat cxiltt
Onc. tbc combutiblc l.ya ir ignitcd,tha fr! wil co[dnlr du! to
cod&ctiotratrdturbulcnca.
WhctrlodinS or di.cirrgiDg Ftsok iDoking i not Foitt 4 SiLt
ir.. ur.rtinguith.d, rld cootitg mry hc contiluld by Dc.trt of ratr|
coiL Thc radio and rrdrf inrtalLtioot dtttt lot bc utcd, portboLa
rhouldbc clotd djrccot to tbc hoc, .Dd da!8.i.aig[d fa8t rlutt bc
247

FtRB
forva. If workh8 tsvrral fidt lhroqb oo! boaathayatt propcd i! ot
out in d6cdd.i"g ordrt of flslb Point !o rhat thc mod bighly irmnsbh fucb oovc tbrolfh thc litr htt of rll. ID thi! wry rhc 163
d&8!tou! fucb arc lot coluDinrtrd.
Airt within a tocl lut m|y bc ttiicd by clori!8 thc trnl lit, i!
wtich crrc it eill lootr bccomacxtinsuilbadduato lha liDitad oryFn
s6itabh. olhcr tncthodsincludathc inirtio! of c{rbotr dioridc 8a!,
dctcrgpntor chcmicalfoao, incrt 8ss,or 3taam.Firc brigrdc! nly ulc
[ouid oitrosen.Steamrnd carbondioFde areobsolesccolotr tarken.
withio a; oil-fucl firc, hcalingmay spEaddownwatdsat thc ratc
t5 in of 3?cm pcr hout, atrdifa brsc-layctofestcr cxistsit mry boil ovcr'
ca$singthc btazi-ngoil !o ovrflo*. Again, if s watcr sprayis uscd
to .itinSuirh buniug oit ir wil bc itlt dly tumcdto st .e jult Uorv
thc aurficcof thr oil ar it ai!k. Thi! Foduc.r stroil froth at th. .urfaco
hwilg r highfrlh ri.f, 5d whid it wry coEhrltibL"
P.*roL.djaaatrtto s ftG, Flraot! | Prottlcditr tblt rlthoulh it wiUlot
lcc..srily igrito withh iu tant du. to thc t,!ry ti:h Dirtulc rboE itt
aurfrcc,it sill eborb hcatfion tic hot rutioudi[g buLlcadi q9ar4
'!d piobotty .lop ovcr ot r.cp bro thc f,t! to!.. S|&br rnt riouts
prcfhbly bcpr6:pd dry.Thcgr..r.!t drlglf .[itb withi!. r'aleDi:h
i! cfoaadatrdp6rttyfXad,for hcrcthabot,coEPtlrsd Sttaaarclitcly to
.rplod.. Tbrrc lbould .8rh bc prlstd ftl or PuDP.ddry' F9.4 q I
lhctru!.d to dcsrttc t lt ofnpourt" Tbr ptlidtrg-up ofbuning liqui&
in tantdr Dly 3praadthctt! to oth.t ltDt& ttroqh tb gr. linrr.
(O !t tri..
Tb6c shouldGithcrb. ioodr4 if itr ilonitrot daq.t, or.b. cod'
titrudly aprsyldro kc.P rhait coot ot cooL Erploaivd 8.o.tata lbcia
owd orySro,rnd hctrcctbcir bumiry c.D baPros !d ooly by aatuF
tioD or &ttroltl.
(O E c!|cd h..
Tbcsmaybc foughtusingcarbondioxidnioguithcrs.Tbc gasii
non-conduclor
and leavesno rcsiduc, not till it damagcdclicate
a
elcctricalmachinry.Halon l2ll (BCF) is alro idcsl .trd agai.oclules
ro danrage.The usc of dry chemicalsis safc in that thay arc non_
cooducors, but they leavc considerablcrcaidues.Form atrd *8tcr
shouldnot bc u!d on elcctricalfre3, as thcy are conduc-lors.

(5)rl|[
Thi. h&ra hithly f,rlrlmlblc dtroUuloaa b.!c,lbich on burninS
cEitr cdDbutiblc toric fuDca.VcotiLri@ .horld bc ptovid.d to c&ar
thr.. foD6-it wil .rdn thc ftc t'!ft lidc, tiico lt! burthg nh
Foc(rt . oxyg.d.Tbc ft it bcrt hft lo blm out, ehi:h it wil do t't(y
quid.ly, but FEc.utioo! mut bc takcoto prEvldtsplaad24

FIRB
MANINE FNEFICI{IING EQUIPMDI{T
Thc trblcs o! Dag6 248-9rclati4 to fr! cxtiltgui.hasit rcproduccd
by lind pcrEi$iod ofthc Waltc.KiddcCompsDyLtd.
FNE DEIECM{G APPAXATI,IS
(r) Tf. f,,l& zo.. TyF Syd.d
Thi! giv6 wading of fft in prsiaogcrc.bhr, public rprca., crcs,
qu'ltc|r, orcroorD!and lockcrt, ctc,, by lounditrg rtr d|lD h rhc
or firc ltatioDrnd rbo h rbccdgiacroomandcttdt qutwhcalbouac
l.t!, rrtich nak 6 possibl.iostantlocatiotroflhc zoic io whichthc flc
hlr *artad. Thc rrEasrrc dividcdi4to zonca,cschhavidga numbarof

!INCLE

trDDEzoNGoEtcrrNc rvrr:n frworon:r :xorx]l


!!.g!!!lJ:r
bimctatlicthcrmostat6wirld iD rarica,and whichal! nornrlly clotad.
A currcnrofsbout 4 lilitmF. i3 p$sadfor cootinuoutruFavi ion of
thaciEuit Urudly a k.y-opcntadl!.t lwitch anda brcat-gh!! Dalual
stetior |rE itrcludcditr .Nchzouc.
Whcn c{n nt cc.!.3 to prss through ily circuit owitr8 to r ft!
wbichoFr 6 s thaftroitst, or to brcatingof !h3t st r malod atatio!,
ihc lbrd bGr rrc rurg; Tha oficc. of thc valch c.n lhco i$utrdy
loc.t! thc zom etrdtrkc stcF for cxtiotuilhiog thc ftl. Thc rnalual
darn boiaa att plac.d i! ful vicw of p6aladtaE,crlw, .Dd thc lra
prtrol o6car.Atry F 30! oblcrvingthcftlt litn ofirE i! tblc to,ou!d
249

FIRE

cts'A'. Prtq, 164


d.rn, a.oa.l nbblrh
Or.

'B'. FbDbrU.

Cra'q. UE.h.rriol
n anL:
mtod,

YEs--<.dLor
C..!..
.lioljd. rtDIE drrr..
L.
m nid'r.
do.
YE9..@[6L
Crrtn
iliotirL ir . oon.c
dur4r. IAd
.o tr+

J-loft 1G25fl
z5-t5fr
S lb l0lb
l5lb 25 lb
lbl0ballb
,Olb2id

1.5,5,7.t,
lr.al.of t.

2.r, J, to, lJ tt

NO

NO

YEI

Os .toG.l @.lq Fe

R6oed.d

ni.i6.

thc rbD by thc rittrpL rcl of bc.Lint tb. gb. by D..!r of. to.ll
chsi&rttadd bromcr.
Fili I l.l ihosr r typic.l layoutof two zotrasiD thc (il& ,yttao. A
brlal iD thacirErit of cilh.r m firt adit& e|tniEg rt thadctldiog
aabirct,rd op.6tio[ ofthc oonEolrwitch.. ttaa ildi|lar tha,o!o i!
quc.tiotr Thcrr tu ro lioit to tbc lonb.8 of oirqria ncd itr lb .hip
|Dd up to ffty apdraaca! bc Fotrdad o! aactr,oDa T9o cbcf.ic.t
.ourcas!t! rr|d:-.-norDd rhip'r Drirt .rd r h..vydut!r, li:ldjrro
250

FIRB
l.lord.C

Soitr r.i4 re/@,

Fidt&..|

..tn..
YEg--3dlb.t. wrr
ud !..6n FiaEirion
NO. W.rt r

No.v

Mrtq

bd.

nlr

drdLl

tDdd tt

airrddlcor

30-$ ft at30 n

lGlSm

a)fl

I liir

I Gs.--sld.ddftni

h lrd

NO

NO

ator|la b.tt ry utd.r tdclh d.tfc" Shouldth. Ddlr arPly frn, tlc
b.fraw wfll .utom|ti.llly pfuk uP th! load rnd aarry tDalyttao for
morctDal r *tc.l. Viriblc .trd audittLw.rning it inrn dltcly 8ir!o ot:
(l) DoE ftnuF; (2) c.trbilg oftDcdtqdt; (3) |oy i.frts to c-lc ttc
iitim aoor rvtcotlc syrtco it lol i! notntl oP.r.tiod; .nd (4) f.Irlr
oftbc nr+.hrE bdlt
Thc lyrtd rrb|irt i! op6diod I a 6i! dciac{orcvid thcd at'thrt
offhc ftn two frultt ciin
251

2 irl I quti
I tJ I qurn

FIRB
e)1l lld& ldrb. Slof.n bcta
Thir har plovadto bc oDcof thc Eort sdidactoryEce!! for dvirg
s.r!i!8 of i!,.. ir holdr,ad hr bccoi! ..wkG for |onc rhiny F.it.
Fi& I1.2 rhowt, dbgEmnrtic.ly, th. pipilg lsyoutfor o!! told wh.d
catbotr dioxirtcaf,tiquirhing i! urd in conjuctior with tha rEotc
d4actor.SrDplcroftbc hold atnoapha(ratr dtlwtr coltituoudy from
..ch prot6lcd hold itr thc 3iip .!d Frt d tbrough. d.tt ch.ntcr
wbichi! trsvEn d by liShtfrom iiddrn ioutlcs. Thi. light i! trot yiriblc,
fHltLxouSE
0alEctoi

cot toota flTH vttual


ca|n|tal a v^Lvrr
ttDoa trotc

Dattctot

taY otrt

ftoutE [, a

but ..nrt to lbonlly illuEber. eay rnoko ariri4 ftou tlc holt"
Siloc cr.:h piFcld i. hbclc4 th! ootiry hold i! quic,Uy.!d .urdy
lLotifld. ThFc i! Do po.sibility of fd|. r||rE; rhc ot c.v.r lnoet
Tilb car|litrty thrt ,Eotc il iouiag fron a pdtiruhr hoH and hrt !
rouli DC.!u!oof tbr rdolc d.o.ig. O!c. it b dcbcb4 tb it! i. Eort
cft.tit4ly d..lt f,it! by th. crtotr diod& loodilg tyrt o" Thi. ooe,
ainaof a baitcry of.&d cylbrtcfi ootriniag th! gar, who6 cotri.o!
c.! b. dirct&td .t EquirEddon! th! trhplitr! p.l.cr to.!y bol4 or
hol&. Tbr fr| h pilvrorld hoo r!.Ai!S th. dcr.cdrs c.bilrt bt
Ec.!| of . rhrF*ly rdv! wbichi. oFr!.d ioDdhtdy rh. hr.li!|
boldb|. b.cn id.oti0.d rnd bcforDth. !.r L |!lG.l(L
lb Vhl VLti!<foD.r.
Thir h.! F..otly bccoiEFor'ld to rh.t
252

FIRB
it !rc.tly iocrEas6thc vilibility of 6ndl t .c!t of lmoftc, Thc bbct
id.rior of tha ch.Ebci i3 rcnrslly quii! dath but ht! L6p. to rtrrDgpdtbrt seotc i!6uitrgfrom sly oftbc lasPlirtt PiF i! D!d. clcrly
viritt . Thc hot-grlyaniscd,rolid{rarn, rtccl pipcafroE lhc hol&
.dr. thc csbiftt at th. bonoE, wh.t! th.y at. coN.ctld to P.V.C.
piFs kading up to thc vicwing ch.sb.r. Tbc.. piPci tcrninatc il
l2-nsr diamctc.glasstub.s whichpdlsthtouShr brighdylit |tmp box. +in
Thcir ardr protru& iito tha viawiDgchrmbct,whr! thcy art abialdad
ty ncld cniEtr.tr, Thi! i! thor.,Din Fig. I 1.3.
Ligit tr.vrls by inultiplc rcfcclion atrdrcfrecliotrslotrgthclc tubc.,
inadirtilg th. lcgion rcar thcir cndr eith e ditrusclight. Thi! is itr-

ttDo! vtat t aroxE oatEctoi


ttcuit ||. t
vi.iblc, but iluminatca lmokc i$ruirg from a$r tub.. Th. Y;.wi!8c,hrob.f wildow b atrgLd frosr Oc vcrticil to prcv.tt utwetrtcd Efactiod ftom ht rfcriry with thc vicw of thc chinncp. By liftirg. f.p o!
rbc fro oftic vicwiig-cbaEbai,lba gLas tub6 ca! bc cxaeincd I fce
irdaa bclow thc hmp bor. In tti, pan ofaach tubc i! e rmdl, mouldod
!ylo!, proF:lcr-tyF d.aughl-indicaior vholc roratiotr itrdicatct lhd
rh. li[c ir trot blocld.
Thi! i! fttcd itr rhc whrclhousc fo. additioDd
Tb Audtb lh.to..
proiaciio!" lD soEc v6scb thc dctlcling cabirct vith viwitrg-chr$bcr
rnay bc instrlcd in thc whcclho$c, eitbout ctrploing thc audiblc
datlator. Tbc lattcr achicvls biSh sa6itivity by uriry both obocuntior
and &fcctiotr oflight by smoka,ro uprat th. bds[cc ofa photcclcctric
call cirfuit No thcrnioDic vslvc! d! ur.4 .trd I tp.cid rrrttrgcrnctrt

253

PIRE
wihin ric cirEdt rvoid! fa&calrlot rlsultirlg froE coEpoocotfriluF.
ThGhyout of thainrtnrmcotir ihowniD Fi& I 1.4.
A corocrt at d ilamcnt lsEp rDd lcns ford| & parillcl bGaD,Allor
tbc bcaDh!! b..o Fducadto aqurE cro$-lcctiotrby a DNlk it F|!ai
thouSh ! .lighdy lar8.. lquat! of bw!rd-frd!& b.t'iGr-LFr-tyF
photo.c.I!. Th6c rI! vcryataug rcquiringnohigh.rdaiotrrupply,rtrd
ar,onormdly illuDinatld by oDlyr lndl tmo|mt of rt ay lighl ro tbt
Thir otlrEdt
thc output of thc four in pdralcl i! ibout 15micro-ampa.
is b.lancd by thc outputof thc crd ocu,whicbli.. it. |Ddl rlglc to

ENO

,Al.FLES

ttoDE AUOtalc ltaola o!?EcTol


FlcuFl ll. a

thc dircctiotrof thc b.am rnd Ocnforc rlcirl' lidt obliqurly, Thc
orinotatioDof thi! ccll fu sdjustrtic itr ord.t to bh[c thc ciMrit
itritilly. Thc prcscnccof rmokcio t[. dctrdor qrtt of light ftom thc
codccll erd ltfcct roDc otr to tt cclb oftta lqurrr" Tbadificr@ i!
outputcurrlotr thu. cNrcd pc|r.3 tbrongh. rdry lhi.h, otroFrfioq
c.u!6 thc rudiblc rDd vi.usl sl|tDr to fimctid. fwo fo|E rc.blc
caulc' of fallc rl|rD itr aucho ryailD 6rc Sradurlilctarirtrfiod ofa
photo-.cll .trd .low di{ortio! of th. proj.cfor&Ep ihD.nt Th. circrit i5 tbcrdor amnfpd !o thrt citbE of tLa.acvtntr cau r fiult
indicarionindaadofa falsadarn.
MouDicdabovarhc wh..lhoura|ro f*o ildataodaot c.lrrtti! tlotoaa
driyitrBtbc ndr aamptitrgfar. ThGitu, $ould ba altaalafo,ald a
chrl8r-oYlr rwitch i! providcd3olhat ca(i motor fiuati@a ody oo
254

FIRB
qhault
v.lrc ory bc tct to dirchrrgc tha lanplld
dt rnrta d!y!. Thc
air !o t[c amo6phcr!, or, a! a! additioorl dcbatoa' it crn ba aanto
crhlult into th6 th6hou.c. ttr thi! wsy thr pt.$oc. of,ook ir aho
aaallcd. Thc viaual{ctlc{or crbinct i! coDlcctcd to tia rudibLaetaclor
by s connoa pipc, 8!d itr tbi! Pty thc pr6co!. of ftt si&in thr |hip
ii dctcctld. whilc d.ct locstio! ir sford.d by itrtPccrio! of ttc virl|d'
ch$bcr. Th. Lyout itr Fi& ll.2 .void! p$ring rhc lrmplilt piF dl
tbc ary to tbr whcclhoulc: thi! i! s Drjor.dvantrgc' Prrti@irdy vllo
thc systltD i! to bc i!6ttlcd iD r lhip altsdy coDttrudad.
Thc rhm bclb rn|y bc iDltlllcd iD th! whc.lhoura !d cogin}room'
with edditioDal b.I! fttcd in thc Offccrt' accoEEodatio for uaoth.o
i! pon. Tbc ssDc rpplid to thc flult rtrtmt, whbh amit I tlrro! !otc.
i;aettv, rlc srtGm giv.s acvdrl typ6 of rlrrrn wbich at! h.rc
surbmffirad:
( l) Thc rilriDr of alrtm bclt.

izi rm iurfoiietion ofa colourcdlight within tbc *hldhout '


(3) Tbc odourof smokcin thc whcclhoula.
il') thc uc* ofsookc in thc rudiblci.ilclor cabi!.|
(t Thc ameat t o! tta front of thc cabi&t iodicataaa! ouhul cut'
rcnt.
Orcc a ft! i. ddlcrcd, thc ramplingpipc fton t[it hold rhould bo
plu88E4thacndccll rcsct,addtbctyttcd continuaato dctlc'toth'r ftt|
whilc ighting thc initid ooc.

(9 Th. rciin Lo..! Ist Gt GcrldrS PLtt


Bsic Prb4La Thit cquipmcotproducdrn uolimit d rupdyofi!.d
|s! bv burDhi Diaacloil bair, thc oxy8.n bci!8 conY!flrd to crrbo!
Iioxiic aoa .atcr. Aftlr thc produccdg!!at hevc baaocoolcd ald
w'!h.d th.v arc dirlclrd to thc tI! zonc.Tb. gcocrdor catr dclil,t(
]lm-l ,m;tof lrs pc. hourrt ro outlctpE turt of 1Dgr 9crcmr. xuI)-SO0Of
Thi! E cG thc ftlishting Equircmcnlsof r 3!ip, lhc |trgclt hold of 7-8lb Fr inr
2m(m ftr
*tri"n U" " grtio ""p".itt of aru tn].
ga3
i! 13follo*r:
Thcs lFi! of th.

t5%
Nitro8etr
.
t4%
Carbor dioridr
. r %
Orygcn
Ncsligiblo
Sulphurdioridc atrdcarbonmonoxidc
Bv adootbr ! tcchorqucof wrtlr coolilg by dirrct con.lcl with tho
es.-thc cooli-orDrocesi! combincdwith I clcotrtitr8trtd tatubbilt
iaion. wtrichrcrnovcsthc bull of thc ,olublc scidic glcr whic! cra
rc:ult irom thc pGcacc ofsulphut or limiLr iDpuritiaawithidthafiral"
ft. Phd conp.i!.. (l) a blorr drivcd by (2) .n..lctrto notol o!
255

FIN.T

21 gl

Di6cl atrgioc. Thc lattcr dso drivas an altamator to providc clcctrical


powt for (6) add (7). (3) A comFct, combiDcd,codbostion and .cmbbiog unil (4) Fucl pump, c.otlols, instruDcntation, safcty intcrlocks,
ctc. (5) Piping rystcnf co rol valv.s, ruitablc dischrrgc ittiogs, c!c.
(O A watcr purnp drivlo by (7), atr clctric motor.
Thc burncr consumcsrouShly120litrcsof Dicsloil pcr hour. Th
burncr L ignitd by rn.atrs ofmain snd stend-by lpark plu83 powc|d
from thc sbip's mai$, via tr!trsforocrs or @ils, or froD thc Dicscldrivcn altarnator.
Thc idcrt ga! fu prcvcn&d fron b.itrg cont ninatcd with watcr droplct!, sttcr wa5hitr& by mcaosofa b6flc systcmwithi! thc dclivcry pipc,
It is dclivcrcd to lhc 6re zonc at both dcck and dcckhcad lcvcls.

(4) Tbc U3. of Fh. G.r for lmnbS


tons
AI t&tcrs ovcr 20,m bnn3 (and if lcss th.tr that 6gu&, only if
bns cquipp.d sith cnrde oil washingsystrm) arc rcquird to be fttcd wilh
incn-8assystcms.Thc most favourcdand practicaltyp is that which
cmploysthc flue gasfrom tbe fun[cl. Thc analysisofthis easis in the
ordcr of: oxygpd4 2%, carbondioxidc 13 5%, nilrogcn?7%, sulphur
dioxidc0.3% and watcr vapou. 5%.
fic fu. gasis passcdto a scrubbingtowcr whcrcthc gasis clcen.d
and coolcd, A typical toncr cmploys trays of sca-rratar,onc abovc thc
othcr, with thc waGr falling from top to bottom. Th. ovcrflow from
thc bottom tray is pipcd ovcrsidcthrough an cfllr.nt lin. and will
contain sulphuricand sulphurousacid formcd by r combinalionof
sulphurdioxidc and watcr. In cascsof bad combustion,oily vapour
may find its way into thc towcr and tr condcnscd.As this passcs
ovcrsidc thc vcssel may tr committing a pollution ofcnca. Thc gas
bubblcs up from thc lolrrr tray to thc top, posscsthrough a dcmistcr
!o idovc moistu.eand is thcn piFd to thc tanksthrougha dcck scal,
which ects ss s onc-wayvalvc and is dcaigncdio prcvcnt csrgo gnsfrcm
passingback to thc cnginc room. By this timc thc gas is about 2'c
abovc thc scaicmpcralurc.
Thc oxygcncontentofthc gasmust bc kcpt bclow 5 Zo-which .lso
inhibits corrosion in thc tanks. An alirm is usually 6ttcd to givc
warningif thc oxygcnriscsto t%. Thc lowcstoxygEnconocnt.ationis
found whcn boilcrs arc vrorking at full load.
Tank ullagrs arc 6llcd with incrt gas for thc loadcd passagrand will
vcnt otr in hot climatcs as thc cargo cxpsnds. As thc ambicnt tcmpcraturc lowcrs, morc 8as will havc to bc injcctcd.
Whcn thc cargo is dischargpd, thc incrt 8rs is drivcn in and this
prcssurcaids pumping of thc cargo ovcrsidc. Thc cmpty tsnk cln thcn
cithcr bc lcft full of incrt gas,or gasfrccd, o. clcancd-Clcaning crn bc
256

FIRE
gas
w,th
inart
in
thc
compartmcnl.On lhc olhcr hand, as
carricdout
jt
may
b ballaslcd,in which cascthc incn
is
thc
iank
ampty,
soonas
will
vcnted
on
bc
css
lt shouldbc notedthat inmcdiatclyaftcr dischatgrof thc cargo,th.
incrt gaswillbcmixedwith tomc hydroaarbongasarldlhccompartment
wallnccdto bc purgcdwalh|norcincrt gasbcforcclcallrngcommcncs.
This purgingmay lakc up to 2E hoursand shouldcvcntuallySivc an
crplosimetcrreadingof | % or lcss.
(5) g.lor

Gs (1301) CFr Br
This is the tradenamcfot a compoundchcmicallyknown as bromo_
elso known as BTM. Halon is colourlcss'odourlcss'
trifluoromcthana,
non-conduclrve altd five times heavict than eir. It iohibita thc chemical
rcactionof fucls with orygcn. lts SrcatadvantaSais lhat it has low
toxicityto humansand is safcforuP to 4-5 minutcs.It boils a! -57"C -?l'F
and fr!z.s at -l6E'C. It is up to thirty timcs morc cxpcnsivcthan -271'F
carbon dioxidc bul is an idctl substanccfor rapid i.jcction into *orking
spaccssuch as cnginc toons. Only 5% of thc spacanc.ds to bc fillcd
with halon iD ordcr io Gxtinguisha frc.
(6) BCF or Hdon l2l1 CF, Cl Br
h is
Thc chcmicalnamc for this is bromochlorodinuoromcthanc
normallyfouod in cxtinguish.rsand is a very cfrcclivcsmothcringgEs'
which for shon periods of exposure may b regarded as non-toxic ll
tends to vaporise more slowly than Halon l30l and is therefore
better suied to.extinguisher use, as a Pirtial liquid iet. Halon 1301
however is slightly saler for breathing and can be used in inhabited
spaces, assuming nomal evacuation.

257

CHAPTEX. XII

DRYDOCKING AND LOADLINES

IIIE STAAIITY ASPDCT


(EQU I.LY APPIICISLE TO VESSEuI AGTOUND)
r tu d6irdblc ttat . Ercl cotcriaga drydoct .hdl bc upridt !trd
bavcr rDall amout of rim by thc ltlfir' for tlctr rhc will itritisly
rcatoo thc block! at thc ettffDoct poitrt of b.. tcl Shcwil thctr
pivot rbout thfupoidt b a vcrticalpbdc !i thcsatar Lval fsllsa may
dlo bc pivotcdLtcrauy by DC{!! of hcr fotc bEa.t-lincaao ttlt hat
kcclmly bc rlis!.d eilh ttc bloctr.
U il thc eat.r Lrll fa& bclowthc taat thc iEs!cl'! wcith! ia 6uF
poltld p.rfly by tlc block! sld Frdy bt lhc xrlflf. Th. upsEtdr!.c.
tion of thc tccl blocls Esy bc cotrlidcrd a! a lagatirc t{aight i! r
morDcotcalcul.tioo,prodrcing! daciralain tbc rhip'r stability,rrd it
i! Dolt imlort|trt th.rtthcBrcl rcoiirr rtlblc until 3hctrlca tbcbloctl
alotrgtbc foll lcn$h of hcr kccl, i.a wh.o .h. i! err4 for urtil tti!
rooircnt Orclitc shor!. c.!trot bc .rrduly
ritSod.Onoothc !E$al
i! lr|!r..[y suppofld by rtor!* hcr rtlhili9 coDditioni! of !o prtctic.l
ootlLrluarca.
A f.rv a|oEcnts'thougbtwill rtrrkc it tpFrlrt io th. F.d.. tLt th!
upwrtd thrurt of thc kc.l block! rft ir llrt rcquird to d6ttoi tto Yt.aal',trin until rhc i! scwEd,!!d murt th.rcforc b. itr dir.ct paoponion
to thc trio valuc Tha rcadcrmaypidcr to collidcr thc litrc of bloct!
moviagupv|td! towrr& thc k al: that nakc contrcl rft aod xcrt 6
IErtaiDforccrvhichis r lo3rin dilplaccrrctrt(if thcbloclr u! aupponilg
9an of thc 6tdp'twcigbt,l[cn thc watlr cutrot sbo bc doingtbia).!d
ar/lrtuauymlkc contactthroughouttba thip'r lcl8th .r ahatilb $out
rn rrh*artahiF ari!.
Cotrsid.lr vc*scltrinmd 25 ce by ttc 6trm aDdbiviDg a nolrsot
to cbrng. trio I cm (M.C.T.I cm) of 25m tooncr"cE Thc aftar kc.l
knucllc fu 50m flodl thc rippingccntft or o?dtrcof fotation.
Th. momcntcausingthc initial trim is 25 x 25m totrD6-cE.
Tha6odDt d6troy6g thir trim b r forc. P x 500()toaDc&aD.
Th.y a& aqud &rd tlardorc,
25x250m-Px50
FroE whic,hP : 125rotrDc3.t tha iistaot of lcwitr&
258

DRYDOCXING AND LOADLINBS


If hcr itritial dbplacanantrws lom lontrca4nd hcr lotr!6 Fr cm
was25,thc! her displacc$nt
iDnersion C[,P.C.)at that displacemcnt
whiL bcingicwld bccoEca9875tonnd snd shc1o3.!5 cnr of da.tr
draudt. At tha sanc tillc thc 125tonncsupwardthrust llduc brr
stlbility, and il is for rhis rr.lon th.t th. ioitial trin by thc .t rtr
shouldbc kcpt as lov as possiblc.
Oncatha ship is f,at otr thc blocls shaloscsroughly 25 tonnq of
ditphccrDcntfor cvcrycrn lossof maandrauSht.i,c. an amouDtrquol
to herT.P.C. for tlc xbtingdmugbr.This increalilg thrustat the ke.l
blocts atc.adilyr.duc.s thc shiy'sstsbility by an amountrqurl to
P
-#x K G cm,i.c' a dscio thapoaitionof thcccntrcof gavity.
wh.ra P is thc lossofdisplaclmantin tonns,fis thc iritial displacamrni in lonncaand trC thr distsnccof thc ccnir. of gravityabovcthc
Lal mcr3urEditr cm.
GENEnII. PROCIDI,NE
Bcforc clteriag a drydock, tba folowing it!D! should ba Sivcn
ritltrtion:

nt fr
A ful strd dctriLd lirt of rrpqin to bc carricdout s'hiL iu dock
rhould bc prcporld,duplicirhg at lcrrt.ix copica!o that !I hlc&atcd
Ftti6, rucb a! tbr O*l.aq thc ,bip'r Oficctr, ihc ,hiptrpair Mrtr.
rga6, thc fonocd, ald th! Dockms5tcr,cro cachba providd with r
lirr. h doclqaaanitld ttry bc 6oar.d ofr thc lirt ar aoodaath! rcF r
i! rccoDpliahcdto th! raridrctiotr oflbc Oficar or Sufftor i! ohrr8c.
DrqI d lit
I! o|!y c 6 tD6c trE rtipulatld by thc D@k Auttoritia* wbotatr
ilto accoudthc dcptbofwatlr rt thc dockr l whadl[a $!acl ir !ch+
ddodtoc rr, rDd rbo tt d.cliitf, L.,6c slqr. oi tbc bl6t! rt t[.
dock aotreDc, Thc Dockmaltarrhould bc ilformcd of lla draqlt
ald Eim .r roon r! pocsibLro that ia Day bc atrlc to Sivr dnFb
loticc if hc tlquitl. thc6 to b. dt ttd
St-ts lFafra
Tbc Docr!o..!.r .hould t lotiird of ttc poritiod of b re fcc!, if
any, tbc nlo ofrbc at o, lhc typc rrd truDbcf,ofpropdfit rnd tha
poaitionofacho-rouldq tn mitt6 ud rccaivau!it!. Any proEudint
bfr (rli t E rEcordcft)rhouHbcpithdrrwn into tb hull
259

DX,YDOCKING AND LOADLINES


Cafo
Thc Authoritie rhould ba;nformd ofthc criltcDccllrd dilpolition
of sDycr.go withiDihc r'!*rcl. Thir rubjcct*iU bc da.lt with iD 'lorr
dctlil tl I Ltr. 3tr8a.
Itlotrl'L W4ilt
Th6c lhould ba ,aqrrcd,sinccit i! d6ir$lc that thc vlstl should
bc ia thc samccolditio! of frim, pEfcnbly hrgc *ability, ald zaroli!t,
both wh.n cDtcrins!!d fnlly l.&vidgthc doc.kTatt! lhould bc citlcf
full or crnptyao tbat !o f&a rurfrc6 aiirt which rr! datdmcntalto
rtsbility. Thc fotr rld rtlcr pcrt ta*r shouldptd6.bly h. .opty,
aiica th6c r& dific'rrltatra! to lupport with ahor6,ard thc lt lcl may
bccomchogSad,Ai aootrs! tho v6scl i! !awd, thc talls !!d bil86
ahouldba loundcdtbroughortthc rhip, rld thaaarsdingr rtE duplicatcdbcforcrcfoaling thc vrsscl.A lirt of loudingr nay bc givctrto
t[c Doctmatcr. If tett! ar! full thcE is thc advr sgcof bai[g rbL to
rapidlyotlcrvc lc.t!.
DrirlA* G.{r.t+ .i Ar&fr
Th..c rhouldprlfcrrt y bo i! tic sto$rd po6itio8 boti wh.o .ot6.
iDged lc.vilg thc do.k.
Irt .fL! fb Iroct
I! porb ofdoubtful a6ci.ocythc Mrttcr ihould, if po.litrlc, vicwthc
docl *!ad drt rnd &cariainthrt:
(a) mitrbL .nd .frci. .horirg rr..!t dcnb .!c Fovirtd;
(0 tho fal bloclc.hv! lcrd rop .uftc.r, rt! ortoly djlpGrrd, .!.
.ub.tlsthlly coBtnr{.d, r,!d |t! udrDlgd. Tbcy tbould
n turrlly cxtrtrdtumcicadyto acoDDodrtc thcrl. l'.lccl: rrd
(c) wh.rhcr bil8. bloct! or bd! rrr provid.d,
Thc atori!8 ofa ilaral in i drydoct ia vrry naaa$rry,rire t[c up
e.rd ptt..ur. of th! tod tlocL f.!d, to pnth thc ft*rcl out of O.F,
rh. Ul86 .'r i!cli!.d to .ag; .!d thc ridc plsting t dd! to inclirc outsrrd!" Wood6 dd! (br.ot) .ho&r .!. pLo.d b.tw..d thc hut-iidc
pLtiry and thc doct rid6, wbic'h.r! .t ppd into .rt4rr to t t thc
rhorr hccl&DrLiDgoartaiotht thoh.ed of thalhol! rcatao[ a fraDa,
lhu! avoidiogplstr iadc .tiotr!. ThcaaahoG. lrc itrclird diSbdy
rbov! rhc horizontrl.A.ccord l^F of lho.l3 (bilg! ahorca)lr,c oftao
rig8rditr r dmihr Du[cr butjult rbovr tbctoundof ttc tilg!" ltr romc
dockrth..c lborB str hydnulicallyoFrrtad ald .t! hourd, *hcd trot
itr u!c, iDtha doct *ft.,
A litrc of bilgptrloclo,ic. b!.vt b.u[r of tidb.r built up ilto mF
2&

DRYDOCXING AND LOADLTNES


porb siDiLdy to kcclblocl,, r& ofic! r Fm!trGnt f.sturc of thcdoc.t,
|!d thougl mor! vid.ly rpcocdthan tccl blockr,thq, .!c v.luabL i!
$pporting thr t ilgrs,but thcynult bc plao.dnldcr s loogitudirsl ridc
!itd6 i! ordrr to tvoid stridtr8 thc pbtitrg.Onocthcdocki! dry, th6.
bloc.t! rt! built up to thc plsting by dcin! ofcrt. woodr! p6ckioS
pirccarnd wdgps.Thcyr& ofparricuhr iDportrnccwhcnthc vc*rclir
partly or frrlly laden. Bilge blocks sometimesrcmove the ncd for
shorcs.
Orcc thc Kcl ba! cntcrcdlhc dock,thc crfusonSttc will bc iost d
iDtopLcaard loclcd. Thc vr.scl wil bc rliSBd ovtt thc fcd block by
foffrtd ad r& aod thcnthc
ttc DocbDscr, usirg hb dockinS-bohd
docL eil bGpumpcddry. Thc followingpointr shouldnow b. Sivc!
itLntioo:
c|lEff
Ar tlc *rcr lcvclfalb, thc ship'! ridc vill bc scrubbcdclca! by Ec!
woatingfrom foatiDgpotrtootu.If tha*stcr lcvd fslJ too quicklt thc
.lr.nin8 vill bc hssty strd incomplct. Cloaclirilod with thc Doctm8t!r aiy nEult in s slovitrSoftha punPingntc dutitrgthit rcLtivdy
iDportantFriod. C!rc rhouldta tdlcn to rccthrt troPotrtoonrllound
otr tbc proFllan or dtetB.
&ra
Tbr.c cdnot bc.ccurld in plicc uotil ihc v...!clis sc*ad,but !! toon
rt rhc hr! doacthi! thcy wil bc rw|mgilto plaocby ahotEcrmct aad
mustbeheadcdagainstframesro avoidhull distortion.If the vcsrclis
in r Endci cotrditiotroocl rtabiily propcrticr),tbc ahor.. msy b.
rougblyril8ad a! iood a! thc va$cl cortrct3 fba blockt a$ ctrd tbc
cultd'
puopitrgmrybccodpLt lyltopp.dwhilctt yrcb.iagtudlyt
OF thadocLir dry, thc folowirS itao! 6u!t bc cortidacd, tbaliat
lot bain8in rtry chFrologil ord6:
For. @rd.11 shorct.hould bc ri88d itr Plscc,pinictlrrly bcicrth
ttc forc Ft lrll wbcrr thc kaalblocL do rot givcanydupport.
Iok riould trw bccl roudcd a! loon !! thc vt*lcl iat itt on thG
bloc.b,or cbc doncnow eithout dday.
Dtrcicrgarett oFdcd ol,rtlidc for i8p.cliotr. Bsnc pbtaanry bc
radrovrdfor clc.dng and cootingotr thcir intrcr aurfacct,d!.r thich
tbcy.tr wcldd bdckinto phcc.
yat r Crorrarlhoold bclock d !trd arr'ngFmcdt!Dadcfor P.f'orln.l
to osctoilcts within !h. dock ar.a. ln 6hipsfittcd with scplic tanks,
errrnglmcatsrnay bc nadc to drain this tank itrto thc ahorcscwcn.
to drrin lhc tank dirccdyiDto lhc
Altcmrtivcly it rnaybc pc.mi&sibla
docl outld drain chrnncls.

xl

DRYDOCKING AND LOADLINES


FhG
Art'ntlnctrtr rhouldbc D!d. to provirlctLc rltlcl with tn dcqult!
supplyofirlatiting vlrcr, lrd i! .dditiotr, dl ft! rpdiuc.r ihould
b. rcadyfor inltmt u!c. Flqu.ddy tbc Doct Authoritid povidc r
ftt4ehol lcrvicc ehcrrby o* or nol! ritc.btDc! vilit cr,.ry Fn of
thc rhip a.ci hour, thcir Eowmao&bcingEcordadby ruitsblyphcod
tiEa docb,
Adtta
Thir .hodd b. phccdsboordt[c shipifpocsittc, FirErily for npid
ruD&ori!8 of ft! or aDbulrtrcclcnicca.
E.tldt'
gcctakity lrppliaa, auitablcfor thc vraacl'3cquipEcot shouldbc
providcdif tha Di6cl gcnrrdo8 ltl to bGovrrblulcd BoilcB vrill ba
allorDd to bu! do*!.
,tn.@rt Msn mty bc nlgd by wldiDg r .uitrttlc cablcto . bdFd
u!. of hul pLti!& ThGody oth.r.artbiry routcr .nihtic in r .hip
rBting od *oodca blocLrrr! alo!8 lhc sir! hsvlan, vifth Ery lot
providcgpodcootactrat thcir Gxrrcditi6.
IIot WG
Thi! mult bc rupplird for cooliq rtrd wrlhiry frdlitic., .Dd if thc
tlaaal'a ddcrtic bratidg cquipE ot i! to bc ortrtluLd thc Dock
AutboritiaaEsy Inovilc clccrricwet r boilcl!"
W.ldraa
WrtclEad 3houldbccmployldto ptlrtdt umurhodlcdp.rrola froD
bodditr& rnd to 8ao.ta[y rtt dd tbc 8aDgr.y.
Ih{h
}tut! ul Inrr.E
T!60 Dry b. rlp.iat 4 tncforD.r tdng cL.c&.dty th. .hipriSht!.
AtonSthc .idc plat'rngth.r. .r. oftcn rE U rpot of wld.t o c6t i!
bol! cl!!.ili!G. Thc .r! join d by r chr& litrc .trd th. dr.uSbt
m!r*r rt! cltaild foaaaq|trr], u3ingthir ar o dEtuDli!a, It it !om+
tim6 coDroicnt to efi|trgo for Oa loadlila lurl/ty to coincidc{ith a
dtydoctirg tbarcDsrls hntrt lmniD.d rt lha aaootiEa,
Dr{e
Thc $.!cl w l bc cdrfirlly rurvcycdby thc OEc..r, . Lloldl Hul
Sgwryor,ttc CoDFtry! ElSin GfSuFitt orltot rDd dro th. Do.t262

DRYDOCIrINO AND LOADLINBS


}r.td ft|trrflr, Tha Mrrina Sup.dntaodantir rbo Farant. DGo&d
d|&r viu b. .tni!it!o.d (f!ircd), b.d!g io !Di!d thrt tho.otroo!,!d
for tlir puipoia eil hlr! ro ba horo-tc.td or rlplload.nt. W.apirS
dwt6 .nd ..aD! eil bc c.u&cd, thc tril .!d |hrf(.) Day b. vithdraw! foaaxrmirrtion oflirq rcrl{own, rd thcruddararrDi!d fo(
eurpcorioawtar. Ttc propcllcrbhd.. *ill b. .s.rni!.d for tip d&r.8.
|!d thco polilhcd oD thcir rufaor.. l\,t d lirtiq aEar of d|nlgp, or
pbt6 whichEquitc sc.ling;thc !hc[ pLttlg pL! viU b. u!.d, b..ri!8
i! mind ttrt pldai lr! lunb.rld fioo d lnd lcttlrld from thc !trboatddrata ('A) upwrd! tovird! tbc rhccr ltrrtc.
Td
Atry t!trtr whichnccddrridng wil ha\& thcir plug! r!6ov!d frca
thc rbcl phti!& ioto irldc,hthcy arr u!u.[y rlcled if thry hls !
Fotnditrg hcxrsen l b.ad to prlvr it .h.rri!& Th... plu!' Eud to
Dhc.d in ..fb cultody .nd rcpLc.d b.for! thc dockit noodcd.
Cdoachcdd
Atr.n8ro.!t for thb .hould bc Gldnin d ty thr irrtrling ftu rld
uodaa rwx/ld shrrc trquitrd. Thc ,i!c phtaa itr wry of tba rtat!
frrEc Dr', lrd rtocwitrgif brdly conodd. Tharcrcprc..ot ttt catti6t
dlod of carhodicprotlctiod, ald it i! of itrtcttst to lotc thlt r,bao
Sir HuDpbry D.W daaitlcd that, thcir putpGc var uodatltoodao
litd. tt t thc),wr oft.o 6tt d to woodcnrbip..
A|tu! ol C.tLt
Tbcrc Dry bc r.trSd i! thc doct bottoE for glairi!8, taatingfot
slrrdowD, chanSingtha ciblc Loglhr, ll-Er*i!8, rcnced of lcd
FllcE, and at thc ,.Dc timGthc c.hlitr lockar ca! ba cLatcd |trd
*rld/coatcd if mcc*ruy. (thc rrrd6 ia bdc rcf.rttd to Chapar I.)
PrbS
Tbt rifl lroaaaly bc coDDldcad0r aoo! $ tb. rttscl it drt !!d baE
bottod ha! bcaoclcatrcdof dl Smttha" Thdc llc Frtiofidy caidlot
.t phrc LFjoirb, rld .r! litdy to b. ilEond doc to lbr t .t phcrl
hc.droon ir liEitd for eo*itrg: Tbc lowcr .idr. of tib. tclt rr!
frr$atly tbicuy co.t d with Erri* trovthr. Thc d.?o.itt Ely !!ad
.liilg of if rlry h|nt, ird i! roDc.|!6 th.y ur burncdoE a Foccrr
(',,fd&'a,da.
Wb.rGtb. hutl Filts.t
ir ir goodconditioor fttri oo.t of.!ti.
fouliogi! atl tbat ir lcc.srary, .pplicd owi i qubt dryiry cot of.!tifouliDf ordrrafit, ehich scrb aDdbindr tboturf&c ofttc old p.int rnd
263

5m fi2 D.r C

3mftuFrC
5(Dft' pcrltl

DRYDOCKINC AND LOADLINES


msk6 it compstiblowith lhc entifoulirg coEporitiotr.WtcD thc pdarworkir lrrzcd or pittcd,esoflcnoocuFi! wry of thccollisionbulticrd
duc to a$.bor-.rblc chefc,thc aurfaooshouldba clcdrd, rEoothcd,
rd co.trd eiti. m.tallic pritrc whichi! .nticorrociyc,Tbit ir frdly
covsld lrith rntifouliq prinl
Ifthc v6scl ha3rt3tld otr thc t cl bloct! in . diftr.ot Do6itio!fron
l.r5ttimc, prtchcaof har kc.l wilt ba bat! or abortof r ifouling, snd
pafiiculd rttantio! shouldbagivld to thi! rt!d.
For lcs or b6r! pLtiog (ard oftcn s fsw plst6 rtr rcrlcd rf c.ch
drydockiDgh ordcrlo LGaprhc aufaca!dooth), ttrcr to four cost! of
mctsllicprim6 ihould bc epplid, foUo*rd by o[c coat of aotifoulitrS,
To mrkc surcth.rt thc primhg cost! alc proFrly applicd,it is ofLn
codvcdicDt
to uscNaprratccolourNfor cachco!! aaypint, bro\N!,ald
ydlow. ID thb yry, my patchcashortof Fint wil bc.voidd, in .ddi.
tio! to wbichttc O6car rDd poirt forrm.n c.! i!fillrly ararr thG
progr!6! of ttc pailtaf&
A! long!! pGlible abouldbaa[owld batx,!c[ thcsccost!,whi:h dry
in about four hours.Thc covcringcapacityis about l0 m! pcr liac.
This irimcr hr3 a vcry high rcsbt$cc to watcr,and r iurfaccwhichis
compatiblcwith .ntifoulin& whichis now spplicddLEt.
Atrtifouliry compoditio!i! applicdh odrr that thc dow tnd constrtrt aolutio! of thc roxio sub6tanca!
*hi:h it cootaitrtwill kcaDtbc
rbip'r .udaccio m elti!.ptic condition,o that rc meritrcgrowti cea
obtah s foothold;thc prirt i! thu5r .torc for poironou mltarid& but
ttc antiraltic conditior ir obtiDrd ody st thc crpcolo ofr daplcliotr
ofihir ,torr' i! olhcr wod! it i! r erltirg proc6s.ThGcompolitiotrof
thc pabt mustbc auchttrt it base bigblycoDtrollcdrab of toxi, d.plctioo. Th6a mrtcrirb str dcrivdfrom coppcrrtrd mctrury. Arrcnic i!
occ.6iomllywad, but is fsr morr cfrcclivclypoilodour on higbcrbioloSicalordcra.
Bccausof their constituents,atrtifouli!8 paints are cxFnsive
bul shouldrcwr bc tbitrtrcd,s! thi! h a fdac ccotromy.It is dlritBod
to bc eppiid ot r carlsidcoBistcncy,!d atrythi!trilg wil rcduccib
protactit/cproFrtic!. Thc pric. is uruauydircctly proponioDd to thc
,trllgth .trd du.rtio! ofthir prot!c{io!" If, h etrE dio.tln lhc Firt
i. fourd to b. rhir, two coau .hould bc .pdicd. thc rtrodtlrt |Dd
mostcxFisivc atrtifouliogcowrt at thc rda of about6.5 mr F litrc.
Antifouling undcrcoatscovcr at thc ratc of sbout l0 m, pcr lit r
and dry in abou! two hou.s. Anlifouling p6int should .lwsys bc
epplicdovcr thc undcrcoator 6nsl primc. not latc. than twnty-four
hourr slLr thc forEcr h8 &icd. It murt lctrci ttctr bc dlorcd !o dry
hard unl6s of poltuEthrnc basc.Thc dock mustthcraforrbc floodcd
bcfr6 dr ad trcoty-fou hourrsftlr ipplicltio! of tbc cotrlp6itiod.
Thc boot-toppitrgthould bc cdrcd aithcreith ctraEclp.itrt or ab
4

DRYDOCIONO AND LOADLINES


with dtifoulilt ooepositior, thc lati.r b.i!t Fcfcnblc, ,irc. tu!.d
lrowtb b nod cridlot at, lrd trcir, thc v|!ci tufrcc. EuDcl pi!t,
hotcrlr, i. fa! norr c.lily clc.trd of oil rtritrr. A difctlnt colourcd
|ltifoEliry n|y bc ur.d if r!..ir!d,
no.O.St
ccrttio dock',ldr u! uliDgtti. Dcthodof paitt tloovd h prdcrcoccto thc trlditiord Gling Thc illtruDctrt i! virtudly. Su-.upplid
(ory{c.tylrn ) blorllmp, but th! IhDc ir coitt d froo r widc-o3lo
flhtdl rFJtur! lnd quictly tloovr. p.iDt, horlE tii.k or old. lL.
th.d bc wirt-btutb.d by r D|n folo ilt rhc frD+
d.tirt.hodd
opcr or. Thc naatod h|! thadvaltagc tLlt th. Ddal it low dty ald
r|rD !!d rhut itr.l for priltil8. I! d{ep cotrditior! it i. rdvitrblc to
u-t .D!offourEar; oFm|trburla of thcpdtrt,I Htde.nfollow
clorc bc.bitrdflirqbrolbitr8 thc pl|tilS oL.!, tnd ttG rr@.i!i!8 teo
folov dotrg wih rhc f'tt prioilg cort
Tbdt i! o!! point to bGe.tch.d, iorcvlr, shich it Eo|t inpotllnt.
Dorbg runcyr it ory oocurtl.t th.r! eil b. r SuEfor .nd O6err
cs|ninint oil trDl undcr"tr;.5 n166 clarirg ir ia Fo!ft'|. ThGolty
r! iduGo! the irlidc botton platilg quic&lyvaporircailto rufrocatint
fumcs.Shot bl$ting, saDdbhsting md ultrr*onic clcaningarc rsf.r
ncthods in thk rcspcct.

c|.d.E$ry-addravourahouldbc&!dc to t ? thGabip.| cL.tr ar poadur,


|!d whilcdccl-walhingEly lot baoo rloioo! tbrtc ir rc rcr.toorby
.- ltlqry d.ily lqlcpiDg rhould not bc c.nld ou.. Arrrtr$o.db
rhouHta ba& to bavctL !hip', alfutc rtoovld at ftaquaotitrt wab,
panicuhrly i! hot rc.tiar.
ll.t
{.frdlt
G.0
If tbc lhip ir lighl rtr dDir.th oDporturitt,it .fordd to c.r!y out
ia.tiDg!!d clcaling of thit tyrtaorty lncrrr ofcoDfr!$ad air.
id

Wh ttv w&l h rdy


a att4/t:

lo lew th. t tttto& th.lotbwhg lta'lt dn

Dbit
.
Tb rhould brvr dl non-rctt|lr vdw. npL..4 .!d b.fr.. ittql
(rh! .uDpli.d).
5

DRYDOCKING AND LOADLINES


E
A[ t !t! rhorld hv! fhcir u!d! rr.r drd! dugr i! phcc, rld ln
o6t drtdoc,lr thc do.&ir lotlood.d Efil tbcDoctE !t ri! Fr.cor.d
with . risrod c6t'$c.t .t tilt thrt .! O6s h.r illFctad tb hul
|!d i! &ria6adon Oi! comt
tb
Thr .hip'r lot thould bc.DM

to ..c ibrt it oo!td!r:

O) Th. tiDc rt *tich thc vr...l .di.r!d th. doc.k


(2) Tbo tie. rt tvtnh tbc lrc '|! clo.od
(3) It tiD! rfi.o pnoDi!8 cobo.oc.d.
(4) TDorinca wbro tbarraal *|t rt|.d ard alto xAairrtc dod '.r
drt
WLd Lovi!8; ib. lot .hould c@trin:
(l) Tb dD! rn.[ foodn8 co@.oc.d
(a Th. tino rlro lh. r'q.d fo.ad.
(3) Th. dD6 {h!d thc trtc irr op.o.d |'d rft.|r th. r! rd Lft th!
doa&.
A rcpon .hould bGnrDi.hd ro thc orDtt r.t i!i!t . ooP!|.bo.t'4
dving .ll th. .bolt tiD.r, &tr r of tbc wort doo. i! docL,tto q!|ltiti...!d tlF of Fitrt tr!.4 thr Mrh. SoFitrt odcot'. ophim of thc
idlirl cotrditionof tbc udlrf,.t r Firtworlq |!d dl oth.r ltlrv.lt
f..6,
INCIING

MEIIIOE
I! F.t d!y! tilro xt(! ti,o octhodr of qo.ilt r rhip'r lrndlft lrf
nrftca, atrdtb.y rrc roriby of Eadti@ pordy ft@ tbr l,oinb of riaw
ofiDt [r!t rld iraltadlt ltr &.d.dr E voaaboldy.
Or..-f
h thi! carath! Ercl T|' nm d* inrhorcolt' a auitablob...[, rt
hiih 'rt r, .o tL.t .b. SrioEd.drt Loerd.. .od h..Ld orl! . Th! tiEc
rily r!fry liDibd.
rvdhbb for r?.ir.!d D.int o!!cc *ott e.t Et
Tbc octbod ir dl *iddy urcdfo( dtll cr.ft. lt i!' of courc, c.6tid
tbat lbc rc.-bcd &i.. out oo6Plctalyd lov tri.t iD fha loaalig of lh!
Ylaac|.

Hranh Itorr
IIarG'a r,lrad'|r t dcdovarhyrt|Gtlrof taa&baan
W bctffi bar
Darb ald alothlr !hip, htll, or ahor!atLfuaotr l&a daatats!
26

DRYDOCKTNO AND LOADLINBS


rilfld witb qtr| prs,lot r.hrod! to diridbut! th..tt!.rc. i!voh,!d,
|! carrcni4i but ri@ tbc tdl rs
Tha Drtlod *rt lot aonsful
rit rbomc' tt r! wa! littL hull !t!s!, unl!, ofcout!, it toochld fhc
r.s.bcd.
Nowrdryt, t!.nr |tr th$c brdc ncthodr fot proprriag r rhip for
uldcrwaE hul r,!tt:
O) A Gdna Iro.L
Tiir i.roncwhid ir croavatcdftoo thc laadud clorcdto tho,.a or
rivcr by Dcan of a lo|rtitg c.it!o! Stta Thi! i! Yittus[y r lrtfp,
robultly.bui4 .t cl ted. Tbt.dtp ofthc dockbottoE b.n st[ thc g't
it tlfrfrcd to ar th. .ill. Thc dd6 ofthc dockrrt tcrrrocdinto cotctlL
tcDa or dtrrt into wbichtha ahorcrer. hcclcd,AlongthacatrtGlilc of
thc doct, hug! boultr ofrieb.r..c built up into tccl trloctt I! !oD.
c.tcartrorhcrprtrllcl li!. of bilg! bloctNor bd! i! built oo crch !id. of
th. ccDtt! lira. Thc bloc.l6err ticd tolptlcl to pr.wnt ltco from toppli4 or bcingui@ asthcrsscl ir *wcd or ndoetrd. Thc lirc ofth.
bloct!'upF rulfaccair ulurly o! ! diShtfndicot rdrfiE to thchori,ontil, lnown e! thc dcclivig. Thodockis filcd from thc rivcr or &r,
rnd thc 8tla ir opaoadwhcothc lcvcb of thc w!t!r o! both ridor art
coircidcnl Tbc .bip ir lhco tootrd id rld po.itiold orlf th! tc.l
U6b, thc 8rt i! clo6o4tld thc docki! pudp.d dty.
Thc top adgpof th. gitc, slotrgwhich pcrsontmry edk, is oftctr
l5 m rbovc thc dock bottom u|d thc giatahas to withslrtrd, in lhis 50fi
clrc, a mrximum p|lslurr of 12 totnas/m' if thc watcr oulsidc thc 2 5U)lb/ftr
a |b/ft! l0 ft
dockis of dcmity I totrDc/mrrnd 3 m balowthcatc-cdgp.
(,)Ano@Dod
Thfuir virnuly ! nugo,irt, $bdividld .b.l trlt tlihcr lit . tbip'.
dout{abottom,on thcuppcrccnEElitrcofwbic! i! a lila oftaal blocb,
{ith or without lrtocilbd billa bad!, Thi! fotm! t[. bottom of thc
dock, whichbar no c6d! brlt high Dltroe tid.r which arc rbo trnl .
1!6a rt! co8tnrctld dong tbc lorgrr ridd oflhc rcc{rnguhadock.
Thc t nk, both i! thc doublcbottoD snd th. rid6, !rc iood.d .o
tbrt th. dock bottom i! .t r d.cFr draughtthrn thc .hip'! t.cl. Tho
lhip ir tbrtr no rd ov.t fhc docl('rc.ohalirc ard tha l:ttlr it punpad
dry uril thc ihip it clcer of thc est r. Tbc docli!8 M.t !.c wil
rtquirr dctrilcd drts rcg.rdidg thc .hip'r .t bility, trin, rad lordirg
coodition,and ery rcqdrr aay of tiaacto bc c.h|lgcd,E c.h!.ctioD of
tbodockDult bc ca!.blc ofliftiag that portioDofth. lhipt lcdglh,.trd
wddt, rhich lirt nithi! it and thc .hip mut rhcrlfotc bc cvtoly
lodcd. If thb ir not arru8.d, rhc doct i!.ubixtcd to rcvcrcbcodiag
.ln.ttAt

To L.cp th. do.k prop.dy rriencd, thorhip't ccotEofgrrvity Durt


N;I

DRYDOCKINC AND LOADLINES


bc wnic.lly rbor,athc docl'r ccntrcof broyetrcy,.nd th6c poinb rtc
d|rrtcd, by maan3ofpairt oo thc lidcaof both thc .bip rnd dock.Thc
two cvcatuallyfo]m onc!o!tin8 cf,allor.yat@, thc atebilityof which,
likc anycrrn, is dircc{y proponiolsl to thc bcamof thc wstcrphtrc,i.c.
lha lrra ofthc c|'alt'! 6ors-!.c1ionat, aod Frallcl to, thc erGr lcvcl.
This, aod thcrcforathc stebilityof thc cystcm,ir lcastthcn thc wrtar
lcvclii bctwlaothaahip'sk cl rld thc dockbottom,for thctrthc watcrplancrrc. is only thrt of thc narrow,idc tanks.Thfumly bc rlfcrrcd to

-tariFtarf!
aiEA -----t^lEl lvll
t: r^llraug, 2: xrxrralrL, | ; ll.lanatDl^t!
ItaltLltv

otaloatlro

ooc: a 'l f

t l c u l E 1 2 .I

dt lk ctlicsl noDutt of doctitr& (Itr thc ct a of r 8rrvilt do*, tbit


oacrrr!jun bcfor! lha vlsd i! lcwrd, for ttcd thc uPtftruattt lhc kccl
i| it a naxirNrn for tbc utrrhorrdcotrditio!,) In th. doting docl lhr
rtrbility i! gr..t .t rbfi thc dockbotton it d.rr of thc *rt r tutf!.
Th.r! i! u htlrEdirtc vrlug vlryilg vith thc dduSbt of thc .hip,
lrtcd thc ttip i5 rtiU tuto.rtad, for thcnthc vitltpLna !a ir rhtt of
tlc tbip tof.tt6 eith thc .ftlc ruir' a&., Thc6.conditio!, rrc illu!tr|td iD Fig, l2l. Frc..urfsc6 in thc dock's and.hip'! t tk win
trdE tt lrbility of tbc ry!|.d.
28

DI,YDOCKINC AND LOADLINES

(3) rr. no.@ Chdb


T[is i! trrcdfor srdallv6scb, and conristsofa rci orccdtlipwry o!
whichis built a railwaycrrying a hcavycrrdlc. Thc htt.t i! rur down
lha.alipwryi o th. wrtlr undcrtha ahip'stcal, aodwhrd thc ahiprt ta
oDthc crrdlc thc two rrt hoycup thc !lipw!y.
IX)CAING WTIII CANGO AIOIID
Io .uch cas6 thc ahipis likcly to bc 3ubjcctadto .avci! rtrcsrcrrnd
bGttrrircd. Ccneinprcclutioa! mult thcrcforbc tatcn. Thaprlsriogup ofta Bb@athholdr will addx/righ !o tbc sbb bot shdrldbcb to
dirtribulc thc wcidt of c.rrgocvcnlyovcr thc inn.r bottod, tnd avoid
10callddinS. As soonasthavcasclh 3cwcd,divcramry bc adployld to
build up lh. bilgcbloctr bcforcfurthcrpumpingis .lloe!d. Thi! rirtcr
aurcrh|t thc vcasclb wll rupponcdbcforEtoo muchof har *litbt i!
tr|nrfcllrd to thc kccl bloch. In 3ucha crrc, bilgc bloct! rhould ba
utrdcrncsthr lotrSirudimliidc Sirdcr io avoid pbtc-bucuilt. &tla
rhorc. sill hrvc io bc cmployEdtbroughoutthc riip'! lcrtth .ld rt hat
c!d!. If thc drD.t. or rcpsir work i! i! r .uiaiblc po3itio! it bry bc
poaaiblcto punD out only somcof thc dockwatcr,i.c. ruffcirrt to arpoacthc arcaio qur'tion, aod l.aw thc va$cl p&'dy wrtarbomc,Thir
Edtrcc!not oilithc @ction of thc blocksbut rlso any tatrdcncics
for
thc ctrd.to d.oop (AoSgirB),
andNlrotcI|dcnci6for thc bottomDlrtisg
to ||g bctwccnttc liocr of blocl.. Thc Dockm$tcrmlat initidly bc fuanilhcd with a dctrilcd loadingplan.
LOADLINf,S
fic Inlcmaliolal Load Linc Rulcs(196E)apply to all vcss.lswholc
snc partiesto thc l,oadlincConvcntionof 1966.All
CovcrDmcnts
Britiih ship6,whh thc cxclplionof:
(l) warships.
(2) vcssclscnpgcd solclyir tuhidg, .od
(3) plc$urc y{chts,
ar requiredto u3. statutoryloadliDcs
to cnsrircthat thcy do not
b.romcsubmcrgcd
morcrhenis prudet|t,
havingrcgardto thclatitudcs
andsasons
in whichihcyarcsailing.Thcymustnot put to s.aunlcss
thc shifr has bccnsurvcy.d,merkcdwith loadlitrcs,
c.omplics
with
assignmcnt
condilions
andcariespropc.stabilityinformation.
Thalc lo8dlircaerc .wardcd by Assi8dnSAutboritics,suchas thc
Dcparfmcrr of Trenspon brrt morc oft!tr on bchdt of thc GovcrD6cnt, Lloyd's Rcgiitcr of Shippiry eld th. Britirh C-orndittccot thc
2@

DRYDOCKING AND LOADLINES


FrErdl BureauVeritas.Thc vessclsnrustba coffiucled arrdcquippcd
aslaid downin thc lradlinc Rulas(obtainablcftom H.M. Starionery
aftershich a summciloadOfncc)to allain conditionsof assiSruncnt,
li[c (in salt{Etcr) is codputed,othcr frEcboEr&.tc ascigrcd,ad lhe
mrrk ar! cut in or pahtcd on tha 3hip'a,idcs. A loadliocccnifdtc
is pllscntd ro thc Owlcrs' atrd mult ba poatcdin a coDrDicuous
poNitiotrwithin tbc ship,whilc in forc., Th. c.niic4t is valid fo. fvc
yc$sr but an mnud 3urv.y i! hcld to claulc thrt thc coDditioNof
rssilrmcd ar! fuElcd strd thc loadlitc nt*! arr utraltcrcd.Ecforc
r Mrstcr c.tr sign on e crcw hc dust ctrtar dctailsof this ccrtifcrtc
Evcryvoyrgr, similu portio rrs
rnd his loadlincsitrto tha agrccmcDt.
muatbc r.cordcdin thc Ofrcial Logbook.
Itrtcddionsl loadlincshipsalr tho.c of 24 m aad ovct. Tbcy will
havaalt Intcmstional Irsdlinc Cartiicatc (1966),Othcr vc$talsvill
hevcs Unitcd KingdomL.adlinc Crtiicat!. If a vcslcl is loadadao
thlt in r conditionof zaro list, hcr lordlina is subm.rycd,hcr o*ncr
or Master shall be liabl to a fiae ot l2m0 atrd in addition aaother
l2om for cvcryccntimetrcthat hcr apprpriat! loadlinc i! r brrcrged,
A furthcr frnc of 12000is likely if sheis strtto scaitr ao ovcrloaded
@nditiod.Thscat ltrarimumftr6 in a courtof summaryjuridbiofl.
It b a deferceto provethat the ovcrloadinglvascausdby dcviariotr
or delaybeyoodthc Master'scontrol. A vrscelmry bc dctsidcdutrtil
shc casscsto bc overloadcd.
lrd.Uu
@N |t d& c.ott! of tbo kqth of th. .urnD6t load
raiar-lbc.
Idfi.lt&tt
Thare,ball hc Fintld in whitc ot ydlos on r dtrk grourd oa in
ttac& 06 a liShtgro!tr4 lnd ahrl becafiftly aori! or c.ott!-puicrhd
od ttc .ito ofirrd d rEd.hip.. O! *ood.o fiip. thcy Otll b. clt itr
l i o for at lc$t 3 mm.
Thc Dcck Linc is. horizontrl lift ma$uring m mm x 25 nm
I2ir x I in
Errtod rsid.bip., with it uppcrGdgrFr.in8 tbroutn thc point *hcrc
tha oortinurtiod of tha uppcr rttft a of tha frc.bdrd drck (or itt
.hr.thing) i!t!$G.a. th. out r .urfrr. oftbc !tc[ pLtitrg.Ttuft..had
& ir thau9parD6t coqlcr. d.ct havinSFD|!.ot D...!! of clociDg
dl opcoilst io lt.tb.r.cdiotrr, c,& halrhr.yr.
7h. Iaadlin Dfucis tq mm in crtan.l dirtrctcr rnd 25 mm lhick.
12ialit
lb c.dtrc i! r.DirlthiF ud bdow itc dlctliio. Th. dirc ir ht G.ct d by
r horizontallinc rncaiuring450mm x 25 mmvhora upFr cdgcpt$.s
l8ioxlir
fborff, rt c.ot . of rh! di.c, Thir IiD.r rt ib lppct .dt ' Dttt tb.
gEr!|o.trrdt watartilaald ia oft.o rEfcdld to .| tbc Plinr,oltbra alut
&Dud Ptio.o|l . pioer iD rbc Flrqltiod of.hipdldo.din&

zm

DRYDOCTING AND LOADLINBS


TIE ltadlln t. Al a dislrnccof 540m,rl for*erd of th. ccnt|r of thc 2l in
di q thcrc is r vcnic5l liE 25 mm widc, from *hich horizo d liD.s I iu
mraruring230mm x 25Inmcxlcodforwad andrft, thc upFr surfa..r 9 in x I in
of which itrdic.t thc nrridub dlplb! to whid thc thip 6.y bc
rubD..gd i! difcrilg circltEtrlrc.r rld !.ooo!.
TtF ofladh..
O) Sa..!.tr L.bdha T.!Lr. (Fi!: 122).Thc loddlin ..r! rhow!
fot thct arioad,idc ot a .bip. Th. followilt .!. n|rLd:
Sr,nnrr (s), Thir ir lcwl s,ith th! ninrou linc .nd ir thc b.!ic computcdfrccboerdlinc. A scp.ntc tablci! ulad for conputingthc trnlcr
summarloedlilc. Othcrloadlidcsrtl b{rd o! tbr ru!|mcr n .k,
winter (,n is onc forrydghth of thc suiurar drsught bclo* thc
sumdarlinc.
nopical (T) is onc fo.ty<ighth of th. summcrd.aught abovc thc
sumDcrliDc.
lyint., Nodh ,lthntic (lfNl\ is markcd on all v.ss.ls of 100 m
or undcr in lctrgtb.lt appliaslo voyrSls within thc Nonh Atlaotic
north of thc 36th p|trllcl of btitu&, durin8 thc witrlcr no!th!, .r
laid down in thc I4dlinc Rulcs.It i3 ma.kcdat a distlnc. of 50 mm
bclowtha winlcr loadlinc.
Whcn th. vcssclis fioating in frcsh watc., th. frccboardeay bc
rcduccdby an amountknown as the Ft6h Wetcr Allowatrc.(FWA)
aod tbis is c5lculat.dfrom thc formule

-r Jnm

whcrc ,t/ is thc displaccmcntin tonncs,io salt latcr at thc summc.


loadliD,atrdthe syrnbolI represctrtslhe TPC (tri,anesper crnfunmeriioo) in rdt watcr at rhc samclcvel. In the cvcntof lhe displaccmcnt
(W) being iDdetcrminable,thc FreshWater Allowalce is talcn as
onc fony-ighthof the summerdraught.
Frcah Va@ (n h thc suEE.r fr!.[.s.t r lo.dlirc. Thc dirtrDcc
bdwccn(S)rd (D b tbdrfot! .qud to thc F1vA.
Ttupbal Frcshwoto (Tn is"by t dni''.t .rtuo.o! ritultcd rboE
Cf) by ao uouDt cquslto thc FW.{,
All thc abovcdirtaff.s a$ mcdurcdbalnEanttc uppcrcdg6 of ttc
rcsp.ctivrloadlilaa.
(2) tht ft{.irttug V.*b (Fi& lZ3). Thclc losdliDc.uc rssldcd
to v6scls crgagadiD thc tinbar dcctango frado, cxcludirg wood
pulp, aDdstE orly to bc ucd whoothc aarto it crnicd h rcc.rd|le
with thc l%8 Dcck Cargo RcSplatioa3.Such a vcssclnult havar

nl

1
:

z
o
1
:
:

z
o

.,!

-L_

4,

1
t

ti

j
:
t

8
i
l

n
I

n
E

.t
t

DRYDOCI(ING AND LOADLINBS


forl .!dc Grcldi!! .t lc.,t 7% of tb. .hiC. l.!tth, rDd ! Foop or
th. nid,hiP. t |fr.iicd qllrilrdcct. Hcr doublc-bottoEtlnls,irlit
kdgth mulr b. ,ubdividd, rnd th. .hip nllr bc 6ltcd with cficitdt
rsik or bulwsrkr at lcrst I m in hcight.Eycplala!for sccutitglrrhiltt
nust bc affrcd to thc shcd strakc not more than 3 m apatt. Her
muatbc ad.qustclyprotlctcd ftom c&go drEr8..
stcaring-8F5R
Tha v!.rcl mustfll hcaedL tolidly wilh tinbct up to thc ttrDd[d
hcigbtof hcr suFrstructutta.I! rti! wry, .ba obuiB 8tLi.t rr..rit
buolancarld hcr aun'mcrfrccboordoay bc rcduccd.Thit Drtutdly
duc6 csdrio olha. losdliDcfrEborrd!.
shc will havca scondsct of loadlincssuitalcd540 mm abdft thc
catrtE of thc loadlincdi!c, similstly @rkcd lor othcr losdliDct,but
rvith rach lctt r pt fircd by 'L' (Lumbc.).
bonb.r S|o'xn.' (IS) b r!.omc computadlcvcl abovclha Plinaoll
lina,lnd its upFr adgclrlerksthc 3ummcrsrlt-wetcrtimbq loedliDc.
Lnt ber Wintu (ary) is * of thc lumbc. summcrdnuSht balow
(LS).
b.nbet T.opical(L7) is .i of thc lumbcr sutdncr ddught 6bov.
(LS).
Lunbcr Vhlcr Not ,ltldf''tic (LryNA) h on ltu smc kvcl I thc
(wNA) lordlinc, uhcrc mattcd. It thcrrforc epplic only to vaslclsof
lm m or undcriD lcnSlh.
Thc lradlin Cenificategivcsa scpar.te FrcshWater Allowance
for both odiorty tnd lumbcr ftecboards.
Lrarrb.r ft.lh Wate. (Ln b th..rfolr .iturlcd sbovc (tS) by u
aDouDtcqualto thc FWA,
Llr',ttbcrTropicolFrc$ Valq (fO i! rbov! (LT) by rn tnroul
oqud to thc F1VA.
(3) SdliS SUF Gi8, lza). Th6c ahiF hsw r dccllirq ! dilc with
anintcn ctinglinc,andtwo 23Gmmloadlincssituetcd5rlGmmforw|rd
of tha di.c ccntrr.Thc int ncclitrSlina lurb thc eltr lilc foa wintaa,
Ntbn r, ud tropic.l cotrditioB, It i! thrrrfoc t! (S), (T), !!d (W)
lift.
fhc Mt wata Itdn E (I) i! rbovc thc idt tr.c{i!8 lin by rn
rDount aqrul to thc FIVA, computd !! fot st arncB.
The Winte,North Atlanr'cZi,nis bclow thc intcrscctinglinc by sn
Authority.
amountdircctcdby rheAssiSDing
SSdlrtdo L.dlh.t
Ttc6a dry ba ,srignadro r pastcnSarr,6cal rboard wtich rprccr
axirt vhich 6rt ulad foatba cdrirgp of cith6 F$c!srl! or clrgo. Sha
D.y havcllta ulud loidlioa tDarlinp r! Oo*n i! Fi& lZ2, ald i!
.dditio! s .ubdivirioD loadlidc (or lo.dli!.* up to !!o.lly tbr.. io
273

39 id

r0 ft

Jin/ft
I in/ft

328ft

Fh 2l in

DRYDOCRINC AND LOADLINBS


lurt r), ndcd (C) ro ildi|r
Corwotio! (Safcty),Wh.'r thcr! i!
nor! th!tr orc of thclc loldlitrca rbry |I! iurkd Cl, C2, ald C3,
nuDb.ringthcmdowowrrdstowardstba kocl ro lhrf C3 indicil6 tha
Euidro frrcb@rd. Thst .rc all ritu.bd bclowttc Tropial (d!rp6t
arlt eatac)loddliic rDd oftcn oD thc forrrtd tid. of lhc rtnical liic.
Tvo ofth6c lo.dli&s arl lbowtr pcckcdiD Fig. 12.2
D.tailr ofthrac lo.dlin6 etl foundin thc Prlrcqpr rnd S.fcty Crrtii. * poatd in a codlpi:uou! poritioorbo.rd thc.hip, atrdeko itr thc
Hrr.tiotr
of Surv.y (Sur'Ey I A), yhich ir ia thc cuttody of thc
Mastr. Thc variou! spac6 rdrti!8 ro crch lordlioc a.r rccordcdin
-

s r r r L l l l c v ES s E L :
$A8lgAplllE

F - - IOO r/tl

-'i

ttasc form.. W[cncvcr all thc sp.casorc uscdfor c.rgo carrirSr only
thc ll3rcl loa& to hr usurl loedlin s- If, ho*var,t sp{c. is uscdfo.
th. cerriafc of pa$an8ar,,thcn thc vc.sclmustnot submcrgcbcyond
thc rppropriaE subdivisiooloedlinc.
Th6c loadlinas&E not cotuoctcdwith thc Intcrnatiotrd Loddlioc
RuLs, but rrc providrd utrdcrrhc trms of thc SafctyConvcdliotrrtrd
computedfor British shiF by the Dpaim.ot of Trenspon(D.o.T.)
in thc United Kitrcdom.
asldia, Ccylon,Hong Kong, ard Sillaporc,
b thc Far East,-such
vc*lcb Ery bc s.cn with addirio!.! rubdivi3ioDlo.dlitrcs oarkd Dl,
D2, ctc., iitlet d bclowlhc (C) litrcs.Thcscprovidcrn cwn Faatcr
frrcboard,rd rrc u!.d iD siEilar circuEstanc.3lo thc (C) linci but itr
bad ftathcr sao!oD!,sucha! thr south-waatmonroonitr thc Indirtr
Ocaan.

n4

DRYDOCKINC

AND LOADLINES

lb

C.lcqLtio. for ab. IMr ,qlor.&.


Coosidcain&for thc satc ofconvanicncc, thc aummcricdson, ! v!$cl
ca! Ioad until ahc i! submcrlcd to thc uppcr cdga of thc suDmar lordlinc providcd shc is in watcr of sp.cific gdvity 1.025. In watcr of
spccific grovity I .m0 shc can submcrg! to thc upFr cdg! of thc frcshwatcr loadlinc(F).
lf thc diffcrcncc bctwccn thcsc two lcvcls is 125mm (hr frcsh-w{t r 5 in
allo*ancc),lhcn it mcanslhat shccan submcrgchcr (S)linc by I25 mm t io
ifshc is loadingin fr6h watcr in summr.
lf thc watcr in thc dock is of somc intcrmcdiatc S.G., lhcn shc may
submcrSphcr summcr loedlinc by rn amouat (thc dock dlowercc)
calculatcd as a dircct proportion.

,l

FIGUNE
I2.5

Supposclh. vcsscl;n the abovc cssc is loeding in dock watcr of


spccificgraviry 1.010.Fig. 12.5showsthe frcsh and salt summcrloadlin.s and thc corrcspondingS.Gs.The doct allowanccis shown by
rhc disranc.D.A., cxrcndingupwardsfrom thc summcrloadlinc,and
l.vel wilh 1.010on thc scalcofS.Cs.
By simplc di.cct proportioD,
D.A.:F.W.A.::15:25
mcaniEgthat thc dock allowsncc is thc samcfraction of tha ftlsh-wat r

lllowanc. as I 5 is of 25.
So,

D,A. : 15
F-.WE t3
o.e.:f; x rzsmm

5in

:75mm
3in
So th. sumEarloadlinc,or aoy othcr srlt wata. loadlinawbc! in
scason,can bc subm.rgcdby 75mm whcnthc v.ssalis loadingin dock
watcrof thisS.C.

n5

DRYDOCKING AND LOADLINES


Thc S.G.is m.asurcdby meansof a hydiomctcr.A buckctof thc
doct watcr ir obtaiocdfrom ovdsidc,cLdt ofdl dfuch.rgB,!trd trot
from thc washicct linc hydrrrb. Thc hydromctcrir idrcrtadinto thc
wrtcr atrdsputrbctwn tbcfn8pis to brcakdowrrsurflcctcslion,wbich
mayaffccllhe rcading.Thc S.C. is rcadlrom lhc scalcadje4.ntto thc
showdcnsity,takcnas roulhly onc
warerlevcl.Somhydromctrrs
rhousandtines thc S.C., i.e. watcrof spccincgravitylO25 hes a
dcmiry of | 025gramsFr litrc.
Thc hydrcnctcr mry bc mrdc of bnssi it ba! r loa8, lhin ltcm o!
wh;cbart graduatd lha darJitid or ecciic grrvitiasspsccdi! hrttlonic progcssion.Thc loq,crcrd of thc atcmjoiru r buoyancychlnbcr,
bclowwhichthc.! is a ecightcdsphcrc.ThGi$trutncDt i! ofcolttalt
volumcandwcight,end thcrcforEvaricails dcpthofimmcrsio! accordirg to thc dcnsity(andthusthc upthrust).ofthc 0uid. ld frashwetcrit
is mrrly complctly submcrgldso that thc buclct abouldiaitirlly bc
\*cll-fillcdand ncvcrtoppcdup from a coovcnicdthydrant,whichmay
bc aupplyingwatcrof.Dtildy alicodatrsi9to thst i! rhcdoct.
CtccldtrSth. fttclonl
This may bc dotrcby mcatrsof plumblincslorv.tld from lhc dcck,
parlrcula y in thc cascofe list, whcnthc vcssdcan lotd to hcr mcan
frccborrd-thc evc.egcof thc port atrd stsrboardfrcrboard!. Whcn
di&1lyob6crvingthc loadlinca,thc lop aod wrvclctson thc l]atcr su.faccc5nbc vcrycoofuriaSto accuratar.adings.In sucha crrc aDopcacndcdglasrrubc mry bc bcld vcrticellysgainstthc losdlidd with onc
cDdsubmcrgld,Thc wotarlcvcl*i[ thm rcmsidfaitly staticwittin thq
tubc.Sucha mcthodis cquallyulcful whcnrtading drauglts,
CLEAI{SING OF ITESH-WATER TANTS
Ahhoughthis maytrNlurdlybc doncat sDytiEc, it is qui& likcly to
bc carricdout whil. io drydock,atd for tbat ra.sonis iDcludcdid ttit
chrptcr. In additioo to clcenritrg,lhc talt hay rccd to bc ocEcttwashcdwith a solutionof ccmcrtid frcshwrtcr rt a thiD,caEmycon6iit ncy. AttcDtionshouldrLo bc psid to thc thicl ccmcotcolting i!
thc bottomof thc watrr tanls, *hich jwt covcrsthc rivct hcr&. Whcrr
cr&ckcd,rbis shouldbc suitsblykcycdlod t6llcd.
Thc following advicais from a Depanmaotof Tra$port Merchant
ShippingNotic:
Th! ali.ntion ofshipowrrrs.d MrstcJ! it dra*n aothc n .d ao.alul!
thrt thc hcalthofcrllr,s i5 noiitpardi!.d bt tlE u5. offc.h wrt r ftom t|*t
ehit rrc Dot .dcquatdy |lld rElDh.ly cL.n!c4 by lh. us of flt tt wbi:b
sr not p.ri'db[t
3..vird r[d EdrtiDld, or by lh. u.. of s wd.r i! thc
p.rp.f.tion of food.

n6

DRYDOCKTNG AND LOADLINES


Thc Bo.rd'3 invBtilalioos sug8rit that in$frci.nt rtt ntion i! bciD8
laid to lhascrnattcrs,and Mrstas aI!, Otcrdorq ftqu6tad to c'|lurr thrt thc
foloeinr pEcaulions6F tat n:
l. Fni w.Lr Ttrlt
DdDting wrt r isnls shotld bc opcocdup, clcin d o , c.trd{ wllrcd
(or, if coetcd*ith a bitumino$, pbnic, or othcr propriclory compo6ition,
rccdt d wh.r! ncccar.ry)and sircd !t int rvalr noacrc..ding 12 oloath!.
ln.ddition, it is rccondcndcd lhat i.n}! shouldbc lholouthly Pumpcdout
an4 wtrcr! n cssary, h6.d prior to rc-fillidt .t lpproridbtcly six-monthlt,
iDilfvrls. Durin8 rhEcl.snini proc6s scaupulou.att ntion shooldb. prid to
rhc bygicnceod Frlonal cLanlincssof lho3. cn8a8!don thc work.
2. IlL..
Whco filt r! rl! fttcd arrln&|r|cntr shouldbc tru& for th. mlint natcc
lnd c.r. of thc apper-.tus,i.c. clcaningand wh.rc n csrry ch.ntint tlE
b.corn contatnil|rtdbyb.ar.rii
tlrdirto.r|!ur!ah.!thcrpparatusdo6not
that thc tFdil i... ah! c.Ibon
.nd othcr follbr! mrticr. It h rcconuncndd
.!Ddl6.3hould.t iot iv.ls bc rcmowd and wa3hcdout in chlorinrt d wrl.r
.rd liSbtlylcrubb.d with a brushto rtmov! 3ll tla csofd.pocit on thc su.frcc
of th. fil&r. Thc fr!4ucocy wirh which lhis should bc canicd out wi[, of
cour., dcpcndon thc amountof 3olid nattcr in th. catr, a! w.ltr which
8iv.3. merk d d.posit on 3tandingwill sooncloSup ihc porcsof thc fltlr,
lrh.rlas por! wrt r ibould allow thc filtc! to $ork satid.ctorily for I qui&
coosid.r.bb tittE. Io any calq flt rs should bc cla&d out at lcalt odca
r rnonth,.nd mor frcquodyif waLr coot itring in .pptlci{bb .cdirEnt
L bci!8 pelsdlhrou& tlEm.
Iacunot bc too.longly 3trclsd thlt fiitcls will Doaiurrr !c tl|. b.cLriolosirl podty of lhc filicrrd watc.. Thsdor!, wh.ncvc! tbcl! it .ny douh,t
a! to thc quali(yof thc watcr,chloriortion slEuld h. cari.d out i! rrcotdsc!
with th. iGtructions laid down h th. Ship C.pirin! Mcdid Guidc.
3. U- oaS.. w.l6
Th. u.c of 3ca$.t. in thc prcFr-.tion of food, vdrhin! uD of dittc.,
ch.triD8of slly cquipmcnror in in talhtion! sucha! poartopclr!,.hould
wk! po..ibL bc.void.d. Wh.rc irs u.|Gis umvoidrbb lk! lhould dw.ys
bc r ftr|l rin . dmuSh with fr6h watcr.Un&! no circum.lanc6 lhould .c.
w.t r bc u!.d for lh.se p|llpc6 wh.n ttE vBr.l i! irr or in (tc vkinity of,
Itoft Oaq)ast l rrlas.
It L rccomm.txtd that . \r/imint on thc abow liocs .hold b. bsocdto
C.t dns Dcpartncot stafis.
PEST CONTROL IN SHIPS
Tbctr rrr two iypcs ofrat: thc brown onc, *hich is a shorc dwEllct
rnd tcnds to burrow, and th. black on., which climbs, add frcqucrtt
ship6.Thc lattcr spcci6 is a pleguc carricr, tlanioittitrg thc di!.!rc by
mcans of its ffcis.

2n

DR.YDOCKINO AND LOADLINES


Rrb coom.@ brlcdin! at tha r8r of teo to tbrtc mortbr, ald up
to tc|trEay bc bom io i litt.c, Tb. Fiod of tp6btion i! ody rhr!
wEkr, rnd it i! thcrcfor po,iiblc foa! mab ard r fcmrL to caularha
cvolutio! of naarlyZ)m mts in twclvcmonths.
It is rcquircd that rats should bc prrvcntcd from lcaving a ship
whcn in pon. It is aqualy dr3irrblc of coufsc,that lrts from ashorc
shoulddot join thc ship. This prcvcotionis drricd out by mcrns of
circular alloy rat-gurrd! which clip ovc. thc moo.ing lincs, or by
mcansof canvasparccllcdaaoundthc mooringsboth rt thc 5horceod
thc ship(i.c.two garc.ltingroncrch linc),wlltsn d, xndcachcxtcnding
2 f i 0.6 m in lcn8th.
Thc 8a!tw8y .hould ba hoiltrd c.L.r of thc qu.y ptcd not in ll!.'
c.& niSht o. Gbordl iluEilrtrd rd/or whitcwuh.d. R.t $,il
rvoil rcU-lilhtcd pLaal Stoca rhould bc movid rrgulrrly to ditcovrr
wbcti.r rrB rt! hrrtouri!& ard rtnt- donld lot bc dlovrd to
.cc,uEulst od fbc ahip.
Aay reb clught rliE rhorid bc d.or!.d .!d tb.o bE!.d. lt y
rhould not bc trkco rlhort.
Thc In&m.rio!.I Suii.ry Cotrytotior (P.rit) 1926rlqui.lt rblt
. Port Sedttry Authority rhall bo rl.p@liblc for fic irdinS of
ccitifcora of Dcf ilrtiod .!d c.fiincd.. ofBr optio! from Dcrstilrtion A .bip c.[i.g rt r port wb.rc th! Colrlotio! rDplicc lnd
hsviDStrcitb.. of ttcao ccrdncrb., wi[ do.t Fobat{y bava to tG
fuDigrt d.
Both ccnifcat a arc ydil for rir odttt, ald whi:hcvcrcartifaata
L h.ld shouldb. F!a&d otr rrrivd .t ...tr pott, to th. lac|l Port
Ec.lth O6c.f,.
Thc Crniicstc of D.rrtilrtiod i. i!$r.d to thc Mrrld .R.! funiFtion hr. t Lctr plaoa,ThG Caatifc.t of Dcrrti!.tiod Etldptio! ia
isr.d to r Mr.t6, if tbc lDlpcclo! it di!6cd thrt tb.f,ci! no cvidaocc
of .rl! oDthc rtip.
To thir aod,il ia boih politb .Dd ccotroDicto coluta that ihc vErrcli!
codinuourly kaptrat-frlq
Utrit d KingdoEv! .dr h.vr.. crcclhot rcput tioo fot bcitrt hytictric. I! 1899ge! fumigtiod r.! ftlt !.rioudy .tt opbd in rL! folm of
rulphur dioxidc. In l92l hydtoc!lb tcid tr! Gydlolld cr.nid. ot
pruric lcid fr.) rfr usadtuccalafuIy, a[d conritucd in DopuLaity
utrtil iboul I9t.
Thc ui. of bydrccroic t|r (HCl9 itrvolvlt glrr ilcoNroi.occ rod
c6t, for .ll *oik bla lo cc.!. otr boardtbr abip,and it brt lo bc coEDlctdycvicuilrd axccptfor rhc fini8lting rufi. Sclt'd d.sthr d! rq
cord.d whctr parroud bsrc bc.[ hft rboan4 alccpirgitr tlcir caut .
HorEit|r, io todc portr, thc u$ of HCN ery atill baD6aty i! odrt
to obtdtr r Dcrtitatio! C.rtii.rtc"

n8

DRYDOCKING AND LOADLINES


popular
mcttod .mploycdio thc UDirrd Kidldom .t thc
Thc most
prcsat tirnc b funigatio! by n..r! of rodiuD iuolacct t! (lco), rDd
6h wil daacwctbc isrui[g ofr lsw Ccrtiicat .
Thc ulc of 'Biotrol' briB mlirt itrr a thip rat-frt.' for Eiotrol ir d
aiti-corSulad bair wtich ir combiacdwith s prlatdbh funSicidcid
whoL calal 8r.itr!. A! a r6ult, thc boit .rayt fr!!L .nd .ttn tiv. to
ratt for up to twdvc ooalb.
Otrly oDcfo.tiath of d gram of b6it Fr thousrod g.rds of body
wright, tak6 rlguLdy, will lil e r.t withitr r v6t. Tbc rat focd!eituout suspicion,andi ir ro wry brit-.hy. Thc bait i! ptaclicallyharmLi!
to dornatdcrnrmalr aad humr .
Thc folloeirg ii ro M Noticc, No, ll5, c.Dc.lLd but still rclcvrtrti
NOTICtsTO SHIPMASIERIT
Ft ldoatrclr or lnnPawml rflDlooE{ ctal@l
trUlrfu
rtll Hrrtogr. ctrda. b . &C.is
Ftc.3 tlln lh5 b.
h fu|l bonL.8r of it. !.Et of t
olt tt n{dtL
d.d.f..
f..c
lbE
F.c.daj
ll.dof
The Ns'rtr. of th. Got
Hydrogcn cyanidc-which is abo known es hydrocyenic acid gas o.
prussic arid 8as-is sn invisiblc and highly poisonousg.3. It hasa faint
elmondlike odour. Many poplc howcvcr nnot sm.ll it, rnd in somc
cascs thc lansc of smcll bccomas dcadcn.d. lt is Ihcrcforc highly
dangcrour to rcly on lhc scnscof smcll for dctccting thc prtsanceof thc
8as.
It is a fall&cyto imaginclhat bcauscthc gasis a litdc lightcr than
rir it can bc induc.d to scjF up$ards mcrcly by opcning port holcs
or hatchcsofships. Whcn onct mixcdwith air it cannotthus casilybc
got rid of. Thc wholc atmosphcrc of a compartmcnt or ship must bc
chang.d, and this can bc donc only by applying thc wcll-known
principlcs of v.ntilation. The ci.culation of ai. may b. assistcd by
mcchanical m.ans, and spccial a(cntion must bc peid to plac.s whcrc
vcntilation is obviouslydimcuh or slow, c.g., forcpcaks,dccp holds
with small halchcs,ctc.
wrming notic.s should bc displaycd on cvcry gangway and o(hct
rrcansof acc.ssro rhc ship bcforcthc fumigElionis starl.d, and thcy
shouldbc lc in positioountil (hc oF Ationis ovcr and vcntilalionis
Pnlininoty Seor.hlo, UnouthoritedPe^ons
Bcforcany parl ofa shipis put undcrgasstcpsshouldbc lakcn to scc
that no unauthoriscdpcrsonis on board.
27.)

DRYDOCIONO AND LOADLINBS


CLororce afte, Fwigation
Thc ship must bc proFrly vcntihtcd rnd thc fumigrnt opcrators
mult llccrtein by tcst thrt in no pan offic risl rtlr is tha futnit'nt
coDccntratcd by morc than onc prri by volumc in onc hundrtdlhousand mns of air.
Bcdding, bhnkcts, pillo*s, culhions, thick crrFts, ctc,, mu.t ba
thorouShly b.ltcn in tha open eir.
Speciolattention dould be paid .o cabinsand tlccpirg .omportmtit!.
h k olt n adtitable, alt.r th.y arc opparcnrltIre.ftomgos, to clo!. Em
lor ow har ord qoin tctt th. atu.
In cold wEtbcr vcntilrtion is slow and rtFrtcd t6ts rnry ba lacas.
srry, A3 thc t mpcr.turr rir6 8rr mly bc lib.rLd from Datliirls
which hayc rctsiocd ii. In such cLcumstlnccs it mry bc nccdsary to
hcrt compsrtmcnts and thcn rc-acstthcm bdorc thcy trr daclarcd frcc
of gai.
spccial attcntion should bc paid to cold storegc charnbcrs.
Thc crlw's quarlcr or c.bias mtl3t trot bc occupicd during thc night
folloring a fumiFtion. lf, hoscvrr, thit i. unryoi&bh, .ll doon,
port holcs rnd olhs opcningr ofspscas nust bc kapt opcn rd lpccial
attctrtion must bc poid to thc p.cvious br,'tinA-in the opdt alr--d
bcddin8; bletrkct!, pilows, ctc.
lf thc vc.6cl hr! bccn fumigltcd with thc crrgo otr boad, rFial
carc is nac.irery, rtrd thc stmGphair should bc kcpt urdd ottaanEtiot
whco urlosding b in progr6s.
Sfnpton r oI Poitonlry
Hydrogln cyg id! i crllncly poiromu! .nd poiaonitrg Dry &ault
from brathiDg thc grs or ab6orbiDgit through th. skin. Thc ramitl
signs arc irrilrtion of thc thaoat, dizzisGr, trausca,lcncrd ltalncss
and hcadachc,palpitatior, r fccliDgof sufrocrtion, pdlor, dccp brcathing, suddrn urconscioustrGsfollowcd by a ccssrtion of brcalhin& in
tbat order.
A Frson shositrg lh6c symptomsmult ta idncdirlcly r6owd to
a purc atmo6phcrc,hid down with hi5 hcad itrto thc wind md frst lid
must bc givc|r without dclay, SFd fu .srcotirl. A doctor mult bc
tu.ooooad rt orcc. Thc frtt a[ procadutt, if thc Fticdt ia coleiou!,
b rs follows:
O) B.ak a caiub oflnyl Ditritc otr to . d.e
thc psticnt to inbdc thc vrpour.
(2) Rcmovc o. qrt rway sphrhcd clothing.

ofcloth.!d

.llow

Ifthc patic.t is unconaciou!, thcn in sddition to O) rbovc rrtiicirl


rEpiration should ba stan d rimultrn.ously with (2) Ebovc.Thc prticnt
should bc kcpt *!rm snd not wrlkcd sbout.
2N

DRYDOCKINC AND LOADLINBS


Thcrcsdcr'sattcntionis dra\rnto thc HydrogcnCyanidc(Fumigation
of Ships) Rcgrldtions, 1951,in which prccautioosrr! lrid down
rcSrrdingthc trcstmcntof shipsby this grs. Noticc of th. forlhcomint
funigotion mustbc givcn to thc Mcdicll Officcrof Haolth; opcratoB
arc rcquircdto bc adcqultcly traincd and rquippad with rcsDirators.
Tha Rulcscxplainhow unauthoriscd
Frsonsarc pcrmhtcdto anlcr
thc risk arla in thc cvcntof cmcaFrcy suchrs fifl.
In rhc Porl of Londonin 199, ll2 v6scl3wrr! d!r.tt.d by thc u3.
of rodium luorrcctric (lGo) con|pard with otrly thi.tlctr by tha urc
of HcN. Thc uscof 1080h{s prorcd popular with shipowncns3 it
prcaants
no fiaarisk or dsngarto humsn3.[t do6 not 8ivcofr poisonous
fumcaand it caonot bc absorbadthrough thc unb.okcn skin. It is
odourlcssand tastclcssin usc and prcscntsno rcpcllcnt cfrcct. Rats
lhc solulionconndcnlly.
drinka lot of watcrandwill approech
Wh;lc dcratting with 1080,thc crcw m.y rcmaio on bo.rd atrd
worl n proccd in thosapartsof thc ship not undcrtraatmcnt.
rcquircsthal a
Articlc52of thc InrcrnrtionalSrniory Rcgulations
vcssclsball b. tcpt in t conditionsuchlhat lhc numttr of rodcnlson
borrd is ncgligiblc.Suchs shipcanarist on DcrattiDgExcmplion.
This is achicvcdusingthc anti<odgulantsbrits, distributcdlhrough
thc ahip in polythcncsachctswhich erc brokan by thc rats. Thcsc
srchctshclp to kccp thc bait frcsh, ShiF with pestrccordsof rodcnt
infdtstion hrvc bcankcpt complctclyclcar by thc uscof thcscbaits.
Ia thc Pon of [.ndon, 100shiF rrc dcrdtcd rc!.ly cvcry ycar.
Ovcr 2000rats r|r dGtroycdon v.ssclsin thc port cachyctr.
ft rfd Bmda.
Tbia 3ubBtr'ccis a vcry cfrcclivcfumi8rnt, rrldily pcdatt"dtir!such
cotnmodiii.s!. soil rnd timbcr. It i! highly toxic to nan 6nd should
bc u.cd otrly by traincd and corDIEtnt oF toG. Synpioms of
poisonin& which rc$mblc d.unkcnncas,rnty bc daleyadfor scvcrel
houd. A victiE of poisoninglnly trkc ycers!o rccovcr.Th. gar i!
first smcllcdwbcn in a corcrntBtion of lom ppm but by thcn it ir
frr bo lat -poisoning haviDgoccuncdat 35 ppm. A lachrymrtory
|8.ot (producingtars) ;s ususllyaddcdto tba gr& to .ct es| *rmitr&
FumiS .d rrcss shouldbc mrdc fts-tight dnd oFlrron ahouldu8c
bdidc dct clor hmF oullidc thc arls to datacl la.L!!.-tbcy |Ic
brdc.ly blowlsEF with a copFr inscrt. Whcn mcrhyl bmmidc is
pEscnt,thc fdnc tums to e pql6gr..n or brighl-bluccolour.
A .hip shouldnot bc fumig.tcd with rncthylbrohida until ahchas
bcanscsrEhcdand cvacuatad.Accommodatiorahouldbc iceld and
lcyl hsndcdto thc oFrator. On Iargcvcsscls,totd avsqrstionir not
nacc$rry, only of tha rrrss sdjrccnt to thc fumigation.vcntilrring
syltcm, rhould bc watchadfor gr! sccpagc.

al

CEAPTEN XIII

TIIE OFFICER OF THE WATCH

IIME IEFING
!E d.y .t a ir dividrd hto rix +hour Fiod!
Tb6c a*tand-rnd rr! mcdI follo*':
FroD t p.E. lo DidDight
F.o6 Eitrilhr to 4 ..E. .
Froo 4 i.d. to t a.E.
Ft@ t a-o" lo noon
FroE Doo! to il p.lrr.
FtoE 4 p.m. to Ep.D.

c.lLd r|td.1

.
tb. fnt f.toh
.
ih! niddL w.i.!
. th! Dorai[8 wafd
. tlc fo|loooo w[rtci
. tba |ftaaloo|! *rtd
,
rhacrtoing Drtch

In Flt drF thc cEitrg *dch wu brotco at 6 p.!. ilto tro 2{our
Fiod! oaltcdtLc 6ta ald @d .lot ',tdrat. Thb corb&d two rata
ofwrt 6&c.?crr(thawald-|!&eatah ayalca)to dts(lata tbaiaroutila
diy by dry, NoryldrF thrfr rtE iNrrLttly thtrc actaof*ddfca4.ca,
ald tbc pnatiaa Dry ody ba ulcd o[ ao![ vtrdr o|lrad by two
iratcltcaDingo6a.r|.
ThGtin it lourd.d by D..!r oftbc rhip'. bdf-{!!.lly ih. or iit d
to tla ffigcftoot bu[Dcid, thcdrppc. of wbkt ir motld bt Dc.rr of
a Llyatd artlodilg to fbc hdDrortr't po.iliotr Thc bCgiDDi4of tha
rr&h i! dcoo!.d by Dltilg t bd&, tb..od of ttc fr.t hu{our b| I
b.[, thc .od of tht ftn trc hdf-holE by 2 bdb, rld |o o!, to thrt
3.30rm. .rd p.r., fo..d.aplc, i!.ouod.d by 7 bdb. Tb. rtuob.. of
bdlr Drd! thrrdor! !crr( .ic..dr t, qc.pt .t nittltht @ rh. 3l
DGCrab.r,ryh.d !5 bGIl,.fr n dc, ir, t for c.A ',..r, oli.o runt hy
th. yonrt rt e.nb.( of tb. .bip'r o6Fnl,. ThGbdb .tc n dc iD
p.itt, folo$cd by. dldc oE if.!y, L.vilt. dittiet F!& b. !.o
cac[ !.it rld bctwa r Fir .Dd.r odd atrol." Eg. 330 ia Dd. aa
1 , 1 . . . 3 ,1 , . . . 5 ,6 , . . . 7
At r qu.tl6 of.tr horr b.foE th..od ofcrch wrrch,i.G.3.,a17.,15,
.!d ll.,l5, olr b.U i. n dr to r.ll tb. lrft e.6lc.p.ir,
rho tdl .F.ro io th. dof wrt t . Gf L?t) ir ||!!r||.L ork . it i.

2n

TEA OFFICEI' OF TEE WATCE


ttlalad aar full 4hour c.!td. ErEdtodry in thEr-watchlystcmt thc
dog-rv.tc[ bclh rtraybc madc,.! follovr:
1630hr!. I bcll
lEo brr. 4 bclb
1930hn. 3 bclb

l?00 hr!, 2 bcl!


1830br& I bcll
lxi hn. I bcll

1730hrs. 3 b.I!
lgq) hr$ 2 bclb
m hrs"t b.llr

Thc bdb rr! drihr lo tto.c for oth.r *at b.r up to md includilt
Itm b6. .nd alro ih. *d.r.c.Ilin8 b.[ !t 1945h$.
MrDy Mstcrs rodry dilmirs tbc ulc of thc bclb otr tl|c SrouDdrthlt
cloch trr itt d throulbout thc sbiF. Otlatt prcf.l fo ula thcd durin!
thc houF of dlyliStt only, partiolrrly ehcr p$c4cr! tr! c'trii. It
i! parh4a r pity thst rucha vrll-l(nos! cultod ofthc,.. i! iqdilt to
dia out.
flrE DUTTDSOr THE OrrICB

OF TrrE WATCH (O.O.W.)

A Al S..
Tb6a al! suemarirada! follo*s:
(l) Mri dring |a cfrcicnt lookout both rhcrd rDd r.tffq supplc.
Dcocd rt dght, .trd posibly by day ar vdl, by otrc or morc crEw
lookoutnco,postcdwhcrcthc O.O.W.thitrkr tt.
(2) Chcctitrf fhc v*rcl" positioowhcodlerpo6liblcrnd nccaary,
Thi! doc.not implya continuou!scquaocc
ofraf,trrt sork. whco cocrtitr& matryM$tcn rEquircthc ahip'rot!.rvrd politiod to bc plottcdo!
thcchrrt cr,6y l5-z) ninut!.. Thca.fr6 maybaruppLdcntadby Oc
usaof ndar, iccorditr8 to thc Mrd.dr Strndingdcrr
Whaocvci
poceittg rrd{ rdng.r aDdba.riDg!ibould bc choclrcdat lcrst onccr
e|tlh by mca[r ofyirud baaring!to cnlutr th|l thi! uvigrriond aid it
fulctiodaS propcrly.Radiodirccrion-bceringatrdCodol couat! eay
alsobc usedby thc O.O.W. in additionto Decrr, satcllitesor lrran.
(3) E$urirg tbat thc hclmlmsni meitrtainingr propcrcou$G,and
rtccritrSto thc b6t of his ability udcr thc prwriliDg slrthcl.!d !.r
coddition, A ghDc. st lha rskc, by dry, wil provi& r quickchccl(on
bis acqracy. Coursrecordersand auto-pilotsmustalsobe chelked.
(4) To lccp r 3harplookout wh.o mc[ rtE worliog n .r thc lhip'a
lidc or *hao nbving sbout thc d.ckt in bcavyv!.ttc..
(t To u!6 tbc Gdo-rourdingltldiDc vha! idtruclad to do ao.
(O lD fog; to rilg lhc clgilc-roon tclcgnpb! to 'sord-By', to cotnn@ aolndin8lha Raguhtio! fo!.ri8!al to corrdcrcc |{d o.!.!i!a
r .td!r rv.!ch,to cdl thc Mast rr to poctqtrr looloub forwrtd ud/or
doft, and to &duc. to r hoddrt .p.cd,
(7) To rccorddl dct ilr of Fgirf ritt & io tbc Dcck Logbook.
(8) To rtply by vitu.l !i8n lin8 to.!y v!.!d or.itr.r& p.niq{.rty
43

TEB OFFICBR OF TEE WATCII


Nrvd or Air Fore 6atl *bro it ir corvcoi.nt to do ao; othatsita io
viludly sigml thc lcttrf 'N (Nc8.tiE).
(9) To rcadthc bdrornaiarrcgulrrly,prrtio arly whctrio a hurriouc
zoocitr &a:on.
(10)To 6akc su&tbrt lookoutDcotrc lsfc atrdthrt all wtrcbtce?crs
.rc r.lidd on tihc.
(t l) To m*G lutl tbat suitablcdccllighB !t! .wit Jhcdoo .!d ofi rt
sulsc!and!ulri!c. Thr! rpplic6rbo to tha uvilation li8bb.
(12)To clrura thrt rEatbri.cl dooBaDdoDaoing!rr! clolcdwbao
not itr u!a.
(13)To ctr3urE
thst legt srr fying ftt ly .!d tbit titD.l hdlisrd! ar.
slrrlclad h drnp w.th.r.
(14)To chcckthc conpas3crtoaEluLrly.
(lt To rcc.rd h thc Dcck lrgbook: aodncmorlm.atr rnd arvolufio8: log distsncca;wind di&dion! 6!d AGGd!;air rDd s tarnpaaatuE3; b|romctcr Eadfugr;i/rathcr colditiod; couG.atbadld; alow!!c.3 Badc for currctrtsct or La$4iy;rr3ult! of lcxtaot obaadatiotr;
timcsof parsiagnajor lrvi8atioul D!rb; nrE.s of Dilo8; d.t iL of
actiotrin fog or bsd vilibility; tio6 shG! hol& !I. v.ntilst d; t trt
,ourdi!8!; timc. ehco !.vigption li8tr. u! .wit h.d on rod ofr;
cotli6 of hcavyw6rhc., md my souodiltr nado totatbrt with tho
nstuE oftba bottom,if bowD"
(lO To tG@r mct orologirl logbooLwh.!o .rnryod.
(17)To makcsur. thct anchorsa.r clca. for uscnhctr rpproaching
poat.
(lt) To frcqu.dtly ohacrvruotoictcalirg rFantu! cilitrt&
09) To bceria Ehd thrt aenint' nly bc rip.d by frc.t oint wiodt
atrdtat .ciiotr to Frvrot t[i!.
(20)To ctrlurc tbrt Dad alr clcaaof tbc fog-dgD.fing aplaratur
bcforctt O.O.W.uld it
(21)To crrur. thrr rdi6acd hdnr@ t4ort tbr ooin! to tba

o.o.w.

Duticawhici Eust trlo p.i{b of p|.ca ollt othclr ilcludo nuobcrt


(l), (2), (3), (6), (lD, and O4). Ir rhould bc notld, hotrv.r, tb.t thc
cxccotiotrof (l) wiU rutoe.tigrlly ilclu& dud!. (4), (7), O0), O2),
O3),09), (20),!trd (21).
wh.d tatilg ovrr a war.h" lhc O.O.W.wil flqsila to how: thc
cour$ rt .r!d; dloerncc. for lccsay aid ,at; rb rodda crnitd, i.a.
contiflrou! port or uboard hclm; thc rcrclutiotr!; rbiF or !.vi8rtioDrl E|tL! in dfbt: ftc lhip'r pouition;vbathat touDdiDgSaaaor
rrdar i! i! u!a; whcthcrcxF. lootoub rfa podad.trd wh.f,ctbry sr
liturtld; dctrib of rly |ound dgDd! haard;tb! ooEF$ aaror.Ho wil
rad rd iaitid rbc Mlrt dr ldShr Otd.r Boot It i. olnoorty to writ

a4

TIIB OFFICBR OF THE WATCII


tb logboot lotsi.. for thc rarlcb .tbr bcirg .cli.vcd, rDd whcdtt
rllicvilg ofrccr b.! v.rb.lly .tr!.d to t tc ovcr oc *$.h.
B.Lh,E.|ld
(l) To.dlurc that . proFr t.trtrry ratch i! kcPt;tb.t fhc t.ltwry
i| djultrd fo! tidd r.a8c; that !o urauthori!.d Frlont rtt .llocEd
rbo.rd lttd th.t thc O6c.n' trly boordtu propcrlyu!cd. Thir htt r
hdicrtaa whhh Ofioort arc rbocrd strd grhichonc i! on duty.
(2) To adlut! thrt r[ noorilgr a.tcproparlyin d with.st guatd!.
(3) To cnlutc thst dccldiSba.tc switchcdotr snd otr .t dltt .trd
&w!.
(4) To .tt nd car8poFrltiollr, itoriDgof th. !hip, erd tbc ruppli!8
of fr6h wataato ta!t!.
(t To aosuGtht wrtchmcorrE proFly rcliarcdrDd thst whctrECn
at! worlilg ovc.lidcor aloft thcit aquiptcot it h a safcconditioDtld
rhrt r D!! ir cmDlorcdto ertch for thcir rafcty.Th. v6!al ahouHiy
tbc two-frg aignal'RY',which ma&rs'Rducc apacdwhcnFssing ma'.
(O To frlqucrtly ob6crvc6rc or rEokodcEctint app|rrtur rad to
carrt out firt patrob.
(7) To inv.stit tc dilcipliliry oficrc.3.
(t) To prw.dt leokioS i! lpFopfirto p!rt! of th. !hip.
(9) To b. rcspoisiblcfor thc curtodyof kcyt,
O0) To cntcr inro thc logbool: rc.thca coiditio$; datailt of rcpcir
work; lursbcr ofD.o cEploycdon &Eai6; tidcs whcoc..go i! lordcd
or dirctrrled rld crhichhob! rrc in u!c; thc rusbcr of ,irr,adot!
frogt coploycd; rlaaoa! for ltopprg.a ofcergo work; tha r&ltitritio!
of hol&; hDt ,o!rdi!gr; th. d.ruSht cac.hdry; d.t ib of bciv), lift
work; nrE6 oflEgray *atahmrtr.
(l l) To rcguhrly cbrck ooorilgr .d fcodcr!.
(12)To crrry out !.. dutic! (9),O2), O3), rnd O9).
c.LDra,dA|da
(l) To .!!u.! tb.r thcllcltor lidl! arr burdiogprop6ly .!d !t cqud
brilliracy.
(2) To lo.urr thlt thc strc.horb.[ n dilplayld by d.y.
(3) To m*c rhc Tproprirtc louDdsignrk in fo8 or poor vLibiuty.
(,1)To rlt dl po.riblc rtlpr to dcbct r dr8gtilg lachor.
(t To rr.kc rurr r !.codd alcto! ir rcadyfor lcniDggo.
(O To lift lla Srngsry ehan lcrr src h,rrrtiaSovcr iL
(7) To ot crw aUbor8 |rdvirg &t srd L.vi!! thc .hip.
(t) To c.[ tb! M.!t . irstintly lhould thc v6*l bc ia daofcr.
(9) To rcoordh tb. Iogbook:thc dcpth of watlr rt thc strchor.8p;
tlc aboutrt ofc.bL v!cr!d; thc uturc ofthc botloE; thc dchor baariltt or trudt bc.ritr8a,i.c. thoaculrd to c.bcctthc vlstcl'r potitio!;
245

TTIB OFFICBR OF IEB WATCS


|try djlate.ota to thr aoouot ofcablct'rar!d; dltrib of boataarrivir!
.t .Dd lceyingthc sbip;rhcarrivaldaaltbl; anyoftha cnfiaa i,ti:h aaa
mrdc rt !.a or whcdbcdhcdia port |nd whichr!! apFoFiafc.
(10)To c'rry oul lcr duti.. O), (4),(t), (9),O0),Ol), OD, O3),O1),
OO, Ot), Oe), !!d (20).
(ll) To poat af,tra lootoub iL Doo( vidbrlity, cotlttaooc a rtdst
walcff rnd cdl thc M$tGr.
02) To .orut! rhatthc t!..Gl i! prop.dy .b..d (Chpt . l).
I! dl ca!.t rhc O.O.W.rhould c.&fu[y rtt rd to Sbding (d.n.
IL ahouldrrport to th! Maltar wiad:
(a) th.rc i! r d.trriontioD of vi.ibility, or
(t) lhc v!8rcl aiSht!ccrtrin uvigttiotrd D|rb, of
(c) th.r! ir .!y unu.url lighting of, o. f.iluF to .igbt, nvigrtio[
mlttr, or
(d) lry v..!d frilr i! it dqg to lir! w4r, o!
(.) erlcl(!, uDidctrtii.d objca$,o! auwivod raa obq{a4 ol
(, th. b.roDctrr fltlr rh.rply.
DUTIEII OF OITI(SS

Pf,IOT TO I,EAVTI{C POIir

@Enxr@)
Tbc folowids duti.. wil bc rhrrod .moDgtL! Oficr:
(l) To corutl thrt.ll h.tchwrF.l! Gudy b.tiadd do*rl ald fbaa
booby Oold .ottucc) h.t h.! d! locL.d, All w..tl6{.ot
doon
.hould b. do.d eb6c Frcth.l,
(2) Atl rhip'r sidr trib Dnlt b. prop.rly .bippod.rd ..wql OvlF
6idatrct! ,hould ba hsubd .bosrd.
(3) D.rricf! *iU b. .torcd rod r.olidy h.h.d i! thch.rutoh.& TtG
dcck erEro bc cL.rrd of dl rulrilg ri83i!&
(4) StadiDg riggitrglhould bc lct tight---{hir Ipli.r rn o it bi,
b.co castofr ro facilitac thr rwingiq out of dadi:k!.
(t To aolorarhat a Fopar a(c5alta of doaonaobb|. ba@Dldc
b.tw! th. rhip .!d th. doct ofi.Gr.
(O A[ c.rgo .hould b. eutdy todD.d (6o|td) lo F{wrot it .tifring in o aaac6y.
(A A rhorougi ch.ct nrlt b. n|d! ro @|r! thrt no a.ttp for thst
port ir bcitrgortrqlri{ to rDcrrxt dc.cilrtioo.
(t) Thc Mrrtrf ri[ prob.tly rquitc . lirt to bo o.& .ou.iriirg
thc rp6c.3&nridng vitth c.rgo comFftmot!, Fttlnldy whra tbc
v!.rcl h loding: Idc.[y, a cog ofthi! thouldbcat to thc st lo.dilt
pon'
(9) Thc droushtL to tc i6{..!.ly tr.d @ botb .il.| (ia c.r tL
!E .l i. lirt d).!d tbr d.o.ity of th. doc&r .( dd.(DiEd. I!.o@.
2M

THE OFFICER OF THE WATCII


localitiB whcrhigh t mFr.turcs prwail, luch asthc Pc.iiaDGuIf, thit
maybc as low a596 Srammcspc. Iitrc, and a hydromctcrsuitablcfo.
oils will hsvc to b. us.d. Thc forn FRE 13 (Noticc of Drrught rnd
FEcboad) mustbc complctd, signcdby thc Mstcr !!d Chid Offccr,
ard posbd io a coBpicuou! phcc. Thc M.ltcr wil cotlr thc dctrib
tistcdin thi! form i o thc omcisl lribook.
(10)To carurcthat stronSroom! ard mril room! erc lockcd.
(l l) To carryout s thoroughacafthfor itovewrF h dl p|rt of thc
ship,with panicularrcfcrlncc to: lifcboatr; fun&l calin8'; LrF wD.
tilttorsi crcwaccommodation;
emplyoil-cargo-tanks;
enginc-rooms;
trunk*rys and shafttunncls(ondcmcath
thc limbc.s);
tunncl+scepc
coilsof ropccovcrcdwith canvrsiholds,andthc stccring
storcroomsi
mayusclhechsinlockcr.
fsl. ctc.Stowaways
(12)To cnsut! that Must.r Usti aI! po6tldlhrougboutih. rhip lirting thc cmcrgpncy
duticsofallclrw Drcmbat!.
(13) Totosl a copy of the Crew Agecment (ALC 6) in rhc crew
accommooauon.
(14)To cnsur th.t a cabin,if rcquircd,i3 pr!p.r!d for tho Pilol
(15)lrtc documcdts3houldbc prcpsrcdrc6dyfor lrnding by n.at!!
ofthc pilot cutt ..
(16)To nakc pFpsrstiotrsfo. thc oomp.3r.dju!i.r, if .ly.
(17)To obtainthc latcstesthar-forccastcbir! if raqulld, rnd dlo
thc ht6t icc ]lporB, i! scssoD.
(18)Thc whisdclanyardsend mein radio ecrirlr ihould bc qtctcd.
(19)All Dcc.ss.ryflsgsihould bc mdc rrdy. Tbc Bluc PcGr(cod.
fl.g 'I') shouldp.rfcdbly bc dispLyld fo. th. f,rrl 12bouB.
(20)Tclcphondshouldbct6tcd througboutlhr sbip.Thos.p.ovidcd
by thc.horEAuthoritid shouldbc discouE{rd andLtcn arhorc.Thi!
rpplicato 3horcsuppliGof r&am, 8as,clcctricity,and vatcr, alc.
(21)A chcckshouldbc madcto carurcthat dl pa$aoSara
arld c.rw
mcmbc'3arr aboard.Thir will normrlly bc doDcby tha Haadaof thc
dcpartmcnts,who will rlport to thc Cbicfo6car,
(22)Thc pstcDtlog, if of thc towingtypc, shouldbc ma& rcadyfor
ikl.mitrg.
(23)Thc gyro compe3!shouldbc rutroitrgfor .bout thc ild 5-l2
hou6. Tlc gyro cno. ihould bc chcckcdetrd rlp.acr| tynchrorircd
vit[ thc mrltcr compGr.SomcM|st (! prcfcr to rdjult thc tlpcrt '!
so lhat thcy showtro crror. All clsmprmu3tbc rclcascdon thc rtt|lLr
colnprls,
(24)Thc nrvigatior b.id8c ahouldbc dtdc tedy eith prtticul|r
tlfcrcocc to: biroculars; tclcacop6; m.8.phorl6; chdk for couFc
bos.d; charts;chsrtworkinstruncdts;lhrfp p.ocib; bddgctrotcbool;
sign lliog lampr; comparsbinnsclc covcrs; azimuth nirroE (th6c
.hould bc t6tcd for crror by obrcrvidgttc bcarin8!of an objactvith
297

TITB OFFICBR OF TIIB WATCE


thc srrow both up anddowtr);thc V,H.F, radio; torchca;thc clronoDct rr lhould bc chGcld fd.d!r; ttc rr&r, ccho-lotmdiDg
Dlrhinc,
Gtrli!}rood tdclt pb!, rt .dng+.r, siirtlr+ rnd loud hlilcn rhould
b. totld; c!r@t Noliq to M.ri4r| Eolt bo obt i!!d
(29 R.tSurrd. .hoou bc brought.borrd.
(2O Fc lctt lnd gltr8wlF Oonld bc rtodcd rtrdy for rhifp'"g.
(2O All boqt! .!d [8nr.cr lhould bc c.it ofi. Propcl.c gu.rd! (fo!ting D.rq trngsiirl !o poopd!ck) .hould b. rhip,p.d,
(2t) To .tbd th. noorinSrifthc EdgitrGr!wishto t .t thc .ogi!6.
Whatrlc.viDgt! rtrchoragqpsrti:ubdy whcoc&go ha! bccnlordd
or di!c.hrtg!4 duti.. (23)ad (24)Ery bc dilEcNr!.dwitb, r$uoing r
proF .r.hor prtA ha! bccdk@L Duty (2t wiU Dot.pply,
DUTIES OT OTfI(ET!I PnIOI TO AXIIVAL IN BONT
(l) AmnS. for.[ tr!c....ry !r9 to b. Drdc rc.d],, !o.h !! qu.tutinc signalsa.odthc ship'ssigral lctters goup. The corrcc3courtGy
iag ihould bc to hand.
(2) To prtD.lt . lirt of c.r!o, toSctb.r with ib wludr, c.fiid i!
utrtEgirtftd rF..a, for d.drrdio[ to rhc C]r|toD| O6c.rr,
(3) To prtFrc (kriab ud crrE rlrdy fo! immcdi.tc cornlcttF
mcrt oforgo ro[t.
(4) To wlm th. Eo8ir..rt !t h.|t I hour bdorl thc.o8hc. .r! to bc
do'peod.
(t To p.rD.tr . grnfny rad fcodar Erdy fo ri5gils orlrlirla
(q l}c Ft.dt tryilf log nutt Dch.rd.d (broqht rbo.rd).
(7) A p ot hdd.r durt tc Erdc rc.dy.
(t) Moorir! lb D!!t bc prqrrd for rmbg Ilcrviog fu rhould
bo di.titot d for! .nd .& .rd c. rprhlt rlruld ptofcrruy hw
haayilt lilaa altlady laaoaodto thad.
CONNIIIG lEE SlPi

EE}l

OIDnS

Thcrcia !o ainsloafn@ ofErtal halD o[&rr, ald tla nlr !..frra


n .todsly dvi.d to .bdy th. l|rirL D.rhod. .!d dooco oo for hir
own u.c cod..vos.iq ro n L. s! tt t it rill d .ll rincr b. tuitrbL
for thr Drcvaliot ooaditiooa,c.& c@i!t anoog haar.ytr|fic.rd rlto
i! rarror r|taq aic,,ud that it ia bcy@dDitior.qltrtiodThr tr. of grd r' rtutoard (or Doat)'ir gpoar|ly a! ao.rgtry
ord.. eh.n. rrpll .riot n t.qoir!4 ud lD. ord.r rhould bGgiltd i!
r calo w*! to aorEFlhat a frrnaod h&ro|tr doa.trot D||ttb ttaol
ort i! rho rrs!8 di.loiioo. fhir hlt.t .c{iotr it litdy to bo . Did.b
D.d! by !!y oD of !r, lrd Dry 6|r Fribbdy ni.o tb. tdlro.o
i. rddioS lt crab rbroqb rh. rli.dbo!- rildoo, iod-d of Li.
26E

TI{E OFFICER OF TI|E WATCIT


i!!tsuEo!t!. Thc uscof thi! ordar,hoerv.f' Diy bc quitar!8ub rnd
frcoucntitr !8trow chsnnclswhcnthc shipi! ptocatdilt rt dov tPGGdt
rnd_c.rryiq l.rgr ruddcrco.&cliotrrngha.
eU orilcrs-roltrc mormln mult b. !tp.!t!d by bi6; thlo hGrrportt
'Wt..l'. .midlhiF, Sit' thi! mustbG.cknovlcdS.d
r cotrditiotrluch ar
bv
'Ifthco.o.w
thc O.O,W.rrilhc! to altlt thcv!!lcl'r counofrcn' ,!y' 2ru !o 330
'Altar coulr 60dcgt!6 to strrboatd',ol
&g116 hc Ery girc rhcordct,
"s;cr 330dc;;'. or aLc hc Ely choo6cto cotrtrol thc a*ilg of thc
'T*aoty
rhio himrclf.in whichcrrc hc wil watctrthc coEFs! .!d asy'
thip coEEcnc.. hG.leitr8 thc O'O'w
dcirc6 s|rboard thc.l'. Ar Oc
'Ea!c
'Erc
to tctr', i! rtbich c.tc thc whc'l b
whccl'
or
thc
me-vrav.
-rit"a-ri"tit ttc iaOotor tho*r r LaaYduGthttr Z) dcgt .' ot cltr l0
"DidtbiF'. WhGotbr vcaal rc&hcr r
&1116. Thc Dtxt ordcr will bc
(d.p.odiDg
upotr th. rr& of rwbg) tho
h;diq of aboul 32) d.grc.r
'stcady'
whccl
bcilg rot tld to Plovilc
thc
or'lrlcct
h.rl',
ortcr J t bc
ir6rt hdm in ordcr to chcct thc Ning' Thir ouat bc dorc ao lbrt lh'
ihip "ropr .*iogiog oo " hcdiog of 330dcgtL+ whcothaordaci! giwd
'Sta-rdya! abcso6' or'St ady ot 330&grcc! '
fhii ncrha of oomiag Ery bGut tul wt d th. O.O.W.wirhr' to
rttcr courrc ro rvoid alothct'vqacl. If bo rhinl, ltr dccrriotr of t5
dcqlaa to Dort ir rumciant,hc n|y tsy dnply SLas fittrcl dcft!" lo
prtftn to rwiog thc.hiP utrtil s auit blc dLtrtion llt
ro-rt'. bu ii'ha -oca
'Twtdty dcstt" port
tc nay urc tlc roqucocc
ioco'ecnic"od,
'St!.dt
"EidthiF
. . . St.rdy 'r
...
ro nvE ' . .
wlo"t'...'f"L
b..di!&
ahaaoa.'.Tbc halnltn!tr low |t?orta thcthip'a'Poft
t*!d91" .tc" but
$nc O6ocn and Pilotr ulo ihc Gtltr.tiod
'You
colr'c ttloty
lo
dlr
a!!
to
Eca!
Drnv hclnamcoitrtlfprct tbb
'You |t! !o curt
d!r;.. to Dort' ebilGotter| uld.flnal it !o Dc.n
rfit" 'ud.fittandiris
a"rricr oep-t ttcd'. For th'. ttaa@ llaao olt t altryr bo '
bcts@ th! cominS O6.aa ald tha hdotda!.
clc.r
tha rbovorlbtitr! ta$Erc canbo
Arlrnilt thc httcr ili.tpGfrtio!,
'Portnv!' . . . "nidthiF .. ' St'rbo'il
.
.
.
r*otv'
io.'pott
claara
"DiiLhiF . . . scrdy...b. !F.
ttui' tto itcadvoc nilad .' .
'E$ to fv!"
'Pon
nvr ir !..d h.rc itrtt .d of
Ttc ;rDr..d;
'wt"o irrunaior tU nA-loatr lo alaaf,| oafiri! oootaaauchaa33''
'Tht!c' tht.a Oh'. Tbc h.l@&
dcffcc+ it b elven cxprt{oa |t
nuat rttort couttaain r lidilrr oa!tt.l.
If th; O.O.w. wlh.. to bGrb.olutdy F:d!. in hit dutlt h! a.y
r ch th. etaal ildic.to. at h. gir rtr otdcr. Tbb adrbb. hi'n to
hclu rpplicetioc Ib ruddccidicetor
d.tlct i!.tuttv rtrv Eittat
unnlly *orr r idryd !.tio! coDFttd with tbrt of th. wh"L "d
I Ditt|lc it oot innaldY obaaatld.
Wiaocwt ro ord!. it tu!8 oo thc angitlroon tdcanlb| it rin b'
N

THE OFFICEROF TIIE WATCH


rtrls,rcdby rhc Engilcar, idd thc smallcrpoittar oo tha bridgctclc
f'!ph will rlig! itsclf wiih tta maioclDtrol. It i. mo6timportsot ttat
thc Offc.r in chargcolthc tdcgrsphs3houldob6crvcthit sEsll poiolrr
i! ordcr to dctcctciron.
TIIE BOW TINUSTEN
This device rvill emble the vescl to be tumed within her own
lentth a|ld is an ercellentaid to shi[Fmanoeuvring.
Whethcror not it
is fitGd to a shipdepcndsvery muchuponhow muchuscit is likcly ro
se. Orderssuchas PORT THRUST, o. THRUST TO PORT erc
sometimesgrosslymisiDterprtedto nean TITRUST WATER TO
PORT, in srhichc{se the ship movesto starboard,lndoubtcdly the
opposirerequired! To avoid ary possibilityof misundentanding,I
prcfer the order BOW TO PORT. Opiniondiffersasto the thnster's
efficiencl at forwardsFed. Above about4 tnots it is urlikely to have
any effect.
TIIE IOGXX)XS
Rcfcildccha! bcctrmadcid pGviousrcctio!! to a logbool. By tti! is
m..nt tlc Chicfomccr'rlogbool, whichi! vinualy a diaryof thc ahip'r
rctivitics.Thc idormrtioa cootaincdthccio i! dcrivrd froD ihc rough
logbook,*hich is tcpt by tbc itrdividulf O6cats-of.ttc-vatch.Thc
Chid Ofrcci's log is writt D up &ily, rDd ..ch prg. is sigld by thc
Chicfoficcr endwito.sLd by th. Mstcr. Boththi! boot .!d thc.ougb
logbookmay bc producd ir Courb of ltw |trd .bo doailS O&ial
Elquiri.s, suchasare hld by th. Dcprrtmcni ofTraNpon (D.o.T.)
in th U.K. subequcnt to a collision, etc.
For t[i! tlaloq Fg!. lhould lrvcr bc tom out of thc boot, rDd rtry
rltrratiotr! shouldbc n!d. by ruli4 r lintb linc thlough tbc oriSird
a ry, tC ritidg it a. d6irld, .nd initirlio8 thaaotry.It ir prtfcfrtlc to
havc r sitDcssiDgligraturc. In tu cirilrntoracs dpuu or satsa ba
At tt rdd ofthc voyrgptbc Chifoficcr't log ir oft.d 8iv!d into ttc
qrstodyof ttc tbipow[cr! ehilc rha rcughcopyi! &t iD.d sboardfor
tlfcrtdoc purpo36.Thc Owncrrrr! tb6 i! a podti@ to corduatdofaoalacvEtrthoughthc v.lscl ir rbroad. Id thit comE{ioo it ir of thc
uho6t iDpo.trDacto o.tc a full cotry i! thc loSboot rEbtilg !o dl
.ccilcot! *hic[ occuroo thcahip,aomttt r eho thaviciiE, a"&vilitor,
atlwdorc, oth.' 3hor! anployao,ot ctrw rncobcf. I! Drtry ca!6 thc
antrt ha! bc.o ovrrlookcd,!!d ar Daay ar iw )E rr bt r . c.biD for
daDagr' ha! bc.o Dadc,lhc cLin Flsting to iltDcrsor iffrpcaitrtrcct
ctc,,allcgcdto bGa dirccl r6ult offbc oriSilal rccilcot ProviLd r full
rcoount,duly witr.laod, rrd rt r! poacibL.ifDcd by thc victiD, hr.
2q

THE OFPTCEI OF TEE WATCH


bc.n cat ftd into tL logbool, thc Owncrrwi[ bc .blo to proYidrth6
![rimum dcfctrccuodsrcooditiontof litit tion.
Th. Ofrcial Logboo,(O.L.a.)is supplicdby thc Dcparlmcntof
TransDorl
'bccnin th United Kingdomwhen the Crew Agreement
of thc Mercrntile Madne
havc
comptctedto thc aatiafac1ion
Officc SuDerint;ndent,and bforc he issuasthe ship'scertificrte of
ouward ilcarance.lt mustbe dclivcrcd to thc Superintcodantwirhin
,18hours of anival in the United Kingdom, or when the crcw is
whichcveris the sooner.
discharsed.
Tbjs iosbookii lcpt by thc Mastcr,andall nlrid arr si8ncdby him
andwitnc-scdby a crcwmcmbcr,u3uallylhc Chicfoffcar. Thc logbook
containsadtric.rdating to:
(l) Birth, dcaths,tnd mat iaScswhichoccu.otr board.
(2) W.gp! duc to a dcld sramtt, tolpthrr with Nlht ofhb cFcct!.
(3) Eacbclsc of sickncss
and th. rcmcdyus.d.
(4) A li3t ofcaEw,with e rcpon on ttcir conductatrdchrrectcr.Abo
dcrdk of rhairqualific.tiod!.
(t Written wamings, reprimandsand statutory deductions
by a Court of Law.
Convictions
(6) Dctlib of crcwcbanfGand anypromotion!or disratin$ whhh
ocaur.
(O B..chirg!, str.ndinSi,rnd colliliont.
(E)Ordcn ofa Nrvrl Coun.
(9) Datailsof wrrcnight doors,r.dio inst ll.tios, dcck linc, atrd
lotdlitrcs.
(1o)
' ' DbtrB3 calb wbichrdultcd in no dcpartuFof tbalhip frorDhcl
cou.3c.Full ralons for not 8oin8lo thc alsistanccof thc dL'
trt3icd Fr3on! fiust bc giwn,
( I I ) A list ofdocubcrts withiothc M$tcr's chrtgc,c.g.Ccnifc.t! of
Rcgiltry,Ccnifcrtc of FrEcborrd,coPyof thcctlw'a A8tlanadl
cbncr-plni6, Mdnifcst,Bill ofHcdtll r.dio logbook,clc.
(12)Rcfu$l by.ay crcw Ddnbcr to ttkc rtti'tcorbutict (liDc oa
citru!-fruitjuicq wbic.harc i$urd frcato prcvcnttcurvy).
(13)Wr86 ard cfrcct of rlly srmsneho ha3bc.tr Lfl bchiod'fot
aoy rcasoD,st . prcviou! port of cdl.
(14)Cornpbbts rrgading food and *.tcr.
(15)Toma8caof dackcarSoct.
(15)Thc dnuSht, dock allowucc, end f.acbotrd otr lcaviBgalch
Dort: thssrt coDicdfrom form FRE 13.
(17)bc;io$
o! vhich thr ship's lifc-saviogspplirtrc.3 rrc i!'
sFtcd, ioctudiogboatdtill. andfrc drills.
(lt) Testsof pilot hoistsand sieeringgear.
(19)lolFclions of thc accommodttion.
291

TIIB OFFICBR OF TNB WATCH


A oopyof tho .!try .hodd b. ftr.lirtd to . so.n *no hlt b6
wamed or repdmandcd,or who bas bcn disrated.
WLo tb. r,r.d b|t dr!!d hool wrrhor, .t !d.4 or bc.n
brd.4 crc., i.c' |n), oqrr@
rtid nifht k d to du.!. to th!
r.raador h.f carlo, tha M[tar 'loiaa Fobn' haf,oraa Notuy Plblio
ritLin t+ horrt ofuriv.l i! port An .otrt, ro tf,ir .f!.r .houk bc Er&
ir ttc CbitrOfio.d.loSbook rnd.lro ir tb6Ofi. Lgbook

292

CIIAPTER XIY

THE SAFETY OF NAVIGATION

NOTICES TO MAXINERS
fa_f[s
rI! publishcdfor lhc clrEation ofAdsiralty charq sailitrg
I Dllctioo!, Ught U!tr, strdothcrhydrogtaphicpubliEtiont, !trd
&! iarucdby thc AdEir.lty for thc ulc of both Roytl aDdMcr'
I
chsotNrvi6.
For fordg&goiagvt*rcb, lhc followiDgNotiod rrc i'sud:
(a) Drily lotica! to dir,arniEtr irfornrrtio! of |tr utgrDtlstur! or of
Dajor idportalaq
(r) Stc.tly conplct .ditio$ of Dothq whic.hcoatain all thc inforErtio! whichhr! bcc.mcr\|rilablc dutiag lba ptlviou! wk
rtrd inclrdc rny D.ily Notica bud durirg thlt $tct.
(c) A qurrtlrly cditiotr co[taiDirg i! 3 collt.d foan, lhc hydrogrrphic i orErtion publishodi! tbc wccHy oomplctrcditioDt
duti!8 thc ptlviou! qo!rtc(.
Thc ftrt ilauc of tho F.r co linr rouShlyltc frtt tw6ty loriccs,
which are annual Reculationseod otr wbich candidatesfor D.o.T.
GflEination rr! cbdly $rc.tiotrd. Thc book abo contailr loticca
of . tadpor|ry ctlrr tcr, prEliEi4ry troliclr itr folca o! I Jrtrulry,
dctaik of mineleyingexcrciss,territoriel and fishing limits, radio
schcmca,thc
navi8ationalwernings,positionsof ttafllc rcpantion
_of
carri-egcof nautical-pu6licetionsand detaits offshorc rigs. This
book b knowl as thc Annual Suramary.
The Wcekly Editionscontainsix parts:
Pan 1 Thc ind.x
Part 2 Noticcato Mariners
Prn 3 Navigationalwamidgs
Part 4 Correctionsto SaifingDirctions
Pafl 5 Corleclioff io Admiralty Lists of LiShtsed Fog SiSnals.
Pan 6 Correctionsto Adminlty Lis$ of Ladio Siglds.
For homc-tradaondf3bitrgvcsscb,al4ilytrotic.srrr blucd rtrd dlo
. pcckly co.rplataadition,but both rdcr oDlyto lhc a.t ! lrrvcBld by
thcscv6scls.
293

THE SAFETY OF NAVICATION


Thc Noticcsarc issu.dgratis to Mastcr'sof shiF, sdd sll Ofrccrs
.hould scarchthcm thoroughly,makingsll eppropriatccorcctions to
tbcir hydrographicmat rial. Navigationalwrmings3houldbc initiallcd
by cachOfic.r. Thc Noticcsarcobtainablcat McrcantilcMarinaOftcca
lhrouShour&c UnitcdKingdom.Thcyrnry bc iaspcctad,atrdin meny
cas6 obtaincd,at important Comdonwcalthshippingoficcs atd at
irnporunt BritishConsulatcs.
Thcyarcslsoobtainablcfrorn Admiralty
Chln Agrnts.

THE A"II{VERSYSTEM
Thc Automa&d Mutual Aslistancc Rdcuc Systm, oaigimtad
by rh. Unitcd StetcsCoastgurrd,is a mefitinc mutuel $sistsncc
organisationwhich providcsimportant rid to thc dcvalopmcntand
co-ordinationof sclrah and |l{cuc (SAR) cfrorts in many ofi3horc
arlas of thc vorld.
Mcrchant vcssclsof ell nstions msking ofrshorcvoyagd rI cncourrSldto scndmovcmenlrcportsandpcriodicpocitionEportsto tha
AMVER ccntrcat Corst Guard NcwYork vir lalcc,tcdndio st tions.
Information from thclc rcports is fad into an cLcttotric computar
which supplicsdcad-&ckoDing
politiotrsfor thc vassabwhilc thcy lrr
withinthc plottingalla.
Charactarilticsof v6!.ls which arc valurblc fo. dctlrmiting SAR
capabiliryrrl also cnrcrcdinto lhc computcrfrom avaiLblc sourc.s
oI rnlormluon.
Thc p&dictcdlocarionatd SAR charactcrirtic.of caabvc&iclloown
to bc within thc arca of iDterastarEmrda rvailablc uDonrrqucst to
rccogDiscd
SAR agncicsof eny nstioD,or lrr3oo in distrss, for uac
io an cmcrSrdcy.Thc prrdict d loc{aiotrs!I. dilcloscdonly for rcasons
conncclad$,ith maritimcsafcty.
Similai systcmsa& now in opaEtion in Madrgascar,Australia,
N.w ZalaDd cnd Dcnnark (G&cnladdrEr). All shiF arr urgcdto
co-oFratc. AMVER mcssaScs
sI. frcc to thc afiip.
Four typcsof Epon arc in usc.Thc ninc-pcrtrcpon us.d lo initiltc
a plot is scnt bcforc o. soonrftcr dcplrtu.; it ii virr|rrly a sailinS
plao.Thcrc is alsoa dcviationor dclay&port whichis rc iftha lriling
plm is chargcd.A losition trpor! cltr bc lcnt rt randomintarvsk to
assisltha computcr(on looS voyat6). Thc fou.th typa of rcport is
madcotr ardval at thc vcascl'sdcstiDrtion!t4

THB SAFETY OF NAVIOATION


TIIE MAIIIIME BUOYAGESYSTEM
Thc Intcmrtional Associationof LighthoulcAutho.itid (I.A.L.A.)
hr3 dividcd its combioedCardinaland kterrl buoyagcsystemrDto
'B'. Rcgioo'A'uses the followio8buoyraod
two redoo! 'A' .nd
zcal.nd, AIrica, the Gulf and
marks'ir Europc, Austr.[a; New
'B'is discusscdon pagc3Ol.
someAsian coi rias. Region
bt lal dttr (Fig. 14.2)src uscdfor wlldcfncd channclsand show
thc Dort and stlrlroard sidcsof thc routc to bc followcd.For cxrmplc-

17

),.

coNvENTroNArDrnEciox oF iIJoYAGElN u.r(


F r G U t r 4 . I

295

TIIB SAFETY OF NAYICATION


,o.t hand mark arc to bc Icft on thc mrrinar's parr hand whpn
appaoaching
a harboua,a rivcr cstuaryor rny othcr*atcrvay from sc!ward, or whcnproc.cdint ta tha conwntidvl di..ctlan of bbBc. Th.
lrttcr should, in g.ncral, follow r clockwic dircction arcuDd lrld
mess.3.Thc convcndonaldircctionofbuoyrgcfot th. Unitcd Kingdon
is sho*n io Fig. 14.1.Tbc Eadcr rhould Dotcthrt latanl pillar buoys
havccolourcdpillars.
C.drl
n rt! (Fig, 14.3) uscd in oonjunctionwith tbc cardinNl
pointsof thc compass,indic{tc
(a) whcr. a marincrcan6nd navigablcwatcr,
(6) thc ssfcsidcon whichto passa dal|gcr,
(c) thet thc dccFit watcr is on thc nrdrad sidc of thc r|a k, aDd
(d) a bcnd,ejunction, a bifurcation(i.c. a forl) or thc cDdofa shoal.
Cardinalmark arc passcdoa thc rund sidc of thc mark, in othcr
wordsthc marind passs
to thc n?Jtofa n?'l quadrantmarkandso
on. Tha rcadcrshouldnotc lhat crrditel pillrr buoyshrvc colourrd
pillar for additionalcl.rification.
Ilohtad lhg.tr |nlrfr Gig. 14.4)!rc crccrtadoD, oa moo.Edon or
abovc an isolatcd dangarwhich has naviglblc watcr all round it.
Thcy mayhavconc or moE rcd borizontslbands.
S.lc W.t6 n rtr (Fig. 14.4)showthat thcrc is nrvigrblc w6tcr all
aaoundthc maak.lt docsnot mark s hezaad.Safcwltcr rurks csn bc
uscdas mid-channclmarksin which c8scthcy shouldalwrys bc Iaft
on ihc marincr'sport hand so that hc kcap6to thc atarboardsidqof
thc fairmy.
Sfdal Dfut! (F,g. 14.5)alc us.d to showspccisletras ot fcaturcs
suchas trafrc scparation,spoil groundsor dumpinggroundswhcrc
anchoringis unssfc, military arcrcisa aflas, utr&awatcr csbl6 or
pipclincs,rccreationzoncsctc.Thc shapcofthc spccirlmerkis optional.
Ncw Drngcrsarc markcdassoonaspo6siblc.If thcdanga.is asFcially
gravc,suchas a trrck acrossa chlnncl, at lc5st ooa of thc marksis
to b. duplicatcdas soonas possiblc.This duplicatcmark may carry a
.acon showioga signalonc milc loDgon r radrr disphy.
Tha I.A.L.A. considcrthat doublc-concand doubleaph.G toF
marksarc fcaturcsof major daytirrc imporrrn snd shouldthcrcfoE
with thc maximumscpsrstion.
bc as larg!is possiblc
296

POF'

LATERAL
I{AND MARIS

!!!-aE: cAN, P|LL^R OA SPAA


g9t9!l!,
FEo
T
O
P
M
A
R
K
:
REO CAN
--@'
"to, ^*t "*"t""

L AIERAL
SIAFBOAAD HANO MAA(9

il

It
c o N , P T L L A R O F s P AA
G F EN
IOPM^FK r C A E E N C O N E
!.!9!.! , G R E E N ,A N Y R H Y T I { M

s9!9.U8'

F I G U A E I T I, 2

. L!g!J,w8l

Y
--[
LIGHT:

!!9u:

oa

voF(6)+LO N G
QF(6) + L ONG

fllg]""'r.

lc^RorN^L M^Fxsl

F t c u F Et a . 3

co.or"ffitr.,..,-ot

l-rsir-r-rEoDAncER RKsl

o
o

o
LI GII T:
G P . F L { 2 , l W H IT E

lsliE wri ER MARKs'l


TSOPHASE.
llgtLl,
LONG
OCCULTING,OR
T
F L A SH , I V X I E

$
COLOUR RED

FIGURE I/t.4

lspecrel uretsl

YELLO'

CONE

SPHERE

LIGHT: YLLOU

T
9PAN

F r c u R El a . 5

TOPTaART:Vtltott

TIIE SAFETY OF NAVICATION


Thc liShts urd oo Rcgion 'A' buoF arE ilurtntcd in Fit. 14.6
A light gradcdas very Quick
togflhcrwith rhc usualabbrcviations.
fl.shes
ar
$c
ratc
of
lm
or
120
f,..hcsFr ninutc.A liSht
Flashing
gredcdasQuickFlashiogwill ffashat hrlfth.t rrtc, i.c. 50o.60 irshcs
pcr mrnurc.
Rcadcrsarc adviscdto colour Fi8 14.2to 14.7irclusiva,prrfcrably
with crayons.
through
Spi.itinksor f.lt tip pcnsmayprcduccaccpagc
to thc othc. sidc of the papcr. Whcrc ncccssary,I havc includcdr
colour kcy and shadingin thc disgr&ms.This is obviouslyunnccassary
in thc cascof larcraland so.cial marks.
Rcgion 'B' comprissNorth, Crotral and South Americ3, Japan,
Korca add the Philippines.Tbc only chrngcir to htcral matkswhctc
gccn is !*4 for pott hatrdbuoysard rcd for stsrbo.rd ha[d buoys.
Shapasarc commonto toth rcgio$ so cansarc alwaysport hand
hark!. Conesrmain starboardhand marks but rvill be tcd. Both
regions usc Pr4dr.d ChannalLatttul Marl6 whcta lha channel
divides.A singe horizontalbandof colourdenotsthat thr buoymay
bc left on cither sid., thc bulk of thc colour indicatingthe p.cferrcd
chatrnel.For examplc,in Rcgion'B', a 8tlctr c{n buoy with a broad
rcd band otr it would mea[, to a ship herding in tbe conventiooal
dircclion of buoyage,that the prefcred chaonellias to starboard.

TEE N.EGI'LATIOITISF1ORPREVENNNG COLLI!|IONII AT


SEA. rt2 (ADcrdcd 19&t' 19dt' 19t0' r99l U9:l).
Crndidrt6 for D.o.T. Exabinationsfor Ccrtifrcatcsof Compctcncy
will bc cxpcctcdto provc thcmsclvcslhoroughly familiar with thc
Rules,and whil. an inabilhyto rccitc!h.m vcrbatihwill not .tcccssarily crusc thc cardidatc ro fail, e poor lnowlcdgc of thcir contlxt
and applicationwill surclydo so.Candidatcswill not bc placcdin thc
positionof handlinga fully-riggcd
sailingship(unlcssthcyara bcing
er.amined
for ssilcndorscmcnt),
but rh.y will bccrpccrcdlo rccognisc
thc liShtsof lhcscshipsand to cstim&tc
of suchvcsscls.
lh. haadings
wordingvithin thc Rul.s |nd
It i! poirdalc ro dwcll uponambiguous
to dadorrtrstc ccrtrin minor instaocdoffaulty eordio& for ttis vill
301

V E R Y Q U I C XF L S I I I N G

QUIC( FLASHING

ourcx FL^sH(3)
FLASHING

GROUP FL^SH (2)

LONG FLASH

rs o P H A s E
V E R Y Q U I C K F L A S H (6)
ANO LOIIG FLASN

ourc( FL^SH(21
ANO LONG fLASH
occuLttNG

GFOUP OCCULTING

LIGH'

CHAFACTEAIS'IC5

FIGUFEI4.6

nso

@o^r^

o.Jrr

A
$.2

//

'

I
a

L 3^
--A

&

.---,

/ 4 t8
A
.,/

/ ,r't

S
E
6

Z
\

ffi r...o"

TI|E SAFBTY OF NAVICATION


ooly c@fur tba r!ad!f. A to& wil tt tafotr baitcludld rr ttc c[d of
Gaaf,RuL, rhaa! approFida, i! od.r to .ttilt tbc ttadcr to uDdar,lrnd
tt atplhti.r! oo.! tborouShly.AlthouShcondittilS tbc *ordins to
@;ay ir uldouhi.dy rirc, nrdy PcopL|I! quib u!.ttL to do ttit,
horrwr bJrl tLt Ey, .nd !o thco I sould tu886t lc.tlint tbc con'
t.st ro tholoulNy th.t lhr rlpli..tio! of thc Rul6 bcootDc!rccold
tatuq

PART A--4ENER'AL

RU[a I
Appli&bn
(u) Tb..c Rulc. Odl rpply to tI vsr.b upoo tbc high.... rrd in rll
r.&r! coE[..Ld thcrctirh E vif.blc by..r8oing tcn 15.
(D) Norhi4 in thc.. RoL. lhrl inactfct! wilf, thc oPcntioD of Faitl
trti:. nrac Ui- 4pruprht rurtority lor rcldlt r&, bstbout, rivc6'
vif.blc by
trlcr or inbil *rtcruyr cdffircd with thc hifh .at ad
poblc
to
!.
odorn
I
dacly
v!.tcb.
li.dd
ru!6
sbn
Sud
ragoitrg
thcrc Rulca,
(c| Ndbinr itr tbc.c RuLr rhrll ircri.tc with rbc opcrdim oI .Dy
oiirt rutg mac W Oc Corcrnnmi of lny St|tc ?iih tt4cct to dditiotd
lirtird or tignd liSb!, rbqci or *hi.d! .ifEdt for lhiF of ?|r rod Yltlcb
Droacdi[r urdar coovw. or *ilh rtaocc{to tttdiiional 3iilton or !i8!rl ll3trtt
; .5r*-16t t t'i"g vc;tcl .o!.|pd ir Etir! I . o.ct. Tbsc tdditiodd
.triior'or ifnd light, .hS.. or wtittlc d!n&.hdl, lo frr a F.iblc' bc
ad tLt thcy crrmr bc nilN*Gr ior.ry li8bl, thPc or.igd ruttoriz.d
cb.rhcrr ur&r thc.c Rd.i.
(l) Tnfic ..p.nti6 lchc6 nry bc tdopi.d tt th. Orltniz.tbn for
thc DurDolcof abaaaRul6.
(r'l ivhmvcr thc Gwcrnncnt corccdcd tb.I bvc d.tcdiocd thlt r
vc;l of lpcd.l cootltEtion or potF.. cDtot c6Ply fuIy with ttc
Drovi&6; !,rv of lt .c Rulc. ?ith rc|pccr io rtc tuDbcr, poitioo' nnga
; .rc oa viiulty of lilbtt or d.p6, r. ftll ! lo thc dilFntim .nd
!Fli&c6, wiiho|r btcrt dn! vith rhc
ch.nctldnb of ioufl';ifndiog
lD.cid fu"dior ol th. vc.6.l, ;xt wr..l .bn cmply wiih lu(i othcr
;od.irD. iD]! ,'d ro th. luDb.i, p(dtitr, ltDsc 6 nt of vidtili.y oI litltr
d ct.t...lctiric. o{ tdrldd8ldliaf
Ar rhrDca.$ ftx s b rtc dittdtin
r!di|;cc.. rr hcr covcttoat |hdl hvc dctcrEin d lo bc lh. clot .r
r;;duc codpli.rcc .ith th.tc Ru!6 in rc.p.d oI ltrt v6.cl.

304

TIIE SAFETY OF NAVICATION


RuLa2
R.s'd,'iJibilitt
(a) Nothior in th.s. Rulcs shall eroncratc any v6scl, or lhc owner.
of anyncSlcalto conply with
m|ncr or crcw-thrcof.from thc conscqocnccs
th6c Rulsor oI thc ncdccl of anyptccaulionvhidr tnayb. rcquircdby ihc
of ihc c5lc.
ordinad Drrcticcof !cam.n, or by ttc spocialcitc1rmslrncs
(r) iicoastruing andcomplyingwirh thl. ruj.. du. rc8lrd shal bc had
to all drnlcl! of navi8ationand collision rnd lo any spccid cirEamstancd'
indudinl th.lit|ilation of ttc vcarclsinvolvcd,whichmaymalc a dcpanurc
ftom ahc,scRul6 ncccisaryto avoid immcdiatcoattcr.
'Du. ftgard to aI
Aurhor's Noa: This Rulc ir dtrcmcly importstt
thin8s
to ca..s whcrc
rcfcrs
among
oth.r
da4. of tlfvitotion and colitiot'
"cr.ck ffc urblc to iakc thcir stipulalcd .voiding sction duc lo thc
orodmity of othcr vcs!.b, or ih. coast, rccfs, .lc In such ca!.s thc
;rivilcrir vcsr.l shouldasristmrner! by tatinS (and indicatin8)carlv and
iubtt|ntial dion to avoid ollision. Thc Rulc lsF a dcprnurc may bc
shoulda!caswbcths or not thcrc is
ncc..s.ry andihu5tbc privilc8.d vcsscl
'Un&arn rLtof thr cnfl' mult lurcly draw
in onus uron lrqcrto lccp d'a..
attmtion io thc vcscclsnicntiotFd in Rulcs24, 26 and 27. Thc inf.rcnc in
Rulc 2 is, in ny opinion. thal litcral otEcrvanccof th. Rulcsis c.rtainly nol
inGndcd whcn vca!.ls arc cncountcrcd*hi.i arc h.dpcrcd, di$blcd or
dormbcrcd in rr|y w8y ehatsocver'
RULE 3

Gawal ddnitio,s
purpolc
Rulcs,
cxc.pt whcrcthc contcrt othcrwiscrcquitcs:
ot thcsc
Fo. thc
'
(o)
- Thc word 1lslcl includcscvcry ddcription ot watcrclaf indudinS
nondisplrccmcntc'aft and !.tplencs, us.d ot caplblc of bcitr8u3cd
as r mani of trrnsportationod watct.
(r) Thc tcrn 'powririvcn vc$cl" mc{ff |ny varcl gopclhd bv
(c) Thc rcrdl "s.iling vcarcl" mcn$ any vcssclundcr sail providcdthat
DroDcllinrma.hitrcty, if 6ttcd, i5 not bcingu!cd.
(4 T rcmr nc6s.l engascdiD fishin8' 'nest! lny vcsscl.tuhingwilh
rcts, lincs, trawls or othcr fshitr8 appqrrlu: whidl t stricl run'
ocuvrablity, but dosnot includcs vcssclfishin8with trolling linsor
otllcl fflhing apparatuswhicl do not rcstrict manocuvrability.
(r) Thc vord 'scaphnc" iftludcs 8nyaircr.ft dcsulcd lo murocuvrcon
(,

Thc tcrm "vcasclnot undcrcofinand" mcrts I vcasclwhichth.ough


lomc dccptimlt cirormsbocc i5 uttblc to matocuvlt t! rquircd
by tbcsc Rulcs and is ahcrcforcmabl. to lccp out of thc ray oI
anolhcr vcse.l.

305

THB SAFETY OF NAVIOATION


"-vc6s.lrcstriclcd in ber rbilily to manoeuvr"m.aff a
G) Thc tcrn
vcssclwhichftorn thc naturof her wo* is restricledio hcr ablity to
danocurtt as rc$ircd by lb6c Rulcsarrdi5 therdoreunablclo kecp
out of thc.wayof anoiherve.sel.The term "vsr.ls r.strictd in thcir
abiliry to manocuirc" shall includebut not bc Iimitcd to:
(i) a vcasclcngagcdin layiog,scrviongor pickiogup a navi8ation
mark, submarinccablcor piFline;
(ii) r vcssclcnsascdin drcdsing,suwcyingor undcr$atroF (in) a vcstcl .n8ag.d in rcplcnishmcntor translnirg Frsons, provisioiE or carSowhilc undcrway;
(iv) a vcsrlcrSagedin ihc launcbinSor rccoveryof arrcraft;
(v) a vci:.Icngaged in nincclcaranccopcrations;
(vi) a vcs:cl crSagcdin a towinSopcrationsuch,s scverclytestricts
thc towinSvcsscland hcr low in their ability to dviatcfrom
lhcir coursc.
(rr) Thc tcnn 'vsrl constrainedby hcr draudt" mcansa powcr-drivn
versl$hich bcau!of hcr draughtin rclation lo thc availabledpth
of watcr is svcrelyrstricrcdin hcr ability ro dcviatcfton th. cours
shcis following.
(i) Th word "undcrway" ficars tbal a vesselis not at anchor,or made
fast to th shor,or aSround.
(, The*ords "lngth" and"breadth"oI a vcssclmcanher lengthoverall
and greatestbreadlh.
(*) Vess.lsshallb dccmcdlo bc in sighrof one anothronly whcDoDc
c5n b obscwcdvisuatlyfron thc other.
(0 Thc &nn'r6tarctd visiblity" mcatEany@nditionin whichvisibility
is rstricredby fo8, mist, falling rnow, heavyrdnstorms,sandstorms
or rny oiher similar causcs.
Aulhor's Noe: Rcgarding!.clion (i), il hrs blr ruled that to bc 'dt
,n rbr', r vssclmustbc complctlyhcld by tcr anchor.Tbc rcadcrlhould
dininguisbcartully btvc.n th. ttrms'und.r way' ^nd "ruking way'. A
v6scl 'lrrd?r ,ay' i5 not nccssarilynovinS.

PARTB.

STEERING AND SAILING RULES

S.doo L Coodrd oarr...|' lr| .rt cndftbr ot vUl'nay


RUI.E4
Awli.ation
Rulcsin this sctionapply in any conditionof visibility.

306

TIIE

SAFETY

OF NAVTOATION
RUI,E5

Inok-ou
Evcry v6rcl shall et ell timcs marntaina propc. look'out by sigil 8nd
hcarirg a! wcu .s by aI avfiblc mcans approPriatcitr lhc prcvailing
cilqmnaEs ard conditions60 a5to male a full appnital of thc siruation
endof thc rist ol collision.
RULE 6

W. spad
pto..cd
rt e satcspGdso that shccantalc
ai
all
tim6
Ewrv vcalcl 3hall
Droo.r and cftcctrve action lo avoid collilion and bG stopFd wifiin a
itininc. aDDrorriat.to the prcvailinScirqrmstanccsand conditioN.
rtr dtc;ini;g a safc spccdthe following facior! sfiall bc amonSthosc
(a) By all vcsscls:
(i) thc stalcof visibility;
(ii) th trrffic dctrsityincludingconccdtralionsoI fi5hingv.*rb or
alrvothcr vcai.ls:
(in) th; matucuwability oI thc vcssclwith 6p.cial refcrcnccto
stopin8 distrncc atd tur$ing abiliiy in Oc Ptcvailin8coo'
ditiorri
(i, !t nidt the prcsnccof backgroundligbt suchasfto[| shor
lightsor lrom backscattcroI hct own lights;
(v) thc statcof wind, scaandcrtrrcnt,alld th ptoximity of Davi_
ratiofil hrzatdsl
(vi) illc dnuSbt itr telrtion to rhc availablcdcPihof vatcr.
(t) Additiontny, by vcsslsudthopcrationalndar:
(i) lhc ch.nctcristiG, cfficicncyand limilatioDsof lhc radar
.qupmcnt;
(n) anyconstraintsimpos.dby thc radarl?ngcscalcin ulci
(in) rhecficcr oo rrdar dctcciionof ihc scasralc,r'crlhcr lnd
oihcr sourcsof ittctfcrcncc;
icc andolhcr fldting object
(iv) thc possiulftydlal smallvE'.sel5,
lrlly not bc dctcct.i by ndar at m adcquai.targc;
(v) lha numbcr, locatior atrdnovcmcnt of vcsslsdccctcd by
radari
(vi)
- thc mor! cracl i5!.!6dcnt of thc visibility ihat mayb. Po!5iblc
ehcn radlt is us.d to d.terminc thc rltlgc of vc*.clsor othcr
objcctsh thc vicinity.
RULE 7

Ril,t.ol colision
(a) Ev.ry vcaslshal u.c all availablclncan!approFiatc to thc Prvailing

x7

THE SAFETY OF NAVICATION


cirEurasradccs
andconditionsto d.rrmincif risl of colision cxir6. If llcrc is
anydoub!Buchrisl shdl bc d.crD.dio cxisl
(r) ProFr usc shrl bc ln d. of radsrquipncnt if fitEd and opcrational,
includinglong-rang!scsndngro obrin cady yamidg of risl of collision .nd
ladarploting or equivaLntsystcmaticobscrvnionof d.t ctdobjccts.
(c) A$umpdoG shall dot bc mdc on th basis of scarty ioformtioD,
cspecia[yscantyradaridornltio[.
(/) In &lcrnining if rist of coftsion xi!!s rh folowinS consid.rarions
shallbe rmong$os ralcn ido account
(i) suchrist shrl b. d..o.d io cxist if thc compa$bcaringof an
approaching
vssldoesmt rpprrciablych.ngc;
(ii) suchrisk maysomtimcscrist cvcd|,hcDaDlpprcciablctcaring
chaageis cvident,particulaly crtcn npFor.hing a verylargE
vcssclor r low or whenapFoa.hingr vcsslat closrange.
RULE8
Acton to avoidco isioh
(a) Any actiontatcn to avoidcolision shlll, if th. circumstarcca
of tbc case
admit b positiv,madin anple tie andwilb duc rcgardto thc obdcrvancc
ofgood scamanship.
(r) Any aftcrationof cou$c andor spccdto rvoid colision shrll, if th
circuostanccsof tbc ca!. addit, bc la4! cnoughto hc rcsdily a!,prrEntto
anothcrvcslclobscrvingvisualy or by nd.r: ! suc.lssionof $n I alt r.tio$
of courscand/orspccdshouldbc avoid.d.
(r) If tlcre is sufficicnlsaroom,allcrrti@ of courscalonemaybc lhc mosl
effeativcetion to avoid a cl6c-quartc$ sitraaioaFovidcd that it is na& id
goodtimc,is subslantialanddocsnot cault in ahothlrclosc{ulrtcrs situatioL
(d) Action tatcn to avoidcolision wit] ano6.r vesslsha.[be sucha! to
rcsult in passirgat a safc distarc!. Thc cffcctivcncssof l[e ac.ion shrl bc
c.rrtuly cbcct d uatil tbc oltcr vcssclis finaly plst andclc{r.
(.) If neacssly
to avoidcollbion or allo* nroretiEE to ass.ssthc situauo4
a vasslsballsh.rcn hr spdor rrte rI wry otr by stoppingor revcrsingbcr
meansof propulsioo.
(D (i) A vesslwhich.by atryoftb.s Rules.is rlquircdnotto imp&
thepassa8lor ssfepa.isrgeof anolbcrvcsslshal, wbcnrcquird
by thc circumsraftasof rhcrsc,rrte cady action!o allow
sufficicntsaroomfor lbc aafcprsageof lbc otter ve$cl.
(ii) A vsselrcqoirFdnorro impcdcthc passagc
or safcpssage
of
aootlrvesslis notrElicvedof lhis obligationif approacbing
ibc
orhervesslsoasto itrvolvcrisk of colision rnd sbrll, whetrtaking
action,havefiiI resad !o thc actionwhicbniy bc rcquirEdby the
Rulcsofrhis pan.
(in) A vsselthc pssagc
of c,hicbis dotto b. imFd.d r.narns fully
obliged0oconply wilb lhe Rulesof lbb pat whcnlhc two v$sels
areapproaching
oneanotcr soasto involverisl of collision.

308

THE SAFETY OF NAVICATION


Ru.E9
Nanow channels
(") A vesselproccdingalong ihc coluseof a nanow chamel or fairway
shallkeepasncarto theouterlimit of lhe channelor fairwaywhichlies on hcr
statoard sida! is saferrd practicable.
(r) A vssclof lessthan 20 mefts in lcngrhor a sailing vesslshall nor
iEFd! lhe passsge
of a vesslwhicb cans.fcly navigateonly within a na'rotl,
(c) A vesseledgagd in fishin8 dlall not imp.de 6c passagpof any ortler
vesslnavigatingwithin a narlos'cbamelor fairway.
(d) A vcsrl shall not crds a narrowchrnnel or fairway if suchcrossing
imFds l passageof a vessel*hich can sdcly mvigaie only {dthin such
ch.rnel or friruay. The latter vesslmay usethe soutrdsignatprcscribedin
Rule34(d)if ir doubtasto thei lntion of therossingvessI.
(.) (i) L a nanowchannelor faifl/ay 'xhenovenatingcantale placeonly
if thevc$cl to bc overtalfl hasto lrt a.tion !o pqfiit safepalsin& tl|e v6sl
inending lo ovcnate shall indicarchcr intniionby soundirSrheappropriaE
signatprEscribdin Rule 34{cxi). The vesslro be ovenaten sha[. if in
agrecmenl,sound$e appropriatesignalprscrib.din Rd 34(.Xii) andEre
stcpslo permitsafepalsing.If in doubtsbcmay sounddre signalsprEscribed
in Rulcl4{d).
(ii) ftis Rule dosnot rlicve the ovc@ting vcsselof her obligation
undcxRulc 13.
(, A vcsslnearirga bendor an .ra of a n rro{, chanlElor fairwaywherc
othervasslsnay bohscurqlby ar inlerveningobstructionsba[ naviga&with
particulrr alcrincs! and cauion and sball soutrd the appropriarsignal
prEscribd
in Rulc?'4(?).
G) Any vesslshalt if thecircuasbnccsofth crsc admi! avoidanchoring
Rltr l0
hafrc serymtionschcrcs
(a) Tris Rul applics to rlffic spantion scbchcs adoptd by the
OrgmiT:tion:
(r) A vessclusinga t"ffrc sparation
scberft shall:
(i) procd io tbc appropiaietrnftc lancin thegcnenldirE rionof
trafEcflow for 6at lane;
G) sofar !! pncticablckccpclcrr of a t!fic spantionlinc or
separ.tiorzone:
(n) norm.alyjoh or lele a o"a6clarEat thc&rninarion ofrhe latre,
but whnjoining or leavinsfrom iihersi& shdl do soarassmall
anmgle io thegeneraldirEcrionofr!frc flow aspracticablc.
(.) A vessclshdl so far as Frcticable avoid crossingtr"fdc laics, but if
3@

THE SAFETY OF NAVICATION


obliged!o do so_shalcrc6sasnerlyasptrrcabL arrighrangles!o dlegencral
orlEcuonol ranrc flow.
(d) (i) A vesselshallno(usaniolhoru"frc zonewhnshecansafcly
urerbeappropriaoe
Fafiic lrne within lh adj&eorFaffc sprration
scherDc.
Howevei,vssclsofle*s rh 20nctrcs b length,saiting
vesslsatrdve$cls engagedir fishingdny ustheinshorEr"ffic
(ii) Not{dthstandingsubparagraph
(/Xi), a vcsslmry useaninshore
Fafiic zonwhetrenroure!o oi from a porf ofishorcinsralarionor
stncture,pilot stationor oiherplacsituald within theinshor
iaffic zon,or to avoidiEmcdia&danScr.
(p) A verslotherdnn a cmssingvcsslor a v6s.l jouinS or laving a lanc
.
snaunornormrxycnlera scparadotr
zoncor caossa separation
linxcept:
(i) in cascsofemcigtrcyto avoidillun diaoedangec
(ii) io engrgein fishingwithin a spamtionzone.
(/) A vcsselnavigatingin aresncarth leminarionsof Faffrc sDararioD
$hcmsshalldo so with particularcauriotr.
G) A vesslshallsofar aspncticableavoidanchoringin a rafiic sparation
schenEor in areasncrr its terminations.
(rr) A vessloot usinga r-afrc sporationscb |e shallavoidit by as wid
a nargin asis pra.ticable.
in fishing sbal nor inpedErhe!'assag!of ary vessl
. .(i) A vesslcngaSd
0) A-vsslof lessthan m ncaes in lengthor a sailitrg vessclshal nor
imFde thesafepassagc
of a powcrdrivctrvcsslfollo$'in8a b-a6clane.
(l) A vesslrstric&d in hr ability ro mmo.uvr. when .ngagF_d
in an
opemtionfor Oe naincnance of sa.fryof mvigrtion in a Faffc spamrion
schcmeis exenpt d fron complyingwith rhis Rullo tbc cxtentnccssary
ro
carryoui ibe opcration.
(l) A vgssclrstriciedin bcr ability to matrocuvrcwlren etr8.8din ar
opqation for lhc laying, srvicingor picting up of a subnarinecabtc,within
a irrfEc sparationschcme,is xcnfld from conplyiag wirh rhisRolro rhe
ex&nt necessary
to carryout theoFrrtion.
Sc.ttoo tr,

Coodu.t o( v.r!& h dght o(orc |Dothcr


RUlt ll

Apprbation
Rulesin ibis Sctiorlpply to vesscbid sightof one,nothcr.
RULE12
Saitinev.ssels
(a) Urhentwo sailingvcssclsareapDroaching
onc anothr.so asro involve
310

THE SAFETY OF NAVIGATION


risl of colision, om of tfimshatltccp out of thc wayof thc otherasfollows:
(i) wheneachhasthewindoll a differe si(b, tbc vesslwhichbas
rhee.indon rheport si& shol kepout of rheeay of rhodrcr;
(n) whenholhbrvethewind on d|esanEsid4lbc vcss.l whichis to
*ind*ard $aI tecp outof lhe wayof tbc vcsslwhichis to
(iii) if a vessel*ith thewindon tbcport sidessa vesselto windward
andcannotdetermirewith cenaintywhthcrlholhrvesslhas
d|ewind on 6c pon or on |bcstaftoad side,shshal teep outof
thc way of thcothr.
(r) For the purpossof this Role the windwardsideshall be &emed to be
the sidoppo6ircro thrt on wbich the mainsailis canid or, in lhe ca! of a
squ{re-riggcdvesicl"thsid. oppositto lhat on whicbthelargestfore-ad-afi
sail is carricd.
Author's Note: A vesslwith the wind d3d afr has the wind on her
starroandsi& for lhc purposeof this Rule whnhcr mainsailor lar8cstforeand-aftsaillis topot, andvicc vella.

Ov.ttoking
(d) Notwithstandinganylhingcontaindin the Rulcsof Pan B, Sc.lions I
andtr any vessloven ting anyod|ershal!tccp oul of lhe u,ayof the vcsscl
(r) A vesslshallbc dcmedto bc ovenakingwhencomingup witb anothcr
vesslfrom a dircctionmorethan22.5dgrsabfther barl lhat is, in stlch
to thevesslshi! ovenating,thalal nidt shewould
a positionwith rfcreDce
beablelo seonly thesrernliSbtof 6ar vess.lbut oilhrof brsideliShls.
(.) rtrheDa veslcl is in any doubtasto whelhershcis oveltating anothr,
dE shallassurDc
|hd lbis is thcascandactaccordinSly.
(d) Any subsquent
alcration of th. barin8bctw!nthc two vcssclsshal
nor mrt lbe ovenakingvessla crossirgv$l wilhin th trE ning of thcsc
Rulsor rlieveher of the duty of tEcpingcllr of thc ovcnatenvessluntil
sheis fmally pastandclcar.
Rru 14
H.ad-on

sit@tion

(a) Wbn two powrjriven .vcsscb arc rncctidgod Eciproc.l or dcarly


rciprocalcourses!o ar !o involve .ist of colision cacbshallalrcrhcr cours
ro si.tboardsothrt ea.bsh6llp6sson thpon si& of droihcr.
(r) Smh a siolatior shal b. dmd io exisl whcn a vcsscl!.cs lhe orfFr
ah.at or ocarlyab.ad andby night sh. could s! the nast bcadliglns of th
othrin a lirc or nenly h a lir. a[(yor bo6 sidctiShtsandby dayshcobrves
lhcorcspondingrspoctof lbc oihervc$I.
3ll

THE SAFETY OF NAVICATION


(c) WlH ! v.sr.l b in .Dy douh !s io wt thr swh a situarioncrists sh.
shall$sue ihatit &cs crisr andactaccordingly.
Author'sNoac:Tb phrt!tr-'Eo t afud' mly confusrtc nadc.. For this
Rulcto .ppty, bolhvslclsmustcrch sth si&lighrs of thc oth. If tb! fuhts
u! proFdy scEem4 thb crn only bappctrwhco c&h vcssclis wirlir the
rrlalivc bcaringarEof ibc orhcrexlcndingftoD tcro&grEd otrotrcbow !o two
d8rc.son !b orh.r.
Rr'l'E15
Crcstiq situttio
Wh.n t*o power+ivcn ve$cb arccroslingsoasto itrvolverist of collision,
th vcssclwbichha3ltc otb.r on h.r own staioard sidcabrl tccD out of lh.
way aDdshrll if rbc circumlrlrccs of tb. c!l. admi( avoidcroasiirglhcsd of
Author'! Not.: Vcsscb E occasiooalycncountcrcdwhichdo not obythis
Rule. usualy dlc to an improFr loolout. Orce tL privilcsd v.sscl has
as.trtainedthal rist of colision xists.sheshouldsoundat lcalr fiv shonad
npid bla$s by Rd. 34, rFar.d if ncct$ary andlh.n tlt &iion un&. Rulc
17.This is b.st achi.vd by alEiing !o stalto d amrtonr th. otlvr v.ss.l and
wi Dur retu ing W.d. The &g!c of any inpst wil bc liDponion io th
diffelrncc bctwcnd|c apc.dsof th two vcas.b, in orh.r wqds rh tElitive
rpFoaah spc.d.A vessclwhi:h is croasirg.d ovcrtatiDgst th. s.m tin
corc ud.rRulc 13.
Rur 16
Actionby gv.-wa, w$.1
Evcryvcas.lwhicbis dirlcEd b tccp out of rb wayof rnoth.r vslcl shdl
!o far aspossiblc,tllc c.rly d sublia irl acrionro kccp*cI cLrr.
RUlt l7
Actionbt sta -onveJlel
(a) (i) Whcrconc of !lr,o vc$.ls is to L.p out of ibc way tbc otbcr sball
k cp bcrclursafil spccd.
(ii) Tb.ladcr vcs!.Imly hosevcr i.t a.tiotr io avoidcollbion by lEr
m.ncuvr! dom, assoonasit bcconrcsqp[Etrt aoh.r thatth. vcasclrlquirad
to t cp ol|t oftbc wsy is noarrfirg appropliaGrtior i! coqlirtrc. with thsc
Rules.
(b) Wb.q ftoo ary causc,rt v.sscl rcquftdio k .p hcr coorscrnd sppcd
fitrdsbcElf soclrmctlur collisioncstrDotbc rvoid.d by th. dion of lh givcwry vcasclalotr., sh. sh.[ trt suchactiona! will bcstaftl io avoidcolision.
(c) A pow6-&ivcn vcsslwhich taL,r a.rion in r c.rolsingsinntion in

312

THE SAFETY OF NAVIGATION


a.cord&c. wilt sub-Frgnph (axn) of 6is Rdc io .void collilioD ciith
arolb po*r-drivcd vcsrcl shrq if thc circunstanccsof ttc q6c rdmit, dot
!ft.r colrsc !o portfd a vca$l otrh.r owa pon si&.
(d) Itis Ruk &cs oot rdicvc ttc givc-w.y v6scl of h.r obugstionlo tccp
out of tbc way.
Ru-E18
R.W^ti}dlin s b.tw..| r''ss.It
Ercrpt wh.r! Rules9, l0 rnd 13othcnrirc rcquirE:
(a) A powEr&ivn vassclutrd.rwry shrl Lcp out ofrt wayot
(i) a vasscltrotundlr commrd:
(ii) a v.,rslrcsrricr.din bcr rbility !o malroanvrc;
(iii) a vcssl.n8ag!dio tuhingi
(iv) ! sailiDsvcss.l.
(r) A sailinSvsslundErflayshrll t .p outof th. wayof:
(i) r vcss.l notu[d.r conElr4
(ii) r vcssclrtsticted iDhrability ro mrtrocuvri
GD r vcssclcnsagcdin fishiog.
(c) A vcssclcngrgd in trshingwh.n und.ryry sh.ll sofs! a! Fssiblc.
lccp out of 6c r/ay oi
(i) a v6scl no. und.r coEman'li
(ii) a vcssclrcstrictcdir tEr lbility to mlncuvr.
(d) (i) Any v6scl olh.r tt|nr ! vcssclno. uflld comEandor a vcsscl
rertictcd in br rbility to nrnocuvrEsha[, if ttc ciroEstrtrcrs of
thecisc adnil avoidinpcditrgttc ssfcprssrgcof a v.ss.l
consrraincd
by tcr dnught . ibiting thsiSnrlsin Rub 28;
(ii) A ve$cl coosFaiacd
by h.r e:ught sh.[ mvigd! with prnio rr
caulionhavingfull rcgardto h.r sFid conditiotr.
(r) A s.aplaocon ltc {|ner s[![, ir gEDcIll,k cp w.[ cl.! of rll v.s!!ls
aDdavoidinFdio8 th.n navigaiion.In circlastrncca,borcvcr, eh.r! ist of
colisiotr cris.s,shcsh![ conply wilh lhERulcsof lhis Pan.
Autlnr't Not.: A c4n[ovcrsyh.s Eccndy.rircn ovcr a sioErionwtcr! a
Rulc27 vc$scl(haep.tld) is ovcrutiry morbcrvcslcl It sho| d bGtrot d:
(.) In s.crior (c) |bov Rulc 27 vcclcb ar virtuly bciog crc$.d tom
givi4 way!o fisbiDgvcss.ls,pEsunrbly in vicw of Rulc3 (f) rnd (g).
O) Rulc 3 (0 ed (g) strt! ttrt v6lcls whicb a! hrqdrd $. u,obL to t4
(c) Rulct (r) Efcrs b 6. obr.w.
d tod s.o,rurship.
(d) Rulc 2 rEfcrstD d.pofto. tron.r, irlrr in ca.ca x,hcrc d"ngds of
oavigatior.nd colision, sFcial circumstaft.satrdlimiirlioor of cr!ft arr
iDvolvcd It J5o lEfcr! to pEc$tioor which Day bc 'lquird by lhcsc
sDccidcimlDstrncas.
313

THE SAFETY OF NAVIGATION


rihe cadcr rcfersto ltardrr't'La,
dcouision a! S.a'ti llnc,f;
( r ) UGf,alob!rancs of ih Rulcsi! nol a dcfcnc.wbeE ordinarycarcmight
havcavoidda collisioo.
(2' ff it aFcrrs thal anolhcrvcss.l is mrblc to conply witb thc Rolcs,rhe
othrvc$l sbouldwarchbr .lolElj ^nd ot on c ta*e stery to tuk o

(3) Tb wor& 'Nortlitlrnandine uythiry contain d in th. RuLs' verc


originaly introducedinto ihc 1880Regulationsso aslo n te it cleartlat
Rule13suD.rs&dRulc 15.
(4) In drc caseof tb Hawlbonbenr( 1904)it w"s stat d that a duty wascast
upooa vessLcncomlcringahottrshowingtwo rcd lights, to ,..p out of
(5) Thc Rulesdo no. ryp$ and a brachof lbcm nay b cxcus4whena
vcssclis disablcd.7rr"l^ar docsrct rcquircrte inpossilrle.
I can only suSgcsl in addition io lhc abovc,that aicl!ft calricrs wortin8
aircr.ft ad t'avlling at 30 knots,or two vcssclsrE-ftelin8 .nd FavelinS at
up !o 20 tno.s canhardlybc xpcld0oobcyRule 13.ln viw of O), (3) ad
(4) abovc,I dtht ttat a vsslbingoven teo by a Rulc 27 vs!lhesa duty
to tccp cle3r. I fail to s. wby a hamFrtd vcssclis privilcSedwhDsh
emoootelsfishing craft and ycl nust avoid a pcrfccdy n rngcablevesscl
wbich sbchappens!o bc ovrtaljrg. Ar arSurD.ntagainstoy rcasoningh.s
becn lb.t ovcrtating siturtions involv. low rlativc approa.h sFds and
hat'rFrd shipsshouldtbr.forEbavtimc !o tale avoidingacrion.Thi! dny
not bc sonowadayswith shipsFaveling athigb.r spds.

Sccthtrm

Cmftd

d vc.s.b lD rtdcd

yldlrllk

Rur.E19
Contua oJtetsab i^ rcttrict d yisibility
(a) This Ruleappliesio vsrlsnol in sightof om a[otter wt n mvigating
in or nc{r m areaof rcstrici.dvisibility.
(r) Evcrt vcsel sh.I prccccdat r sef spcdadspLd to lhc prcvailing
citcuostabccsad codilions of rsEictdvisibility. A powcr driven vcascl
sha havchct cngird rndyfor irDncdiltc nam.uvrc.
(c) Evcry vessclshrl hav. duc rc8ardio the Fvriling circumstrncts.hd
conditionsof r.sEict d visibility whff conplying with thc Ruks of ScctionI
ofrfii! Pirt.
(d) A vcssclrbich d.tcb by mdaralor. thcFs.ncof amtbcrvcasclshdl
dclermincif a close{u'Itrs sibatiotr is &velopbg and/orrisk of collision
.xisrs. If so,shsh6llt L rvoidiry rction i[ aepL tiE, Fovid.d thrt whctr
such*tiotr consistsof an rltdrtion of cou$c, so far aspossiblcthc folowirg
shallb. avoid.d
(i) ar altentionof coursc0opon for a vcasclforwlrd of thc bcaD,
oihrlbin for a vcasclbeingovcrt tcn:
314

THE SAFETY OF NAVIGATION


fii) analErationof courselocrflrdsa vessclab.3mor aboftthc b.rm.
(?) Ercpt wh.rc it basb.n delctuincd rlat a rist of c! ision dosnot
exb!, cvcry vc6!lshicb hcrrs lppltcndy foic'srd of h.r bcamtb. fog sigml
of amthervessel,or wbichcatrlol avoida clos{uarterssiortion with another
vrssd fdward of br be3m,sb![ rduceher speed!o th minimud at which
st canbe teF otr br cours.Sbesh.I if nc.lssarytale aI l|er lvay off ard
in anyevcninavigatewith ertrm. cautionuntil darglr of colision is over.
PARTC, UGIITS AND SHAPES
Rtr 20
Applico,ion
(a) Rulsin lhis Panshal becomplicdwiih in a[ weilbcrs.
(r) Trle Rulcs conccminglightr shall bc coEplicd c,irb ftom sulsd ro
suDrisc,ard duringsuchtimcsno o|hcr lights shall bc cxbibitd,exceF sucb
lighrsas cannotbe mistrkenfor the li8hrs specificdin th.sc Rulcsor do nor
irnpdirlheir visibility or distinctivecharacler,or inLrferEwilh the fecping of
a Fopcr lool-out.
(c) Th lights pEscribcdby thescRulcsshaI, if canicd, alsobc cxhibitcd
frDn sunriseto suns.lin rcstdctcdvisibility ahdmaybe c ibitcd in all ottcr
whr it is dcemednccBsary.
circumstames
(d) TbeRulcsconc&ing shapr"s
shallbc complicdwith by itay.
(e) Tbc li8hts rnd shrpcssplifin in thesRules shall c,omplywith th
provisiorsofAmex I to thcsRcgulatiom.

Defatitions
(a) "Masthsd lidt" mfls a whiE li8ht placcd over th forE and aft
ccntrtineof the vesel sboxiingan unbrokcnliSht ovcr an arc of th hori2on
of 225&grE s ad !o fird aslo showthc light fton right abcidto 22.5degces
abafrthbgmon cilbcr sidcof thevss1.
(r) "Si&lights" me3nsa grEnlighl oo lbc starboantsi& anda nd light on
theport sile elcb showbgatrlltrboketrlighl ovcrar arcof tbc horizodof I 12.5
dcglEcaaadsofxed as!o showtt light fton right ahcad!o 22.5dc8rccsabaff
tbc bcnmon i$ rtipc.rivc sidc.In a vesselof lcssrhaDm ndrEs in lengihdl
sidclighbmaybe combinedin oncla cm canidoDtbc forc andaft ccntEline
ofth. vcssel.
(c) "Sbn ighi" m3nsa whit light plac.d a! nrdy as pra.ticablcat the
stmsbo*iog an untrcten light overm lrc of rhehorizonof ll5 dgrsand
so fred .s to shoc,the ligbt 67.5 dcgrccston rigbt aft oo cnchsid. of th
(d) '"Iowing light' ffans . yclow light b.ving (t. latr|c cbarac@dsrics
as
(.) of thisRulc.
th. "st mlighi' &6ned in paragrapb
315

THE SAFETY OF NAVTGATION


(") "An-rootrdlight" Ecansa liShtsboc,itrgatrutrkoren li8bt ovcr an arcof
thhori2onof 360dcgrccs.
(, 'Tlashinglid" d.irr a light flashingat rcgul.r in&rvalsara ftcquency
of 120flashcsor nore perminuteRUtl 22
Vsibititt o! lights
lghts prescribcdh tbcsRulesshrll h.vc an intersity as spccifcd in
SctionE of AnnxI io rhcscRcgulationsso as io bc vbiblc ar rhc foloi{ing
'IrE

(a) In vesselsof 50 rDtEsor rnorin ltrgrh:


-a masthead
li8hr, 6 miles;
--a sidclisht 3 miles;
-a stmlight,3 milcs;
-a rowinglight 3 mites;
----6rvhit,r!i, glen or yelow all-mundligbt, 3 nilcs.
(r) In vesslsof 12 mcuesor norc i[ lcngth but lesstbatr y) mctrcsin
length:
-a nasthndlight 5 milcs; exc.pt thal wbcrt dr lengthof ihc vcssl
is lessthar 20 moEq3 milcai
----asidlighl 2 mileri
----sslernliSht,2 mil.si
-s lowinglight 2 milcsi
---a while,rcd,grEenor yelow all-ro|lndlight, 2 milcs.
(.) In v6sls
oflcss thatrl2 melresin lcngrh:
-a nasd|c.d ligh, 2 milcs:
-a sidlighr,I nil;
-a stemligbt 2 milcs:
-r lo*ing ligbt 2 nilcsi
----swbic, rcd,glco or ycllov dl-roundli8ht 2 milcs.
(d) In inconspiclous,pardysubmcrsldvcsslsoi obi,cr! bcingto"rd:
----awhiteal-rourd lighl,3 niles.
RUlt 23
Powerdnvenv.stels ud. ay
(a) A powrJrivcnvc$eclutrdcrwaysbdl crhibit:
(i) an slh.ad lighl for*ard;
(ii) a sccondmrsibcadlight ab6frof andhighcr6m ttc forwardone;
cxclpt thata vcsslofl.ssrhar 50 mtls in lcngtt sh.[ norb.
obligedto exhibitsuchlighl but maydo soi
(in) sid.tighri:

3r6

THE SAFETY OF NAVIGATION


(iv) a s@.trligh!
(r) An air-cushionvcssclwho oFr.ting in thc don{isphceenr mode
sh.I" b ldditio! ro 6c Lightsprls.ribed in pongrrph (a) of this Rulc,exhibil
anall-roundflashingy.[ow ligbl.
(.) (i) A powcr-&ivnve.sscl
oflcBslhan 12nelrsin lcn8lhtrny in licu
(a) of lhis Rulcxhibitan
of tt liShtspcscribcdin paragrapb
all-roundwhitettbl andsid.lightsi
(ii) a powr-&ivervcss.loflcss tbflr 7 m.trsin lcdgthwhos
mrximumsFd docsnotxccd7 tnot E8y in licu of thlights
(a) of thisRulcc ibit anlll-mund whitr
prescaibed
in paragraph
light ald sha[, if pra.ticablc,alsoexhibitsid.lights;
Gn) tllc da$beld light or all-roundwhitligbl on a lower-driven
vessclof lessthan12mctEsin lcngtbnay bedisplacedftom tbc
forr andafr cenulline of thevesslif centrlin.fitiing is Dot
pranicabL,pmvidedthatthc sid.liShist't combinedin onc
lsr.m whichsh'll bc caricd on 6c fore andaft cctrllline of lhe
vsslor loc!&d asncarlyaspraclicablcin thc slmc foreandaft
lin asthedusocad light or thal-roundwhfu lighr
RUlt 24
Towingand Pushitg
(r ) A powcr{riveo v.sslwhntowiry shaUcrhibil:
(i) instadof thelight prcscribcdin Rulc23(a)(i) or (aXii), two
hastbcadliShtsin a venicalliE.Whenlbc lenSlboflhc loq
to dtc aftcrendof tbc
m.rsuringftom lbc stcmof thetowingvcs.sl
tow erce.ds2m rDtrEr,
threesuchlightsin a venicallinei
(n) sidelishrs:
(in) a slrrdight:
(iv) a lowin8liShth a venicallinc abovthstemligbt;
(v) wher thlenglhof lbc iow cxcds2m mefts, a dj.mondshape
wh! it canbestbc sen.
(b) whn a pushingvsscland a vcsslbcing pushcdtbad arc tigidly
conhctcdin a composiLunit tb.y shal.lbc ng&dcd as a power{rivcn v63cl
andexhibi!lhc ligbtsprcscribdin Rule23.
(c) A po*cr-&iv.o vsslwber pushingabcador iowing aloogsi&,exccF
in d'c casof acompositunit shallcxhibil:
(t ins&d of tblighr Fcscribcditr Rule23(a)(i) or (, )(n), rwo
nas$.ad lighrsin a venicalline:
(ii) sideligirtsi
(iii) a slen ight.
(d) A po{'r*iveo vcsslto which palagiph (a) or (e) of this Rulc apply
shallalsoconply N'irhRule23(axii).
(.) A vesslor obirt bcinSlowed,o6cr lh.antbosmcntioncdin paragraph
G) of lhis Rulc,sbal xhibit:
317

THE SAFETY OF NAVIGATION


(i) sid.lisht!;
(n) a scmlidt;
(iii) ehen drelengthof ih low cxcds2m metes,a diamondsbiF
wh.rEit canbestb sn.
(, Providedlhat anynunbrof vesslsbin8lowdalongsilor pushcdin
a sroupshrl b lighi.d asonevessl:
(i) a vssetb.ing pushdat a4 not beingpanof a corposit unit,
shallcxhibit al dle forwarden4 sirleliStrts;
(ii) . vcsslbcingtowcdalongsi&shall. ibit a sEnrl*ht ad at th
forwardend,sidelishrs.
pady submergdvessclor obi:ct or cu$binationof
An
inconspicrors,
G)
suchvescls or objecbbeingtowed,shail.xhibit:
(i) if it is lessihan25 mctes in brcadtb,oneall-round{,hitc lighl aror
nearthforwardendandoncat or neerthafterendciceDttbat
dracones
ncednotexhibita lighr aror mar tb. forwardenilt
(n) if it is 5 netEs or morein brerdih,two additionalall-roundwhite
lightsat or nearthextEmitiesof its brcadth;
(iii) if it excedsI m rneuEsin lengih,additionalall-mundwhitelights
(i) and(ii) solhat
btweenthlighb prescribdin sub-pangraphs
tbedistancebelwecntheligbb sballnot cxcdlm meftsi
(iv) a diamondshapeat or oe{r d|eaftenhoslxtremiryof thlast
vesslor objctbeingtowedsndif thlengthof thetow xcds
200rntresan additionatdiamondshaDe
wherit canbcstb st,n
andlocaiedasfar forwnd a! is practic;bb.
(n) wherc from any sufficicot causit is itrrpncticablcfor a ve$l or
obje.t bin8 lowed to fibit th li8hti or sh.pcs pes.ribed ir pragraph
(") or (g) of rhis Rule, aI possiblemeasursshal be tatcn to liSht rhe
vesselor object towed or at lcasl to indicatethc prescnceof such vessel
(r) Wher ftom any sufficint causit is inpEcticable for a vcsslnot
nonnaly eDgaSd
in iowing oFrations to display thc lights Fcscribcd in
pamgnph(a) or (c) of this Rule,suchvesslshallnol bc rquircdio eftibit
ttos liShtswhncn8!8Edin towiDganotl|crvcs.s.lin dislrEssor oth.rwisin
nccdof assttarc.AI possiblemersuresshallb taten to irdicaic thc naturE
of d|e relationshipbetwenlh towing vsseland th v.ssl bcirg towcd as
autborizcdby Rule36,in paniculff by iluninating thiowlin.

Soiliry vessekuadeNoyand vetschuut.r oats


(a) A saitrg v6sl und.flay shal exhibit:
(i) sidlishts;
(ii) a soerDliSbr.
(r) In a sailingvesselof lessthan20 mtrEsb lcnStbthe lighrsprEscribd
3tE

THE SAFETY OF NAVIGATION


parrgEpb
(a
in
) of tbb Rulenay bc conbircd io ooclantcmcanicdat or near
thetop of 6c nlsi *h.rE n c{tr bcstb. seen.
(c) A sailins vsslutr&rwry oay, in additionio th lights pr.scaibedin
piragraph(r) of lbb Rulc,exhibital or ncarthetop of lb mast,whcrclhcy can
bestbc sD,two all-roundlightsh a v.nical lim, thupp.r beingrcd andthe
lowr grEo,but the,sclights shrl not be exhibilcd in conjunctionwith the
conbincdlantempcrnii@dby pfag.aph (r) ofrhis Rule.
(d) (i) A sailirg vcssclof lers lbin 7 f,trEl in lcngib shal, if pra.ticablc.
(a) or (r) of thisRul,but if shcdos
cxhibit th. ligbtsFscribdin paragrapb
not, shshal haveradyat hlnd an clcciric torEhor liShtld lantcrnshowiry a
whiteli8hl whichshaUbee ibitcd in suffrcienttimelo prventcoltision.
(ii) A vcs!lundcroa|! nay cxtibit lhc ligbtsprBcribcdin lhb Rulcfor
sailingvcssels,but ifshe docsnot shcshallhavercadyal handanelectsiclorch
or liShr.d lancm showinga white light which shal b exhibioedin sufficicnt
timeto Drcvcntcolision.
(d) A vcsel proceding un&r sail whcnalsobcingproFlld by machincry
shall cxhibi! forflad c,hrc il csn b.st b. sn a conical shap., apex

Ru.E 26
Fi'niu I v.sselt
(a) A vessclenSaEdin fishin& *bcth undcrwayor a! aochor,shal cxhibil
ooly thliShtsandshapesprscaibcd
in 6is Rule.
(r) A vcasel{rh.n engaSdin trawling, by {,bich is mlnt th draSging
lhroughth*a&i of a drcdgenctor othrappratus
usda! a fishin8appliance,
shrll cxhibit:

(D two all-romd

lighls in a vcnical linc, the upFr being SrEenaftl the


lowcr whie, or a sb3peconsisting of two conswilh their apexcs
rogeibcr b a venical lin on aboveibc othr; a vcsscl of less thrn
m m.E s in lengib may hst id ofihis shrpc.xhibit a balt t:
(n)a snsdFid lisht absft of and hisher rhatrthc all-roud glcn lighti
a vcrscl of 1cl$rhan 50 n !!$ h lcngtb sball not bc oblig.d to
exbibit sucba lighl but may do so;
(in) $h.n naking way lhmrgh tbc waicr, in addition 0othe lighb
prElcribcd io this paragraph,sidelighb and a stcrdight.

(.) A vcasclcnglgcdin fishing,otlr thanhawling,shal exhibit:


(r) two all-round lights in a v.dical linc, lbc upFr being rd and lbc
lowEr whit, or a shspccoosisting of two conswiib apcxas
togcih.r ir a venical line one rbove tb. olher a v.ssl of l$ th.an
20 nc!!s in lcdglh rbay irsic.d of this shaF cxhibit a bastcti
(ii) when tbcrEis oudying gelr .xtEnding mo than 150 nFtrcs
horizooialy frDm lh vess1"atr all-round wbite lighl or a cone
apcx upwardsh lhe dircction ofthc gear;
(in) when making way tbmrgh dtc waler, in addition io the lights

319

st|lP r fta?6 cttan ||{ att c^sas

-?<f

c_/A
f*rr'r^A/
@ /
-\-/

l/al*"';^a1

F,"fi;l

ob
tI

*'n*[
^Lr c s.s ll
)

--f

n\

p
| rull r2r.t

Yf")
L:-/
I

l ^ N o r 2 r ( r| )
\

THE SAFETY OF NAVICATION


prcacribditr lhis parignph, siddigtts atd a sLrnliSht.
(d) A vcssclcngagFdin fishing in clocptoximity !o olhcr vcsselsengaged
b frlbhg may cfibit l[c addiliontl sipals describcdin Annx tr to these
Reculations.
G) A vcsscl*bcn no.cngrgedin fiBhitrgsbal note ibit theliShlsor shaFs
prEscribed
ir lbis RuL, but odly thmc pcrcaibcdfor a vcsslof herlengft.
Author'sNote: At nigh, ve$selsfishingat .nchor will be indistinguishablc
ftom vesselsfishing underway,boi stoppd.As h Rule 27. thscaaftshow
th.n siklfigb.s
ont wrteu,n vinethroughtha \9ot.LRqlafiinS scction(cxii),
thrEad.rshouldtroL thesimilarinvcncdsignalin Rule25(c).For vcslelswith
tlcir 8rar fast0oa roct elc.,s.e th sccondAnnxto thRulcs.

thssek^ot undetcorntntndor r.strictedh thei, obilitv to nunocuvre


(d) A ressltrotundrconEand shal xhibit:
(i) two a -motrdredlighb in a vcnicalline whcrethcy canbc$ tre
(ii) two bals or sinilar shapesin a verticalliie wheretheycaobestbe
(in) whnmakingwaythmugbthewater,in additionto thlights
prcscribcdin thispragaph,sid.lightsanda slemlight
(r) A v*!cl rcsEictd in bcr ability to manocuvE,xc.pt a vsselcngagcd
in mincdeanncc opcrations.shal cfibil:
(i) t!rc a -m|lndlightsin a v.nical linc wherethycanbstbe seo.
Thhighcstandlowestof dleslightssballberedandlh middle
lid sbal bc {,hit i
(n) lhl! shapcsin r vcniallinc whcrctheycanbestbsn.Thc
highcsrandlowcstof thcsshapesshal be ballsandthemiddleone
a diamondi
Gn) whcnmakingwaylhroughtbc waLr, a malttcadligbt or lighrs,
sidcliShtsanda stemligbt.in addition!o dtc lighrsprcscrihnin
(i)i
sub-pangraph
(iv) whcnat anchor,in additiotrto dE lightsor sbaFspr.scribdin
(i) and(n), theliChl liShlsor sbapcprcscribedin
sub-puagraphs
Rule30.
(c) A powcr-drivenvcsslengqcd ia a iowing oFration suchas svcrcly
rcsEictstb. towing vesselard hcr low in lhen ability to &via& fron then
coursesh.all,h additionto ttc ligbtsor shaFsprcs.ribedin Rulc24(a),exbibit
thlightsor shaFsprcscrib.din sub-Fr.gr.ph! (D)(i)and(ii) of tlis Rul.
(l) A vcssclcn8agediD drdging or undcr$dcr operations,whenrEstricLd
in brability 0onflroeuvre,shal c ib theligbtsandsbapcsprescribedin subp asnphs (r)(i), (ii) .trd (iii) of rhis Rulc and sb'I in addition,whcn an
obstuctioncxilrs, cxhibit:
321

THE SAFETY OF NAVIGATION


(i) two al{ound rcd liShtsor two bals in a vdticrl line to indicat dE
sidcon *hfob rtc obsrmctioocrisrs;
(ii) two .[-roud gt n liChbor two dilmds in . vertic.l liDcto
indicac th. sideotr whicbanodE vcssctm|y [rsssi
(iii) whctrn aocbor.tbclthb or sblFs Frscribcd in rhisFrBglapb
idsl!{d of rhclightsor shaF prelcribcdin RuIc30.
ALIER TO SIID. FOR 'A'

(r4) ^vorD'C(r
- 3)
^vorD-t t5)

^voro'd (5) ^ND


T N t a A L S OC L E A I S ' A _

! 2 DE6REE'

^voro 1-{i)

s T I O W I NE
GT A G G E RT E D
S I O E U G H TS C A E E
N5
2 5 M T T .O F F I L A M E N I '

D T S i A N C EU t r S I L r X O

ra r (rEAv aY zl

F I G U A EI ' . '

POTEREO SHIPs

322

THE SAFETY OF NAVIGATTON


(.) Whcncvcrthc siz! ol a v.ss.l .ngagcdin diving oFratiots mrk6 it
inpncticablc to exhibir all lights and shaFs pr.scriH in paragraph(d) of
thtu Rulc, thc following shall bc cxhibited:
(i) thrc. all-roundlight! in a vcrtical linc whereih.y cndtrcsttlc
s.cn. Thc highcstand lowstof thcs. lightsshallb ten andthc
niddle light shallb. whitc;
(ii) a rigid rcplicaof thc lnremationalCodc 8ag'A" oot lssihan I
nctrc in hciSht.Masurcashall bc talcn to cnsuc its all-roudd
visibility.
(t) A vcasclcngagcdir miocclcnnnc! oFrations shallin additioolo tbe
liSbb prc$crib.i for r powcrdrivm vcsslin Rulc I or to thc liShtsor shaP
prcsoibcd for a vcircl at anchorio Rulc 30 a apptopriate,qhibi! threallroutrd grctn lights or lhrcc balls. Onc of lhcsc lights or sbaFs shall b
crhibitcd ncarilrc forcmasthcad.nd oneat achndof thc Iorc yard.Thcs.
lightsor shrp6 indiotc tha! it is dang.rou! for rt|otficr vcsrlto apptoach
withir lom d.trcs of th mineclearanc.vcsecl.
G) vc$cls oflcss lhan 12metresin lcnglh, exccptlhos. engagcdin diving
oFration6, sballnot bc requiredto crhibit thc lighb andshaFs prca.tibcdin
this Rul.
(rr) Thc signalsprascribcdin ihi! Rulc are nor sigtalsof vesclsin distrcss
rnd rcquirinSassisianc.Suchsignalsarc containedin Annex Mo thcsc
Rcgulations.
Author's Not : Trtil Rulc coversa ratc insianccwhen ship6swiLh oft
sidclghtsandstcn ightsthoughstill undcrway,asin RtlJ2A also.Ant oth.l
y.tscl shoeiig tid.ligha and s,ernlights',uy b. stopp.d or noing.
RULE28
V.sschcon tain d by thcir d ushl
A v6scl coNtraincd by hcr draudt ll|ay, in addition to thc lights
Drcs.aibcdfor oowcr-drivenvcetck in Rulc 23, exhibit whcrcthey clo bcst
bc s..n thrtc rlL.ound rcd lighls in a vcnical linc, or a cylindcr.
RULE29
Pilot v.ts.b
(a) A vc$.| crga8cdon pilotagcduty shall crhibit:
(i) rl or ncarthc maslhcad,teo all-rcundliShtsin a vnicalline, thc
UDDGr
bcincwhii. andlhc lowcr rcd;
(ii) eb;n undctway.
anda stcmliShr:
in adddoo.sidclighG
(iii) whctrrl rnchor. in rdditiotr to thc lightsprcacdbcdin subparagraph(i), thc light, liShtsor lhapc Pt6.tib.d io Rul30 for
vdrcls at anchor.

THB SAFBTY OF NAVIOATION


(t) A pilot v..!cl *h.tr not cng.g.d on pilotlgc duly lhdt dhibit rllc
lightsor !hap.! pr6cribcd for a rinilar v.srcl of hcr lcryth.
RUlt 30
Anclan.l v.lt b oad vctt.b qrcud
(d) A velsl al anchorrhall crhibir whcrc it crn bcat bc rccn:
(i) in lhc forc part, ar all-rcundwhitc li8hr or oncbll;
(ii) at or ncff thc !r.m and ar a lowd lcvcl ihr th. light prrscribcd
in sub-patlgrlph (i), an dl-round whic li8ht.
(b) A v6rl of lcssthrn 50mctr6 in lcngthnay crhibit an all-rcundwhit
ligbt whcre ir can bcsrbGsccninstcadof thc li8hr! pr6cribcd in pal.gr'ph
fdl
' of thi. Rul..
ic) A vsrclrr anchormay, anda vcsrclof lm nctr6 md mor. in lnglh
sh.ll, ako u! lhc availablc*o*in8 or .quivalcnt ligh$ to illuminrrc h.r
dc.b.
(d) A vc$.| rgroundshallc ibit thc lighti pr.s.ribcd itr psragraph(o) or
(r) of thk Rulc and in addition, whcr. th.y cantrcst tc rcctr:
(0 tu'o al-rould rcd ligbtsh a vcrticallinc;
(ii) thrcc baltsir a vcrticd linc.
(t) A vcssclo{ lcasthan7 mctrcsin lcngth,whcnat anchor,rot in or nar
a natros chrnncl, ,airway or anchorigc, or wbd. othcr v.s.cl5 normrlly
navig.&, sh3l oot bc rc{uircd to .xhibir tba lighg or lhrF prcscdb.d in
prnssphs (a) rDd (r) of thi! Rulc.
(, A v6scl of l6s th.n 12 mclrcs in lcrgth, whcn rgrourd, shal rot bc
nquirEd to cftibit thc ligirts or shapq!pr.scaibcdi, sub-psr.gr.phs(dxi)
and (ii) of this Rul.
Rur-E31
S..phr.t
Whcrc it i! impracticablcfor . scaplarcto dhibit lights&d sb.Fi of tbc
ch{nctcrisaicsor in thc Fdtionr prc.dibcd in rhc Rulcsof rhir P.n shcshsll
rhibit liCts nrd shaFs asclccly !turilar in hrrsct.rirti.s rd porition 15is
po6siblc.
PART D. SOIJND AND LIGI{T SICNAIJ
RuL 32
Ddnitionr
(a) Thc gord "whi!dc" Ec{.; my roond .ign.IinS iFlhE
crp.blc of
prodrci.g thc prBdibcd bklts rtrd rhich cooplicr aith thc 6pociffcatioD!
in
A[[cx III to lhcacRctuLtioD!.

3U

THE SAFETY OF NAVIOATION


(6) Tb teror 'shon blalt" mearEa blastof aboutonc !cond'sduration.
(c) Tbe trm ?rclonged blast" mcansa blastof from four to sir scondJ
durrtion.

RUI,E33
Equipn nt lor sourd tif,'/'h
(a) A vsslof 12mctrcsor morc in lengrhshallbe providdwith a whistlc
ard a bcll and a vcssclof lm mctrcsor morc in lnglhshall,in addition,bc
providcdwith a goog,lhc tonc and soundoI whichcannotb con uscdwilh
that of thc bcll. The whisllc, bcll and 8ong shall comply wilh the
sF.ifcatioru in Anner III to thsRgulatiors.Thc bcll or Songor bolh
tnay bc rcplac.d by othr equipmnthavirg the same rcspctivcsoutd
claraclcristics,providdthat manualsouodingof thc prcs.ribcdsigdalsshal
(D) A vcii.l of lcssthan 12mctrcsin lcngth shallnot b obliScdto csry
tbc soundsignallinSapplianc.sprcscribcdin pa'agraph(a) of thisRulebut if
she d,o.snot, sh shall b providcd wirh sooc other rncansof makinSan
cfncicntsoundsiSnal.

RULE34
Ma^o.uvring and wami^8ngnats
(a) When vci:cls are in sight of onc anolhcr, a powcr'driven vssel
urdcrw.y, whcr manocuvridSssauthorizld or r.{uircd by iheseRuls,shall
indicatclhal manocuvrcby thc following signalson her whistlc:
---ancshon blast to mcad"l am alttin8 my cours. to staioard"i
--+ilo short blastsaotrle3n"I am altering my coursto pon";
--{hr.c ahon blaststo mcan"I am oFratins astcmpropolsion".
(t) Ary vcssclnay suppl.ncnt thc *hisilc siSnalsprcscribdin paraSraph
(a) of thi! Rulc by liSht si8oals, rcpated as appropriate, whilst lhc
nrr|ocuvrc ii bcingcanid our:
(i) the!. liShl signalsshallhavethc follo{dngsiSnificane:
---on. flashto mean"I amaltcridgmy cours.lo siarboard";
--.tro isshcsto m.an'I amalrcrinSmycounc to port";
-thtEc iashslo mcan"I amoFrstitg astcmproPulsiot";
(n) thc durationof caci nashshallbc abod ones..otd, thc ineraal
tEtw.cn iashcs shall bc rbout onc scood,and thc int.rwl
siSnal5shallb oot lcasthantcn scondt;
bctscco succssivc
(in) lhc li8ht u!.d for th$ signalsball.if facd, bc ao all'rcund whitc
light, vtuiblcat a mninum ratr8of 5 mil6, and shallcomply
with lhc provi5ionsof AnnexI to ihcscRcgulations

325

THE SAFETY OF NAVIGATION


(d) Whcn in si8htof onc mothcr in a natrow clnnncl ot faiflry:
(i) a vcsr.l irtcndinS ro ovcrtatc anothcrshall in co$ptrtcc lviih
Rulc 9(r)(i) indic{& hq intcntionby lhc followingsiStalson h.t
vhi5tlc;
-{xo prolongcdblast! followcd by onc short blastto mcar 'I
intendto ovctulc youon youl starboardsidc";
---two proloogcdblast! followld by ieo short blaststo m.in "I
intcndto ovctul'c youon youl pon !idc";
(n) ih vc!6claboutto bc ovcrlalcn whcn.cli4 in accordmccwilh
Rulc g(rxi) shal indicatchq rgrcnnt by lhc lolosing signrl
on hr whistlc:
---onc prolonged,orc shon, onc Folongcd andonc 6hon blast,
io that ordcr.
(4 rvhen v6c.l5 in sightoI on atothcr .Ic approacltingcrct oth.r and
fton| any c{u!c cithcr vcasclfaili to undc6t$d tbc inlcnlioni ot actbDsof
thc othcr, or is in doubt{,h.ther simcirnt Ndbn n bcihgl'f.n by d}c ot|cr lo
avoidcollision,thc vcssclir doubt shallimmcdiatclyindi{5t luch doubt by
givirS lt lcas!fvc ahortand rapid blast! on tbc *hisdc. Sudr 3i8nalmay bc
supplcmcntcdby . ligbt siSnalof rt lcalt fvc shon rnd npid f,sslEa.
(.) A vcir.l oarin8s bcndot an atc! of a chrnncl or fritlty whcr. other
vcs$clsmay bc obccurcdby an inlcwcning ob6truction3hall sourd otc
Folongpd blasl. SuchsiSnalshallbc ans*crcdwilh r prolongcdbl.st by any
vcsslihat maybc wirhinhcaringrroutd lhc bcndor bcbindrhc
approaching
hlervning obstruction.
(/) If whisllesar! 6xcd on a vcsi.l at a distrncc ap.n of norc lhm lm
m.tr.s, onc whisdconly shrll b ulcd for givingnrnocuvring and warning
!i8mls.
RUI.E35
Souid titrzb i^ tctunbtt vrtifili.t
ln or rcar m arc{ of rciiricrcd visiblity, whcthcr bt day ot tight, lhc
rignsk prcscribcdin thfu Rulc shtil bc u!.d a. iollo*sl
(e) A powcr{rivcn v6scl mating way ihrou8hrhc e.tcr shall soundat
intcrvalsof not mor. than 2 minutcson. ptolotScd blast.
(t) A porrcr-drivcn v6!cl undcriray but stoppcdlnd naling no wry
throughthc w*cr shrll sourd rt intcwrls of .ot rrorc then 2 minutcstrs
piolong.d bhsts tu succtisionwirh an inrcrvd of about2 .ccon& bctw!.n
thcm,
(c) A v6scl nor undcr colllnlnd, . vcssclrcsrric,icdin hcr ability to
mrnocuvr, a vc$cl coDstrain.dby hcr dnutht, | ltiliog v6scl,a vcsscl
co8agcdin fthing snd a vcircl cngigcd in todng or Pulhingmothet vcsscl
shall,iBrcad of thc signalsprc!.riH in pst gtaphs(t) or (t) of this Rulc,
.ould at intcrvrls of not morc lhar 2 ni ics tbtlc bhsts in succcssiot,
nlmcly onc Folong.d followcd by tso lborl bltsts.

TEE SAFETY OF NAYIOATION


(4 A v6scl cn8agedin fishing,whcnrt anchor,rl|d a vc$cl rcatrictcdin
hcr rbility to manouvrcwhcncanyinSoul hcr work at anchor,shrll iostcad
of thc siSnalsprscaiH in pansrsph G) of this Rulc sound th silnal
prcscribcdh parrgaph (c) of this Rul..
(.) A vsecltowcdor if norc tbanoncvcscclis to*rd thc lasl v.$icl of thc
tow, if manncd,ihall at intervalsof noamorc than 2 minut s soundfour
bhsi! in suc.ssion,nam.ly on. prolongcdfollovld by thrcc shott b1rr|5.
Whcn pra.licable, this signal shall bc made imncdiately lftcl thc signal
nadc by thc to*ing ve$cl.
(, Whcn a pu5hingvcsscland . vcssclbcing pushcdahcadare rigidly
connccrcdin e conpo6iicunit lhcy shallbc rcgardcdrs r powe.drivenvssl
and shallgivc th. siSrds prcscribcdio paragnphs(d) or (r) of lhis Rule.
G) A v6scl at archor shallar ihtcrvab of not morc than onc mirutc ring
thc bcll rapidly for about 5 scconds.In a vcssclof lm m.trcs or more irl
LDSthdE bcl dul bc aoundcdin tb. iortpcrt of thc v.ssclrDd irurEdiat ly
.ftcr thc ringinSoI lhc bcll thc gong shrll bc soundcdrapidly lor rbout 5
!.con& io thc .ftcr part of th. vcsscl.A v.sscl st andor msy in addition
souodthrc. blastsin suc.6sion, namlyon short, o$c Folongcd and ooe
lhon blen, to givc warring of hcr po6itioniDd oI thc pcibility of collision
lo an approrchingv.ss.l.
(i) A v6scl agroundshrn givc the bcll sigral and if rcquirci lhc gong
sisnd prcs.aibcdin p.ragraph G) of this Rulc and shr[, h rddition, 8iv
ihrcc scDarstand dfutinc!stmkcson thc bcli immcdirtclv bcforeand afrcr
rbc npiil dnging of thc bcl. A v6r.l sgoud may in iaaitior rcund an
epropri.tc *hisdc sigral.
(t A vc.sclof lssrhan12n.tras in lcngthshdl not bc obliScdto givcthc
rbovc-ncntiotrdsiSnalsbua,if shcdocsnot, shalldr.lc aomcothcr cffcicnt
soundsiSrrl at intcwrls oI not morc thh 2 minutcs.
(t A tilot vc:6cl wtcn .n8rg.d or pilotr8r duty n8y in sddition to thc
dgtr{h Frscribcd in pingl|pl|s (a), (t) or 6) of Ois Rulc aoundrn idcntity
.i8nal consiltitrgof lour shon bhsts.

RUI.E36
SiSnahb att @ at ,tlio
If nec6s.ry to attnct thc |ttcntion of aoothcrvcssclmy vrscclmry mslc
ligbr or soundsiSrds rhat cinbot bc nistatcn for any ligrEl .uthrizcd
cL.whcrc ir !:hc.cRulcs, or may dir.r thc bcrm of hcr 3clrcltlight in the
dttclion of rhc drtr8cr, in sudr ! wey .s not to cmbarrt!6 any vcsscl.Any
light to sttnct thc attcntior of anothcrvcscclshrll b suchthlt it camot bc
mist*cl for ![y aid to mviSation. For thc purpoEcof thir Rulc thc ulc of
hiShintcnrity intcrmittctrt or rcvolvinglights,suchr! lttobc lidts, rbdl bG

3n

TNE SAFSTY OF NAVIGATION


RuL3 37
Ditt ''tt tignalt
Whcn . vcs!.I is in distrcassnd r.4uir.s .sristanc. shcshdl |rsco. cx,hibit
Urcsigoalsdcscribcdin Anncr ry to therc Rcgulstioos,

PART E.

EXEMPTIONS
RUI! 38

E .nptu r.t
Atry vcarcl (or clas! of vEsscls)Fovidcd Os! shc conplics wirh rhc
r.quircmcots of thc Intcrnational R.gulrtiods for PrcvcntingCrlli.ions at
Scr, fm(a), thc tccl of vhid i! laid or whkt is at a cona3pondirgi!.gc of
conslruction tcforc thc cnty inro forcc of thcsc Rcgulatiom rday b
crcmptcd ftom complianccthcrcwith .5 iollowr:
(a) Thc inst latio$ of lightswirh rrn8cs prcscribcdin Rulc 22, uhril four
ycars.ftcr thc detc o{ .ntry into forc. of th6c Rc8ul,.tio6.
(r) Thc iGtdlation of ligbts with colour spccifi..dioD!as prcscribcdin
Sction7 of Anncl I to thcscR.gulations,until four yc|I! afrr thc darcoI
entry into forcc of th6! Rcguhtions.
(c) Thc rcpo8itioningof lights !s r rc$rlt of convcnion frorn l|nFial to
mctdc units and roundingoff mcrlultmcnt fi8urts, pcrm|ncnt crcmption.
(d) (t Thc rcpoiitioDingof masth.rd [g[B on i$cb of lcasth;n 15,0
mctrcsin lngrh,rc$rlting ftom thc prcadiptionsoI Scctiofl3(a)
of AImxI to rhcscRcgulations,pcrmancDtcxcmFion.
(ii) Thc rcpositioniogof nrslhcad light! on ve:sclsof 150mctrcsor
morc in Lngth, rasuliinglron lhc pi..cdFions of Sc{iio! 3(a)
of Anncl I to thcscR.8ulatiotrs,uotil nc yclt3.ftcI thc d.tc of
cntry inro lorcc of thclc Rcgulltions.
(r) Thc rcpocitioninSof mlsihcad lights rcsultitrgfron thc prc.diptiors
of Scction2.(b)of Anncx I to ihcsc Rcgulations,until ninc ycarsaft.r thc
daL of cnlry inaoforcc of ihcs. Rcgulatioos.
(, Thc rEpositionirgof siddighls rcaulting fton thc prcscriFiors of
Sc.riom2t) rnd 3(r) of Anncx I to thcscRclulstionr, until ninc ycsls aftcr
rh. dat of entry iBaoforcc of th6c Rcgularioni
k) Thc rquirchcnts for soutrdsignalapplirnccsprc..dbcd i! Anacr trI
to tficsc R8ulstiotr!,urtil ninc ycarsaftcr thc d|t. o{ cntry into forc. oI
th6 Rcgulatiom.
(t) The rcpogitioniq o{ rll-round ligbtsr.sulting fton thc prd.riFioD oI
Sccrion9(b) of Anncx I to thes. Rcgulations,Frmao.ni dcmption.
Th Anncr.s to ih Rul6 arc Eproduc.d lalcr in this chapaer.

328

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331

FrcuRCl4.lO

TIIB SAFETY OF NAVIOATION


CEa V.rd.b
Sodc arccotCou.t auli!8abr}t .trt d thrt:
(l) V.!..b thould not .l!.r cout!. itr fog, whcncquipFd wilh rrd|r,
until thc courrc of tha otbc' v6sal ha! b..o ercqtdad viti
@ntc!, p..f.rablr b! plottlra.
(A Any drdrdon to dtd. lhould bc tubctrtrtirl, ro th.t it i! i!drntly ippa!?Dtto othd lssal! cquilpad with, rnd u!in8, rrdrt
(3) Rd|l is ttr additiodl td.$rrd, sDdf.ilut! to urc it ntht coc
atitutctrcglig.dca"
(4) A Maltar who ftlia! on trdrr alotc doaa!o at hi! os! rilk
(t Ifi v6!Gl c.ni6 proFr funclioni4 l.d|t thdr i! rn afiterriva
duty to uacit, ir or lpprorchitrg rcducad-vilibilitydta!'
(O ttr ccrlsi! circumst&c6 of colisioo i! fog tbc vtt al *hich did
rot uach.l rEdrr hrd to 6tablilh that tbit did trot coo[ibuE to
thc collitlo!.
(7) Utrdu.rdi.lcc ir ottcapla.td on thc !or-6i8[titg ofr.dlr t tFta
(t)Ttu Wot bucrpr.tsttd oftbc informationdirplayd od th! tid.r
acrlc! i! dcploratly frcquaDl
(9) Thocavbo do loi mrtc ulc oftbait ttdlr Eust cnturcth|t I q,
rfr61iv.lootout i! L@t.
JVor..'Tbr rM.ot rhouH .tudy (9) .!d (l) bgah.r. (3) erd (t .r!
r ramils to tbr ulriffi th!t, flt frod wordatilt whctharlo rwitcbtho
radlr on, hc lhould al*ay! c.tsblishbcyord rl lonrbla doubtwbatbcr
it b ,afc to srvitchit o]'l
TTTEDETERMINATION OF A YESSEL'SIIEADING
Providcdr si&light is visiblcits $r of visibility is ltrowD,rtrd it ir r
siEpL dlltlr to cstimrla tha erEof iha cobDalt ibrouh whichthst
vc$.I Euy bc nevigatidS.
Thc principlc involvrd i! to dctcrmidc,by mcansof thGotlarvcd
lhc sidcbcrdntof thc lifhl th. h..di!ts of thc oth.t vrilcl oo wh.to:h
light is ju about to 'shut ouf, i.c. thc hc.din! os which thc olhcr
.id.li8bt is just .bout to bccomcdiic.niblc ard thc h..ding on which
thc sidcliSlt cctipscritr frvour of thc at rlliShl.
In Fig. 14.10onc's owtr ahip fu sbowDet thc caot!! ofa compa!,
to thc bridgc of tbis
csrd. Thc merircr Dult alwey! p.oj{tt hidlcu'counting
to rhc lclt (or
.hip so that hc rppEciatr whrt is Ecsat by
thc
figuE.
This i! penitop
lcfl-hatrd
cor&r
of
right)', a! rhowtrin th.
cularly importstrt *hm a caldidatc b bcitrg cxsminadby matrr
of r rnodcl ship, thc ltcm ofwhich is flcitrg him; if hc coutt! to hi!
dgh! it is thc rcvcrscof $hrt hc ahoulddo if hc *ctl oDthc bridSpof
rhrt rhip.
330

TI|E SAFETY OF NAVICATION


In thc fgurc thc rcd sidclightof ship'x' is showDbcariagNNE. lf at
abrt i$trnt thc ship'X' fu hcedin!dircc{y towrdi own ship,thco it i!
bardiogon lha ncrcncof thc bcsritr& i.c. SSw. On thi. hcadingthc
rd light b rbout to shutout itr favou of thc gr!.! liShl Thc rcd lithr
i! visibL ovcr an arc of l0 poinE, so that thc lhip 'X'could bc rotatad
throughI0 poitrt! to thcrigbt of thc rcv.ncd bcarilg b.for! thc ird Iight
ahutsout in favou of Ihc stcmligbt, on a hcadingof Nw. It shouldba
notic.d thrt this h..dirg (NW) i! .bo 6 poinBto rhclcft ofthc bcrri!8
of thc lighl Two rul.s-of-ttumb .rc thu! pGriblcl
|yh.n a t.n-poht rcd light ir rart d Fr.r6c thc bcari!8 (l), atrd:
(d) count l0 point-rto thr right of thh rEw|lcd b.a.i!g to obt in
aDothcrdi.rctiotr(2); or
(r) rcvc.scthc bcariag( l) addcoutrt6 poidtsto tb. ldl of thr origilsl
bcedngto obtainatrothc.ditlctiotr (2),
lyhdt a lar.poht g.cn light ir rrStlrd uscrulc (d) ebovc,but couatto
thclcft; or uscrulc(r) abovcaodcountio thcri8ht.
In t.ch cs!c,( I ) end(2) giE thc cxtrcmchc.dingr.It shouldbc Dotld
that th. v!s!.1 'x' ir sailitrSn art otr thc rlvcEcd b..rin& for if rh.
vr.rEsriling diEctly on it both sidcliShtswouldbc visibl.,
SaitidgshiF arc consideredto sail no clo6erthan 6 poinrsto the
witrd in thescproblems.If ship 'X' weresailing,it would bc bctwe.o
SW and SSWonly in a WNW wiDd, as shorvnin Fig. 14.10.
Tha @dar shouldnow rtlcmpt thc follositrg crmplca for powarddvco vrssalsusing lGpoint si&li8hb. Thc rnlw.fi ar! git&a i!
brrckct!:
(t) Rd liSht bcaringNW. (Bctw..o ncarlySE!trd WSW.)
(2) G.!co Xght badng E by S. (Bctw.n ncrdy W by N rtrd I
bYE)
(3) R.d Xght bcrdrg 6 point! oo thc porl bow; owtr rhip hc.diDg
nonh. (BctwcGD
ESEDcarly,aod SW.)
(4) Crtco light abcsmto strrboad ; osn shipb.ldiig w6t. (Bclwr.r
trcrrty touth atrdENE.)
(t ltcd light bcadngENE. (Bctw6n lcarly WSWrtrd N.)
TNOWLEDCE OF TIIE COMPASSCARD
By loe tb. r! dcr wil DrdoubLdlyhll! b.con6 aw|rc ofhit abfity
to 'box' tL. comFlr c.rd; hc rhouldbarblc to do it quiGrutoDrtirlly.
h.dditiod to tDcDoitrt3of tb. cobp.t c.rd rhovn i! Fig. 14.10,
aDolhaidrtaaoa*i!t. ErA of thcaci! pLcadnid${y batxfc.othc pointt
il8trrta4 andiar mc coDncc with thc n|Ec of tDctuarc.t catdi-

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3r2

Noraltol{

TEB SAPBTY OF NAVIOATION


qrl N, E, S, W) or btrt-cudiart poitrt (NE, Sq SW, rrd NW). 1!r
lrfi.tr Fn of nr !!DG, pitft.d *ith ttc eord .bf, ir rsDad rft.( th.
otb6 laalaat cardiql poilt
Fo( crrrdq bctrE o Norrh tud Ndth'nodhat! th6c ir r Doint
r|tit wil bo!.nd .Ibr th. strlt crtdird poi4 i.e NORTIT Thc
Fo[d h.lfofib nrDo i! th.t ofthc othcr !..tr.t c.!dir.l poi!! wbich
Itr |hi. c.rc it BAST.
So,boxiagtL.- point frDn Noih to E tt wr trE: Nortl by E!!t;
Norfhrt tt Norrh; North.c.lt by Brrt, r.d E rt tt North.
All th. ttrity-two poiat! of tlr cdd tr! rhow! i! Fig, 14.10(a), t!
tbc i.Dc fgur! i! .hown thc frd tirt c.d point of tb coDp.rt i.
divid.d hto qu.n6!, tDown I qulrbFpoirb. A poilt i. I lt d!gr!.a
IfE bor lbc oonFr. itr qu.rt.|r-Fi!t fton Soutnto E.|! e! r.t':

s . . . s t 8 . . . S l E . . .s l E . . . s b y B . . s. b yE l B . . .
I b y E lE . . . Sb yB t B . . . S S E . .S Bb yS l S . . . S Bb y S lS
. , . s Bb ys I s . . . S Eb yS . . . s BI s . . . s B* s . . . s BI s . . .
s 8 . . .s E lE . . . s B l8 . . . s EI E . . . s Eb y B . . s. B t yE l B
. . . s Eb yE * 8 . . . s Eb yE I 8 . . . E s E . . B
. b ySI s . . . B b y
s l s . . . E b y s l s . .B
. b y s . .B. l s . , . E l s . . . E * s . . .E .
Tha a@nA and Eort popuhr mathodof coDF$ rlfaladocir by
n!.!r of tlc tbr*igur lotttion i! vbi:h thc c.d i! dividd into 360
d.tn + tuebcrd cloclwilo ftom North, ehto:hi! rlprc.co!.d by m..
Tba Doilta ofthc oodFg .rr tiowtr crprlald id thi! Ntrtion in Fig,
(4).
1.3.10
Th. qu.drut t .yrtlo ir 8ctr|rllly dyilt out itr fryour of thrFitur. loartiod" Itr thir ryttlo th. o.rd i. dividd itrro four qu.dr.rtr,
rch of90 dagrrc+ard r couracor baari4 ir asprrscd .a North (or
gooth),.o n iy dcg6 E|tt (or Wrt), .,& NORTHEASTir rdcrrcd
to..N45"B

TIIE ANNEXESTO TIIE COLUSIONREGI,'LATIONS

. ANNEX I
Foddoe!.d
a..trk l 'Lrdb of & r.d m{.t
l. D4 tio^
Thc tcrm "hcight abov. th bull" ncals hcight abovc lhc upFrmosr
coorinuousdcct. This hcidt shall bc ncasutdftom the po6itionvcrtica y
bcncrth thc locationof thc light.

333

TI|B IAFBTY

OF NAVIGATION

L V.,1i.'l pa,jtioniry atd rpeei,B ol A*tE


(r) Oo . poecrdrivcn v6scl of 20 mctrcaor morc in lcnglhth manhad
lightsshal bc plac.d as follovs:
(i) th. forelld mdh..d [ght, or if qrly om mdhcrd lidlt is c.nicd,
Ocn that light, rt a hcight.bovc tbc hul of rot kss than6 lnctls,
ard, iI thc bredrh of thc vcalclxc.cds6 mctrcs,thcn rt a hciSha
abovcrhc hull not lir than suchbrcrdth, 30 hov.vcr thrt lhc
ligbl ncednot b. plac.d at a grcrtcr hcightabovclhc hull thsn f2
(ii) whcn txo trr.sthcrd ligh6 arc canicd thc aftcr onc shall bc at
lcas!4 5 octrcs vc.ric5llyhighcrth.n tbe lorward on.
(t) Tbc vcrtiel s.psration of marlhcad lights of powcrdrivcn vcssclE
shal bc suchthat in all oormalconditiorEol trin illc rftcl lidt eill b. s.!n
ovcr and s.paratc ftom th6 forward liSht at a distanccof l,0m mctrcsfrom
thc sr.m whcnvicwcd from lca lcvcl.
(c) ThGmrsthcadlidt oI a powcrdrivcn vclscl of 12mctrcsbut lcls lhan
a) nctr.s in lcngrhshrll bc pl.c.d r! . hcight.bovc lhc gutrsalcof rot lcss
th.n 2.5 mcr6.
(d) A po*er{rivcn vcsscloI lcssthan 12 mctr6 in lcnglh maycarry ih
upFrnoct ligbt at a hcigbtof lcs6rhm 2.5 mcll6 abovcthc gunwalc.Whcn
howcvcra malthcadlight b canicd in additionto sidclighlsrnd a stcmlighl,
thcn $rch mrsth.{d light frall bc canicd rt lc{st I nctrc high.r thln the
lidclighis.
(.) orc of fic two or thr.! lnislhcad ligh$ Fclcaibcd lor a powcrdrivcn
v$cl whcn cngagcdin towing or pusbingrnothcr vcs.l sh![ b. plac.d it
rh. !am. positionascitlrcr thc fo ard masthcadlght or thc alter masthcrd
light: providcd tha!, it canicd on thc afrcrmrst, lh. lowcst!ftcr masthc.d
light shallbc at lcait 4.5 mctrcaverticallyhighcrth.n lhe forsard malthc.d
lrsh.
O (i) nE nrlthcad lidt or lighb Fcacribcd itr Rul. ?5(d)shdl bc so
placcd!s to bc abovcand clcrt oI all othcr liShb .nd obslruc_
(ii).
tions crccpt asdctcribcd in sub-paragraph
(ii) Whcn it is imprac,ticablcto carry thc rll-round lidls prca.aibcd
by Rulc 27(r)(i) or Rulc 28 bclow thc masthcadlights,thcy may
by c{rricd abovcthc sftd mas.hc.dlight(s)or vcdcally in
bctwccnrhc fo rd mrsrhc:d ligh(r) |nd |ftcr trr.stl|Gad
light(s), providcdftlt in rhc lattcr c:5 thc rcquircmcntof ScctioD 3(.) oI lhis Arnr shall bc conpli.d with.
k) Thc sidcliShtsof a powcr{rivcd vcsscldrall bc plec.d at a hciShr
sbovc thc hull not grc.tcr thm thtc{uanc|s o{ ihd of thc fo.watd
[l.{hcad light. Th.y shdl noi bc so low ai lo bc int rfcr.! with by dcL
li8ht6.
(r) Thc sidclidts, if in a cotrrbincdlrntcm rnd cari.d on a povcr{tivcn
vcslcl of lcssthsr 20 mctrcsin lcngth, shrll b. phc.d not lc!6 thrt I mcttc
bclow thc n5th..d ligbt.
(t Wbcnthc Rul6 prc$cribct*o or rhrc! lifhb to bc.ricd in a rrtical
lioc, thcy shrl bc spaccdas follows:
334

TIIE SAFBTY OF NAVICATION


(i) or r vc&rlof m m.rcs in lengthor nor. $ch lights rhdl bc
spac.dnor lcis thm 2 mctrcsapan, rnd thc lowcrt of rhcaclights
sball, dccpt wh.rc a towing light is rquircd, bc placcdrt a
hidt of not leir than4 mctr6 abovcthc hullj
(n) on r vclccl of l6s than m tncir6 in lcnglh suchlights shrll b
lpaccd nor l.!s than I mctr apad and th lowcstof rhcrc liShas
shrll, cxccptwh.re r to*iog light is r.4uircd, bGplac.d rt a
hightof nor lcssthan2 mctrca.bovc lhc hulli
(in) whcnthrc! f8hts arcc.dcd thylhall bc .qualy spaccd.
(r) Thc lo*r of thc t*o all-round lights prcscdbcdfor a v6rcl whcn
cngagcnit| fshing 3hallbc at a hcightabow lhc sidclightsnot 16! thantwic.
thc dislanccbctwccnthc rwo vcnical liSht!.
(t) Thc forwffd .nchor lisht prcscribedh Rule 30(z)(i), when rr,o ar
cnicd, shdl not bc lcssthan4.5 m.tr6 abovth after onc. On a v.sscl oI
50 nctrcs or norc in lcnglh thi! forward a$hor li8hl lhall bc plrccd ai a
hcidt of not l6s than 6 mct cs abovcthc hull.
3. Honmnbl positiotiry ond sryiq ol Agha
(!) lvhca t*o naslhcadligh6 arc Fcacribcd for a powcr-drivcnvcrscl,
thc hoiizontal di$ancebe$rccDthcm shll not bc lcssthan onc-halfof thc
lcnSthof ihc vcssclbut rc.d not bc morc than lm nctrca. Thc foreard light
shrll bc pla.dnoi morethanorc{ualtcr of thc lengthof thc vc!6llron thc
(r) On r powErdrivcnvsslof 20 mcll6 or morc in lcnsth thc aidcliShts
$aI mt b. pLccd in fiont oI thc forward [lasth.:d ligbts. Thcy !h.I bc
placcdat or ncar tbc sideof thc vciscl.
(c) WhGnthc lights prcsribcdin Rulc 27(b)(i) or Ru|c 2a arc plac.d
vcrtically bctw.n thc forward nasthcad ligbt(s) and thc after madhad
light(s) thcscall-roundlights shall bc phccd at a borizonialdistancof not
lcss tban 2 mctr.s ftom the forc and aft c trclinc of lhc vciscl in lhc
athwfftship dircction.
a. D.taik ol locat n ol Arcctun-hai&nis lishbfot firhi,ts v.s.ls, dndscn
ord vcstck.ngo6.d i^ urd.Not t opcrutiots
(a) Thc light indic-atingthc dircction oI thc outlying gcar ftom a vcirl
cngag.d in fishing as prcs.ribd in Rulc 26(cxii) shal bc plac.n at a
horizontd di.rmce of not lcs6than2 Detrcsandrct mor! rhan6 mctr.s away
from ihc llro all-round rEd .trd whitc ligh6. This lgbt shall bc placcdnot
highcr tban thc .ll-round whitc light pEscribcd itr Rulc 26(cxi) and not
lowcr lhao thc ddcliShrs.
(t) Ttc lights atrdshap6 on a v6!cl cnSrg.d in drdgin8or und.rwrtc.
oDcr.rion!to indic.tc thc ob.tructcdsidcard/or thc aidcon whici it i! lac to
dx6, ,s pr.ccribcdin Rule27(/Xi) ard (ii), shal bc plac.d rr th. tlarir'um
Faclic.l horizontaldistrncc,bur io no c{!c l6s thr 2 mcu6, ftoo thc lights
or rtapcs pr6cdb.d io Rulc z(r)(i) and (ii). Io no cascahrll thc upFr ol
th6c lidts or shrpcabc al a grlatcr bciSbtthr! thc loscr of thc thrcc ligbt
or shapcsprcs.ribcd in Rolr Z(DXi) ad (ii).

335

TEB SAFBTY OF NAVIGATION


5. S.r"trn tor si.Lheha
Th. iidcliibE ol vc..cb ofz) octr.. or morc h lcngth!h bGnttcd with
iDbo.rd&rrcn p6i .d ostt bh.t, rrd EtirS rh. rtquitcd.ot! of Scclion
9 ol thi. Adcr. On vc..cls of lcat thar a) ncll . in lcagthO. .idclifhB, if
Dcc..sry to d.ct thc rcquirqrcna oI Sccliotr9 of thir ArD.x, lhdl b. nncd
with itrbosrd nrtt bhct lc|tcn . WiO I cobbincd l|'&ro, udtrg r singlc
vcnic.l ihocat rld r v!f, nffror divi.ion bctw.n thc lrEcn aod t-d
sccliooa,crtcmsl lcrcctr! nccd trot bc fin d.
6. Shopa
(r) ShrF !h!I bc bht lnd ol tbc fou itrB.i?6:
(i) r brl shrl havc. di.nctcr of ool lcs. th.tr 0.6dctrc;
(ii) r co[! sb![ h.v. I brlc dirmctcr of oot Lr3 lb.tr 0.6 mctrElnd .
hcightc{u.l to itr di.nctcr;
(iii) r cylindcrlhsl hwc. di.nct r ot rt lc.n 0.6 mctc ![d I hcight
of tric. itr dirEctcr:
(iv) . di.dond 3h.F rb.[ contin of two cor. .! dccncd in (ii)
abovcbaviry ! comnon b$c.
(r) Tbc vcrtical dinaacc bctwl.tr .bap6 shdl bc 3t l.rrt 1.5 r|ctt6.
(c) In r vcgcl of lc66tbm z) mctr. in l.rytt lh|F of l6rcr dim.rliots
hot cofin.r|ruratc with thc sizcof tbc vcsGalnry bc ulcd ind thc dbtancc
rFn niy bc corcaodirdy rcduccd.
1. Coloa, rpc<$taon ol rsh6
Tbc chromatici9 oI .[ mvigrtion lilbb |haU cooform io thc lolbwing
!&nd!td!, which lic *ithir thc bouodrtici of rhc rr! ol thc dilgnn
lpccificd ior ..ch colow by thc lr&mrtionrl CoE i!.ior or lllumioatio!

(crE).

Thc bourdlris of thc arla for crch colour 't! givcn bt indicrti4 lhc
omcl co-ordinatca,rhich arc as follows:
(4, whtrc

r
!
(il

O52'
O.n2

0.525 OI52
O-rt{J OI,o

0.310 0.310 0.4,13


0.34t o.at 03&

Gaa

r
y

o.@t 0,m
0.3t5 oTrt

0.!q) 0.a)3
0.51! o.r55

(iiD x.d
t

d.6o
0.!r

0.660 o:tt'
o.3zt 0:65

0,f21
015!r

<ti, Y.lbr
0.t75
0.612 o5lt
ot
o.3t2 0382 o,aa:t 0.16

336

TIfE SAFETY OF NAVIOATION


t. LtuEtiq ol l4ha
(r) Thc nirilnur| luninous intcDriryof l&hts shdl bGc'lo'l'tcd by using
ihc formula:
I=3.43xldxTxDlxK-D
*tcrr I fulunimu! intcnsityin catrdcl&sundcr scrviccconditions,
T is lhrcsholdh.tor 2 x 10-' lur,
D is raogcof virit ility (lull|ilous raryc) oI rhc light in nauticalmil6,
K is rtnocpbcdc transnirsivi9.
For Fllcribcd lights th. valuc of K shall bc 0.8, concspordi'8 to r
mcLorologicil visiblity of approrirEtcly 13 nauticalmil.s.
(D) A lcl..lion of fiBufcs dcrivcd ftotlt thc formula is giv.n in rhc
following trblcl
Rans.ol vbibili4l

Luninous ntu',,'itt of
Utht i,t ctrdrlar for

&unnournu.) ot

r=0.8

li9ht in Muti.al ni/.s


D

0.9
4.3
t2

I
2
3
4
5
6

52
94

/Vorrr Thc mlrinuE luminous int.nsity of DeviSationli8hts should bc


liEir.d to avoidunducSlarc.This shallnot b. acbicvcdby r variablccoatrol
of thc luDinousinGnsity.
9. Hotimnul t c&n
(r) (i) ln thc loreard dircclion, lidElidb as 6tcd on th. v.s!.I shall
3howthc [|hnlturD r.quirEd intcnsitics. Thc intcnsiticssball dccft$c to
rcrc! praclicalcrt-off bctwc.n I dcgrccand3 dcgrccsoutsidcthc prcscribcd
(n) For stcrdiShB e nasth.rd lights and at 22.5dcgrcc,s.baft thc
bc.n for 6id.lights, d|c ninimum r.quirEd irfcrsiti.s shall bc rraintaincd
ovcr thc .rc of thc horizon up to 5 dcgrcswirhin thc limit! of rbc rctors
F.cribcd in RuL 21. Fron 5 dcgrE! vithh thc p..lcaibcd s.{rors ihc
intn5itymay d.crcalc by 50 Fr ctnt up to thc prcscribcdlimits; it lhall
d.dr|!c ltqdily to rcrch practic.l cut-offar not mor. rhan5 dcgrcsoutsidc
ihc pr..ribcd lcctors.
(t) All-round li8hl! 6ha[ bc so lo6t d 15 not to tc otr.clrcd by mr5ts,
lopdai! or ltructur6 within angularsa.lors of morc than 6 dcgrcas,cxc.pt
.tlcbor [ghb prcsriM in Rul 30, which nccd not bc pllc.d at .n
iDpr.clicablc hcidt abovcthc hull.

337

TIIE SAFETY OF NAVTGATION


(a) Th v.rtical s.do.s of clc.tric li8ht! ai fiir.d, wirh thc cxccptionof
li8htson sailingvdscls shall cnsurcthat:
(i) at lc.st thc rcquircdminirnumintcrsity is maintaincdat all anglcs
from 5 dcgrrs abovcto 5 dcgrccsbclor, thc horizontal;
(ii) at lcslt 60 pcr ccnt of thc rc{uirEd [Iinilnum intcMity is maintdncd ftom 7.5dcsrccsabovcto7.5 &gr!.s bclowlhc horizonral.
(d) In the ca.c of sailingvciicls th. rcnical s..tors ol clcctric lights as
fiatcdihall cnsurcthat:
(i) at lcrlt thc n{uircd nitrimum i Gtrsilyis maintaircdst rll anglcs
ftom 5 dcgccs abovcto 5 dcgrEs bclow th. horizontal;
(n) At lc.st 50 Fr ccnt oI tllc rcquircd minimum intc$ity is
m.intri&d from 25 dcgrcs abovc to 25 dcgrc.s bclow thc
horizodal;
(6) In thc calc of lighlsothcr lhar cl.lric th.sc spccificqtions
shallbc m.t
a.rclo!.ly as poasiblc.
ll. I^tuaity of non4hcttic lbhtt
Non-lctriclight! shall so far as practic{blc comply wiih th. minimurh
intcnsitics,as spcaifcdin lhc Tablc givenin S.clion 8 of this Ano.x.
12. Maaocuwinghght
NorwithstaDdinsrhc provisions oI par3gl3ph 2(t) of thi! Anncr thc
manocuwinSlisht dcscdb.din Rulc 34(r) shall bc plrccd in thc s,rnc for.
and aft vcnicd plancasthc masrncadlight or lightsand, whcrcpracliqblc,
at a rnini on hciShlof 2 mctr.s vcrticallyabovthc forwardmaslhcadlight,
pmvidd thar it shrll b. canicd not lcsslhan 2 mclrcs rcrtically aboveor
bclow lhc .ft r mrsth.ld light. olr r v6rcl whcrconty onc manhcrd liShtis
c5rficd thc manocuvrioglight, iI6ncd, shrlt bc crri.n whd! it canb6r bc
sccn,not lcssthan 2 mtresvnically apan from ihc masthe{dlight.
13. Apryoval
Thc constructionof litlt! andlhapcsandth. iruul|tion of lighB on board
tb vss.lsbal bGto thc latidrdiotr of th. appropdareauthoritybf lhc Slatc
whc na8th. v.,!scl is cntitld to fy.

AddltLd 4nh

ANNEX II
ro. fnha t.*r
etht

b da

l.rddt'

Thc lghts menlion.d hcrcin shall,if c ibitcd in pursuafte of Rulc 2r(d),


bc plftcd phcrc thcy c5r bcstbc !.!n. Thcy shal bc at lcast0.9 ntr. apan
but r! a lowcr lcvcl thsn lights Fcscribcd in Rulc 26(rxi) and (cxi). Thc
lightsshrtl bc visiblcaI round thc horizonrt a distanccof at lca5tI milc bul
at a l6scr diltaffc than rhc lights prdcribcd by drcsc Rulcs for fishing

338

THE SAFETY OF NAVIGATION


L Sbnolrlor .neh6
(a) Vcsrclswhco cng.sld ir trawlitrg,whcthcrusingdcoct al or Fhric
!c|r, m.y cxhibit:
(i) whcn3hootinSlhcir ncB:
two whitc f8hts in r vcrticalltrc;
(D whcnhaulingthcir ncts:
oDcwhitc li8ht ovcr on. r.d light in a vcnicd linc;
(iii) whcnthc nct h.5 cotrrcftst upot rD otatuclion:
two rcd ligha in e vcdc5l line.
(b) E ch v.sscl cnsrsrd in psir tnwling r|ey cxhibit:
(i) by nifht, a sc,Ilhlisht dir.rtcd lorward snd in thc ditcction of
Itc othcr v6s.l oI th psir;
(ii) whcnshootingor haulin8thcil nctsor *hcn thci nc$ havccomc
fist upon rn ob6tmctioD,th. lightsPrci.riH h 4a) abovc.
3. Sit uk lot pu,t teinE/s
V..!cb cngagpdin fshing wilh purs. s.inc 8car ftay cxhibit two yclloe
li!!t iD r vcnicd bnc. Thelc lights shdl n!!h altcm.tcly cvcry !..ord .trd
with cqud liShtandocqrlirtion duratiotr.ThcscliSht mry b crhibitd olrly
whcn rhc vcsrcl ii h.mpc.cd by it3 fishin88ca..

T..h|..l

ANNEX III
d.oe ol -od dFl

|pCrrct

L ulhidl:
(t, Fr.4u.t|.i.s and tu'A. ol adibility
Thc fudnncntd tEqucnq of thc ign.l sbal lic wilfiit thc rsngp70-ru Hz.
Thc ringc of rudibility ol lhc si8nNlfrom a whistlcshrl bc dctcrnit.d by
ttorc frlqucncics, which may includc lhc tundam.ntal end/ot onc or morc
hiShd fiqucmics, which lic withi$ thc ratrgc 180-m H, (l 1 Pct ccnt)
rnd which providc thc sound pr.lsurc lcvck sFcificd in p8rrSr8phl(c)
Ql linna olf1/tdan ,tuI lftqu.nctult
To cnrurE r wid. vadciy of whistlc dst.lcristi.s, tbc fundancnttl
firqucrcy of. *his c shall b bctwcd thc trolowinglimits:
(i) ?G-2mHz, for r vccscl2m mdr6 or motc iDlcngth;
(ii) l3(F350 Hz, for a vcsrl75 mtrc! but 166thm zD mctrcsin
lcn6h;
(iii) 250-m Hr, for a vcs.cl l.ss th.n ?5 nctr.s in lngrh.
(c\ Sou,tdrit 4t i'E r3i,' a'd nrs. of oudil'ility
A whinl. 6ttcd in a v.ssl shall Drovidc. in thc dir.ction of marimum
i .$ity of th. whi5dcandat I dittenccof I mcirc from it, s soundprcas[c
lcvcl in at Lrst onl6rd-octwc brnd wilhin tbc raryc of ft.4ucncicslgFm
tlz (1 I pcr c.nt) of not lcls th.n thc spproprial. ffgsr. givcn tu thc t.bL

339

THE SAFETY OF NAVIOATION

12ry$ of vcrs.l

tl3td-octav. bard Lv.l Audibility


at I n tt i,t dR t f.rr.d,ott
in
b2 x I0'> Nlrr( nt'txal miLr

200ormorc......
75but lcssthatr2m
20but lcssth.D 75
l,6r thanm

143
138
130
lm

2
I
0.5

Th rangc oI rudibiliry in rbc rablc abovc is for inlomation rnd i5


.pprodmat ly ttc rangcat whicha wbistloay bc hclrd ou it3 forwsd ris
eith $ Fr @nt probabiliiyin conditior5of still air on bo.rd a v*rcl having
avcraSbackgroundnoi!. Ievel ar rhc tistcningposts(talcn ro bc 68 dB i;
rbc octavbandccntrcdon 2$ Hr and63 dB in th. octavcba[d ccntrcdon
5m H2).
In pracriccthc ranSear whicha whistlcmay bc hcsrdis xtrcmclyvrirbtc
rnd dlFDds critically on wcrrbcr conditions: rhc valu.s givcn can tE
rcgardcda! typicalbuaunds conditiotrsof strotrgwind or highrfibicnr noi!.
lcvcl ai thc listcninSpo6rihe ranScmay bc muchrcducd.
(d, Dir. cliotul pmp. ni.s
Tbc soundprssurclcvl of a dircctioral *histl shall b nol morethad4
dB bclow the prcs.aibcdsoundprcssurele\l on thc arb at anydirecrionin
th. ho'izontal planc wirhin 1 45 de8r..s of ihc aris. Tlrc soundprcisurc
lcvel al anyothcI directionin thc horizonralplaocshallbc nor lnorc than t0
dB bio* thc prescribdsoundprcssurclcvcl on th. aris, sothat thc rang. irl
any dirc.tion will b rt lcasi half rhc ran8con thc foMard aris. Th. sound
prcssurclcvel shalltc ncasurdin that lnid-ociave bandwhichdctcrmincs
the rdibiliiy range.
(c) Positioni^Bol whirl.s
Whcn a dircctionalwhiltle is to b uscdasthe odlv whisrleon a vcs61.
it
shall b installcdeiih its lnarrmuminrensirydirccied sFaighr.hcad.
A whistleshall bc placcdas h'8h .s pracricableon a vcsscl,in ordcr ro
rcd|c" inctlcD.ion of th. csittd lour bv ob!firdions ,rd ato to mininir.
hcaringdamaic risk to pcrsonnct.Thc soundprcsrur. lcvcl ot thc $c.scl's
os'n signal at listcrinS posts sball no! crcccd 110dB (A) snd so far as
praciicablcshouldnot cxcedlm dB (A).
A Finingol no.e thd on ehbtle
If whisdcsare ftted ar a distanc.afrsrtof morc tban lm metrcs,it shallb.
so anan8cdthat thcy ar oot soundcdsimultarcously.
@l Co bin d whbtL '1'',n$
If duc to thc prcssurcof obstructionsthc aoundfield ot a sindc whbtlc or
of onc of the whistlcsrefcncd to in paragraphl(D aboveis likely to havca
zonc of greatly rcducdsignal level, it is rccommcnddrhar a codbincd

3q

THE SAFETY OF NAVIOATION


whistlsystcrnbc 6ttd soasto ovcrcomclhis reduction.For the purpossof
lhc Rulcsa combioedwhistlesyslemis to b regardcdasa single$histle. Thc
whisilcsof a cambinedslstemshallb locatcdar r disranceapanof not morc
thrn lm mcrcs and arang.d to b. soundedsimulbnc.usly. Thc ftcqt cncy
of any onc whistlc sball differ from thoscof tbc olhcrs by al lcast 10 Hz.
2. B.A or Eong
(ol l"aBit of signal
A bcll or 8on8,or othd devic! havingsimilar soundch8lactcristicsshall
produc. a soundprssurlvel of not lessthan 110dB at a distrrce of I
metreftom it.
Bclls andSongsshallbc madeof corrosior-resisiantmatrialandd6iSrcd
to give a clear tooe. Th. diameterof the mouth of rhc bcll shallb not less
than3m mm for vesslsof 20mctresor morin lenSlh,aodshallb not lcss
than 2m mm for vesslsof 12 mctrcsor morc but of lcssthan 20 mctrcsin
lcngth.
Wherc practicable,a powerdrivcn bcll $riker is recomncddcd!o cnsurc
constantforc. but manualopcratiooshallbc possrble.Thc nassof the stnker
shall b not lessthan 3 Drc.ni of thc massof th. bcll.
Thc construdionof soundsignalappliances,their Frfornancc and lhcir
installatiooon boardth vcss.l shallbe to the satifaction of thc appropriatc
aulhority of the Statewhosfa8 the vcssclis cdlitlcd to 8y.
ANNEX IV
Db.rnre4r.b
r, Thc following signals,usdor crhibitcd .ith.r togclhcr or sparately,
indicat. distrcss.nd ncdof assislanct:
(a) a gunoi otherexplosiv
signalfiredat intewalsof.bout a minule;
(6) a contiououssoundingwith any fog-AiSnalling
appararus;
(c) rockts or shcus, ihrowing rd stars 6rcd on. at a i'n. at sho.t
(d) a signal madc by radiotelegraphy or by aoy other signallir8 ncthod
(SOS) in th Mor! Codq
consistingof the Sroup .. -...
siSnal snr by .adiolclephony consisting of the spoken word
G) a"Mayday
;
thc Intcmational Codc signal of distrcas indicald by N.C.;
G) a signal consisting of ! squarc Eag having rbovc or bclow it a ball or

,n',thine rcsmblinga ball:


(t) flrncs on the vessel(as ftom a buming rar bancl, oil barrel. ctc.)i
(i) a rocket parachutcflarc or a handflarc showinga rcd lighti
(t a snok signalgiving off orarSc-colourcdsnok;

341

THE

3AFETY

OF NAVI(}ATION

(t)

slovly lDd r.Fd.dly

(r)
('t)
(r)
(o)

|hc lrdiorclcsrqh slltm sisnrli


|l. ndiotclcphm. ablm 3i8n l;
sigtralslrosmiucd by cerfEncy postitiotr-itrdiclti4 radio bcaconsi
approvd signals t"nsldted by radiocommunicationssysbra.

Ei|ing

d lowcring .rns ou.stltch.d b .&h

L Thc ulc or crhibition of rny of thc foEgoins ligD.L crc.pt for thc
purpc of irdi.zting di!ttr!. ud Dccd of elsilEncc aDd ihc ulc of, orh..
ligDzh rhi(n 6zy bc cotrilcd rith ary of thc rbor! .ignzh i. prohibit d.
t Att odon bdlarn to thc rEhEntrcctioo! ofdrc IntcmrtbDrl codc of
Sigrala thc Licrchdt Ship Scanh atld R.!cu. Mrnurl .Dd drc foloeing
ligDrk
(d)a piccc of onngE-colouEd c.DE! wirh cihcr r bh.l lqu.tc a|ld
cirElc or othcr epprcprial. lyDbol (fo. i&nfficarion froD d'c.ir)i

(r). dF ma.r..
PILOT I,,/TDDERS
The Department of Transpon's oral exa.Eiaation io scammship
Gquiresthat a candidarcshall know how to rig a pilol ladd.r in a safc
and propcr manncr. Ev.ry foreign-goingcargo and passcng.rship
coggcd on long intcrnalional voyagcs is rcquircd to carry I laddcr
which is us.d only for lhc cmbarl.tion and discmbarkationof pilols,
ofrcirls or othcr pcrsonswhile thc vca3lis rrriving in o. lcrving port.
Thc ladder rnusl b rigged lrlll clcar of overboard dischargcs,so thar
cach step reslsfrrnrlyagainstlhc ship'sside and so that thc pilot can
gain convcnicnlaccessto lhe ship aftcr climbingbctwccn1.5rnd 9 m.
Thc laddcr must bc a singlalcoglh, capablcof reachingthc watct
fiom thc acccsspoint ar light draught,with no.mrl trim rnd z.ro list.
If thc pilot has to climb more lhan 9 m. an accommodationladdcr
(or similar dcvicc) shall bc usd instcad.
Thc l.eadsof thc laddcrmust bc madc ot hardwood48 m long by
ll5 cm dc.p and 2.5 cm thick, spaccdbctwccnl0 and 3Ecm apart.
Thc stp8must bc ho.izontal. Thc two sida-ropa!, on cach sidc, arc to
bc of l8-mm manila ropc. T*o 2cmm mrnroDcs srE to bc fittcd to
cnablc lh. pilot to mount thc laddcr, rog.rh; with a safctylinc if
thought fit. Hardwood bsttcns, 2 m long, must bc fittcd cvcry so oftcn
to prcvcnt lhc laddcr from twisting. Ar tright, both rhc laddcr and thc
point of acccssarc to bc proFrly illuminarcd. A rcsponsibh omcer
must suFrvisc thc laddcrwhcn in usc.
Thc Mcrchant Shipping (Pilot L&ddc.s) Rulcs 19m, allow substitutc
rt.&rirb if tha D,o.T. is srtiaild tlr|a thcy art of cqurl strttrgth rrd
tuiLbility.

34

THB SAFETY OF NAVIOATION


POLLUTTONOF THE SEA BY OTL
In the Unitcd Kingdom,this is controlledby lhc PrcvcntioDof Oil
Pollution Acl 1y/1 and the Merchant shippinS (Prcvcntionof Oil
Pollution) Regulstions19B3.Regardleisof thc amountof lcgislrtioD,
one fact aemainsindisputable:pollution of the sasc5nbe preventcd
oDlyby the int.grig and diligenccof scrvingOficers.
The main points of the lcgislationarc as follows:
(l) Tar*tlc6r!may dischargecargo oil only oulsjdaspcci^l arcLt,
mole then y) milcsfrom lsnd and at not thor. than60litcs Fr
milc. Othcr shiF (and tankers pumping m.chinery+pacc
bikes) mavdkchane oil or oily mixturEsat lcalt 12milesfrom
hft but o;ly if thc-oil conrcnai! hss than lm ppm. Ttc lan.r
shiD6may movcclosq than 12milcs ifthc oil co ent docanot
oitca t-Spp"t. ln rpccia! areas,ottbl non_tsnkcrsundcr 4oo
crols tons mav do this.
(2) it is a dcfcnceio sbo* that the discha4cwasdue to damagcor
leak and that all stclts wcrc taken to minimiseit, or it eas
dischargcdfor the safetyof lhc ship or life.
(3) The maximum fne on sumrnaryconviclion for oil_pollutioD
offenc.s is 150,000.The Master,Ownerandqtlpit ate liablc.
(4) No oil is to be ransferrcd bctuect sunsctand suntila to ol
from a vssclin a Unitcd Kingdom harbour unlcss3 to
houls nolica has been dvcn to the Harbourmastcr.(Pcnalty
t400.)
(5) Rc.ords arc lo bc kept of balhsting and clc.nitr8 of oit tanks,
disposalof sludge.dkcharte of machincryspacebilgc vater,
tht loading, dirchargingor ttansfcr of oil catSoes,6udc oil
rvashing,dischargeof ballastrnd thc discha$eof *rtel from
slop tsll(r.
(6) The Fnalty for failing to kccp, or falsifying oil rccord!, is
'2,mo on summaryconviction.
A sDecialafta in.dvdesthc MediterraneatrSaarca, the Black Sea
and the Bdtic Seaarea. AI shiF withiD 2O0miles of the UK, all
Ul< shiF withio 2fr niles of land, all UK trokcrs fully or partly ladcn
and all Ul( shiF of 10,00 gross tons and ovcr mwt rcpolt oil
diichergcato thc coastalStelcehich ic considatcdto be mo3tat riik.
All oil ta[kc.s of 150grorstons or morc ard othcr shiF of ,$0 gtors
tons or rtrorc alc issued with an lntcmational Oil Pollution
Piewntion Ccnificatcvalid for 5 yce$. Thcrl is an annurl survyof
thc 6hip.Oil rccordbools arc to be keptfot thtac ya{r3ftom tbc dltc
of thc last cntry.
Sinca bolh Masters and Owncrs are liablc to fnes under this

THB SAFBTY OF NAYIOATTOX


lcdslrtiotr, it is vitd th.t ltudd r obtaio copir of rhc Rc$lrtio$
and study them very carefully.The law novrprovidcsfor the actual
dcfeultcr to bc includedin tbc Fndtics.
MIX,CXANT SHIPPINC NOIIGS
Frcrr timc to timc, tha Dcpartnent of Tranrport io tha U.K. ilauc3
Noticc! dcding *ith aspoctsof gcrcral salctysbo.d mcrcllaatshipr,
ollcn brlcd upoo rccant accidcrts rd dils3tr3.Thc Doticasarc
obtrb.ble at ShippingOlfic6 |ad srr ilcuc.dgrrtis to Mtstcn.
Thr folloei[g ..ctiotr conbinr rcfarloc6 to thc mor! inportart
'M' Notic6, rchti!8 to tbc wort of this chplcr. Thc ooticaalEtc I
grqr vduc providcdttl. ar! prcduaad|tIon 13 Pooittlc aftcr lhc
Grlnr to *hkh rhcyrdr&. whilc ir h fridy rdc for a atudcrtto rltunrc
thrt, if ahcrcb . pr.ticuLr dan86, th6c mustbc io 'M' noticc.bout
it, bc shouldco$ult tha full lbt ofkiucs b.fort pltlcotit8 hituclf for
cxmination.
Pltialthg on sh|P,hrPot,
firc fgtrring ara prcvcntionon board 3hip6undlr cotlttuction i5
rhc buildcr'sGsponsibility.It is thc Espo!.ibility of thc owtranwhilc
thc ship is undcr rcFaia.Whcn frtf8hiing 'l y rndrngrl i 3hip'3
strbility (i.c. floodiDgof thc vcss.l) atd s dccisionhss to bc nadc
rrhcthcrfircfightin! ahouldca{.c, thc dcci ion of thc Hrlbourmslc.'
or otbcr Po.t Offccr, is final, sftcr conrultationwith intat stcdplrtics,
Th. Mrstcr, or Duty Ofrccr, is lot howcvartclicvdof his duty to
crncutn'
ioform thc Firc BrigadcOfrcaaif hc consid.6 lh.t dangarous
stttrccsa.c dcvcloping.
ElrurganryMat at A flt
A fur on . t|ntcr dc.tFyrd tha lmidlhiF aroonnodatio! rotcft.t
witb rhc ncdical outfit. It ir rccomnctrdcdlhat tartctr abouldoaraya
rFIt rtrdic.l lit, rft, strdprd.nbly in thc vicinity ofth. .otilFrooD.
can@ of AbAd woodPvlp
T6tt rhoryttrt ft.. .rxFtraionof rttt d wood pulp ca! lcld to r
5OZ ir.|rar io b.lc dcFh, Erttcnlc cal! ahouldbo trlctr to tac lilt
rhir cargpii prolcclrd from ah. sdnrilaionof rrtq' Scv!rcauPlu.itrg
of conrDartmdtbou!d|n6 i. othcrwitalikcly to occut.
94

THE SAFETY OF NAVTOATION


Dn.c,ion-fndirAApparattt
scriouscrrors hrvc rrircn in tha usaof thia daaicaowiog to thc
proximity of dorncsticrcrial! to thc D,F. loop. Doe6tic rccaivanin
thc v6!cl rhould aithcr bc connccLdto r cotrmunal&rid or havc
rcrirls risiagrc hi8lar thantha bclc of thc loop, or d lcalt 15m fron
lhc brrc of thc loop, maasulrdhorizoltally, Rldom lcrirk o.n rbo
!frcct R.T., w.T. .quipmcotand rrdieddr to !.vigation.
Pr.,'ntion of H.at IllE t
Thc hcdth of ofrccrson *atch is of Finr irnponMcc, Hcatllroka
car bc vcrf ruddcn|trd b slwrF daDgrrour.It ic duc to a dfutu*'arca
i! thc p!fi of rhc brrb whichrcgulalcrbodyt rrFrturs. lt fuchucrcriscdby e cclsstionof swcatin&r bur ng dry 3lin, folloeld by
dclhiumrnd unconsciounes.Coolingof thc My baaometan urgcnt
mtalcr.
Hc.t cxhrurtionia lassdnnrtic but mry lard to colhFa if ncglEtcd.
symptoE! rIE fatiguc,hcrdacha,laulaa ald fairtncrs. It is crulcd by
en inrdcqutc inrskc ofsalt rnd watd.
Hcat ilrc.ss msy bc prcvcnrcdby drinkirg at Lara 4'5 litr6 of
wai.r Fr dry ir lDdl but frcqucnt quantitiaa,talitr! af,lrr !alt,
rvoiding cxpoauicto thc sun |rourd Eidday, rnd avoiding hcrvy
rrcds ! dcohol in thc middlc of thc dty. Thc body.hould bc lcpt
cool ard i|rll v|.hcd. Exoalir coBunption of doohol utdar th6c
conditionscanlcad to h.rtstrokc end d.rth.
Po ableRtdlo 4tpm.nt
Tth must bc Efuhdy t atld cvcry 7 day! end maintlincd io rn
c6cicrt c!trdition rqdy for in3tlnt u.a, Onaor morc F]3onr should
bc dcteilcdon thc MustcrLfut to plac! thc cquipmcntin I lifcbort itr
rn cmcaSpncy.
RadioT.hphan Prcc.A$.
Thir rpFr.tur ic rcquirEd!o hrve thrcaca.d. ditplsytd !ca.by. On
vr!6clswbcrr tbc canilgp of R.T. is not n|!&tory, thc card! thould
still bc c.rricd if th. cquiprFtrt i. 6tt.d.

v5

THE SAFBTY OF NAVIGATION


Card No. I cxplainstba proccdurcfor trrosmittitrg a dis!rc$ c.ll
c.8.'MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY. NONSUCHNONSUCH
NONSUCH. MAYDAY NONSUCH.
POSmON 54 25 NORTI{ 016 33 WEST
IAM ON FIREAND REQUIREIMMEDIATEASSISTANCE.

ovER.'

(Whcrc'NONSUCH'is thcnamcofthc ship.)


Crrd No. 2 cxplainsthat thc word 'MAYDAY' impliasgr.vc aod
imrnircnt drnScrrnd a rEqucstfor $sistatroc.Thc word ,pAN' iadcatl. r mcqiagaof urgcnat and 'SECURIrE' (promuncd SAyCURITAY) prrludcsr rlvigatioDrl or mataorological
warnitrg.
Card No. 3 Evca thc phoncticalphrbct atrd cxplainshow to urc
R.T. for InterDationalCod. sigDakwhcna la4uagc difrculty cxirts.
This typc of mcssagE
uscsthc word 'INTERCO' to m.!tr that IntcrnstionalCodcfollows.
.,9. .MAYDAY MAYDAY MAYDAY. NONSUCHNONSUCH
NONSUCH. MAYDAY NONSUCH,
INTERCO.
ALFA (A) NADAZERO (O) UNAONE O) PAMAFIVE (5)
USHANT ROMEO (R) KARTEFOUR (4) NADAZERO (O)
DELTA X-RAY (DX)'
whichmalns
Vcsscl NONSUCH r.quircs inmcdiata acriNrrncc.Pocition
bcarinS015TRUE from USHANT, rangc,Omilcs.I sm sinkiDg.
Lil.boa, Latttchiry Crcw
Thcrc crcwsshouldiDcludcno moit that| two pcrso whcnLunching a boatcrrried on a rcd-band.dlaunchingdcvicc.
Dlr.ctionMhB an SOSColl
Whcn rot ir ula thc D.F. sct shouldbc keDt
tuocd to odc of thc
_c|rrblc
intcmrdonal di3trlss frcqumciar. Thi! will
rrdd bcsrirS'
locationof thc csll. A suilrblc rrcthod ir to lhk rn sutomaticD.F.
wilh th autcalarm. ln rhis way, whilc thc radio 6mccri3 ofr watch,
not only docsthc auto-ahm siSnd triggcr ofr thc wsrniDgbclls but
r dircclion i! autornaticallytakcn.
Y.stb Car.yitg D@A.nat Coods
Thcacvcssclsurhctrundcr way et dght iD thc opcn scashouldnot
carry r rcd light visiblcell round thc horizon.This light will constitutc

TIIS SAFETY OF NAVIGATION


a biraai of thc Cr itiod Ragulstioo!udc$ ltc vtaal ir lcatils ftsroabhrfirit ttrd ir ir dirtrrar wilh ioctctr likcly to baircd tocard! bcr.
Mqn lic Compotvs
Thcsccao bc ecriouslyafrcctcdif porttblc tadios,rxposurcDctcrs,
hsEdmicrophoncaor tclcphonchrn&cts a.t placadwithin s dittancc
of4m.
Polwethmc aadotherO8aric Foarnt
Th6c atEhighly &trgcrou! whcn cxDoaadto frG or othcr intcns.
h.at. Flamarrnaysprasdal morathen 30m pcr tnitutc. TcmFraturcs
of lom"C may bc gmcr|icd togcthai *ith larSt amountsof hiShly
toxic gas|trd smolc.
SyntheticMoorw Lin s
This typc of natarial givcsbo rudiblc waditlS wbcn tha brcrking
strcrs is approschcd,Otr pdrtis& lhcrc is coisidanblc rccoil which
cancruscscious accidcnts.Surgiq ard raodcrbgth.!c ropa6sroutrd
bitts or druos cancausatha turlt to fusctogcthcrend crt{tc bindilg
Ooly synthcticstopFr3 rhould bc ulcd on syDtbcticroF. lt i8 dcsir_
ablc thrt orly onc typc of matcrirl shouldbc uscdfor mooring.opcs
in r porticuhr shp. To cxpccl thc dlw to hrodlc altcmatclyropcs
of dificriog chsnctcri3ticsis to invitc accidcnts.
THE NAVIGATIONAL WATCH
S.v!r.l Mcrchtrt Strippitrt Noticcs haE b..o publirhcd, fo[owi!8
IM@ RrolutioDs,concarDbttafc naviSatiotre ahtccpinS.
TtG b$ic rccoDE odstior3er!:
(l) Tbc conpolitiotr ofthc watcl lhrll rrtc into accoutrttha rrcrthcr
c.trdition., vLibility, whcthd it is dry o. nigbt, ngviSation.l
brzad!, ula atrd oolditioD of navigatiot aquipmcnt aulomrlic
$4nnt.
(2) W.tdk .ping ir not to bc inpeircd by frtigrE. Th. frst wrtd of
a voya8pcrFielly, rhall b. F.tcd rtrd frt
(3) Th OfrcGrin chrrg. of tha watch sball nol utrdartakcduti6
viSrrion.
whicbwil intarfcrcwith,.fc
(4) At atl timca,rhcrcshaubGsn .ficic'nt rnd urimFirEd vilurl rnd
liNtadnglookout, Idcaly, thc hclmsdlr shsll not il o acl 13thc
lookout. By day, thc Offcar of thc wltch day rct as thc aolc
visuallookout but only rltcr cacful co$idlratiol of pcvriliDg
circumstam.3.
341

THE SAFETY OF NAVIGATION


(5) Thc prr3cDoc
ofr pilot shsll dot rlicvcthc Mrstcr (ot O6caait
chrlc) ofhh duti:s rod obligrtio$ rrgardiogthc srfcty of th.
ship.
(6) Th. Oftc.r of lhc watch sh.ll dndcrtro cirruDstroc.! Lavc thc
brid& until properlyrcli.vcd. A prop.r lookout mult bc Eaintaincddurirt. visit to s saprrsrcc.hartroodr.
Suchvisit3rl! to ba
bricf.
(7) WhcDthc Ofrccr is &ctingas solcloolout, hc must not hditrlc
to sutrDon rsrist nc. to thc bridgc if bc naad! it and such
r$istsncc b to bc idocdiat ly availablc.
(t) Thc OffccI shouldnot hcsitatcto urcctrgiD6tnd toundligDalli.g
rpparalus.
(9) Thc Ofic.r of th. watcl is r6poBiblc for thc safcoavigrtionof
thc ship ataorLo 6. Mrrltn h or tt til4." odl tL lttr'..t
Mqd blD l}rn hGh.r .Ir!.d
ldl nqonfiftty od fbb b
nrEally dcrrtood.
(10)Thc rutonatic ltlcriq shouldbc tcatcdi! manualat kett onc a
*atch. Mrtrurl ltlaring ahouldba rdoptcd wcll bcforc a clorcqurnrn situatioDdcvcloF.
TITE INTERNATIONAL CODE OF SIGNAIS
It is bcyondthc siz! of this bool to dircussfag signelingrn thod!,
qnd ihc r.rdar is rcfcnad to rh. Int&nationalCod. ol Signabt%9
(n vi.rd),whcrchc will find thc firll proccdurcclcrrly discusscd.
At thc
$mc riec h! .hould thoroucblyf.milirriic him$lf witt thc layoutrld
u!. of thir i6po.t nt booL
Tlc !.9! t[.o!.1v6 rrc irclud.d itr Fi& l a.ll for rdqlnc. potpo!.t
o6ly; atai!, rhc Frdar i! advircdto colourtlcm bimlclf drr aartlbUy
atudi!8 rhc colour tcy. Tho folowiog ur thc rnraril!' of tha is8r
whcnur.d singly.Thc sam. rn aningrspply whcnu!.d by rny olhcr
rncthodof signalling.
I h6vca divcr down; kccpwcll claarat slow spccd.
.B I am tating in, or dirchs.ging,or carryin& d$gcrous 8oods.
Y.s (amrmativc,or 'Thc sigDifcr[cc of thc pr.vious Sroup
shouldbc rc5din lhc .firmrtivc').
.D Kcrp clcarof mc; I em mrrEuvring with dificulty.
I am altcdngmy courscto itaiboffd.
I am dkablcd;communic{tcwith mc.
G I rcquirc a pilot. (WhcDnrdc by frshiogvr,aalsopcrstingio
clo6cproximity on thc f6hing groundsit mrans'I rm hauling
ncts'.)
348

TUE SAFETY OP NAVIGATION


rH I hrvr a pilot on boerd.
.I I ae rltlring 6y courrcto port.
carSo
Kccp wcll clearof me. I am on fire and havedaDgerous
on board, or I am leakint drngerouscat8o.
K I wiahto cohhutricatcwith you.
L You lhould stopyour v.lrcl iBtandy.
M My vracalfu rioppaded mrljng no way throughth. *atcr.
N No (!a!aliw, or 'Thc aigliic.trcc of thc prcviousgroupshould
bc r!.d in rhc &f!tivc'). Thb iignal In y bc giv.n only visu.lly
or by routrd.For voicc or trdio iradmirsion thc ri8!d should

bc'l.lo'.
o Mrtr ovrrbo.d.

P 0! bErboui)Al F$otri rhould Eport oD bolld a5tha vc$cl


ir rbout to ptocard to !a., (At srr m3y bc ulad by frbing
vlaaal!to mcio 'My nctshrrc comcfalt ut oo ao ob6truction'.)
Q My tasclis'haaltby'aDd I rcqudt frcc p liquc.
R (No dc.ling giEn.)
!S My cngidararr Soingr.lrrD.
'T K.cp clc.r of rnc; I rs .ltlgFd in pair tnwlinS.
U You t'! rulritrt into daDgcr,
V I Equirr a$iitanca.
W I rtquirl r&dicd a3iiatlncc.
X Sropc.tryi4 out your intcntioff atd wrtch for my siSrsls.
Y I rd dragti!8 Dy enchor.
Z I rcquirr a tu8 (or, rs in 'G' abova 'l dt shootiDgDcts').
SitDd! rna*cd with sn ssrcrbk (t) nry bc madc otrly by souDd
rir lirg rccordingto Rul6 34rnd 35 ofth. C-oli ion R.guhlioD!.
Thc oo& Daolalt ir hoiltld clod.-upto thc hrliard bloct to itrdicaE
thd r [.9 d.gc ir urdcrlrood.If ii ir kcpt .t thc dip, i... 0yrtrt b.low
th! hdli|rd bloct, it indicrt.. th.t thc bc.8.gEis noi y.t intlrprctrd.
Thc Dcdrait b dro u!.d lo irdicalc s d.ciod poiDt.
Nrdcr in rtc t xt ofr rignrl alc to bc apcltout uriogthc rlphabatiol
'YZ', Dreoing 'Thc wotds
fur" Flcrdcd if ncccaert by tfia group
*bioh folow {c in Dlainl.nguagp'.
silglGL,ttlr aiFd! rrc ulually of rn uigatrtMturc.
Tvo-htcr lilnak rr! urcd for thc gpncrrlr.clio!.
Tbraclatcr hoilt hcgir with thc lcttcr'M'end iodicatc mcdical
riSFd!.
Four-lctttr hoitts will irdicatc aigEdlcrt fr of 6hips.
Iarl d. ia axqt'r.d by four numcral Flccdcd by 'U. Tha first
leo irdicat lhc d!.6 rtrd tbr ftsl firo, thc miDut!6.Thc lcltcts
'lf or 'S' mly follow if nccdcd.
'L 37,OS' m.!rs Latitudc 37",10'south

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T H E S A F E T YO F N A V I G A T I O N
Io4gttr& ir cxpr66adby four, or 6vc, numcrabpltccdd by thc
Lttrr 'G'. whcn tha lotrgitudccxc.cd,99", no colfu3iod will no.mally
arirc if thc fr8ulEiDdiclting butrdtlds of dag.aa!ii omittcd. ln casas
whancco urio! may oocur,it shouldbc urcd. Thc lcttrs'E or'w'
may bc ulcd if ncccssrty,thus
'G 1395 E D..D! Irtrgitud! 13925' Elst
Cor.rrais indicatadby thrcanumcrdlsdcnotingda8rc6 from 0m b
39, prcfcrablypEc.dcd by thc lctt r .c'.
Sp.rd in tsot6 i6 indicatcdby trumcralsprccedrdby 'S'. Thr lqtt.r
ry' is uscdfor kilomatftspcr hout,
'C 240S lt' mcarsCoulrc 2,O' SF.d 18knots.
Azirnuh ot l3',tring is cxprcsscdsimilatly to coutsc, ptcfcr&bly
prcccdcdby '.A.'.BcrriDgsaod coursasarc truc uDlcssothcrwiscst4tad
iD thc coDt.xt.
Dr:rtunc?ir indioatcdin nautical milcs by onc or mor. nuncrals,
prdcrdbly prcc.dd by 'R'.
by tvq fout or aix num.rsls ptlocdcd by
Dat rily ba siSDeUcd
'D'. Thc 6rst two danotcthc dry ofthc dorth. Tha ncrt t*o itrdicatc
th. mo h of thc yaarand tha 6nd two thc y.ar itlalf.
'D lgt63' itrdidtca lt July 1963.
D lt'rlonc. itrdicrtcsthc ltth ofthc orrrlnt moDth.
fbr, is dctrotcdby thc uscof Oc 2+hour cloc.t.Four trudrrals .la
urcd prcc.dcdby 'T (locd tidc) o. 'Z (G.M.T). A rimc of 2359i3
follovd r mitrutclrtcr not by 2400but by qm,
to rapatt a flg
Tbc isg sct of ,10coollil! th'tc substitutls,ulad
'M', Fi6t iub6tituta,
'MMB'
group.
is
scdl
as
Tbus
rhc
ia r
'B'. Thc group MBM Iroup
eould bc icnt as M, B, FiFt subdtitutc.Thc
groupDuEbcr'l100' h scntss 'l', FiBt sub6titutc,'0', Third subrtituE.
But thc group'T llm'would bc lcnt iD thc samcwry, prt6xcd by
'T'. Thc DrEfxlcttcr is lot includcdwhctrsubEtitutararc madc.Thug
'G 24,14';ould rpF{r rs 'G, 2, 4, S.cotrdsubstitulc,ThLd subltitut
SouDdsiSrauirg is s slow procas6.Ic misu3cDry crEltc scriou6
coDfuion rt sc! atrd its usc in fog should bc kcpt to s rDi EurL
Siglals othar than lhc sitrglclcttcE ahouldhc madconly itr cxtrlmc
cE rgcDq ard tcvcr itr buty watlrs. Th. siSnskshouldbc Eadc slowly
attd clcrrly. If tbcy arr rEpcatcd,it lhould bc at lotrgiotcrvals.
n A llo'r !t eldi lt r.i.l ShlF
statct:
Scction?4 of rhc McrchaniShippi4 Act 18914
351

T H E S AF E T Y O F N A V I C A T T O N
(l) A rhip bclotrlint to r Britbh 3ubilctrhrll hoi.t thcploFr mtion l
@loult(d) On i siSndbci!! ntdc to hcr by oic of H.t M.j..ty'r rhip6,
(indudinSlny walcl undcrtha conm.nd of rn oficaaof H.r
M.j6ry'r Nrvy on full Fy), tnd
(r) on cntcritt or lc.ving .ny forciF port, rld
(c) if of 50to!! Irost tonlrgc o. upwatd!,o! ctrbrit8 or bavilt
any Britilh port.
(2) If d.f.ult i! m|& on boardany suchship ia comPlyingwith thi3
oficnc. bc li.bL to r
aaclionthc M.!t r of tha 3hip!b!ll for Gac.b
itc on summatyconviction.

THE XNOWI,EDCE OF TIIE OIIIGR

OF TIIE WATCH

lfut of qu6tioor
Thc Etio! *hich now followr ia a comprchctr.ivc
rnd .n!w!l| rcLtint b cmcictrtwrichkccpin&It a.otrotbc attlaradtoo
rnlch th|l thaaca!!wcr! rhould conr automltically to dlrry Omcat
or wrtcb, for in |nrny carc! liv6 miy baat atatc. A cudidata for a
D.o.T. ccrtifcarc i! likcly to ba qualtioo.d ttry clorcly itl r ,itlihr
fa!hion.
A !p|c. wiU bc lclt dLa cachllrwct to thrt fto|n tina io lidrc tbc
lladci crtr i!|crt .!y at&odmcnttwbichday barna& by rtc Authotiti6. It ir Dolt irDportllt rhd $c rllwrar bc kaPtuPlo d r.
Th! klttcr 'M' lvill indicrt thlt t[. i oruiiotr i! PronulSrt d by
D.o.T. Nolio6, 'N.M.' vil tdcr to Noti6 to M&itr.]s, .nd 5.R.'
to St utory Rulcsrnd da's.
Thc qu6tion! arcidtctdcd to covlt work whiohhaanot rlrady bccn
dcalt with ir prwiour t!f,! but a fcw may adlc *hich tdcr to Prtt
Eading;h ordci to cttrphtrilcrD inportaDtpoinL
llr ahoe! by v..tclt thut
l. Wtat ir a Lncn tn*l and rhrt
(M).
tt ia r ttrwl towd babraatltwo trr*Lra; aa.i vaarclceni6 aonnd
trsvlin! lightg bul r scarchligfitrnay ta ahonofron alch v6sal
tosard! lhc othcr.
Arrstdrstt

352

T H E S A F E T YO F N A V I C A T I O N
ctrricd on a | 2.0 n sailingship ?
2. whal is thc visibilityof sidclighrs
Two milcsi thc rcduccdlang! is pcrmiltcd only on sailing shipsoflesr
thaa 12.0 n. (Rulc 22.)
Ancrdt rat

3. A 50m powrdrivcn coastcrrunsaground.Whetsignalmustshc


sho*?
-Archor
lightr and two all-round rcd tights vcrtic.lly disposcd
(Rulc 30) ad thrc. balls io a vcrtical line.
At p&na,,t

4. what rigral i5 shownby s scaplancagroud ?


As far as possiblc,thc signrl mcntioncdin Quaslion3 abovc,and
thrcc ballsby day (Rul.s 30, 31.)
,lmardt 'ttl

5. A pillar buoy is sightcdin th. Nonh ScacolouEd black ovcr


ycllow.Topmsrk:two blackcon.spoinlsupwards.Whataclionsbould
bc trkan?
-Ti6]d
thc nonhof thisbuoy.lt is a northqurdrantcardinalmtrk,
'A'.
ayltam
amm.on.m

6. Whatir strcr.miratio! port?(N.M.)


scrvicc
It ir; Bridfi; con;A*tsl6 pon wbdr o! Exsminrtion

.xirtr for thc purporcof alrnidog K!.lt dcairi!8 to ctrtcrthc por! ol


lo..lity, tt ir olho crrin out i! coojuodio! with Admirrlg controlo.
d6urc of thc port
Amaidrrgrl

353

THE SAFBTY OF NAVIGATION


7. A scrixrs
cmcnerrcyxbB in a Dort.WhatsiEoabarc dbDlxvd?
t...-.1

Thte f,asltut rcd light6, vertically dispo6.din or ncar thc port


approach.All shiF are to stop or divcrt accordingto hstructions.
'tma&ta

8. What signalsarc usdto indicatethat vessalsshall trot procetd


i. a port?(N.M.)
Threc fixed or slow-occulairgrrd lights, vcrficsly djsposedio ot
nearUrcpon approach.
Artat rlG'rt

9. What actio! should be taken if. port displaysthrec fixed or


slo*-ocqrlting grenlights, vertically dispodd?(N.M.)
I may proceedbut a otre-wayfiaffic systcmi! i! operation.If the
lower light is white, a two-waytul6c sysEmis i! force.
tlta$,,r,rt

10. A frlhitrg cscl is cxhititint t*o yclow light3, v.itic.ly dis,llcttr

:-::j:

Thc rr$cl b fthitrg eith Scitr rct!. Thaacolc likcly to cortr ooa
lqusrl Eih. (2ndAtrn s to Rul6.)
ltrsdtsrt

354

TIIE SAFETY OF NAVIGATION


ll. DcscdbcODASbuoys.(N.M.)
sptcm buoysrcollccting sod
ncsc@-Deta-fcquisitiotr
rccordingoccatrdata. They arc colourdin yellow and havea liSllt
wbich ir usuallya group flashingycllorv.
'ltv rbcnl

12.@
verticaly dispodin thc ordr Srec!, rvhire,grn?(N.M )
ShiF nay proceedonly if they have spccificordeB to do so. A
thst shipsc.tr
yelow light showtrto the upperleft ol the si8lal me.ans
proceedas long as they do Dot usethe main channel.
hr6.etat
13. Wb.t dry siSnalmsy bc showtrby vcsrclscngagcdin pair
trsrling?
-hcrartiond
Codciag 'T' iowtr at tha forGmast.
tbr@tt tstl
t4. Wbrt.ctiotrr alc not p.tnitt d withio an E rrni tiotr .trchot{.? (N.MJ
To lo*tr rly bod; to coro8unicat!with t[c rhoi! or olha( thipa;
lo Eol! tta ahip; to eort c.blcr, or to dlov any pcrion or thing to
lorw rbc rhip. Thcroecionr arc allovcd ody if thcy will pllv.ot tn
r.ci.t otoriftb. Failliotr oftbc Ex.frililg Oficct h|r b.cn obt iicd.
.lnadrptr,
15. A frbipg v6rcl displaF two whitc lights, visibl..ll round thc
horizotr, v.dcely dbpos.d, in odditioD to normrl fshing lights.
Wtrt doc. Oi! indicatc?
'I aD shoothg nats'. (2nd A!a.x to Ruld.)
lmarabMtl

355

THE SAFETY OF NAVIGATION

16.@
say?
vessls not under command. vesselsengagcd iD nshint and
vesselsrestrictedin their ability to mancuvte, except vessels
clearingminesor towing.
AnEndment

17. Whatlights.rc displ.yldby oil rigs?(N.M.)


Norrnrlly, an .ll'.ourd whirc liSht viribl. for l0 rdLi. Ako . rcd
liSht .i c&h 'comcr' visiblc for 2 milcs. All ligh$ [.rh Mor,c 'U'
cvcry 15scconds.
arn2nanan,

18.In whichdircctiond9_19"s!"$ll9 !f!"y, flgg-:-!"hgSJg*ll


F om thc doublcconc(or baskct)towardsth. singl.oonc.(Rulc 25.)
,lmcrdnanl

re.!E!1gi!y!c4&sls$4

Two bleck concs,in . vcnical linc, points togEtbcr.lf undcr 20 m


io lcngth,shcmay sbowa balt.t in3t ad. (RuL 25.)
At tendnart

20. Whrt is . tcl.St8phbuoy?


cablcin an
Itisa ycllowSpecialMarkbuoyandshowia submannc
srca whreanchorinSis noi pcrmittcd.
Aaa lrnatl

21. Whatfogsignalis medcby anoil rig l (N.M.)


Nofinrfly, a soundsignd coosistinsof Mor* 'U' av.ry 30 sccond3.
Amaidnenl

356

TSB SAFBTY OP NAVIOATION


2a Wbf .brpca.rGthow! by a r,!a!d !.rvicitrg r buoy,by dly, what
dro
-rtc at |!chor?
orcc orpcr pnrcdbcd in Rutc 2?, n mcly a b.ll, . dirmond,
rad aaothrrbell, vcrricdlydi5polad|t Lrtt 1.5'r apan whcrEthaycan
bcn bc aGGd,
ALo tha anahorb.ll tocntiotradin RuL 30.
.hdral

23. Wht i. . trli!.iutrtlr? (N.M)


A ,nrll lavd tc$al locrting min6 eith soDardcviclsor mrgtctic.
.DoDdy d.tcctirg 9c... HGrliStb .r! pr.$aibcd it Rulc 21t. Snall
v6,clt mey oFrrtc Dcarbyshowingtha light! prl.ctib.d in Rulc 23
(c) or Rulc 25(4(n). 'A' may b. signaled by fag or dashingwhcn
divcrsarc down.
'l&ndrrsrt

2/|. Wbrt d8!.1ir u..d to irdicrb tbrt r tt !.1, rf !i8ht, h.t not yrt
.cir'!rl
-TETdt frGGpotiqoc to . port? 0trt. cod. of siStd!.)
ovcr .-Ec ffFt, vilibb .I roud thc horizon,20 Er
rFr! Mnad wbart tbayc.! bcd bc !.ctr.
Afiadiat

dit bLd.itlt.ft u.udly dibh? (M).


25.Olritd.irLofr!
.lri[.
o!@fthc
aLct|'l uaualyaitaotrthcport ddc, A La abouldbc D!dr, tbanrfor, otr
th. |llrbard *b.
hna&nat

h.irdf i!. ftiltFrcttu .r.., whlt&iioo


26.WL..r!.lildr
.hodd .h. t.f.? N.M.)
Sb.6ould D.ionh h.t cout! .!d 4..di ifrhi. i. lot Po.'dblcdu!
io fba ariSddaa oflavtrtiod, th. .hould dalt ttc .taa aaduictly r|
Do-ttlc, AlI FDE oo bo.rd thould tata covtr.
hnahst

157

THE SAFETY OF NAVTGATION


t Wbt ilforrtr3iiop L proEulgdcd by Noric.. to M.tilcr! vitb
"i:o"8 =riorJ N.M)
grd!
Thcir oo\rmc a !t! urcartain ard thcy rnurt urudly turn into l[c
witrd if lirc:r|ft rrl tslitrt of or lstrdin& Furthdmorc, Muitrct! !t!
wamcdth.t by night aircr!ft c.lrilrs b.vc thcir .t amiaglighB pLc.d
FnDancndyofi thc caotrclilc of ttc rhip. A[cnativa positio8 for
thcir ridc li8!rr:
(i) otr cithcr sidcof th. holl,
(ii) on aithcrridc ofthc isladdst uctur!, in ebich cascthc port bow
tmft
[8ht may bc asmuchar 30m from tbc pon .idc of thc ahip.
C.rl!i! rtulrrft o.rri.n .xhiut alcho. Ii$rs .r followr: four l|tlt
ligbb locrt d i! ttG foll@in8 o|lncr:
J ft
In thc forsard psn of thc v6!cl rt e dfutenccoftrot morctbsn 1.5m
balowthc fight dcL,two light! id thc lrEc horirontelplanc,onc oa
tba port ailc andonr on thc starbodrdridc,
l5 ft
In thc rftcr part ofthc vcssclrt a hcightofnot l.ss rbao4.5m lo*cr
thrn tbc formrd light, tvo liSht i! tholrmc horizo d pLn , otr otr
th. port |i& !!d o!. on thc rtrrbord 3idc.
E3chlight vilit c o1!r.tr rtE of .t L.!t lm &g!.., Th. folgrld
light! viriblc or&. ! minidun ttc fro6 I point otr thc opporib bow to I
point fron ritbt altcm on thcir ot|! rid., and tb .n.t lthb fron I
point on thc oppo6itrquartlr to I poiDtfro6 light rhoedo! thcir otv!
si&. (S.. al.o Rut 2(r).)
llnadrrstl
28.@(N.MJ
Thc lDtcmstiorel Clda Sroup'NE 2'. Thcacvc.scls 8hould ba
tiE! r silc b.rtb; if thi! i! lot porsiblc,thcy.hould bc appro..h.d .l
rlow apccd,urtil $d'litrg i! rccciwdofthc &!8.r zonc.A Spodloolout
rhould bc tcpr for rubnari*r.
ltsfirstt
,. How do tubtrllritr6 indic.tr th.i. po,itior!? (N,M.)
EtDar by tbrir FitcoDG, oi itr d..p.r ert r, bt, towiot . rld and
thitc, or rld |!d ydlow fo.t |rtrm of th.rn |l tho ,urfrcc. A rmotc
caldb Ery rLo b. rlLald, tivi!8 ofi brlp quanrityofrdota
lt e&iat

358

ATIE SAFETY OF NAVIOATION

30.@
Nf..r? (N,M,)
ODGrld pyrotacttrirlitht or rEotc, rr?c.t!d ar oltadar nccdlary to
ildicatc 'Kcap cLaa,I ae catryir8 out a! ao.ftpoct aurflajry prooo.
durc"Do lot stopptoF.lcn shils rr. to clcd ttr rc. iDncdi.ldy.ld
atald by to !!nda( slirtuca' Two ydlow pyrot chrb li8ht, or t*o
wbila or Flloyr aDoLr, lhftc Eilutaa |pcrt to irdic.tc 'K..p dair.
My poritio! ir .r iodic.tld. I iar.ld to o.Iry out .ulfsdog proocdurc.
Do not rtop propclt r!. ShiF rt. to c&.r thGiDD.di.tc viiliDitt ' It
D!.t lot bGilfltrcd ti.t $bd.riDc. Gr.rci!. ody i! ihc coop.try of
laoortrt.t.l!'
Itiabgl

31,Hor rry r 'urt o rubmlrirc irdic.tc it! plifit? (N,M.)


By rclcarhg rn iidicitor buoy, ydloe or wbitr rootc ond iarac
c.rdbq or by puEDiDgout .ir or oil,
,lmardratt

32.Whrt rc-tiotrrhonldttc vnaclralc or aighti!8ftc btroyor atly of


tbc.c !i!!d!? (N.M)
Irfom tho N.vy, Co.rt$.ti4 o( Polic.; .t nd hy dov!!h.a! ro
pi* rD rny cipiry nro; t p o! thc .hip'. ridc bcloe tt rrt.flilc,
ru! tbc Gchorouodlr, or qploda aorl cDarfpart lcr$ I oih twry, lo
r|mtt
crlw of tlc .ubd|ri!. tLt hdp i! brnd.
,ltaa&rat

33.P=.it

th" bt ! (N.M)

It ii of s highly viriblc orrDSccolouJ,f oat! 8t a ftlcbosrd of l5 cdr, 6 io


h|t I rni!. liSbt fubilt twicc r t.codd, viritrlc to lh! !.t d ctc i!
clc.r dr.lncrs for 1.75milca.Tha liSbt will !t!b for somcrO hout!.
Tbcr! ltr c.t'r+ ndacton arould thc upparrurflc., togptharwith r
rbip r.riil. (Sc. Cb.ptri VI.)
,lt rartprt

359

TIIE SAFETY OF NAVIGA,TION


3,Lwbt sirrd! !& dirplryld b9 c!.13 rtDlcdrhing x,ith fucl .t
aca?
-Britirh.nd
Allid w.rlhiF in coajurctionwith rurili..i.. frlqu.ntty
cf,arcilcRcpLoilbnrctrtdt6!r. WhiL doiry to thc two or norc rbip6
bfirS Frt rt! contrccadby j@trt!y. lnd ho6c..Thcy diipLy lbc
df!d3 Fr.cribd by Ruh 2{r) of rhc lnt d.tiotrd RcguLtiotr! for
I'rqvcotiq Colitio|t' rt S.., 1972.
MadEra arar|ricd th.rt whilc cltlyfur8out th6c cxcrci!.t th. thiF
rlc ,cirrdy rlatri:tad both i! m[cuvrrbility rnd 3paad,tttd il i! tbc
duty of oth6 rli*lr to t .p w![ cLt. in..ootd&cc vrith Rulc3G) of
rhc .boE R.tubtiou.
hrradnat

35. Arc thcrcrtry Fculisriricawith r!8!rd ro thc lrvigtion ligbtt of


subn|rinc! ? (N.M.)
Submarinc whctr at attchor,or mooEd to o buoy, may show a
whitc liSht viliblc dl rouDdthc horizon,from thc condDgtorv.t. This
i! showtriD rdditiod to .nchor light! pit .db.d io Rulc 30.
H t tro thc vifrtiotr litht! of rubmeriocrh.t! bc.a Gxnibit.d
f.oh Oa conni!8 torlr, wbich i! laar thc ccotsr of th! vqad. Tbo
!.0....d1y
.tcdniDg li8ht, bov liShtt, .Dd ovsrtltilt litbt bwc bGGo
Io$,dorn .Dd dodclyrprccd,with ti. Ecult tbt thcygivcno iadicatiot
of tha auborrirc'r lctrgthnor of bar crac-tcouttaor ch.trgoof couna.
Co4.quc ty thcyhsy bGEi!t*.o for rhcliSbt ofrvcrymrdrndlct
v6aclofthc corlrr tyF
SFciil .rusFDrnt! h.vi low bd Erdc to [t H.M' subd..i!.r
wilh . ,.cotrd rt .niot li8hr.Th! forwrtd tt .oitt litht it PLc.d on r
I lod 5 ft spccirl6ttiD8in thc for! pert of tha v6rcl bctulcn 0 3 strd 2 m &bova
rb. hull Thc Ddn 3t .di!8 litbt ir 6ttd on th. collilt towct or f!.
lcrsttaa
In aubdarinaawhcrcthc fo.ridd atarDinsliShtit aDprcciably
5 i 2 m abovcthc hull, andmayitr cotrlcquctrcrt,c lo$cr ihan thacolourcd
d& li$b, tbc ovlrdl |rr|trScdcit of liSbtat! acctrfron othq vcrrclt
D$r rDEGar
r$urud. ID rdditiod, t[a vartic.l &prtrtion i! loDGcr*.
a'5
m.
ir
k|t
tb|tl
15ft
Ttc oyrrt*itrg tiShtir plac.do! | .pccid ittinS t!.t th. rtcrn ofth.
r"....1 but Dly b. .t r h.itht coltidcnbly I..! th!! th.l of th. .ido
lishb.
Somc,ubnrarincscaty a quick-i$hing rmbar ligbl 2 m sbovcthc
5 ft
rt amiDglight, whanon tha Nrfscc !t tri8ht.

TIE SAFETY OF NAVIOATION


36.Wt|t lifht .r,c c.trkd by. aDb!. cn!.f.d i! toriry?
Tb t|D |r Fr.r..iH for othcr vt .d! itr RuL 2{. bst E Rdc 3l
for .Fid dirD.n .tio!.
Itiald'r,t

37. Wht [!h! .r. o.ri.d tt r ...pLs lot r!d!. c@p|!d?


shc nry c.r.y thc lights prc.criH in Rdc 2?. shc ahw. lhc
.idcligbts otrly whcn sh. is moving.
Atiarrrgtt

:lt. A! .itltrft it!. rhiic pyrot cilic lii[tr d t .b.. iL p.riDtio


-c."? (N,M)
liCt* Wh.t,l".tg!
Tha aitlraft eirhc! to rttracl thc tttrntion of turfacc ahippitg.
tlrn&rta|,

3t. A tut ir towirg thr!. vc$cb tb l.n8th of thc tow bciry lm n. 5d) ft
llq Erny i,iiE or|th..d liSib .r..iofu?
O y two lo iDdic.& thc f..t th.t .b i. toeint. (Rub A,) ShG.hrlt
.bo .hof, th. lirlt tquircd by RulG23(.Xii).
hrradiatt

,O. A lilht v...cl 3i8pd! dIG lcttcr'K'in


dei
tbir trlc.o? (LDr.Cod. of SigDali.)
-Tf,Tf,iiffihirg

to cominunicetc.
Arrrfu

Mon

to e vc...l. whit

TEB SAFEIY OF NAVIGATION


,ll. lf 3br boirt! thc tso-trg ligpd 'NG', rvh.t do6 this 'r .! ?
'You ar! iB & datrglrou! porition',
lt ar&l!/|t

aa Wb.t L rb. foFilrrl for r dist9..p.c?


A l@8 bbt, folLotrldby two thort trlr$, otr ft. rvhi|tb, rt int.itrlr
of not Do!! th!! 2 Eitrut... Sh. ir rtllbL to glt our ofthc wry. (Rulcr
'? .!d 35,)
Itw&rat

,13.wh.t.i!!.l
r-Gloobogsl
dw(?

,4,.'An js.ft

ir n d! ht...ili!s

l! .d bdot! r! di!|.

b.od i!

bblt I prrr.ribcd iD RuL 34(.).


lttsnt srt

ff.. oe6 tbr !r{d {!..r!ryf.ogdl!!gC.{E!

B!Ei.. .houtd b. [|d. i! thc lolboot rcFding thr tioc dtto,


T..tt r corditior!, ikotihtioa D.*! of &!r.& typc of irc..& io
orurc, rd cafiDrbd hciSht
lteataar,

r dr-s reE? (MI


4t. Wtrr sG rl. linib dtdllpt
lt t rill loi op...t .t dshl i! ftduc.d vi.ibility, in lildr ortc ,|l'
trrob, and tbcit langc is govemedby their fuel cspacity.
Anattrsrt

2oft
2m y&

,|6. Wt t ir . drrcoo.? (N.M.)


A tlbultt caliDt oftrylon frbric ald ryDthctic rubbcr, about 60rn
bot EGdfor th. trurporttioo of oil ltrdr ud rpiritr It it tow.d by .
tug on . towlinc rouSbly2mm in lctrfth. Thc draconcb ald@t 3ubwfth rbr .Fcioc
!etC, ri.6 ia !o.L .i . diuibt coo!.o|ur.t
2

TEB SAFETY OF NAVIGATION


8r.vi9 of th casiot and thc liquid. Il shoesonc rll-rouod whitc light
at or nar the after end. If morc thaa 25 m h breadth,it sbors two
cxtla all-routrdwbite lights at or neer thc extrcmiti{ of its brcrdth.
By day it showsa blact diamondst eachend, but scRule 24kxiii)
aDd(iv).
lrra&'!,rt

47. Wb.t ir ! !.fc wdrr o!*?


thlt tD.n it &vi8rtlc trbr
e rdGiiffi@G6'.how
dl uound it
ArradMtl
,lt. Hd .hould thc o.o.w. indic.tGtD|t h! ir ErbIc to
or rirct.ft?
sitld 'N b rhc Mon ood. ot hoirt {eg'N.
.lrrr|'d'|p/rt
,ar.Hor Dry r pilot b. .unnoold by dry or bt nilht?
Locrt@Dircctioft.
Thc ltrtlrndioDd Codcfa8'G'may bc iowtr. Morrc'G'mry batuda
by ery tig!.llitrt ncthod. wh.rr l|ogul8. dific1llticacxtutod R.T.,
th. word! 'INTERCO GOLF Ely b. ur.d.
lt tarbna{
$. WL.n |grolrtrd, 3 abtL at|r roctctt arc fitd rahdt. wlit dod

E!-sesL(M).

You.rc @: tclp vill bc gim rr rcoo rr pocsitrlc,'


Arrardratl

51. Appro.chiot a di ebld tankcrir mbt, you h.!r 'GU' soundd


!9.. tb!-o..S_? (MI
94_g!
'It i 4ir&:yhrt
lot..fc to ft! i roa*at'
,Atr&rsrt

THE SAFETY OF NAVIGATION


52.A dis.blcdteokcrtufitrg fag B. By night it Jhorv!i r.d liSht at
thc
m.sthcad,Whlt docsthh mcln ? (M).
-'Thc
vca*-; lcafitiaffi;t;
tiquid; it is da!8.rous to frc r
rockcl.'
Amerdm.hl

53.what tu r ranlE rafcty craft? (N,M.)


A vcaiclwhichpstrolsup to 8 milcsawayfrom a fring-rrca ccntrc.
Anqdnant

54.What infoamatiotrb promulgted in Notic.. io Mtrincrs with


rclerd to thcsca.cas?(N.M.)
Firing snd bombitrgpraclicca,and ddcocacxarciscr,takc placai! a
numbarof a&asofr thacoast!of trritish Comtnoowtalthaad Colonial
Tcftitorid !s wcll !! in forcig! watlrs.
In firturc, |trd ia vicw of thc rgpodlibility of rstr8clutloritias to
rvoid rccidanS,limit! of prrctic. rtrar will trot r! a rulo bG.town on
charl! aod ddariptioa! of srla! will not rppaar ir thr SailingDircctioli. Such.rtr8Fb..coD!, ligh6, andmrddngbuoysaaDsy bc ofa$ilt
rocc to tha Marincr,or trrgrt! whichDight baa daagcro nevigtioa,
will, howcwi, baahostro! ch$ii u4 whro rpFopriata, mcttioocdin
Ssiliry DiEctioo!.
Light wil bc Ectrtioocdia th. AdniElty Lirt of Lighti
Thc Fincipsl tyF of practiccacaniadout arc:
(o) BoriblngPractlc.ftom Attoart
WlrtriDgsiFak usually3howtr.
<b)ltr to Ah, ad Air to Sco,or Gt@td FirW
Thc formcr is crrdcd out by aircrrll rt r latgcwhiti ot rld cavc,a
vin&d tr.Sct, or frg towtd by aloth.r eircr.ft movi!8 otr . stcady
coursc.Thc lattcr ir carricdout froE iircr|ft !t towcd or ttationrry
targ?t!on a.. or lstrd, thc iri4 lrki!8 placcto rcrwsd in lha calc of
thosco! lend.
As I gcncralrulc, rvrlniig aitrd. .rc shownwhcn lh! l|rlEta ra!
itrtiodry, but rot ehan tovcd ta$ctr rrc uscd.
All marim cnft opcratingr. rrlSc lafaty cralt, ta$ct towltt ol corr.
trol bunchcrfor eirclci! cotrtrollcdtat8rtt eil diaphy, for idaolifFwbilcin or io thc vicinit, of thadrqrr .rEe,thafollowi!8
tiod purpoaaa,
dartilgr:
54

TIIE SAFBTY OF NAVIOATION


(l) i brge rld frg rt thc m.sthcad;
(2) a paintcdcanws slrip, 2 m x I m, with rcd and whitc chcqucrs 6 fi x ! ft
l.tt
in 0.3n squarcs.on thc forc drck or cabin roof.
ltlr4bqafi ffiE
lti! day bc from A.A. fgtr! or machiDcgutr! at a tatSFttowcdby
lircrr.ft s3iu (r) abova,a pilodclatsrgctaircraq or ot balloo!3or kitca.
Pnctic. rDaytokc pbcc from lhorc battcriB or ships.
wlrDing sigldr s! r lulc arc shov! faomahoEbattcrics,Ships!y o
!d nr&
Ft W tMt E @raD4trad.t ot Shlpsdl S.a ol FIx.dor FloatlngTargcls
W.tDitr8 'i8n'l' ulually ahos! a! sbovc.
tulhd Cr4't
A I Ra',.otc-cd,rt
Thcscc.aft arc 2l m in lcngthand csry 'nol undcrcontrol' shapcs 68ft
.!d li8hb, *hich arc p.rscriH in Rulc 27(a).Excrciscsconsistingof
turftlc fring by ihipr, praclicabombing,air to scafiring !trd rockct
fri4 sil bc carricdout spinst thclc craft or tarSptstow.d by thcm.
A conirolcf.ft will kc.p visuallnd radar*atch up to .pproximrtcly
8 miLr, lad th6a wiUbc @vcrfrom thc air ovcr a muchgatcr ratrgc
to .n$rr tbat othar ahippiry wil not bc cDdanSprcd.
Wsrairg,iSnr.b, whcdgivc!, uruallycorsist of rcd 0a!! by day and
ng$t rt DiSbt Tbc ab6cnccof rtry such3i8nal
rdfrtctt ot Edtdiig
bc lcccptld r, cvidcnccthet s prscticcarcadocsnot
calnot, horva,vcr,
cxbt. Warningaig[eb .tE shownfrom shortl, bcfoE prrctica com.
hcoc6 until it caalaa.
ShiF md ailfirft c.rrying out light .xcrci!6 may illuEin t. with
frl..
kilht rrdot or@tg
llt s&r.rt

55.A mstro! a yachti! alowlymovitrghb atbs !p tnd dowtr.Whrt


docr
thir mcao?
*
It i" " "ielrl .f di!t166, (4th Ann.r to Rulcs.)
lmcndrra t

55

TIIE SAFETY OF NAVTGATION


56.What thrF rrl rhotp by a r,!od lavitditr8 ttcttr-fo$nlod?
(M).
Otrlyrb.d ftt d eith . bownddtr r yt.ld will lhow rwo bhck b.lbr
2ft8ft 6ft c.h 06ln i! dirhctcr on a 6oa&y!rd 25m eprraatrd2rn abovc
th. futrtrd top. ThGtig!.I i. .hos! dL
Atfuta

57.An rirqft fr.. . rrd !dc. wt t do.. thir D..o? (N.M.)


rt"@rdugcr.!d
r!quir.3 imEcdirtc a$iltoca.
Aistbrfit

5t. An ei.c.rft firls !rcc! 61!3 cvcry l0 to 15aitut6, Wh|t docs


(N.M.)
this
- irdioatc?
Thcffiit
is scarhingfor swaivors.Thc si8lrl shouldbc aD$rrrcd
by thc ruvivoft with lh. usc of st tutory distr6s.i8 ls-probdbly
rd hatrdflrls or roclct!.
lnad$rl

59. Ifr flhiDg vc!.cl shoer I whitc light ovcr . ttd lifht, visiblc dl

round@
*-

sElilauiiiiFocr.
Ardtstl

6().A rt *l of lmm ot do& i! |l !tr horr_!4!LIg!9 jEllglgl


Tro .nchor light toglthcr wit[ dl rvdhblc worlint liShtt ro
iluoi!.t
h.. d.ctr (Rulc 3o,)
,l,,r,,&rn tt

TIIE SAPETY OF NAVICATION

6l-@
Thc Itrt rDrtional Rc8ulatiofi for P&wnting Colliiions rt Sc. l9?2
(Rub 28).ugt6tr lhc followitrg rigDab.In lon port! thcy m.y bc
oooFdlory.
By day: A bLck cylird.r *t rc it cr! bcst bc !.r4 m.asudng
G6 E itr dLoct r sd I.2 m high.
By night: Thrcc rcd lights shownwhcrcthcy ca! bastba saan.Thc
lights should bc quidktsndy speccd,2 m apart rnd visiblc all
routrdtbc horizonfor a distucc of at Llst tbtra Dil6.
Thc signolahrvc elr.rdy bccnadoptcdin mrny ports and may, in
somcrtEss,bc applicablcto vcssclsovcr a ccrtlia dcadwiSlt !onne8r,
or ovcr s ccnain lcnglh, or ovcr a rteio draught.Thc siSnalsdo not
absolvcth. vcssclsshoninSthcmf.om complyinSwith th. RcSuhtioos
for Prcvcntionof Collisionat Sc., but if thcy are in any doubt as to
*hcthcr enothcr vcssclis giving tham lumcicnt scaroom,thcy may
giv. lc!!t frc lhort ttrd rapid bLsts uodcr Rulc 34. Oth.r vdscls,
oot shou,ingsuchsigmls, shouldcndarvourto lccp claar and mry
indicate tbeir inlentions by making the manocuwingsignab prcscribdin Rule 34.
Amendmcnl

62 Wh.l

ttt
bc itrdic.trd rt raashan two dl-routrdwhitc
cxoccd! tbc
r horizoot l

vlrtbal
(i) A v.!.cl rt .ncbor of aiy lcnftb.
(ii) Atr drrdt rt uchor of any lctrgth.
Gn)A porc.itiv.n 1!3!.1of my lcogth,hull dolv!, i.c. with tid.'
lithb not visiblc.
(iv) A! dlrrrlt c&ict st sdcho..(Sc. Qur.tio! 27.)
Arrs&na

s1

TIIE SAFBTY OF NAYIOATION


61 Wt t d|!.l i. di4LFd by . li!ht-r'..d rnicb N oot oa po.idon? (M).
-fr
ctrnacrirdg lilbt i. lor .tor,!, |!y d.yi|tL i. |tnElq rld rlE
fot d|!.l ir lot 6.da By dry, !b..bowt . htt tl&l b.ll .t..rh aod
of th. v6.cl .sd rl o thc rwo-tu9 c.d! goup 'Lo'. By Dight,.h. will
dbDlrt I rld lilht, vi.ittL dl rculd rh. loriroo, .t ...h .o4 to!.o.r
vitb I rld !|!. |nd . *Nto i|!c, .td! .DidrLiF riDult Fu.ly
Gvrit 15Di!u!.a If th. u.o of !.r!. i! tor Doittc, rcd ud elit! lbit
Dry b. dirpbyrd for .bout. nilui. .t . tiri."
,0l,ar6nanl

rhotn?
6{ If th.lilht oo I l8ht-v..sl L out ofordrr, *b.l.it!.1L
(M).
Only h.t ddilg litht, which is cxhitirrd about 2 m rboyc tba rdl,
5fr
oo th. foN.t y.
lta&a

*tth ootloo?
65. Al rh.t ,pod ro,rld yoo -"iti.
At | .paadcodd.o|uttr. *il! ria.tr|r ray, or crro doppad.
,lnwtutt

66. whrr rflidoor rpDly io pilot lrdddt? (3.R.)


Th.y iu.t t c.D.U. of bcirf r!.d dtt . i.b; tb', u! dly to tc
lrad fd pflota'aaaaa.lbt |'a lo brrt ri.b it!.dr of adaqtac daDth;
a mslroF cachsidcof thc ||ddar 20mmh di|trEt6; to ba of rdcquata
lcrgth md strEnsrhiDd to bav! anti-twfutcrtfttcd to thalt.
zbrratargtt

67. whrt fu thc nEanint of thc Intcrnrtiond Codcgroup'zw?


'I rcquircthc Port Mcdic.l O6ccr',
At r,'drart

58

TTIB SAFBTY OF NAVIOATION


trt rho
roub
6t. Wi.r
drt
dtc ft c.rria6 urd6

.r
a? (N.M.)
-Adopt
aadynaarrtla to tc.p out of tf,a*ry,
lltiabet

d,. How frt do .o@ fuhitr! lErtr .6t nd, G.&drilt !.tt |Dd s.i!.
d?
-En (M), (N.M)
*rr craod u9 to 2 uib. froE th. .t.IL s.i!! !.tr Dry oova
I q!|ara Dilc"
Itdutl

?0.@
stop .!sir6 |!d proocd .cioc! th. Et witi .ll tpccd.ThGpropclks. Eun h. *otp.d .wolvirg.
llt talbrratrt

71.wor d you .!.Lor DG.rtuhd|titc c.t r.? (N.M.)


No; if, ho*w.r, I did tfi. by rccidctri,lnd fouhd tuch . c.tb on
ny a!o[or, I would ns,tnrcut tba crblc, wbic.hDly bc catrting hi&
volt{r. Th! .lcnor thould bc .lip9.d if rboc.blc c.Dtrotbc cl..rcd i!
tb lo(nd wry. I would rlpon lo tho ahorcAuthoritict.
'lmadrsr,

z@
d oih.6 .o..t@y? N,M.)
-Ti-nun
bc o*rt rt rce only rhrn ioparatirc I! btbour ot rt ttrctor
it .LooH Evri b. u.cd axccpfi! tba i rrc.tt of rafc navtlidoo ald
116.0!.oitt!d to do .o by tDcN.vd Athotiti..
Atffic{

THE SAFETY OF NAVIOATION


7!. Whrt FErution nt|rt yoo t*c tllllditf li8ht-E ..b? (M).
Al*ayr giv! thar! a }try wi& bdtb. Ncs 'hoDc' o! thrit ndio
nay ocourcittd gitb
dirrctioo-fuding tranlDilaiorlli Mollisiot!
ttGd or rvitl othcl rhipcdoingthr ,sDc tbiDSl
tbrratdrrsrl

74. What ale sand*av6 and seiclt6?


tot "tit ott ttreseabedin the form ofeavs.
sooat-rratGffint
Thevoaqr in dnllow srswhcrcthe watcrmortcmenlis rElatirtyfast,
tlrc i{aveslyingat right allglcato lhe dirctionof f,ow. ln thc North Sca
wawlengdrsof m metes havc benfouod rvith heighb, ne$urd
tom cllst ro tro{8h, of up to 13mtres.A seidr is an occillationin
water leval u$ally causedby abruptchangesof wind or pra$fe. A
featurof ha$ools ard bsys,it maylastonly a lew minuts.
funardrrart

?5. How mrtrv ilrmctic

coottr3!6 llu3t tta carricd on borrd ship?

(s.R.)

At lc$t two .rc 'rcommctrdcdfoa Cl|gr 7 3bipr.Cta!! I thiF nutt


aarry st lcaslthEc.
lncnhett

76. Wlat ar! thc mal'ringsofthc lDtctlationsl Codcgtoupa'QQ'


and

qQhdicatcs 'I rcquir. hcalthclcardc.'. 'Zlt indicrtB 'I bcli.E


I havcb.cn in .n id.6Ld arc. duritg thc hlt thitty d4yt"
Arrodmor,

77.!Oe!!-e!-EBI&0.?(M)

It is an EmcrgcncyPosition Indicating Radio Beaconand is a


u!ful aid to Search and Resclresrvices.It transmils on aeto

3m

TIIB SAFETY OF NAVIGATION


frequnciessuchas243and 121.5MHz and hasan effectiverangeof
up to lm miles.
Itnaheia

7t. ly!{ j!..f_!!t L bugd

A rld 6n-buoy noorld dorc to .light-vBld. It h.r ttc tramc ofthc


lightahip pqintcd otr it i! rvhitc lcttcrr, IB purpola i! to providc i hrrk
io thst thc lightrhip c.tr chcck it po6itioD,
At @,drr4,.rl

79. Under what cirqrmstancesmay tbe w/T auto-alarmsignal bc


(N.M.)
activated?
(i) to warn that an S.O.S.messageis aboutto be transmitted.
(ii) To wam that an urgentc1clone*aming is to be transmitted
from r coastradio station.
(iii) When a personhas fallen overboard,to summonmore help
than csn be obtainedthrough at| urSencymcssagp.

E0, A buoy light is sight d in thc lrish S.a. lt is whtc, quict-iashin8


with.inc fashcs in e cyclc. What rction should bc tekcn ?
Psss to thc *st of thrs buoy. Ninc flashcs(i.c. nina o'clock) indicat6 that it is a wcst quadrant buoy,
tlt a&',at

81. An isophascrcd buoy light is sightcdin thc Englbh clrrnncl.


what
action shouldbc takcn?
-It
i. " pon una utt"l ll".r to bc lcft to port vhcr followinSthc
convcntionrldiEction of buoyaSp,
At &iart

n1

THE SAFBTY OF NAVIOATION


E2.Whrr i! r .choorcr?
wbicbansyhavr from rwo b lix nast!, and ahaeitt
Thi5-isa vaasGl
bc forGaod-afliiggad on all rrast3.A toparil 6chooncr,hoc,w!f, will
hwc ha. forr topmalt rigFd with qurtr .aiL.
El. A buoy light is siShtadin thc North Sc., group f.sbitrg two,
whitc.
-T"* What actiotrshouldbc tatcn?
"iffi;rT;ll"
.*Ii"g-."
i*latcd &Dgcr.
Amandtiat

84. Dirtitrguishbctwrana lctch rtrd a yawl.


Thcscarc smdl sailitrgcrr& clch h^ving a maitr3lil rnd r Dizzco
,eil, with or withoutjih6eib"Thc mizrm .ail of rhc lctch ir oltctr lhc
Lrtar of thc two mizctrs, ltrd thc mizzco-Dalti! licppGdforead of
tha ritddcr po3l Thc nizzcn-maltof thc yrwl i! ttcppcdnuah fanhar
sll .nd thc !.il projcctsov.r thc rtc.tr
81@
(N.M.)
Thcsciaft may b. fourd oFr.ti.g rnywicrc o! thc Utitcd Kinfi
doE codit!, whcrr thcy will rhow r quict-felhing .eb.r light yirit L
all roundthc horizonfor e distrnccofsl lcrst 5 mibr, bctwc.nrurat
and suarilc. I! poor colditio!! th. litht bry bc .rhibitcd ia drytinc
also.
At pr.lcnt th6c crafl catrprocc.dcithcrfuuy wrtcrbomc'or partially
airbor& but with thcir kcck or sidc*ells rcmai ng iD thc wttcr, ot
fully rirboma . fcw cm ebovcwd.r lcvcl.
In tha frst lvo caaaathcy will bch.v. rimilrrly to shalloe.dreudt
vcalcls,but in tbc lest cascthcy rr ceprblc of s@3 in cxc.ssof 80
ktrotsol&r both htrd rnd s.3, .nd arc surc.ptiblcto whd drift. Tbcy
cango :rst m, and canstopcrtnmcly quicklyby sinply sli8htitr8upo!
thc waica.
In gln ral, thcy *ill tc.p clcrr ofsll v.sschand.void inp.dilg thrir
navigation.Id circumstancdwhcrcrisl of collisiotrarist! tbcy lhdl to
at a mod.ratc spc.d and bchavcas thouShthcy wrr! powrdrivan
vcsscls,Bc.auscof thcir nois. lvcl,thcy mey not adii soundsignd.,
ncithcrmiy lhcy hcerthoscwhichrrc cmittcdby othcr vdscb.
Anodrrcrrl

372

CHA'TER XV
LIFTING

GEAR

GENERAT
cotrrporcolof r lifti4 rpparatu.rher al ullioetc ltrEss&t
I-vRy
which
it wil fncturc ttrd r trfo atrlar .t whichit cso lorEslly bc
l-{
fJulcd. Thi! httcr i! csucdrb 4. workhg lMd (S.W.L.).Bvcry
compoocntbasthi! S.W.L.ltrmFd or p6int d upotritjn thc cascof
wirl or cltritr it ir cithcr ,t dD.d od r dunblc tlblct attlchcd ro rhc
ma&daloaabc. noticci3 portcdin a coarpiilour ptaccin thc worling
viidity wbcrcqDploy.!canrdd to thc safcworlitrg lo6drof all rop.s,
wlls, addchsiD!in ura.
Th. ntio of ultiDatcrkl's to rrfc workhg loedis c.ll.d thalaclor of
rattl, !trd i! u!u![y bctc,EGD
four etrdcighL For crmplq in thc cila
ofwirr rcpc it i! fivc, for 6h|lr roF it ir six,.nd r8rin fvc fof ch!in!.
Wtcd arscDbliDgr liftitrg rpparrtu, cvcryprn ir vitsl atrdmu3tbc
adaqurtclystro!8; r r|lat prn Dry caular dii$tcr, rod rD ov6-6troDg
prrt rdd, unnc.rarrywciSht
M6o.t8!ir fur.{.d oncirly to frd it! ultio.tc rtr*r, ^nd rba Wv.d
st r lic.alcd ProviogHourato a lord whic.hwill Dotproduccwral&ss
or injury to thc Fn.
Gar rhouldbc paovldat rcAuLriitl alr rftcl baiDgput into ilitid
u!c, to tcrl for itrrtrSth dclarioritiotr-AJbr coDtinuouiulc tbc mctd
mly b.comc brittlc sod fracturE.Thir fu cxpcdiLd by ill-u,c. Bcforc
ttfu stetaofrfrain.xirt!, Oc Dctal rhould bc arrrar.4 i.c. hcetadto t
llmpcratuc dc!.oding upon thc 'rct l, ray 600c-650cq lrd thcu
allowld to cool Ery slovly. Thb paocass
rlrtrovcsthc britdcr6a atrd
rcatorrsttr odgin l Itain to thcdctal, Mrtry Dctsl objcct wh!! loodcd
to bcyondtrlf thcir ultiBatc atrldgthluficr r Frmrrctrt r., or diltor.
lior. h thir cr!. tha rlartic ,trtl t r baancrcaadcd.kt.t r! thc load
h in(rr,d tb i.A polr, vill bc rcachrd,snd at tbt! .t^gac@|4,ttlctlon
bcgiDs"
Sifc lordr lhould lot ta dccadcdcrocpt*hclr providcdfor utrdcr
ttc Dockr Rcgubtiotr!Ntrdin .a cnr.t8.ocy,ruchr! thc urc ofgroundtecldofor utrgmutrdiD!e vcsrcl.Thi! wil nrtrict luch ovc.losdiogto
iloletcd occrrio8, whichmaydo lo d!oa8.. Thr pdtibility of FrlnrDGntdfutortionshouldbc scccptcd,hortrtr.

LIFTING GEAR
BLOCKS AND PURCHASES
A purchascis said to bc t ed to dltantaS. whcn the frort or pull i3
bcing applicd in thc samc dircction as thc achicvcd movcm.nt of thc
load. For cxamplc, if a \rcighl wcrc bcing baulcd down a dcck in an atl
dircction and thc mcn on thc fall *crc also pulling in atr ajl dir.ction,
then th purchasais usedto advantagc.Also thcrc will bc mo& parls of
ropc at thc moviog block lhan at thc standinSblock.
A purchascis conv..scly usedb Abadvantagewhenthc cfort b bcing
applied ill th oppositc dirEction to lhc achi.vcd mov.mcnt of thc load,
i.c. a lorward pull to causca wcight !o movc aft. Also th.rc will bc morc
pans of ropc at thc standingblock than at the moving block.
No* imagidc i ptrichascsuspcndcdvcrtically, uscdto advaotrgc and
hohting a wcight ,t/. The pull P is thcrcforc also acting upwards, and
tho strsson thc ahacklc sccu.iog thc top or staodiog block must bc

w-P.

rhcpull P will bc octint


Ifthc purchaeis bcingusd to disadvantaSp
to
lift
thc
wcight,
and
thc
rtfts3 on lhc samctoP
in
ordcr
downwards
shackleb.comcsl/ + P.
thc stttsscsitr thc
Similarly,whcna purchasci3 uscdto disadvantagc
fall whcnlowcringor hoistinga 8ivenwightwill bc 8rcitcr thrn whctr
Thls mustttc bomc in mind whcD
thc purchascis us.d to advAntagc.
thcS.W.L.of a purchasc.
considcdng
Wilhin thepurchas.,cachparr cf thc flll bca.sa diffcrcrt proportiotr
of th. tolal load.Whcnhoisting,thc maximumsttds is on thc haulilg
par!andthc minimumon thc standingpan. Whcnlowcring,thc rcvdsr
t3 ttuc,

Blocksarcusuallystrongcrthantheirdcsigncdfa[s, h.dccthc S.W.L


of a purchascis usuallythat of thc fall.

Er998gEJ
374

LIFTING

CEAR

wbcn a fall b undcr lord thc block! tcdd to spio ald producc tutor
in thc porchasa ODc tum caD iocEsc thc strrs! rcqurrd (to co[tinue
lifting) by four-tcnths. A lory bao&pik placd lhrough thc p.rb oftb.
fdll clolc up to thc staoding block will prcvrdt thi& provid.d thc cnds of
thc hsDdspikaa& atoppadofr st a rcrrby poitrt.
A thrrc-fold purchssccao ba prrvctrtad from trvisting by rcavirg it a!
lhown in Fig. | 5.1-h additiotr, thc haulitrg pdrt coming away frorh thc
ccnlrc thlavc prcvaoasthc block from canting.
MECH NICAI

AI'VANTAGE AND trIICTION

A purchasis a machin whercby a load or rsistancccalr bc overcom by meansof an cfort or applicd forcc.
The mcch{nical advantagcof any machinc is found from thc ratio
load
'
applicdforce

rcsistanc.
efort

The mechanical advantage of a m{chinc is normally dctcrniocd


cxpcrimcnl&llybccauscit is only in this way that thc frictional forccs
can bc fou[d.
Purcha.cs arc subjcct to trictioo, thc amount dcpcnding upon thc
|Elatirc siz.s of shcavcand fall, thc oumber of shcavcs,and whcthcr
hoisting or lowcritrB. For practical purposE3,thc total rEouot of fric.
tion within a purchascis a$umcd to bc oDctcrth (of thc lilt d wcigbt)
pcr shcaE. ID thc casr of hcavy{crrict purchasc!, lhc amoutrt of frictiod must bc kcpt to a mioimum. Thc d6ign ofthcsc blocks is auchthrt
thc frictioD is &sumcd to bc onc-t{cnticth of thc liftcd wcight pcr
shcavc.The British Standardslnstitutronadoplsa fgurc of 2-6% of
the load for cach lhcave dependingupon the block typc.
Whcn hcaving oD thc hauliDg part of a purchasc, both tbc wcidt
lilbd and thc frictiotr havc to bc ovcrcomc.
VELOCITY RATIO
when a purchasch usd to movc a weight, thc fall is hov. throuSh
a grcaterdislanccthan lh. wcight,within a givcnF iod. Thc ratio of
rhc lsrgcr dislenccto lhe smallcrdislanccis thc Vclocity Ratio.
Veloc[y of cff;rt
Vclocilv of load

Disranc.cffon moves
Dislancc losd movcs

In Figure 15.2scvcral purchasesare illustrated tog.thcr with tha common Dames.Each name is follou,ed by a numb.r. This numbcr rcp
rcsnts the vclocity ratio when using thc purchasc to advantagp. In
rhc singlcwhip therc is a velocityratio ofonc. Thc doublcwhip hesa
375

J-

0D
t)
rn |l
I
t l
t t l t l

lt I

lt lt I

iltl

()DD)
T

ooul-E

3INGLE

'HtE'

FOLD 7

J_

0L)
tI -)-\

\q{
l/ \

v \

LTFTINC OEAR
vdocity ruio of two ald tbarc ir only oE pay of uliq rhir rtip.
With thc cxcctsioDof rhar., .trd thc SFnLh Bunotn tbo vclodty
rrtio vill bc rcducd by onr eh.! thc purr,h|lcir ulad to dirrdv|ltrgc.
It c.! b. !..r from rhc di88r.o tb$ if r two-fold put!h!. ir u!.d
to rdvadtlgc to movc a witht tbrouSh I D, flt Frt! of roF will
ctch lhortco by I n, to tbtt 5 m of fdl hult bc tov! in, dviry r
vclocity r io of 5. If urcd to dbrdv.trt gp, foul Ftlt of roF Yill
.hort.l by I m, 4n of fdl wil b. how in .nd thG Elocity r.tio
bacoac',l.

EFTICIENCT
All !|aatitr6 bavard cfrciclcy, uludly crprr|.ad a, a Focatrgp'
Eftcicoct i! thc ratio ofurdul eorl doocotr thc ttitit, to ttc work
r9pli.d by thc .fron,

t*-":

Urafirl work dotrcoDwitht


Work .pplicd by .dort

x ru)%

A.n c6d.dcy of lm% wil iDdicalr that thc blclirc ir fticlionh*


b..aurc wort doD. ir oletcoEiDt fri:tiotr ir lot uadld rvoat,Fritiot
.lsryt 6istr atrd ttc .ffcicdc, i! thardolEdwayt lr ttatr lqlz.
I! r D.fftct DraJhirc,tha eort doDcoo thc load tould bc cq!|.l lo
th. rort doD by ttc .fron. Lt t bGtbc cfiort y tbc lo.4 D. &c
dirt !c. tbrouth vbi:h th. cfro.t mo |!d Dw th. dirre llroqb
whi:b thc lord rtrov.r.ItcD in a parfcaln|.him,
Work dotrcby cfion : Worl donao! load

.o thrq

ExDc:VxDw
D . W

D(- E
Y.k - M.A.

lD practicc,ticr! ir .tr axtrt r!.irl|trca to oErloma in tha fol|n of


ticlio!, thc Fitht of thc pulcl/s md thc wight of thc fdl. C.U thit
quntity n ud tgrid ulc tbc priocjplcof wort,
ro,
or,

ExDc:<W+R)xDt'
E x V.R.-(V* R)
E_(V+ R'
Y.R.

3n

LIFTINC CEAR
lf wc noe sub6titutc for X, lcn F. ccnt ot thc loed fo. lvcry shrsvc
rnd cdl lhc numbcr of shcrvcsr, w gct

":

w L
' tl y0
r-k

whcn r purchascis uscdto advantaS.Y.R.: (n + l,


Whcna purchascis uscdto disadvantag!Zn. : ,l
Thc scaman,bcforc puttitrg a purchas! into usc, may usc this
cxprassionto dctcrminctha approrimatcslrcsson thc hauling prrt
of thc fall. Thc allowrnccfor friction of l0% drs on thc safr sidc.
kt us supposcthrt *c src lifting 6 kg usinga two-fold purchasc
with a V.R. of 4. Allowing l0% for friction,
uscdto disadvantagc,
friclioD bccomcs40% of 6 kg,or 2.4yg,.
Total loadto owrcomcis 6 + 2 4 : t.4 kg.
8ra
: Z t rg.
Theapplicdcfort is thu.
ln this cesawc na.d 2.1kg to lift 6 kg and thc M.chanicalAdva{teg.
is thcrlfor roughly3.
Sulrloaattc lord rcw rnov6 throughI m.
Uscfulvort doncon load is 6 k8 m.
Thc cfrort,of2.l tg, will havcto movcthrough4 nrctrcswith r valocity
ratio of 4.
so thcworkdoncby thcctrortis2.1 x 4: t.4 kgm.
6

- 71.4%,
x lm%
8?
This machinc is thcrcforc only rbout lcvcn-tcnths cficicnt owisg to
thc frct lhal somc of our cfiort is uscd in ovcrcomiDg tbc 2.,, kg of
fricrion. This is not uscful work.
It should b. notcd also that
So thc cfrcicncyis

";ffii;;:- advantre x rmz.


: McchaDic{l
EncicocY
PNACIICAL POINIS
Thc s.amen oftctr rcf.rs to r d.rrick or block s3 bciDg a'ttoDna
block'or a fvc-tono. dcrrick'. By this bc Dc.'3 that thc dcnick or blocl
ton his a S,W.L. of 5 lonncs and is not lo bc us.d for lining *,cighls
tons Srralcr tban 5 tonncs.
ron

318

LIFTING CEAR
A 3indc{h.ayc block i! provld to e proof losd of fout timcr iL
S.W.L.Tbis S.w'L. mustbc stampcdon it, togctbcrwith thc ntkcr's
namcor uadc m'rk. aad thc oumb.r of thc block' If tha S.W.L ir 5
tonDcsand rhc blockh usdto lift r wciShtof 5 tonfts thct tha strass
on thc lop cycof thc blockwill slightlycxcccd| 0 tonDcs.Thc dcsignof
of l0
thc cF in thi! blockwill b. suchthat it hasa S.W.L.in cxccss
tonncs.A lGtonnc shacklcwould b usadfor s.curingttic bloct.
blockmly bc ulcd to
Uod.r thc DocksRcgulationsa single-shcavc
lift trirc it! mrmal S.W.L.providcdth. wciglt is attrchcddircctly ro
tl. broc*and is not attachcdlo a ropc pa3sitrgaroundthc ahcavc,i.c.
rbc wright is a$achcdto rhc cyr of tbc block. For clartplg if a 8uD
lackb ia uscdto lift 5lonncs,th.n thc lop blocks,ill bc t ttonnc aonton3
block. but thc lowcr onc will bc a 2|tonnc block and thc wcightwill ton
bc cithcr arbchcdto thc cyc of thc lowcr block or clscaltachcdto a
hookwhichis intcgralwith thc block.
block will havcaa cyc dciSncd to wilhst trd it!
A multiplc-shcavc
S.W.L. togrtlrcr with thc maxidum str6s lisblc to bc lpplicd to tha
hauliry prrt. A lttornc putchascusingmultiPlcblock eill hevct\ro
IttontrG S.W.L.bloch.
G.ocratly lpcrking, thc sizaof wirr ropc to bc ulad with a cargoliftiDg block h|a a dhDctrr shich is onc-filbctrth of thc lhcrvc di.'
nctcr. i.c. with a 30cm sh.{vc a 20mm wirc ropc will bc usad.Fo. l2-in0.&itr
dcrricb of morcthan 15ionncsS.w.L. thc siz. of wirc roF shouldbc
on.-cightccDth
of thc ahcavcdiamctcrin ordcr to prolongropc lifc.
C|!. of Dhds (Va.iousrypcsstE ilustrstd in Plets 5 rDd 6)
Frcqu@ttychcckthc swivclhcadfor frcc movcmadtby hatrd.Gta!6
itr !b!ok aod baaing. Erarnincthc .i& platcafor diltordo! or buck_
ling: if th.y arr buctlcd aad thc aunncrjam! hctwatrrha plrtd !trd
lhould tuln fFcly ehcn rotatcd
thc alrcovc,liwr mry bc lost, Shaevcs
Thc Stoovdmult bc
ty hatrd;cxlDitrc thcD for c,ricl! aodbush-waar.
frcquaotlychdkcd for *.r, whichwill quichy rub s Dcwwir! ntnlcr.
C"hackthrt .rlc pitrs r'c a.cuE rtrd camot work rdtift. C.rrry oul
Erular strd adcquatclubricatiotr,It it bcttcr to oil thc block turfrc6
niha tban ro urc peint"wbich may clog oil holct, oblitcrat mrrk,
strd hidc ddcct!. Chackwoodcnblocksfor dacsyNndsplittinS.Blocki
rhould ncltt bc thrownon to ttc d.ck.
wdtfuofhs
complctcwith shlcuca,wEiSh!approrinatcly
A fuly rorc purchaaa
.! folloes:
I tonrc: thrcc-foldwith 25+m shcavcsor a gutrtacklcwith 42{rn ron tci6 l7.in
shcavca,
379

ton l2-in l&in


ton lcin
toi! l&in

rooton
totrton
ton ron
ton
ron
ton

LTFTINGGEAR
l tonrc: four-fold with 3o.fi shar,.! or a doublclufi with {tcm
thaaws.
I tonnc:fivc-foldwith 4O4m!h.3vcs.
l* tonnc:six-foldwith 45c1nsicars.
Gqr
A guy prrEh|lc includinSshlcklc! r'rd Fmrit!, rhould havc r
S.W.L.!! followi:
A 3-tonncS.W.L. Dcnicl shouldbavc2-tonncS.W.L.guys.
A ttonnc S.W.L.Dcrricl shouldbavc3-!onncS.W.L.guys.
A lGlttootrc S.w.L D.rfick lhould havc+totrtrcS,W.L guyr,
A l6tonDcaodovcrS.w.L. Datricklhould hovcgrryawith S.WL'a
qt,l ro 25% of thc drrick'. s.w.L., ..& a 60-tonncS.w.L.
dcrrickshouldhevcl5-tonncguys.
C.rGof to?..
Erarhiocdl roF rctularly ald frcquc lyforchrfc, cutti!9, itrt md
wcar,dctadoraliotrof ib&t, drFast (in a wit! roF), rnd opcoiry of
tfu.lly or lorE-FvW. ltll rhc.E groov.amult baftla fron rou8hoaa!
ud not dccFtrcdby $lar. Thc groov.r lhould ba at lcilt a! !rid! ar
ttc dirmctrr of tbc.opc,
Thc dirDctrt of sbcrvlr rhould bc st lcrlt iva to lir ti[rar thc dr&
rrrr.r offib.r rcpc.. Ropcs,rbcthc. ofibrr or wirG,rhouldnot baulad
for puuitrg!t ana4L to thc dirrclion oflood lift to thrt thcrop.ac.hfa
on thc blocklidcpLtlr, Kacpnbl! roF in ot! awly fron daDpor
b..L Hrtrg thcD up if pordbla Brcoungc goodvcatilrtior!, RoFrct
oft.o comEaoc.3iatcmdly md i! difiodt to &tccl Dry aly 9!t topaa
nsturrlly ad not with artifcial hcat,If roF dntrot bc huu up, rtow
thtrlon grrti!8!. If thcy .lr to lir itr ttorc for loD! Friod. Dskc aur.
thcrr ua ro rat! prraaol ailca lhcy wiu uta tlc iopc ibrc. for t[cir
!61a. Wirc rop.3 mult bc cond.onld if rha btal vilitb rumbcr of
brokcnwirc. (i! etryhsgtl ofcight di.mclcrs)cro.c& l0% ofthc totil
!uob6 of wia6.
Thrahlt coEoaot providcaa goodopportudly to dieurs thorcplrL
ot tb Dock n gulstkxn(1934)ebich rds& to liftiDg gp|r srd componcrrs.
AE|IC of Wro|rb Ilo tril(l Htr B.cr. &fttl!
Thi! ba! altedy baanrdanrd io in a Fwiout rcctiotr.Sof.r .! tbc
Rctulrtiotr! !r! comcmcd,th. h.$irg abouldb. doncwidin e futu ca
!!d trot in a bhckmith'! frc, whichmsy caur. utrava baatinS.Tha
LrnFtltur! of rtrmdirg (650' C) rhould bc nailtiird
for 30-61,
Ditrutcr.
380

LIFTING GEAR
Ch!h!, ri!!!, hootr, !h!c.H3,rld swiEb ,t 8aaa, rda rrr to bc
rrlaLd Et L$t oDcccvcrysir monthsif of 12mm and uadcritr sizc. |in
Tha Friod i! twElE Dotrth3for lsrgcr gcar. Both Fiodr may bc
doubLdfor glrt wbichir uscdlolcly otrbaod-opcratrd
liftiq nlf.hirc$
(A rrcoEDcDdcdprrcticcb to halvcsUthc pcriodrid thc ca5cof g.er
vhich i! h.itrg subj.ctd to lcvcrcttlatEctrt)
T[c obovrrrquircmc r arcsubi*1to t[c followitrgcxcdptio!3:
Cbrirr, riqr, hook,.backlcs, rtrd lwivcb midc ofrtcd.
Pttchcdchaiu (i.o. chaiu ur.d otr gt|r whccb),
Ri!8!, hoolt .hrol'lc!, rd lrviv.b which a$ p.lnar&n0y attichd to pilchd chaiB, pulcy block* or wcighilg dcvi(E.
Scr.w-thrcadrdprrtr or Bpccielyhrrdao.d garr luch rr bal bcrritr8r.
Bordc{uxcollaclion! (a dcviccrcs.Eblingr frtt ocd thinblc ulcd
for joini!8 chaioto srirr. Thc wfuri! lplicld rouDdthc groovcwhilc
rbc .t.i! pa$.6 throughrh. rhinbL c.arra).
Th..c itco! of g.er lrl cxcmptd froE rtrmrlint otr thc oonditiotr
lblt tt t |t. lholou8l y cflmincd rt l65t oocaI y6r.
Lrar .d Edddt
Wtc! tr.t gcrl ha! bcanlubjcct d to it! ,pGci0ad
Foof lo6d it bult
bc lhoroughlycr|Diftd bcforcbcingput itto u!c. Tbi , shicb nust bo
doDcby e codpctcDtFnotr, will crrblc dctrctiodof dcfcct whichhavc
bccobrouSlt ro light by thc proof load. Pulcy blockr rhould bc direr bd durilr thir .xaEinrtiotr
Blocb, chsilr (oth.r ttrn thorc pcrE!trcodysttlchcd to I dcrrict),
ri!8t, hoot!, rbrc.H6,addswivrbrhouldbc tcatcdbcforcputtitrgthcD
itrto ulc atrda&oanlr rtry &pdir. ltay rhaurllo bccxldinad Grct tiEc
bcfo!,cu.4 uDl6r thi! br! dEady bccr dorc vithin theptlcding thi!.
Eooth!.

Wit! roF ir to bc taltad by bra{tiDg r BrDplc-tlis ultimltc sttr.


mult rlich t rcquild daldrtd. tt hult bc cxlminadrt lcalt odc. cvrry
thrl. mo hr, but ar?r, monfhif ary ei& br' brokca.Wirc roF i! to
b. dcd.rld unit ifio .!y lcnglhofciSl di.dct r3thc totrl numbcrof
yiribL brokanei!. aroaad!l0% of tha nuEbcr of s,itrs itr thc roF
(E 9., co$idcr wirE ropc *ith r dirm.tcr of 24mm. Supposcit b a
rix-.trudcd roF with 24 wir6 in cech straod. Thc lotsl numbcr
of wircr is lhus l/|/|, Hcrcc if in rtry lcnglh of.oughly 19c'rnthc tot l
Noh.r of vilibL brokcosir.a .i.ad! 14.lhcn thc eir! b condcdld
lDfrt) lba wirl ir abo daclltd uDit for urGif thGcorrorion,w!ar, otc.,
iacooridadad
aicaiv! by tt FsoD inrFctitrg

LIFTINC GEAR

lodt

Pr@f Ladt
Chtins, ri[gs, hooks,shacklcs,swivclserEprovcdto twictha S.W.L
pullcyblocksrrc provrd to four timasthc S.WL
SirSlc-shcavc
Mulaiplcblocts up ro 20tonncsS.W.L.arcprovcdlo twicr thc S.W.L.
Multiplcblocks2l-40 tonncsS.W.L.ar. provcdto lhc S.W.L.plus
20tonocs.
Multiplc blocksovcr ilo tonncsS.W.L.&rcprovd to onc and a ha.lf
timcsthc S.W.L.
Pitchrdchain!,thcir blocls rnd dl Frm&rcndy sttachcdgcaroFrrtad
by handsrc provld to otrasld a halftimcsthc S.w.L
Drm?&r and all parmalcntattachmart!&latirg to Oa dcraicksuch
as rnalt lugs and dack cycbolb a& fo bc insFctld cvcry yarr ard
thoroughlyaxamincdat lcastotrcccvrry four yaa$.
All oth.r lifting mdchilary (c.rnas,witrchcs,and hoilts) i3 lo ba
thorouShlycxamiDd
st lclrt cvcry)rI.
A thoroughcxamiDation
is doncvisually,aad mayincludchammcr!.sti[g and dismending.Dctricl(!, winchcs,and 6ancs---complctdy
rigScdfor u3c---arctcsrrd bcforcinitial ulc snd rbo aftcr rcpoir.0t i!
thc practiccaoorg somcowrcn to tlst abo at r.gular iBtcrvab,c.8.
cvcryfour )cars.Uddcrttc Rcgulatio$,ifa dcrrickDcvcftrc.dsrrDait
otrly or!. ilitial tcstis rlquircd io ils lifa)

Proofltads
tor! S.W.L.up to 20 tonncs-gEaris prowd to the S.W.L.plus 25%.
tonstonr S.W.L.20 to 50tonncs-glar is provcdto lhc S.W.l. plus 5 to[nca.
roru s.w.L. ovc.50tonn.r-g.ar is provldto thas.w.L. plusI0%.
Thc lo6dis applicdcithcrby hoisrinSmovablcw!i8ht3,or by usioga
hydnulic or rpring bdlellca ThGrtr8lc wbich thc dcrrick makcswith
thc horizontsldudtrg thc tcrt i! to b. shr.d in thc t6t ccrtifcet . If
Eovablcrvcightsrt! u!.d thcdartict ir lwug ar far a! podsiblcin both
dillclions wbilc usdc. load. If thc brlstrcci! ulcd tha Pull rhould bc
Erdc rt rhc liEdtr of dcnick swin&(Thi. n thod hrr lh. di!.deutegc
iD that thc dEicki. trot $,?a|8undcrload atrdthrt thc Da!t, ri$i!t,
|trd othcrg.ar ir Dott6tcd uDdcrworkingcDrditionr.)
Bcforclhc t6t, all block! rnd !hscll6, ctc., r't tdtld at lrrd dowtr
pEvioudy,elrd rhc dcirict i! rhcnfuly riSgrd.It wi[ uualy bc tca&d
whilc et it! low$t worliog po6itio!---aay45 &grcG3ro thc horizantal.
Atlrl t6t, . ftral GxaDi.stioDofdl thc gcst b madcald Lat ccttifcatetrr! bsuadfor all conporantr s! rcquiFd undcrth. RcgulatioD&
wlcn tcring h.ivy darricl. thc proof load k 8rat, ad thc brl.nca
elhorcto r st ongpoint!o e! to avoiddcckdartralp,
,hodd b. enchorEd
A 3uitablcmovingwcightwould bc a losdcdbatgq u.hg a tlst clock
342

LIFTING GEAN.
.t|!chd to tbc lorEr purc.brscbloclcfo ildiaalc t[6 lo6d.Grc.t attctrtior shouldbaplid to .xsditriog thc gooc.nccl.ftcr t.st.
Soaairla* i! tha calc of hydl.ulic c tr.., tlc evaihblc prcaaurr
riill not coF *ith ttc .pccifad Foof lo6d. Itr thi! caaathc e'rieuE
pdsiblc lord wil ru6oc.
Iitr. Jqpat rcquitr !o t rt o.rti6cstc.lX.y rhould Dot,howwr, bc
urcdurlc'! th.ry!r! ofsuitablcqurli9 tud frrc froB dcfcct.
WtreSpllc.teE to b'-acit Lalt thrla tuclc \rith wholcatrrtrdsfollowrd by two tuc.lswith brlEd .trrd!.
N.dc. of S.WI
A[ milt t cfb, itrcludi!8 dcrrict!, murt havcit! S.W.L FrDtncndy atrd clc.tly Darkcd upon iL In tho ca6cof chainr it ir aithai
daepcd upotra Ectd tlb sttrchd to lha ctaitr or cbc it b ltaDDG4
Do.! urually, oD thc litrk, For rvir6, cirtc. r mctel rrb ir uld a!
bcforEor cb. e roticc ir co$picroudy portrd Bhowitrgaiz6 of wir!
.ad thcir S.W.L.,
Erc..rd!8 S.WJNo g.ar i! to bc loadcdbcyondit! S.W.L cxccpta o.r!c, ehich crtr
bc ovcrloadcd!! rpprorcd by thc Frso! itr chargc,It is doncoDlyin
qc.ptiotrd c.r.q ad a Ecotd of thc ovldord nust bc tcpt. Thc pcrDilsioDof t[c oerct rtrustfrrt bc obtaitd in eriting. (with rrgrrd to
this, &mainb.t tlat if r sitr8lcahcrE pulcy block br3 thc wighf
dirccdyrttachd lo lhc block instcadofto . roF possingsroundthc
,haavcthc actuallood upoothr blockihrll bc c!tr5idcrcdas oDchrlf of
thc actud lo.dJ
Ib n gb.r
Ccrtifcat a of l!.t, anncdi!& atrdall nports of iDrpcdtiona
ad cxemi[stiotrsrrr to bc cntcrdin rhc Ragistcrbcforrthc g.ar codccmcdis
put inlo u!4. Tho RcSirtcris to bc kcpt on rhc vcslcl,
It is a buff-colourcdbook called 'Form 99', mcasuring3l cm x 12+in
l6cm end i6 cntitlcdon thc fro cover'Rcgistcrof Mechincry, 6i in
Chain!,atc.,aodWirEroF . EtrbfiEdotr ric fro corai i5 thc vasscl's
Dadg Pon of rcgiltry, .nd thc owrcr'slamc and addtlss"Thc book ir
oftlr c{U.d ,idply thc 'Chrin Rcgistcf.
Thc i!!ib frolt covrr and paga I coDtrh iBtructioo! Egridin!
cxamiutioB rtrd lDmalirg,
Pdrt l. PrgFs2,4 6,rtl for catrid conccmingfoulytsrly dsminatiorB.
PrSs 3, 5, ?, i.r for cotri.s conccmiatrnnual inrpccrioru.
Par, 2, Plgrs E-13rrc for cDtri.Bco$.miDg unual thoroughcr6minatiolr of crrrnaqwidchcs,atrdhoilt! and.cc6sory gaaa,othcr
tba! darricta
383

LTFTING GEAN
Prrr 3. PISp3l4-l 7 rrr for lntdaa conccmitglhc rDdurl thoroud cxaminationofgcar cramptadfrom adocalin&
Prrt 4. FagpslE-23 ..c for cBtriasconccmiDgthc .noaa.lDgof 8.er.
Pagc24coDtainssomcr.comncndcdminimumfrctoB ofaafaty
trrmcly:
lons
Mctalpartsof liftingmachin.ty:5 for S.W.L.l0 tonncso.
tofi
lcss;4 for S,W.L.ovcr l0 tonncs.
woodcn llructurcs: E.
Chains:41.
wirc ropc: 5.
Fibrc rop.: 7.
Tcst cartiicatcs, ctc., arl attachcdto thc Rcgis&r by mcint of
Surnmcddipa ptovidcdwithin thc ioiidc back covcr.Thc Rcgi.tcr i3
d.sigDadfot cightycaB'scrvicc.Whctra ftw oncis put into ulc thc old
oacrhouldbc pr6crvcd for at L{st fout y.ar!,
Thc followingarc arbilrarycxpr.ssions
for findingth. brcaking
strcsscs
of:
Fibt. Ropc
.lDr
2rr'
4Dt -- sDl
Tcrllcnc
Nylon
Msnrla
Polypropylcnc
ffi
ffi
;
t;
(whcrcD is (hcdiamctcrir mm endthc rcsultis in tonncs).

Grade:Stud

1n D!

fr

(ubcrc D is rhc diamctcrof tha bar forminSthc link in mm and lha


st.cs! ia in bnncs).
Wirc RoDe
I t,)2

(a) 6 sttrads.12wirsFr slrandjF

t].}2

(b) 6 strands,
24wircspcrstrand
fr

(c) O Strand!, J / wltts PCl $rano


E-

(whcrcD is thc dia.nctcrin mm and thc rcsuttis in tonncs).


lo thc forcgoingcxpr.ssionstha ftsuh is rpproximstcand u8ually
cns on th saacsid.. In arrivingrt thc safcworkingload,thc b.6kin8
384

LIFTING GEAR
strcsscsarc dividcd by 5 or 6, thc safcty factor. Thc rcsults ar. e $cful
guidc in thc abs.nccof morc prccis. informalion.Thc semcapplics
Thc
o thc figurc of l0% choscnfor frictional etrcl in Purchascs.
figurc applics morc to fibre ropc then wirc ropc. whcn cmPloyitrg
*irc or synthctic topc, s figu.c of 5 % is morc rcalislic.
ln thc pas!, a sd.ly factor of rbout 2 5 hrs oftcn bccn sugigpstad
for usc \rith ropcs which arc uscd only occasionally. A wisc seaman
will rcjcct this notion. Apprccialing holl/ rapidly a ropc can dctcriorat.
is ircl.vant.
with misusc,thc facl that a ropa is uscdooly occasionally
with so many matcrials bing us.d for topc, with *idcly difrcring
strcsscs,it is nol surprising that onc tyF of ropc pcr ship is rccon'
mcndcd lor safcty.

PATENT DERRICK SYSTEMS


Whcn cargois handlcdusingonc dcrrick only. thc rig is known as a
swinging dcrricl. shown in Fig. 15.16 For hcavy loads, a mor
sophisticatcdrig is uscd,shown in Fig. 15 15. Thc swingingd.rrick
r.quircs four winchcsand it will bc secnfrom thc figurcsthat hcavirlg
on thc guyswill not only incrcascthc thrust al thc h.cl of lhc dcrrick
but also thc strcssin thc spanor toppinglift. For lhis rcason.guysarc
somctimcsscurldto the load its.li The amountby which thc dcrrick
can bc swungoul of the ccntrelincis limilcd, bccauscthe guy must
not mak too small an angleat thc dcrrick head.lf thc anSlcis too
ofthe swinging
small,thcnthc guy loscsconlrol.All thcscdjsadvantag.s
dcrrick ar. parlially ovcrcomcin lhc dcsiSnofthc Hallcn dcrrick.
Th. Hrll.n D.ricl (Fi8. 15.3)
Th. boom is stcppcdon a mast, Y-mtst or bipod mast, the basic
rcquircmcntbeing a good spreadol cross lrccs. Thc two guys arc
sccurcdto thc cross trcas using srvivcl-oulrig8rrswhjch arc staycd
v.rtically and horizontally.Th.s. oulriegerscannots\ringinboardpast
thc ccntrclincand lhis maintainsa good controllinganglebctwecnguy
and dc.rick. ln Fig. 15.3thc l.ft-haod outriggrr has movcd to ihc
rieht as lar as it can and lies in thc ccntrclinc Thc othcr oulriSSerhas
s;un8 outboanl,followingthe dcrrick,and thc outriggerstay-shown
dashed-is slack. Thc plan vicw showshow the controlling anglc is
obtain?d,thc derrick having bcen swungoppositcto thc dircclion in
385

LTFTINC GBAR
pcrspcctivc
thc
drawiog.Thc guys rlso doublc .s topping lifts; if
both guysarr haulcdor slackcdtog.thcr, thc dcrrick will top or lowcr.
Thrrc winch.sarc u!ad, two fo. thc guysand onc for thc tifting wirc
of purchsc, rll opc.atcdby a joystickcootrol. Limit switchcsr.c uscd
to prrvcnt ovcr-topping&ndovcr-swingilgbut thalc rray bc adjuatcd
to allow for altcr4tionin thc worling rangcrnd for vcrtic.rtatowagc.
Fig. 15.3ihows only basicprinciplcs-;n pr.clicc, thc HrllcD may
bc a halvy-lift dc..ick. Instcrd of usingtwo grtn tackl.r for thc guys
(assho*n) thc f&llsmry bc cndlcss,runningtft.oughfurthcr blockson
tha ccotldinc, which thcrcforc givcs s trsditional topping lift. This
typc is known rs tha Hallcn Univcrsaldcrick and su.rcrscdcdth
H.[.n DFralnc dcrrick *hich is also shown in plan vicw. A largc
st cl b.ackctis wcldcdto thc mastin thc ccntrclinc,rnakinga D-shapc
to an obrcrvcr facing athwarlshipc.HcrE, thc guysdo not usc outriggcrsbut lrc rttach.d to hcavy,sprungpcndantswhichbca. against
thc Dframc whcn thc dcrrick is !wun& again msintaioiDga good
controlliDganglcon thc guys.
Thc Hallcndcrrick is bcstsuibd to cargocsslrc.bas containcrs,logs,
stcclrails,sawntimbcrand hcavylifts, end is not gcncrallychoacnfor
handlingsmell, gcncralca.go. ThGdcnick can bc badc rcady in a
faw minutcsandcrnploysonly onc winchmrn,Thc guyscancdrry75%
of thc load, so thcrr is good safctyeloft. tt docstbc job of s clanc,
with lorc. capitalcxpandiau.randa highcrsrfc workingloadcomp.rcd
witt currcntshipq"ancs.lt will sying to 75dcgrt6 from thc Gritrrlina
atrdwork cfrcicndyat only | 5 dcgrccsabov. thc horizontal.
Whcr it is not dcsircdto ulc out rggr.s or Dframcs, a auitablc
syst m is thc Vcllc dcrrick.
If. VdL ILdld (Flt 13J)
Thb is showoin schctr'rticform, vith thc dcnick loerrEd to thc
horizontrl rnd thc lifting purrh|sah{ngingfrcc.Thc rcadrr is thar.forc
Iooting slongthc dcrrickboom,whichis shedcd.
A yolc is fttad acrossthc hcrd of thc booD, giving it r Thrpa.
Thc guys,which also rcf ss topping rnd low.ring units, trc s.cucd
to tbc yotc with four short, st l-*irc bang.r roF, otra of whichfor thc salc of cl.rity-is sbowndr5h.d. Thc topping/lo$rriDgcnds
of thc frlb ar! bedc f.st to hslf-b.rrcls oo onc winci, bcingwoutrd
in thc sarDcdirlclion aotftat thc wirc3rtr rud on or ofr tic rvinchat
uniform bp6d. Thc ala*in8 ctrdsarc \round od to thc hdf.barralaof
anothcr \f,inch in opporitc dircctiom, for obviou ra$otr3. A third
wiDchis urcdfor hoisting.Thc planvicwaholvshowthc yolc meintaitrs
rh. conlrolliiB anglcof thc gu$ at thc h.sd of tha boom.Thc u6cof
386

LIFTING

OBAR

dilcrgcn! carSorunncrsdrasticallyrcduccsswingand roation of lbc


lord.-Winchci arc rcmo!lycontrollcd using a joyslick duplcx con'
trollcr, all lcvars rcturning to ncutral on bcing rclcascd'

Thc Str.ld.n lhrticl. (Fig. fs.t


This hcrw{n dcnrck is firtcd to wcll ovcr 2m ships A safcworking
lord of2?5 ionn.s is not uncommon whilc a tradrlionalhcavydcnick
may takc cight hourslo rig.nd rcquircuP to six winch's, with crtra
stais on thc-masts,thc stuclckcnis rspidly broughl inlo usc' afords
casyscastowageand cmploysonly four winchcs.lt is mountcdon thc
ccntrelinc bctwcen two unstaycd Samson posts in thc sbapa of a V'
and can thcrcforc bc swunStirough thc post3 to scrvr anothcr hatch'
Onc horstingwinch and onc span winch.rc Placcdin cach post, all
four winchci bcingopcrat d by oncman,usingtwo lcvcrs-onc fot cach
oost. Bcarinrs. swivcis,shcavcaand ihc goosncckerc mainleMncc-frc'
io. up to fo-u,y."o, producin8only about 2% ftiction Thc.winchcs
hevciwo ratios,usingfull or half loads.Thc spantacucs arc indcpcn'
hcadsarc [ttcd
dcnt, lh. hoistingfall is cndlcss.R.volving suspcnsion
lo th'
tcn
minutcs
abou!
takcs
on thc Dostsan-dswinglnS-through
rnchorcd
may
bc
tacklc
rtc
cargo
trati
typc.
Ooublc-icodulumbtoct
b thc bascofthc boolh.The f6ll slill passcslhroughthc two purchasca
but bccausconc end is anchorcdthc hook spcdis doublcd Thc safc
workinc load is naturallyhalvcd Typical dimcnsionsof a 275 tonnc
2515mctrcs,diamcrn 0 97 mctrcs,diamctcrof
stu"rliin "r., lcngth
-metrcs,
posts lt mclrrs aptn (uppcr cod) and
4
l
5
;sts 3 to
i.4 mctrcsaparl (lowcr cnd). U3ingfull swl of 2?5 tonncs'e hoof,
soccdof 2 3 mclrcspcr minulc is obiaincd.with onc cnd ofthc lfting
anchorcd,ihc fSurcsbccomc13?tonocsand 4 6 mclrcsP'r
o'urchasc
(trtbl'
Ll"-"i.. Si"".yitg *i"c-h ratios.combinationsof lm bnn's
Thc
doublcuscd
(quadruplcsFcd) an bc
"o""at "ni eg io-"t
thc
inArifum Utocf typc of Stuclckcnis swungthroughby detadringof
thc
cach
sid
frc'
to
swing
blocks
lowcr
t tf", allo*ing thc
i"i..
vc
ical
A
bullrogc
until
ncsrly
topFd
is
ttrcn
slowly
Uorn. fhc icrrict
is usca fo casc tnc acrrick through thc vcrtical uotil th' span tecklcs
Lvc utcn thc wcieht on lhc olhcr sdc. Thc union tablc is rc-s.cutcd
and
-ii". th dcnick is rcadyto work thc o$cr hatch'
ts.S "t.o shou; s fork-typc Stuclck . usinSsinglc-pcndulum
by dctacbingthc cargo hook end hauling
utocis. ilis is swung-ttrrough
-unlit
boirh blocts mcct and rat in thc forl By thc
itrc tining purcttesc
iii"inii'ol"ut
, ,n" lo*cr block is abovcthc top block,ss shown-Thc
purcnasc
dcrrick is toppcd and swung through as bcforc and thc lrllrng
axtcndcd to sarvcthc othcr hatch

3a?

roPALEw

vtEts

H O rS l

OUTRIGGER

F r u i E r ! . ! H A T L E XD t i t t C K

TOPPING
WINCH

SLEW
WINCH

TOPPING
WINCH

PLAN

v tEw

HOIST

F t a u i t r a . a v E t L ! D E i i r c r (t a c H a t a t r c )

LIFTINC GEAR
RIGGING ETTEMFON.EGETX.
Io conplctccontrsstto thc forcgoingwork, thc scamani! Somctimcs
callcd upon to ihprovisc lifting gcar usingwoodcnor st d sporsto
shouldbc callcd
mak 3hc.rsor a gytr (Figs 15.6and 15.7).why it 'without
study or
cxtcrbporcgaaris a mystcry,sircc thc word mcans
prprration'. Whcnrigginglhis typc of gcar, thc toppinglift or back
guy should makc an anglc of !t lcast 45 dcStccsc,ith tbc shcc$,
Flfc.sbly bctwen 60and 90degrcs.suitablcwoodsfor sparsincludc
tak, oak, clm, asb and b6ch. Sparscan bc sttcnglhctradby ,$i4r
thcm-i.c. sccuringstout timt!.rs along thc middlarwo-thirdslcngth,
using wirc lashingsor bohs. Stropserc prcvcotcdf.om slippiDgby
using roF collarsjust bclow thc 6trops,or by fixing thumbpiec.s,
showtrins.t in Fig. 15.6.Thc cfrcclivclcngth of a sparis thc distancc
batwccnthc hccl of thc sparrnd thc crutcr, whichis whcrclb. sPars
arc lsslr.d togcthcr.Spla! tacklet prcra l thc hc.ls slippingoutwards
and shouldbc onc-thirdof thc cffcctivclngthof thc sp{rs for shc.ts,
lcngthfor . ryn. Thcy shouldba scqrrcd
but onc-halfof thc cfrcc-tivc
as low a! possiblcto ptcycntbcndin8strcsscs,
Whcrclashin8sand stropscaoss,they shouldbc wcll parcc cd with
To sprcadthc *.ight of a sprr andthc load,thc hccli3 stcppcd
c&nvas.
3-in on a shoc,madfiom tlr,o laycrsof Ttmm rquarc-tctioniimbcr ai
right englcsto cacholhcr to form a Iaminstion.Thc ahoccen cithc.
bGhollord out or clscthc hcclcan bc plsc.d on a pertianyflkd bag
of wct sand.Thc dcck rnay nc.d to bc shor.d bclow. Hccl tacklas
providc muttiiircclional suppon and kccp thc hcclsrigid. Tbcy arc
thc aplsytacklcsmsintainrigidity of thc
not rcquircdon a &/n bccauaa
hccls.

SH.t
Tbc two sparsarc laid fal, with thcir h.Glsapad and on thc sboa!,
thc h.sda bcing crocscdto tokc thr cautchlashinS.Hcd tacllcs ara
sctup, thc rpley tacllc is tightcncdandthc lashingi p$!.d asfollows.
A timbc. bitch is placcdon onc sparjurt abovatbc crutchand about
fourt..n round tums arc passcdsroundboth sperr.Sir frappioStum!
rrc thcn madcthrouShlhc crutch,3! in a scizing,and fnally d clovc
hitch is mrdc sroundthc othcr spar.Whctrthc dzttilgar" (s for*ard
guy uscdto prcvcntbackwardtopplitrO snd thc toppinglift or back
guy arc .ig8ad,thc ahccncan bc crrclcd.Whcnusing3hccrs,thc lord
shouldnot basrvungout of thc vc.ticd othcrwisctha hcchmaylift ofr
thc shocs.Fig. 15.6showsslahc shccrsusadlikc 3 dcrrick. In othcr
390

rorER c^tco arocr

.ii.#r3*"',r
ooulll-

tf|{ot -ux rYPC

tleuiE

r!.!

ITU l!ct(t t{ Datitct(!

I
I

aioE ^r.D a Loa^li


_-{tCLtctll

ttauiE ia.a

LIFTING GEAR
cucs, otr tmooth Stoundor on a dccl, thc ahccrsc5n bc riggcdwilh
vcry long fo ard and brck guys,.nd cqutlly long hccl 8uys-two to
aechhccl-lcading in opposingditccriooseloagthc linc in whichit is
dBircd to ibift thc load. Th6c era walking shcc6 atrd arc uscd!s
follorva.Thc shccrssrc tiltcd 20 drSnaatowardsthc load, *hich i3
liftcd dalr..Thc shcc6rrr thantiltcd 40dcgrcGin th. oppositcdiEctiod
rnd thc losd lsndcd. By hcavingon thc haal t cklcs thc shcc.sarc
morcd lo s Dcwposition and thc proccs3rcFala{. Thcy a.c bcing
ratbcr likr e stuclck n dctrick. If w is thc load liftcd,
swutrg-tbrougb
arc 0'6W in thc back 8uy, 0 3W in thc hccl
strc$cs
approxirnata
tscklca,0.5W in thc spl.y rnd o'tw in lh. .Par.

Tt Gyr
Ilcrr, thrrc sparsat! sct up ts e tripod, two baingcao3s.dlikc shcc$
rnd lnowo rs cLc*r. Thc third sprr, or ptlror., is lashadbcncaththc
crutch of iha chrcki. Thc only putchasasrcquircd arc thrac aplay
tactlcs and r lifting purcharc.Tba lrrhing i6 passcdas shown,usioSe
timbcrhitrh, hdfs doun fi8ui-of<i8lt tums and6 lly r clovchitch.
Thc tarhiog is mrdc not too tight, othcr*isc thc ch..ks clnDot bc
oFn.d out at Oair hccb. Oncc opancd,th. chcck rPlsy tacklc is
tightcocdsnd thc gJmcrcctcdby hcavitgon thc othei teo sPlays,usinS
r fourth Sparas a cantrallcvct.
Thc gtn is letcrellyunstablcandthc loadmusttrot tc.wung outaidc
th. brlc triaDglc.Thc 6m h primarily uld for liftitrg rtr objcct ard
rcpltcingit in thc samcpoaition,for cxamplathc intcrmcdirtashaltof
o windlrrs to cnsblcFbushing lo bc carticd out. Estimatcdatr.ssi3
roughly 0.,1W in thc spel., 0'6W in thc lpsr uscd for th. liftio8
pu.chssclcad (if t..dd) end0'3W in th. sphF.

DECX CRANES
While the ship's drrick is consideredby some io tre very
adrptable, fcxible end versatile,others say the sameapplicsto a
sbiD'scmrc whic}. while enl'ilino a grater crpitel investuEnt,dos
othci riSging (Tbis is lhe
ldve the deck entirely clear of duys-a.nd
grcat advantagtoo of the Hallen, Velle and Stuclckendrrick,
ehich ar oftcd rcferred to as dcrdck-crancs).
353

PIECE

TrcrLl

3HOE

tr6una15.7

LIFTINO OBAR
The deckcraneprovidesprotectionfrom the weatherfot the wires
end machineryand much of the srvicingcan te done inside the
pedestaland tos,er. The hydraulic 6ane offers compact rnotors,
reliability, minimum maintenaoceat|d scurityagainstoverloadiDg.
One three-pharele.rric motor will drive four separatepumF and
eachmotionof the cranewill haveits orvnpumPs'stem. If the system
Drssureshouldfail, brakesare automaticallyaPplied.Cut-outscan
be fitted fo. maximumhoist, outreachand plumbingdePth.Grooved
drumsoften have'zuLL' and 'EMPTY' sensors.
Tbe simDle3 tonneSwL de.k craneof the 1950sis now dwarfedby
the nodcrn tyF with safeworking loadsup to m bnnes or fiore,
vhich canbe Drovidedwith remotecontrol, lvelluffn8 whercbythe
load rcmainsat a setheighteventboughthe jib is topped,fitringsto
work containers,adaptationfor grab-work, al|d explosion_proofing
for uscon tankers.Deck caanesmay alsorun alongrails, eitheron or
clear of the hatchways,where they can b clamped in suitable
working positions.
fpin danr can be usedfor very largeunit loads.The two cranes
are mountedon the sameDed$tal but the two towets0r cfonehovtes
can oFrate independentiy,i.e. in Jrn8t ,rod. By locking them
bgerhfi, heaiT loadscan be handled. Teamcranesare tnountedon
sDaratelr.destals.usuallvat oppositeendsof the hatch The falls
to oncipreaddr,the craneselectricallyintercon'
cairbe cdnnccred
nectedand the systemconirolled either remotelyfrcm tbe deck or
from one cab. Again heavy loads can be handledrather like the
drrick Yo-Yo gearin Fig. 15.11.Twin cranescanbe teamedto give
evencreaterflexibilitv.
Coitrol systemsfor cranesshould b Sivenhigh priority in the
shiD'smaintenancDrocramme.
0nder existingIiocis Regulations(1934),cranesare lhe only
liftiDg devicswhich may be ovedoaded,in exccPtionalcases.(See
pagc363)PerhaF for this reasontbcy arc requiredto be thoroughly
examinedannually,comparedwith the four-yearlyexaminationfor
derricks.
DENTICT nIGS
(Fi& 15.9)
|l. Uda P!dTbir ir oc.alionaltyErlf.trrdlo rs rrwrLlt aar, allhoughits oriSilal
tillc aalt tu yant @tl ttat.In thc d!y! of trilirg .biF thr thipr wttc
rov! throughblock !.c1rtd to lhc yerdsrEandthcl!|!t atay'Thc lamc
l.rd' i! rtill usd for th. outborrd dcni:k, I! thc f8utc thc wtiD! ir!
oo!!c@d to s mioD awiEl. AlthoughDot rhow!, rhi! utrit br! thrcc
.rirdt, oE G.chfor lh. ehipc,!!d r thitd for tic hoot' Ifotrlt r twiwl395

LIFTTNO GBAR

FOR ACCUFATE PTACINC

DEC( CirXE

lu!8cd iook i! avaihbL tLc iunnd! ltr croocd tlfdth a ablc,tlcrld


lhcl rb.clhd to th. svivcl hook.
Thc rig is uscdfor light loadsof up to aboutl, tonfts, Thc ddriclr
arc rccutrd i! ttc plumbitr8po.itiotr!, otrcovrr thc qury ttrd tta othc!
orcr thc hatch,by mcatrsof slewingguyr. Thsegup arcominedfrorn
tbc dra*ing. Starding,or Lzy guys,arEfitlcd to the outboardsidcsof
tba dcrricb to sgist i! lborbhg thc atroDSridc{ttq$.!. Thc lold i
lii.d on odcvhip rnd hovcr.ross thc dccko! thaothcl, 6hckitrgawly
on thc int o!a. Tha anglcbctwcc!thc whipr stould tavrr a,rcccd120
dcglt , !i!c. ot thi! optihuE rlglc tbc lrrc.r h ..c[ *tip i! .qud to
fhc load. Cobplc0aco.odinrtioD bct*cl thc two winch&cDi Gt!a!tial. lt i! po!.iblc, througb nirjudgcc|cat s|rd itdifcrcnt riggiD& to
ovcrlordrhat.ar ty rorr ,rr@rlm%. For ttir rrero! thc lafa workilg
losdf of rhcdcrricb .hodd b g.tl by 6t % whendouble-denickint.
Do.tht. * 0 GiS. 15.10)
ThL conr,!fl! r ringlcvhip to s doublayhip atrdccrtaa a Daatrlical
rdvr rSc.Suftcilot wit! mud bc.vaihbL to llsch thc fdhaat part of
thc worlcd codtpattbaot.If thc accotdapid6 botrdshow! itr tbadroir-

F t c u t E t 5 . 9 ,u l | r o l |6 E i

ftGuaE|l,(tDouaLtxG Gan

397

LIFTING GEAR
iDgis Dot availablcthc .nd of thc whip b tumcd rrouDd tba dctricl
just bclou thc hcadblockrDd ihscb.d to ttc .xisrbg spidcrbaod.Tbc
d.(ri(* .hould b. p.r!.Ud eith catrva3b ery of t[c wtiD to prlv.ot
ilipphg aDd.hrf.. Th. m.thod i! uscdwhc! it i! dcsir.dto lift a \wight
gt.tcr thatrthc safcs,orlbg lord of&c f6ll-

Tt YcYo G... (Fig. l5.ll)


This rig is uscdwhctrit i! dcsird to litt r s.igbt id.xc6r oftlc &fc
rorling lold of thc dcnicl(r, Tha brad! rr! pLcadclola to8pthcr,ald
thc wbip! 3hsctlcdto cac.hotber vir a strcp vhich pa8aaorough a
travrlirg bloct. Id thc fgurr, it hi, ba.trrrrumcdthat OlGlafc eortilg
losd ofthc frll i. i$rficicrt,.nd guntacklcahsrc bctn rigfed l. lifti!8
purdalc!. U.iry rhc fgwtr stowo, crch dcrrick will cxpcricocea
str*3 of 3] ronncs.Thc advstrtalr of th. travcllingblockis rpparcntif
oe winch ludd.oly frik ehcn, eithout thc trewliDg bloclg thc full
lood eould prrveil oa orc dcf,rfuk,It is rct r popularri8 .|long rcvcdoE+ bccsurcif thcwirchc. rtr wo*cd at difrct!trtrpaad!tharrrrtlling
bloct i! .buttcd by tlc lortr blockof oncpurchraa,ttc slo*lr-softilg
398

LIFTING GEAR
ooc. To ryoid !!i[g . rtrop oo tbo whilq ola whip i! ronciiEc! aieply
loE through 6c fraEli[g block rDd thlctld to ttc othcr whip. ThG
atrglc batlt.a thc whiF or puc.ba!.s rhould bc kcpt sr clodcto:Ef,o !!
pocaiblc.For t[b Es.otr, thc dcrricb must bc vcry acc1rat ly guyld.

' I

it

ff. Wba.|..l D.trLL (Fi8. 15.12)


Thir '.'rly-r..tr rig p.ovi&3 r vtry rpccdyEcttod of worlilg c.rp.
Th. whip i rovc lb.ough th. h.ddblocl frod t[c hook, doe! ro th.
dcct, ud tfuoughr block rt thc ibip'! sida,rnd thctcc to thc witrch
vir thc h..l U6t. Tbc lod i! lilbd from b.los in ttc po.itiod (2).!d
l|ilad ctaarof tbc carDi4; Thc iibosrd fDy i! thcorhcko.d !!d tha
.trc$ in th. whip, togcthcrwith ib dd. Lrd, ,win8r tt dcrrict to (l).
Thcdcrrh,ki. th.o FpluDb.d ov.r ttc hrtaJhby hcevilgo! thcinlodrd
!uy. fhc firult i! thc drdict i. ircrqlcd i! thi! rit oonFrcd $,it[ th.
trrditioDdly-rovcwbip,ud losd! murl ih.rlfor! bolighr.Thc rig could

39

LIPTINO OEAN
bc !r.d fd lo.dinSprovid.dtbc ai!&L.d er. .hifird to thc rEht h|!d
dd. of tb co.nitrt. Thotuy eiu tbld b. rittpd on t!. .ior. .ftlc of thc
&rd.L,
fb B..t'.lh
a lr..rLr ft (Fi& 15.13)
thi! ir u!.d to lood or dirchltgp a,ith r .irglc d.rric,l. A llzy fuy i!
Ld froE tha dcrrii:t haa4 tbrougt r blocl otr tha ctosr trtc , rrd ir

ti

i:6
ii{,

trcuRE 5,r3 alcttttct{r

itc

tt a .hr.*lcd to !!y ruitibL slifltt, tu.b ar &lttF drut of comrtacot


vrtlf. Thadcrrl* i! DluDbd ortldd! by hc.vinSon lb tui t ty, i3.
tbc olo oo tDctilht'hod .id! of rh. dnwbg, wtic.hb lcd ro r winct.
fb. redd.r ir tb.d ri.i!& Ar rootr .t lhc tt!|n lsy i. th.ld tb!
dc.dr!! d6d!
.nd rrilgr ttc d.rric& irboud' thc .wi!! b.i!!
c6toll.d b], th. rt .!| tcy. It provid.. r qui.t ncthod of rortilt

LIFTING 6EAR
popuLr
h ocrl|i! paat!of abaL!do! doclr for dit.
lirbr car!o... It ir
c6|tfi!! tiEh.r cr4oc., Thab.a&r,!i8[t i! a &DFr to F!or| otrdct,
|.d rirrG |oothci darricl ir rviibblc it i! plumbodcvcrtidc ud tba
Lzy luy to}! throoShi& harduod. Tbc d..drur lhao oFatat olfaG
.idc.
IL ll'Erol Il (Fi& l5.la)
Thir it urd for lighr c.f8pc! ruch!! b.tgpd tpod! .!d t&b of hid6.
A .irtlc rlcrrick it plubb.d ov.rsid. .!d !.cur.d with rtrdirg Suyt

'ft
i

t
!

f r G u l r r a . r a! r v l a r o o l - i 1 6

(oot .hom). Thcehip i! l.d through. tnvcllitrg ttock sbi:h ir rccurtd,


by rtr.|or of. Z-32.mm fib.l buUopc,to.portabL bollrrd clatrpcdlo 3-+in
tbc hrtc! coanin& whc! thcebip ir rlackthcbuuroF-oFrrtor h.avd
,l0l

LIFTINO OBAN.
ric
od
roF rnd b.hyr t&clirc aothat thc blocl is i! (2). Thc hoot i3
lo*!r.d, tt lo{d tncd ald railad.A! it cLrn thc co6Ei[g; thc tolroF
ir rlrckcd lad tbc lo|d ir r,ldd acro.! th. dlcl (l). Wh.tr tbc load ir
plumbutrdc.thc d.rrick hcadthc bulroF i! all sls.t. With .D crp.ri.
cncld m.tr usirg thc bullropc thc mcthodprovidcsr ycry rapid di.chlrga of csrgo,
Tf. H..ty d J@to lrrlrict (Fig, 15.15)
Thasadcnicl! hrva safc*orkiDg lords oftcDitr cxccasof lm tolrcs.
Thc basicprirciplcsarcliowir in thcdrawin8.A ahcava
L built ioto tia

:t9!!!l!.i.!-jg!:-!!33r.9!

darricl(to thlt thc liftiDg pulrtala can bc ulad to advrDlrlt A lcad


blocko! thc6oer tr,a6GoablcrthatoppitrSlift to bc rirriLtty urd. Tlc
gri! i! ncdanical rdvalt4r dao r.drrc.. th, thrult on thc dataict' iha
h..d purth.!. bloclqthc .pitcr b.!d, thc goo..orcl6ind tb. lotDiry

LIFTINC GEAR
Thc
lift Er|t !b!ddc.
atrt s.. itr tbc falr tr! sl o rlducad.Both Sgyr
all wiDc.b
ooltrollcd. Duritrgthc utc of thi! tyF of d.arickthc Delt is
aigSadwith crtl'. staF.
WhG!plEp.riDgthc darrickfor ula tll thawitlt atrdt ock thould bc
catlfuly arrrlilcd, Fnbulrrly thc lbrev6 fo! ftla aotatio!.Th. dcrrick i! rtorrd iSrinlr thc m|.r rad lr.1lr!d at itt hatd aithct by ctlitrs
rtrd ryrd8!!, or r rlrcl chDpi!8:brDd, or botb, soaatioc! thc top liftilg-purctasc bloct ir lcft itr positiona[d a calvat tood .hrdudt thc
bloct ond if,Gddrict tce(L
A grtrhy, or s g.lloe!, i! uludly fittld to ttc n n jult lbovc thc
&ni:k hcsd.A bloct i! hu[t ofr h.rc !trd r Srntlinci! rov. throuSi it
to h!.vc thc toppilg lift bloctr to tb.ir poritioD!.With th.!. rccuEdin
pLr., . hcsviaglirc b row rhroughllc block. Thc toppidg-ljlt f.U i3
ht o! to thc cndaadtia hcavingli!. i! ur.d to rrcE thc wit! fr[. Thc
guy p.odrDt arr shlcucd to thc lpidcr baodstrd thair purcheld src
sct up tigbL Thc loppitrg lift ir thcn hov. s! fuht !! po3siblcsad a
brlafirS-out wnEpasld roundthc daaricthcadabovcthc spid{ bad.
fron l[a ,acutingbrad or chrid, and tha
Thadcrdcki! thcodrtac.had
brlatin&out wirc rtrE !cd. Thc dcrlick thanmoycrrwsy frod thcdrd,
codplatalytlut r! it trkca tha
tld \,!ry loon tha toppilg lift bccorDaa
rcifht of th. dcrtiglc
Tbc dcrricl ir thcl lomrcd to tba horizoltal positio!, coDaollitrgit
r|ith guy|, whcothc liftiDg putchalai! norc colv.oicDdyraculd and
rovc.Tbc d.dick i! t.atld for frla rotatio! rt rhc goo6.oaal.
!t, bcforcthc dcrrickis brokcnou! thc toppitrg-liftblock abut..rch
othcr ,o tbrt tha plrcb'|c c.trlot bc hovr ti8ht, t wirc Yill havcto bc
ri88.d otr thc oppo.i& tidc of thc dcrrict to thc br.akirt-out witr, so
thst tha datick canbc 6!cd rway froD thc Ealt udd.i coDtrol.Wirhoul thi! aalin8sirG, thc dcnick Day juop rery ftom thc Es5t to tha
.xt nt of lbc rlacl toppiog-liftfsu rld dr!!& thc block6hackl6.
Ib SrLgb8 Ir.rd.L (Fig. l5.lo
In this celc r iirglc dcrricl i! usadro locd or dfuchrrgpcar8p,awingiry it froE hold to rhip't ridc by m6tr of two tt ad 8uy! (Pinchcoftro[cd). Thc dardckcatrbc ulcd to thc cxtctrtofib rafc eorting lotd
providadthc ehip is of suffcicnt strtd8ll. tf I load of Dorc thatr 3
lonr* is to bc liftcd thc whip will Do.tully rcqufuidoultinS.
laha H;vt Utu
Plttrii..It
AU tlrr inrclvcd, ircluditrg rtropr ttrd cylbolt!, thould ba ccfuuy
.o..
.f|mincd bcfoFhard. Tha rtabili9 of thc rhip Dull bc c.bcckcd
to Drta lurr thrt tba rirc i! ttc ccdttr of gravily of thc ahipwill trot
producra colditioa of !.t||irc nctaocoub bcigh Ia rhir coolccrio4
frFrurfaca .fccE mry hr}l to bc Educcd.
403

LIFTING GEAR.
Thc vr$cl shouldbc on en initial cvctrkcaltvith mooring taut atld
martrcd.Barla! not it immcdirtcuscDurt bc crlt otr Prrvlot.i atayr
sill bc rigSadou rhc mart,
If lording th. reb[t o! dcct t[c latt t b.y Fquirc thorisg f.om b.lor. Tbc guyt rhouldbc ri$cd rt 30dcSt!.! to thc dcckud natiag r
brord a!8lc with iha daraick.Witrcica wil hsv to bc chcctcd sod
mantrcdwith rdiablcF sous.

F|GUR
15ra !rrxcrxc

pliitcx

Thc lord mustbaplumbcdby thc dcrtick haadrnd slu[g undcrthc


auFrviiiotr of a conFtant pctsod.U8ht lin6.tr oft.o 3ccurcdto lhc
losd to .ci .s st adyiq linca.
whc! diacblrgiD&thc critic.l eotncot occurtwh.! th. load ir just
foatcd clcarofthc dcckor tsnttop, for tbc caolrcofgavity ofthc Iood
is thcavinurlly at thc darick h.ad rld th. cc[ttc ofgraviry oftba lhiP
ria6 in proportion.If thc stability of thc ship b.coDct oatativc tbc
rls|cl will fall ovcr to id anglc of loll, Thc lord it than prrfcottlt
Lddld, .!d th. .trtility of thc ship inFovd' lf thi! it iEDottiblc
ligbtcB lra somctimc'!cc!r!d to llat aidcof tha tbip whichwitl bc thc
higt sidawhcnthc loadi5 swutrgout of t[c for+ald-rft li!a'
M

LIFTING

GEAR

Ar thc load rDov6 frorn tha foF.asdleft lia., ih. v6s.l wiU acquirc
aDiocrr.ling lilt wtcthcr or lot h.f ,rbility ir ncgEtivc.
Wb.D lowaing th.losd ilto e Irock oDthcjctty, duc allowanccmu3t
bGtr|.dc for lhc fact that d thc ilst!trt wtrtr thc loed ir hndcd thc lhip
vil npidly right br$a|f!!d canla a suddcDhtrfd drsg upo! tbc truck
To prevent this, the topping lift musr be imlantly rlacked down te
8.thcr witb e r.pid vrcrinS ofth. liltilf frl.
Who loadiq thc wcight,lbc 'rmc rc|loning.ppli6. A! lootr !! th.
*cight i.3takcu, tha thip *i[ hccl duc to a lat rsl movcmcntofthc ahip's
ccltrE of gr.vig. This i! alio thc critical oonart of tha oFrrtion ss
tbc octrtrEof lr.vity of th. load vi.tuauy tir.! ro thc &nick hced. Ar
tha lod i. iwulg i,lbo$d, thc hccl dacraala!.
Tha fouowing b rtr cxtrrd f.orD a parrphlat ilEucd by lhc Chrin
T6tc|5' Arsocietiotr ofcEat Britai! and b deigtcd ro bc of hclp to dl
F.toor cagagcdi! thc urc of lifting mlc.hitlcry:

DO
(l) Klow ttc ecight bcingliftcd tnd sllow for tt3 putd.sc sriSbt.
(2) S.l.cl liftil8t cklcof.dcquat sErogthrDd scrtbit it i! ptopctty
Drrkcd; tro chaidor rofraahouldbc ulcd for aoy load cxcardiDgtha
dc wortiog load.
(3) Scctt&t cod[nf!, riisr, or rbrcH.s rtr ridiry frc.ly oD.Dy hook
otr rhich th.y h.ng.
(4) Usceood or othcr Dacldagto protactthr dilg from .!y .ha4,
cdglr o! thc load.
(t Avoid lbocb du! to (c) rhc load.lippiry or (D)rDstc.h
ia startid&
Thc strr.s on rll g.dr is huch 8!aa!aaif lbc loadi! applicdsuddcDly.
IX) NOT
(l) Us. aDcrc.lsivdy pin!4 oorrodcd,or woln cb.itr (CordcnD it
!trd cut it up.)
(2) Urc r chria ia whicl liDl6 ar! loclcd, atrt hd, of do DotDovc
frrcly.
(3) Joi! chriar by bohilt or wiriag lirb io8!t[.r,
(ia)shortctrchsitr!by gilt lrcb i! tbcE (u!c iD sdjortcrot lc.p .!
.dcqurtc .upply of rlinp of.uitlblc lctrgtt).
(t Drag. dain f.on u!d.r a lord or drop it froo r h.i8bl
(O Himm.f, e liDt to rtnightcd or forccit irto potitio!.
(7) Cltly idlc dia8! or th. hook rt tbc sec timc a! r lodd.d rlidg.

rfie*

Lr Shtr

Tta A$ochtio! rlcoDmcod!r stardtrd nornal pnctbo ofDerkiDg


rad ccrtifyilg tbcrc .li"g. with ttc ..tb tolkilg lor4 .t 90 dcg..6
b.t'!qr lcgr. Abovcthir .trSlcthc lafc worLi!8lood dcqa!.3tryidly'
405

LIFTINC GEAR
If stl thc l.8t cauoi b. loadcdcquelly,u3cr sling ttroog cnoughto
.upport thc lord 3rfcly on thosclc8! whicbDay hevcto cany it.
ErdL. Ct h Slhtt
Th6c nult bc old with caar lo rvoid po$iblc ovcrlording or
dmrg. to litrk6by bcndiry too sharply.Tha A$ociation rccommcnds
.! r rtatrdardDolmelpraclic. thc marldngrtrd ccrtifyingof thcscslitgs
sirh a .efc workingloadcqualto It titrat tha load on thc tinglc chlitl.
Wlrr noF Sitt
Thasr ,hould trc\Er ba bcol thlrply, rllovld to comcitto cottact
with hot mctd, or to bacoDeruny.

nb. n p..
Th6c mu3t bc a',|mincd frEqucDdyfor axtcmtl chlfc, cultitrg iDGr.
lal e3r b.twaad !tren&, lDd dctdiortlio! ofibrc. wct ot darDproP6
should bc kcpt io a wll-vcntilatad stotr r.trd not dricd rapidly h r
boilcr housc,or laft to dry out otr t[c opao gound.

406

CIIAPTER XVI

ROPE AND CANVAS

NlnE ROPE
procaa!of Ertrufrdurr cotrilr coobiag aaLcLd ibt! iDto
niB
long
ritbols how! !t rliv.r, whic.hrrr htlr tviltld up iDto
I
,1 yrrar. Thcrcyrmr arc tlrtr twiltd ilto 6band!,thlaaor four of
thc lrtt r b.i!g frdly l.id up iDtothc frilbd .oF.
Tb. priDrty obj.c-tof t*i!ti!8 fbtr togpthcrit r .oF i! tbt by
duhd fritio[ t!.y E y b. hcld tosFttcrwhcor.trBr i! ryplicd to tt
wholc.
Tha aascnlialfcrturcs of a Spod roF ara carcfirly rLaLd snd
bLodd hiSb-sr.d. 6brc, csllful rpinlinS ilto y.r!! of utriforE .izc
rd drlngtb, folmilg lhc yrmt iDtotolid citcuLt atr!fit with rll yarlr
prlaU!,tha atrrld bci[g cvto, smooth,aad brviag ihc c.trE-t dcgl.
ofteilt, lnd leyirg tbrlc or Eol! oflhc ltredb irto roF rt thccoltla-t
rlglc to tuit thaFquitld eorlilg cotrditioD!,
Statud lay iaglis t rop with tb.t .n8lc of l,ty wbioh.xprrictrcc
rhow3oonbin . plisbility, rttlnSlt, rld .bility lo withrtrd ctrafclo
thc b6t idvur.Sc for dl gmcrll work
Sdt ot l4!A Izt iE.di,!. r mF in whicf th. rlglc of hy ir lts. thD
Dotlnsl,thc arflc ofhy haiagthlt bcts!.! thc rxi! ofltc ttrand and
thr .ri! of thc ropc. Thc pli.bility ild, to roDc cxt ot, thc b(!rti!8
rtrc.s rrc ircrcala4 but lh. clsticity i! rduod. It ir mdt liablc to
for wo.l luch ar
aborb vat.r and lcc it! shrF, but i5 rlry ffirly
..ild.Liog.
E@4 Fbn,6 Slrl L4f impllt s roF itr whichrhc rn8lc ofhy i3
grc.t . thr! mrDrl. Tf,. .tr ct i! to ircrcatEthc rbility of thc loF ro
trtai! iu rhrF tmdarloa4 ald to rcdutr thr abdorptiodofwrE . Both
tb. plhtilig ald tbc bttsfilg rt$r. arr, howrvat,&duccd, but thc
chrticig j! i!.rt|!d.
Righched lsy mcrtr! thc firal l,ryingup of thc str.!d!, i!8.td16. of
thc ropc'r colttfuciio,n,i! thc arEc s! & scrtw-lhrard.In thctradcit i!
dascdbad
a! r Ztx,&r, lrft-hatrd Ly i! ric rlvtfsc strdfud6criH a! a!
goei'' T[c |rr ilultr.tld in Fi& l6.f togethcrwith th. coolrrucior
ofropc.Ir vil bc trotird tbot llc ibr6 sod tt |tr.nd! h.Y! th. rEc
trir! but thc yrr hrw . rlwt.c twirt, i.. i! r dtht hudod roF thc
&7

ROPB AND CANVAS


iblra rt! tlistld toSatbcrtifhnhrndrd, t[G yaa!! arr twitt d lcft.
h!ad.d, r'd thc ,ir.n& rrr hil up itbt h&d.d.
TbrrG'ttrirdad topci! rcfcrrcdto a! rrarr rdl. ScNEcorcfcr to it u a
hrw!.rlay if it i! rbht-h^trdcd,but thc ncnbcr! of rtc toF trrdc 6dd
th.t it ir frcqu.dtly coofu.cdwitt csblcLy ro thrt eh.o otd.dDgit i.
'Phit h'r''
Fafcrrblc to ulc tha tlln
Four-.tnndd ropr ir aom.timd C,.l]cildtrottd,q!, It ha! a bigrt
bc.ring rurfrc. codFrld eilb pl!i! hy, Ib xEifht i! g!..td .!d it!
atrao$bl.s. Thc four atru& u! laid round a cctrtralibt! hasri ol
catr. Both tbrtc. rtrd four-rttudad roF erc trormrly laid up titbt

>-..
f t c u i a t a .I

tftat
F t
(!trr t xBD)

Cabh ot walc?Iat h mrdc by layinStoScrharthEc roF G.chof


tb$c .tru&. Thc chrdctcristic fatur.. .tc ilt grcatcrpli.bility and
cLlticity comp| !d with plrin lsy of cqud dzc. Tbc ari8ht ir .lighdy
L$.dd thr ltrroglh i!,ub6t ntirly rlduccd.Cabla-layropch|r r Spod
120f.thom rlsiltrnca to s'atar p@ctration,If tt'la ldlE ropa! alc hid ilto
td) t thofti cablc lay, thc r6uhi!8 roF would ba about t3-D lo!t' It i lor'
Ddly coErpo.Gdof thrc! ridt-h!trdcd roF lrid up toS.thcr lcihrtrdd. Wbrn rcquind, ho*cv.t, it cad ba metruftcturcdwith a r!.
varacLy. It i! fiEquc[dyuscds! a towint lprirg rttecbcdto a lan$h of
wir. roF, It ir G$antirl that thc two litca rbould hevthc r.mc Iry,
ottar*ilc lhc [bFc litrc wil tGDdto tlnl.y its.lf. sincc wirc toF i.
isv.drbly right-hndrd, it follo*! rhd mott crblohid towint rPting
.l.o hrrt r right-b.ndld Ly.
Voylay tqc h b w !! c.blc hy rd..Pt lbt ihc nnt |'d nld
layr alc tlty h!td. W|rF rrc olicd ntpPlii tFlrl .tr.!dd, i.a. four
408

ROPB AND CAIOYAS


FiE ry roF G.A hrvirS tbr.a rtna!& at! Lit !D roGi!... For ao@
rort, rDc*rrp Ly loay cvaahrva tlbe! ataaldr.
Vnkhldh Lr, h nd fudrrt 4 .iG it .pFr. ttr rroc u phia
lry rr i .i8ht fhir typcofropc rp.d.[y Drd. fo.lif.bo.t fillr, hr.
r*i ..tbGrtrud.ildrd of ..i! orditby.nt.pn!wfthrhr|.d.
lart toF Tbit taorlt to cliEirrta 6c taodadcyof citodox tlpo to
kiol ud t*bt rvncoworliag i! nnltipb Hoctr
Plritcd eoodlg .op.i of Drtur.l or .yrtt tic frba..t. tit y l.ritb
end r.lmo6tunddrgpd by LinLi.g. lt y hrvc ! loitt atriatd |!d
ulaimrtccrtarlion tha! laid roF of I aiDihr aiz., but arc na.tlt, ta
stroDS.
Thir tyF of roF i! fouDdto dcvcloprD cxtEEcly good grip on
wirch druor aad oap.tr.obcrrdr, SorDcphitrd rcp.. conri of four
lcft-h.!d!d .tr.adr ..od fou right-haodcdra.!d. bid up b Firs.
ln rimilar acrvica,thc lifc of s plaitld ropc Dey bc doublqthst of r
plain.layropc. It fu prrticulsrly uldul whrtr tbc ropc is liablc to lwitt
or turn i! u&. Nsturrl-fbrc plaitrd iopca lrt tEalrd wirh wdlr'
rcFllcrt in mltrUfactutl.
fq|..
Er{.&.
L lttdh. Thh i. b.dc fton at a ibic, *ldd con!. fto6 . pl^trt
b.loging to tD. b.!.n f.Dily. Itr oolou v.ri.r ftoE ivory riiE io
rl|rtir[ broen. Tbc Fodu.tioa of ibi! ft(. ooudnricr lDc qo.t in
pofint irdort y io thc ltililpin4 Il ir rv.ihbb h v|rio!.8nd.n thc
i!ff nbt!. of tbo lc.f bcdtr8d|rch i6 tt|! tho.c ltoov.d lio6 thc
outarad&.
A| . rlpo it i! rooott, dorry, .t!o!& !.titto' rw, d!'.bL, ...y to
haodL, sdd has & vcry high rcsbtrrcc to sc{-watcrrotting. It i! lbc
moctcoEntor nrtur.l fbrr i! u|. et ras. Thc followingf8lr6 rllrtc
to thc 6n6t{udity mrnilo roF:
ThE+.tnndcd, ,lt-hd diimct r, wight 352tg Fr 220m coil:
BrcakingstEs! l?'5 tontaa.
Foui.sintrdcd,,lt-mn dirmct{, wright 349kg Fr 220n c4il:
B.latint atraci15'6ronn6.
Ninc-rtnndd c.blc hy,,lt-mm disncrcr, *cight 309tg Fr 220m
coil:
Bilalint atrcli l0'5 tonnd. (lf plailcd, this 3izcof roF ha! a
brc*ing rutrs of 17tonncs.)
M.niL loF eil rt!6.h .bout 252 of tu !ra!th.
1 SbL ThL f[rc L t tid fron ob. L.vrr, iD th. pilo.pptc f.Dny.
E||t Aftica |!d Jiva at! tba Dai! p(odrEilg ocotrca.Dutbt th! tlt,
rh.a Dada a .strjaorly aoatlq d8l r|t i! ti& l|aai! ttit olltry
40!)

ROPE AND CANVAS


ard at !.a. Vcry fcw f.ilur6 wcrcrcfrortcd,rrd itr fac'tit ir s fbl! of
vcry cotrsistcdtstr.Dgth,a vcry Soodrisal bcinSof rqual ltrlnSth to
&adiuD{r.dc D.Dil&
Ar . roF it is & attiactivccrc56y.ehitccolour,\,!ry britdc, glolsy,
ud SaocaalyawllNmolr thatr masila whcn wt. lt is not r rmooth
rop.l ind itt hairy $rfa.. promotcaco$id.rsblc discomfort!ftcr
proloEspdhrdliag with thc b6rc ic6h. Thc fouowingilsrc. .rc for
b6tqdity sisal:
/E-mmdirrncter,rNighte3manila:
Thrcc-slrandcd,
Bllsking strrss14.7tonncs.
Four-stranded,
4E-mmdiameter.weightas minila :
BEakingstrcss132 tonDcs.
Ninc-slra.dcdc{blc hy, 48-mmdiamctc.,wcighte3meni|.:
Brlaki'|g strrrs t.9 tonncs.(lf phit.d, this sizc of roF hasa
brcskingstrcssof 14tonncs.)
SbalroF is lot gcrcrdllyc.trsidard suitablcfor mrriac wott what!
maDihis aveildblc,

16.!d Zl in

3. Coir.This is rhcfbrc ofthc co.orr, aad b r!mor,!d rfi.r fic .h.[


hss bcc! wstcr-sodtcdfor matryeodll$. It cod6 DliDly frotrrltrdi!
md Ccylo!, and ia uniquaitr thit it is iDportadfrom thcrc troaa! r
ibrc but 8 s yar!, etcady aprrtrby ttc nativ!., lt it vcry chltiq !d in
colour,roud to herdlg fosb vcry ar5ily,andir aitrrDcly rrriaLlt to
aaa-wrtrrronitr& lt ir ofhd crlld grttt ot ,[rs lirQ.lt fu principally
uradas towingand hirbou. springs,varyingbetwcenI28 and l?6 mm
in diamctcras a cablc-laidropc. lt is about one-halfthc rrcight of
DsDil. ud roughlyo[Gairlh $ at!o!& Tbc folosriaSftula at! fo!
t'..t{udity coir:
4&mm diardrtrr, rci8ht 203kg pci 220m coil:
Thrcc-st.andcd,
Brerkingstr6s 3O5tonncs.
NinGstrandcdcabLlay,4&mmdiamctcr,wcight153kg Fr 220D coili
B.Eakingstrcsc2.03tonnas.
A!. cauclrid ropcJcoir will sfttch bctrcca 60 |!d tmz. Ar !
tbrcq.ot fou+t aodcdmpc, its chticig ir .bout l5%.
Soal{b! f.F
l. H.T. Origtualy ttc bull of lhtu fbrr caDcfrod Rutir. Nornd.yt it ir axponcdfrom IndiA Ibfy, th. Bafta!!, !!d Nc* Zarlrnd.
Thc hdnp produc.di! Ncfl Z.el$d aodSt, Hclcnr i! Dot!r 3ttong|!
drdl|' rDd i! minly ulcd for thacorla ofvirc.opas,
Itslia! hqnp b gcorcdlyrrgsrd.d .r thc bclt{uality h!dp, hrvin!.
tttrDgtt olc-ffth grcd.r tbrn top4'!d. omiL. It h.! brgply b..o
4t0

I,OPE AND CANVAS


auFr6adadby rdr{ili, strd i! trow fouod st scaa! ltoltroF, ,mdl c.od!9., .trd hi8[-grdc twitrc.
hdiatr h.mp i! cqually wacr-rc3btaDt at ltauid hamp, drd Bombay
hcmp fu trow of glady improrcd quslity asa Esult of $rict Govarlmcnt

grrdiry.
Bolt-ropci3 spudfmm soft hcop andgivcsa spccialsoft lay foaaasy
handlingand non-rttrtchquelities.It is a ta!rcd ropa.A 48mm tarrcd
bolt-roF madr of .oft hcrnpwcighs4z) kg F 22Omcoil and h.i
a bErking str6s of 12toan6 (threestruided).I supplicdunts!rcd,rhc
wcightis rrduc.d by 25% snd lhc aft|ogthircr!.!.d by 4%.
2. &L- Thfui! Dainly ulcd for hGsiatrmaoufac-tut!rtrd thc c.Ea of
eirE ropc,It ir wlakcr thanhcop.
3. ft r. This is uscdfoa sailald tsrpsulir caDva!.It it ilad for ulc
ar r lcwin&twiDcduato it! hiShrrsilirncc to abralion.
,a.Coal6. Thi ib!. mskc. str cxcclbtrt ropa fot ulc !! t ttovt
&i\E At acait i! glacrally fouDdat a! otu mctrtd topc, partiq ady
oDla4rrte It i! wry son roF rnd aalily aoilcd.
foF
Std.do{b.
l. PolyDroDyL ropc is thc lighlcst synthcticropc, 60% sttongcr
then manih. It st.rtchcs,m%, sbcorbsonly 0 l % w&tcr snd mclts
&t l6fc, A 48 mm polypropylclcroF *ill brcakat 2?.5toincs.
2, Polytbaoa
b abouttwiccasslrongascotton.As a roF, its strcnglh
lics midwaybctwcnrnanilaandnylon.ll ebsorh only 0Ol % of watct
and will float almost indcfinitcly. It has medc coi. ob6ol.sc.ntfor
this r! son.lt mcltsat 135'Csnd shrinksabout4% at 60'C. Il is
It ofrcrs
unafrcclcdby mostindustrialchcmicilsaod micro-orgrnisms.
good rcsistanccto sunligb!&nd abrasron.siz for sizc it is 7 tim.6
strotrgrrthan coir. A 4&mm polythcncro|Drwlighs252kgpct 224-m
coil and hasa bEsting slr.ssof 22zltonncs.
3. Nth d T.tLrG Ropc! mt& of th.sc 6brc! arr immcnrcly
ltroag, so& ild pliitic. Th.y atl watarDioofrld thcir rutfaccadry
wry quickly.Thcyrrr cquely fcxiblc ahad at axtrcEctoftlmFratu!!
eDdwtetr sd oadry. Thcy r!! pdt- ard corro6ilGE3ittaatTbayrrc
virtualy itbF viousto rol strdmildrw ald havcr low fti ri!k' Duc to
thcir low bcltilg-poin6, rmallcotdrSaoay h!}t thccDd!ofthc sFaud!
laald by mom.ntarilyholdidgthcn i! ! frmc. Thit avoits ehipping.
trylonis g.ncrdllymorcclastidfian lcrylcnc,but both arc goodiD this
ll3Dacl

'ivlcn eticiog tt cc rop.3 at Larr folr tucls shouldbamrdc, duclo


thc dipFry sutfrcr of rhc 6brEr. For ttir talon klot! should bc
rvoidcd,a! t[ay trnd to dip. Thcyarcnot so alyto hrdlc, co@psrcd
with, say,danil& docro thcir wry rdooth rurf8c..
Ttc rqirtrncc of th6c mpcato ahalion ir a*trtmclygpod.Thaoltar
4ll

IOPE AND CANVAS


nm!, iflbndcd, form araz of fbrc whichcfiGclivclyprlv!tr8 funhd
.b.8iotr. Thb mcaosth&t tha iltcmal y!rn! of I ulcd roF ala rlot
.trcctcd in stcDglb aod th.n i! !o hilh iDtcr-yrra and int?r-ltrud
abr..ion, suchrs is ofbd sacnwilh siaal.adm!dh.
Thc msindangcrpointswith thcrcfibrcsatEthst tylon is etlrctad by
slroDgacidsrnd tcryl.nc by strorg elklis.
Nylotr ab6orb6rbout oncthird of tha moilturc tal(coi! by. bcop
ropc,whilc terylcnaabsorbsonly a twcntictbof thh latter lmount.
A ,E-na thr!+str8d.d nylon roF q/cighsdbout 330kg Fr coil
of 220m end hss a braking strcssof 42 tonncs.Thc rcrdcr should
compar. tbi! *iih thc strcsi6 givcn for bcst{uality mrnila ropc.
Strengthfor stttnglh, a nylonropaof about30mm msy hc lubstitutcd
for e muila ropa(bcstquality)of 4Emm diuctcr.
l-in
Thc followingfi8urcsarEof h&r!3l i Conlidcti|rg8-mm.op.q crch
of rhrrc strands,t.rylcnc hasr urt str.nSthof lmz. Itrlian hcrtrphas
e *t strcnglhof &)Zo whilc thc fgurc for bcat3kd fu 90%,Thc coin
!m lb r31olb parablcbrcakinglosds ar! loA)kg for tcrylcDc,6()7kg fot It liatr
l03olb hemAand 4E0kg for sisal.
Nylon and tcryk& ropcsarr itl c,idausaas tai&, i.c. lcn8tfuof 3yn.
lt it casdthcticropcjoitrcdto dooaitrglinc3to rct r! thocLabdoaban.
l!y.
thc
ulc
of
thala
tailt.ficclivcly
roF
hsvc
thc
ssmc
tial that borb
culbiolr thc rop6 to wbich Orcyetr rttrchcd ald ,av6 thcm frod
6 fathom! p.ogr!$ivc deDrgr. Tbc tail wil usually trc rbout l2m ia lcngth,
ittcd to ltc thoF Gndofs mooritrglinc, and it! cF will bc procaLd
6it
from bollsrd-chafcby ncrns of a lcathcrpsrcclling.A 48-mmmooring
4}.5 in linc will n cd a tail of 40mm in dirmctcr.
W.lrt.oftg
Thir rcryicc ir avrihbL from ropc Erlufactur.rt et . ldrll arlr.
co.L lt hcrcalaalhc lifc of thc .oDq prwlnt! thc cttry of a..-wrtct
iEpurit'&a,rrduca tirtilg, hardcrin& !!d 3wEllio8.lt rfrcctr lcith.t
tb wight lor ttc b&alitg strcNrof thc roP. rld providcair rdd.d
dvrtrtrg. itr tbat *han thc ropc it di cidcd it Dsy rilily ba rold to
p.pcr EilL.
h...w.6oo ot N|i|rd-nbrr loFa
M6t 6btr toF ltt oilpun, a smdl rsoult of lubricul taint
iDtroducadat th. timc of naluftctut! to lonln atrd oil thc 6brc1
Erccr.iE itrtlrtr'l fricrio! i! thcGbytlduccd, itrctlariD8thc lifc of tbr
roF. A dry{putr roF ir !taid..t but tro!.wrtatproof'
Thc orisi[rl nc'thod!of t trhg r rop. with Atcbug.l lrt ilctrs.d
lb. rEig[t oflhc rop. by l2*% aodco[idcnt y dr.!..!Gd thctrc.ti!8
atEar ModcmEcfbodr,utioSDurcpinarrrt, ArcbuSal tar, rot'proofiD& rd w&&rpaoodltcoEpound!itr coDjuoction,inat .!c thc tv.ifht
412

ROPE AND CANVAS


bv oDly5Z rld dacin.tc thc brrakinSrt!! by otly 5%.Thc Gouroct
liooc.iod-Corprov i.-"t "a thft. rcpcailto a tant whichwar bactccirltv ri:h, .tftcr tvo oodh! of iEErlio!, ordiorry ri$l lhowcd3
of 5t "/- old-fslhioocdtrtrcd toF rhostcdt lossof 23%,
fiarih 1063
*hib tha Dort-uFtodlt tlllin8 protlctd thc ropc to aucha dagrc'
thlt oDly5% .fito8ih lo6swr. crFicdcad.
Ary 3t.!!gth loncr dua to tard!8 arr dorc th!! ofractby tbe plolould lifa ofcotrtitruluy tubDcfg.d ropc*
it possiblcby ! proar
lf a vl'y dry ropc ic rcquircdrot'ptoofiDg
'Cutch
C'ttoda'. lt thould bc trotld
l^oarn t t@etb ot ba*'qg with
without
a wltrr'prooftrg compound'
fbrt rtniShdor*rtd farritr& uaad
aatlt-rcpclctrt.
a
ropc
doaanot &od!r
fb C.r. .f n F
On .D rv{arc{izcd lrctchr thiD thcr! niy bc ar mucha! 9 milca
of llbrc ropc, irdghing 15 tonnca.Wh.n onc contrdcrslhat a 2Xlm ron! lalfrtbod
coil of hish-Srdchsnita ropc,?2mtn in sizc.maycosl fE50.thcrcis 9 i n
oocl!ry goodrcrrol for Sivingropascvcryrtt!trtion' quitcapatt from
thc safety aspect.PolyproPyleneis lhe sanrePnce.
lLc oohn6n crurcr_dfropc feilurr atc cxcaraisrulat (wbichdab'
tgaaibrc Eorc quictly thaneay otha ceurc),abnsio! ol c0ttinS-otrt
siem obiecr. oi':ocuie to alkalis, acidsand rusl removetsand bad
*orig. *irh in"&q-tc ventilrtion, particularlyin the casof ropes
stoacdawavin a v&t condiiion.
Rolrirr ';n, ofbaicooDcda.. oo tha iltidc of r ropc ind ir di6c'ult
tbc try it opatr.lfibrca atc ablaro bc rubbcdlocc or if
io dalact-ttDlcit
thcrci! nuch dult eit]fh thahy it it a lurc 3i8! of dry rot. lf thciDtarior
of tbc roDair nuch darkai thrtr tha oubidc it it r d8n of damp!6s'
rhilc e rcv porvdcrvrubar.lcc ildixt . Eildcw !trd poor YcotihtioD'
ltc crr,o'oiropcr h|. drcady b.ca mantiotrd in Cblptar XV; tbcy
hutrt on wood.d pcg!' frlnurt bc rtorcd riry whcn&/, rd cirhcr
'nry ahouldb. tumcdon thc.c
oo
or
ttowld
valitd hook$
Stttilgt
rrrtiDd Gvttvto oftadro rhrt thc wcifht of tbc ooil i! bkan otr r dif'
icrtrt-osr ot tlc ropc.ttc atonrood lhould badty rtrd riry' strdlwty
frornicathcr. Thc'idcaltcmFrrtureis bctw.cnl0'and m"C, whilc 5tr 70"F
th! r&tiw honidity Do.l favounblc to long Ufci! b.tetto '$ .ad
657i6ocr. if aria um"i.uv in crtttmc h..t, wil bccoDcdry (i.c' th.
tutridrni *lt ary out) eaairitttc. On ac* t pon ropcl should'8'h
h. ttos[d oDSrrti[ga rd Ptot!.r.d froE sudight' rdD' rDd frorl'Ihc
filadlg of roD6 it dctriEaoarlto tbair lif., for thr Einur. ic. Psrticl'!
.'rt ttrcuru tic ibr!,
eft.f ulc roF .hodd bc d..n d .d drkd' Aft c itrrdclliot b tah
nr.( 6Gy alould ktaaly bc hoa.ddowDwilh frrab e a3.
413

ROPE AND CANVAS


Kinks caus. pcrmancnt iDjury to a roF. Knots causc kinks, aDd
lhercforc spliccsar bctter. A sho( splicc is stroogcr than a lorg splicc.
Thc safestrcssor a ropc should be rcgardcd as about one-sixth of lha
breakingload. A suddcnjerk may incrcascthc strcssup to cight tim6
its value. Beforc making a splicc it should bc asc.rraincd t}lat lhcrc is tro
'turn' lef! in the ropc, which,whcnstressed,
will continuallypull st thc
splice.
A .ight-hadcd rope should always bc uncoilcd by 6king au/sy rhat
cnd of the coil which cnablesthc tums to bc takcn ofr anti-clockwisa.
i.c. thc coil is unwound lcft-handed. Thc rcvc.sc applica to lcft-handcd
ropcs. Naturally thercforc, a right-hand.d ropc is coilcd down so that
lhe turns/orn clockwise; thc rcvcrscis truc for lcft-handcd ropcs.
Ropcsshouldnerrbc subjcctedto badnips;ifthis is unavoidablcth.
nip must bc frcqucntlyfrcshcncd.Thc diamctcrof rollcrsshouldbc tcn
to twdvc timcsthc diam.tcr ofthc ropc which is to bc passcdaround
lhcm. Thc same figuresapply lo bollards and warping drums. A
capstal or drum lhat will only rcvoli! clockwisc should bc u!.d only
for a .ight-handcd .op.
In Fig. 16.l thetcrmJb is us.d. This.rfcrs to thc pitch of thc roDG
and is thc dista&c along onc complcte spiral ofa strand. A soft-lay rop!
will luvc a longcr jaw than a hardlay ropc. Whcn a ropc is badly
slrctchcd so that it sufcrs permanentclonSatioathc insidc of th strrnda
is quitc clcerly visiblc from lbe cxtcrior of thc ropc, which is rsid to bc
long-jat)cd, fot tlrc pitch hascxteNively incrcascd.
Whcncvcr somc litrc is cul from a coil, cjihcr thc lcngth rcmovcd ot
thc lcogth rcmaining should bc markcd up ncsr by.
Mirc.lhn oos Cords aDdTii!.s
S',,all Codag. is rrsoallyrcfcrr.d to at scaas small stufr. Somc of tha
tDorc commoD oocs arc listcd below. Thc sizc of small stuff is oftrtr
rcfrcd to by thc Dumbcr of thrcads or yams. A thre-straodcdropc
having th.ec yams in cach strand would bc known as ninc-thrcad linc,
Ccrcrally. small cordagccan bc ordercd hy lenglh in coils of 220.
ll0or55m.
,rotrer;r? is made f.om Indian hcftp ind is 3-ply. i.c. lhrec yams
twistcdtogether.It is usuallytarredand sold in ballsby weighl,usually
o[about I l0 m to.thekg.
lltrrl,rr is similarto houslinebul is 2-ply. llorh marlincand housclinc arc usdfor srvingand whippinSropcs.
Hanb.olire is a small tarred henp usedas a boltrope or vcry hcavy
servings.As a yrcht Iacingit is unt.rred lulian hcmp.It is sold thrcslrandcdin 55-mhanls. and runsar 6. ? or 8 nm diamcter.
Sr@rart is a larrcd, soft hcmp comprisitrgtwo, thrcc, or four thrErds
414

ROPE AND CANVAS


tirilt.d to8crh6.It i! nlidy ulcd for lcrvilt ud cov.ri!& wft loF
snd strndiog riggirg. AccordiDgto thc numbcrof thrcsdsit is sold
.ithcr by wcightor by lcngthin coils.
Oak n is a dalr ofoily ib'r nada froid tow or old ropa!vhich hrv.
b.c! picLd to pi.o.!, lt i! llusly bous[t i! rEr[ bdl6 andod.rld by
rcight. It is cti.dy r|!.d for c.ulti!8 dcct ...ns, tDd i! rollcd iDto a
lodg thErd for thi! purpocc,Tbtrc tbtladr alo !co6!rly to crult s
law dcch whilo olc or two tbllads trr uturly olad to tcnovalca!
.rtablilhd woodcndccL Tbc ortun ir brRlcnaddo9tr into thc 6aarnr
ald tbadrrj&d with molt r pit ! to !.al thc !..d.
Tand Coftlag.it nd.dcfroD soft hcop and urcd fot Scnalrl dcck
purpoaar,liletbrqd litrc bciDgpopulrr tt a brayinglinc. It is roadcil
veriou3sircsfrom ninc to t*cnty-onc lhrcads,thc corrdpondiDgcircumfcrcncas
bcing7-15mm. It is oftcdrcfcrrrd to asradinc.
Drcss.dhemplinct i'|.C'\d.+ and tr nlincfo. bost lacitrgs,awning
lecinSsdrd cod.linc.Il his i fnc fnish end is strotrgbut light. lt is
obtlitrcd in 5t or I lGm cailsand meyelsobc rold in t or l0 mm sizcs
for sigral hellisrdaor plair.d loglinca.
Izadllna t 'llad. ftom high-grrdccsbldlaid hcmp.Thc final Ly
is uiudly hft.handad.Iland lcsdlircsarr about 8-10mm in diamct.r
and suppliadir 55-n coils. Thc h.avi.r dccpse3l.adlincs arc about
12mm in dirmatlr aDdsupplicdas220"mcoils.
Patentlogllncstft fia& of polyth.nc (low absorption)or unlarrcd
Itrdian or EuroFan hcmp,ir coils vsryrag from 73 to 2a) m. Thc
litrc is usurlly plaitcd and may havcr copF -wirc corc. Thc aizcis
from l0 to 12Inn.
T*in , 3-ply for scamingand 5-ply for ropitr& is nrrdc of fax or
hcmp,lt ii sold in 0.28kg bslls. Othcr twincsmsdcof polypropylcnc
er! u&d for g.ncrathcing work.
Sigr',l lnlliardt, Polythencis idcsl, in 73-mcoils, o*ing to its low
watcr-aboorption.
D.dt Hftd.1 .d Xffi
Thaulc ofthc meylocallyrcduccthc rttlnStt ofa ropcby !! much
a! 4m%, ald thialhould coDstsntlyba borDain Dild whctrvorlitg
wirh !op., upo! whichthc !.fc9 of lif. day dlpcnd.
Thc r.ra! ulcd in ttis work ar!:
Thc ,ralr, whtuhlcfc.s to tL middlc prn of ihc ropc bcfiy.rD thc
bcr*cc!
cdd!,rtrd a&olo r loop nrdc froE thc ropc.A roF suaDaodcd
two poitrb i! laid to hary h r bighr.
Tha Stddtra P4rt i! thc p6rt of thc bight ocrEdt to thc ayc,bcnd,or
hitclr Ir i! rko lhrt p6rt ofs trctL fall vtich i! lccuttd to thc block.
Ttc ,Ur|'fu t d ir thst part of s roF vbich Lrd! tbtoughe frirlcld.
whichmov6 tbroud pullcyr,ot whic.hf$t comcrreey froE r coil.
415

?tauta ot

I'ND
ot

a tcFt

!!s!-lL!

ROPE AND CANVAS


Thc Dd of r ropc ir thp .hon lcqtt .t thc crtrcoitit of ! roF. h
rtro rcftf! to ttc wrt abort piccclcft iftsr ndi4 a l(!ot, bcad,or
hirlb.Tb fur.6 FagFrtdit tbc crtrcmccodofa toF.
Ia Fi8: 152 rhcfoltroviagetl illultr.t d:
Tfu Oyatw Ntr,t tthidEry baput ilto t rcpa,o ibrt r Frron ca!
grip thc lic without bi, bllrd! slipPi!8.It ir th. b..i! of.cvrrd b.od!
rd hitcfrcr,.!d ia i! f.ct, r hdf-bi&h.
Tb ng,g..4&Ight ft,lt i! Put itrto i toF to Pt .Eot it from unt!.v"
irs tDroud . block.
Tb nrta Hxdri! ofua ulcd to tacuF r linc to s tpar or a bdc. lf
it i! ddirrd to toe ot drsg thc obji:ct or pcrhpi to hoilt it, it ir tcpt
.&.dy by p6.td!t ! hltf-hitrh !ou!d tbc obj.c't r diltttc. froE thc
tiEb.|r hid rod cl6c to thafoffrtd or upp.r cod.
Tfu. Sh!,rtBad on Sw'DErcl i! ulad for joioinStwo rop.r toSpthcl
or to raqr'. !! rad to !! cyc' If it ir mldc uound boit sidcsof a hook
ft b (,.ft.d I Mtdthlprt@t!fitci. If i! thc nSutrthc.od i! 'gin pols.d
rrourd lhc cyaad Anrly tucld oldcr thc atalditrgFrt' tbatlault it r
doublc.hccl bcnd.
Tfu Cbra Etch 1o'!! a quict ncrtr! of $c{ti!g r ropc to i tpor'
rril, ctc. It t odr to dip uldcr r ridc pu[.
Itr Fig. 16.3th. fonori4 .r. illutrot d:
Thc x.4&Dr, rvhichi. ulcd to joitr togcth.rtwo !o9.r ofcqurl dr!.
It consiltr of teo oErhrnd tlott. Tha c!d. Eust bc cro6s.doppoailc
*!yr cac.htina, i.. ldt ovrr rifbt-ri8ht ovcr lcft, or Yiccwnr. lf thc
oErbrtrd lnob rrc Brdc rhcaamcwly a.c5 tiDa a t't'ty lDot rclulb,
whi.[ ulutuy cithrr tlipa or, Frsdoric.ly, irD! hrtd. If tha lirrcau!
ofur.qud tirc, or if thc t cf3ho*a tiglt ofdippi!& thc aod! mly bc
rtoD9.db.ck otr to thc rtlodiDCFrb'
iic lo"lttr fornr ra cxccncotbcthod of introducitrgr taDporuy
ctc
itrto thc codof s roF. It it arrrcEclytdiru..
'T!
futatlc Ettdtbtt.n dtrr tum co6p|rEd with tbc clow hitch.
Iti. D.t . iituit bL for withrt lding.idc.ts t!r* .!d it i! thcflfor!
oftaouacdfor rtoppaaila-ofir topc.
Th. ttarl-tutci t proboblythc mdt r/lll'tlotD hitch of dl. It pro'
vida r vcrv qui:t mcaarof a.cuing I linc" It do.. lot tlip or jrD'
oroviocanilo[df-tltcts rtc trl daald prrfcnbly rtirr prlailg a rouad
iutn rrouad thc rprr' rail, ctc' Thc .od Dry bGltop'pGdbockor to t[a
rtrldirg-M'slha-olk.
Frt
HtlcJti.3ulcful for !.cutiDg i lonSobjc.t withi.o
Tb
tic bight of r to-F. It mly b. urcd to i.od g.rr .loft to mcDi.,orli!!
h ttc riSgi!&
417

ictt

tflol

tt cuil

ta.t

ruc*s'uNoaqovEC
FounrrrEs

lll lcH

rlttctl

atcut | 6.|.

ROPB AND CANVAB


I! Fig. 16.4thc foloeilg rtl illuttr.trd.
Tb Cznlck Bal !.ka r f.idy long hit t vh.a joiDi4 tm ropc.,
!!d i! tlcrdorc u!.ftI rtco p.!si!t th.lin r ov.( i tr.qilg druD.ThG
c[dr Durt bc raizadbackto thc ttardiDgpartt,
Thc CowUircl .gritr form! r quickrr.atr! of!.cudng a lila to a aril,
rper, .tr. It baoomquqtrblc if otrly olc parl oftha roF ir attlaad.
Tfu Dlack*t EbdtlFtrr(' ! li!. to . hoot. Wh.o rhc rtrlding prrt
i! st *r.d it j.d! th. b.rr ctrd rhich i! tuck d b.d..th it, If rnothrr
tum hadb..tr p.56rdtrortnd tlc hoot with th.6d it wouldh|vc tr[dc
I doublcbhckidll hitch,
'B
Tb Marlw Hltch rr3fdto L.[ bundlcr of tsib, trrFulitr, ctc.
Thr work ir callcdda.rinj: &rzr. Tbc cy! itr thc cndof thc mF mry bG
nadc by E ant of r bowliDaor timbcrhitch,
Th. Awnhg ltitc, provid.. . quick nc.$ of uariggilg r{lilgr
vhcn tb. wild frlahao!. ft ahouldbc noticadhow thc Gtrdha! bcao
luct d brck ro ttat s Utht ir Lft protrudilt. Vhld ih. cad ir pu[.d
th. biSbt !o loltrt.rirb
.ad th. hit h i c..t ofr. T[i! n thod of
providils . quick-.lippirg bilch Dry bGulcd o! thc th..t b.nd, clovc
hitc5,bonlitrc,roling birch,th! lrlt oDcoft*o or rno6 hdf-hit hcr,ud
lcwGl othcrN,Dotillstrrtad.
In Fi& 16.5th. folowing !r. illurtr.t d r
Tbc Clow llitcl, thir tidc forEcd oo th. bidl ofthc ropc,usilg ao
cnd.A loop ard a ralt ra loop arr cloladtoSathcrrtrd rlippcd owr th.
objcclto ba,ccur!d.
Th. .tlr?rri@rt t dponrily thort dr thc biSht of r ropq Thc tro
,tlall biSht!, protrudilg fro6 thc balf.hitchd at rrc.h .od, rhould bc
,.i4d brct on to rh. n rdiDg p.rt .
Tb h i,nc.o^.tltWhi T[i+ .. crn bc rcca,ir r'rdc o! ttc bilbt
of r doublcdroF. lt ir conocnccd|, for atr oidinrry bowliF. wl.o
thc 'ctrd' i! broughtup throughlhc bight, .! lhosd, brt .d of b.i!g
F!s.d rround tbc rt&ditrg Fnr |! in th. bowli& it ir brou&t dql
fron it.nd thc cotirchitchi! p.!Dd ttrcufh thc.!d loop, r. indfo.trd
by th. ar?owr.Ar r &.ult, ttc cddloopf!!ly ruosup tbrousbth. Lrse
bigbt and ytt ctrcircld Orc.trdiry p.rl!. It urcd to b. . populsrlnot
to livr to r bcgintrcr,Eardy fof tlc .porr of |.ciog *hcthcr hc could
undo it, for at vlry f$t light tbc badtrtrr iDafilrr tbat thc antiE
lctr8thofthc ropc,lot aboe!, ha! bcaopa$.d tbrougnlhGGodloop.
(A tutt W Doelh. hmrdc by pu.irt ttc Gtrd.rouod thc rt|sdilg
p6n lrd mekitt I borvliocor itr orfi pr.t It i! a rliFtiot or trooCc,
rtrd murt rcvc. bc u!.d for loelriDg d rtstr. Thc bowlildo!.thcbigbt
i! u!.d for thi!, add thc two Ug bight! h,nglng bclow th. hor |t!
rdjultcd to dificrcrt dzcs.Thc roil btht ir pa$cdundcrr mrl'l rol,
atd thc ldgcr odcundcthi. buttocb)
420

glovE Htrctt
ot{ ltcH I

t
t

t
1
I

t
I

lofllllE

oll

ltcHt
Ft0ul! | rt.5

IHEEPTHAIIX

ROPE AND CANVAS


G.n frl tof. Wcl
It will bc app&cietcdthat tnoti, bcnds,hitchcs,aDdropcworkprc
vidccDoughtcxt to fill a scparatcvolumc.For thisrr$on, or y lhc most
commontypcahavcbcrn illustratcdaod dilcuslad.Fot !|orc curious
rt',.dc's,,lthle,ft Book of Kt@tt 'ttill provida auitablactrtcrtrimcnt.
Similady, odly thc morr imDort ot aspcc{sof ropc work arc now
dcscribd.
Stot?.rhg Ro[* To trxrsfcr . taut mooringlilc froe thc warpirg
drum to thc bit8, or lor aimilerwork, a ltoppcr mustbc pr$cd to hold
ftc linc in rc$ion ehilc ir is bcingbclayld. Thc sloppd i! elso ulcd
whcoworkitrgthc liDcfrom tbc bith to lh. drun. Fig. 16.66how.lhc
mcthodof pessinga fibr!-ropc stoppcrarounda ffbrr roF which ia

coRRlct

loPE atoPpEt

tttH \

tttx6 Ei atlit
ioaa, lur Brcfit
FONCll^tN SlOPaEt Oft rrt iorE
atcuia t6,6

6 ft

strc.s.dassbown.A bslf-hitcb,or thc fust tto turm of. rollitg hitch,


alt Da& agrirlt rhc ley of tha lirr, tha rcEri.tdcr of thc rtopFr thao
b.itrg do8f6droundwith thc hy !!d thc cid b hcld in rhc batrd.
ALo illust at d fu ttc itrcorrcctwayof prasitrgthc fibrr rtoppcr.Thc
half-hitchhsr b..! nadc with thc lay.Thfu,howcvcr,providcir corftct
bcthod for paasinga crai'r ttopperatouadu wln rope.Agsitr,rhc ftlt
awotum. ofa rcllitrg hitchsill bc rrorEsatidsctorythans hdf.hitch.
S|8.a ad Bc'r CLlr! Fig. t6.7 show!two ncthodafor aaqtring
r geotlirc (o. loncring liac) to r st gc.Thc lcft-handilluatrationis viF
tually a msrli&-spik. hitcb rlippcd ovcr rhc horn of thc ategc.Thc
riSht-hrodmcrhodis morc satisfsclory.Two partsof ropc .rE rhown
l.adingaway;onc is oDlyabout2 m long rnd i6 bowlincdto thc other
pan Thir othcr parr is thctrlcd thiough th. pullcy block,dowtrto thc
!tt8c wbcrr Evcral round tum! alt osdc aith it arcuodthc tlag. be
twccothchom addthc cDd.Thalaroundtumsrrc rcldarld (or rtsckcd)
whcoit fudcaiEdto lowrtbc ltrga.
Alao 6howDis a bosun'rd!ir. H.rc, thc runniogFrt ir brought

a2

alcntt
Lrtt t8!!a
fr D DF? Orli(Atlo
U||DEI)!l{o oF 3lr6E.

atao!

lItcHlS

c||Ali Hrtcr{

oi lllllt
tHlLa

i aar||c
alclll'

no oot|.
!tout!

ta.t

ROEE AND CANVAS


th.ougb thc chlir bddlc ed hcld fraly rgiart thc rt.rdirg prtt bV
gipping it rtroqly i! on hrd. Alt rlativrly, r tcmpotuy rciziogcu
bc rirda. Thaotharhnd i! thcnulcd to hravr thc bight oftha ruDnirg
prn ttrough tbc bridlc, oEr tbc bc.d, bchiddtbc b6ck,uDdcrthc fc.t,
rnd ltp r.to$ thc krrca, Thc psrt rnarld iD ttc fgpr!'To coil' i! th.o
gr.dudly hovot ut until thc hitc[ ir tight.roud thc b.idl.'. rFx. Th.
tdp oo thafrtt tvo Frtt, or thc scizitrgc.! nowta rcLalad.Thcchrjt
i! lowrr.d by Fnd.riDgtbc hitchjud msdr.

wryo
Itr Fi& l6.t rrc ahov!, fron laft to rigbt, tbccodlmo!,Wc.t Country,
rld .rilnrkc/a rvtipping.Thc frrt atrdb5i lrr uturlly uad to whip
tL..od ofa rop., eNlr tb. W.'t Courtry whippiq ir ulcd to bitrdihc
bit[t of. roF.
whrrttxca

cot ll Tit

(ll Tb C@rrrlf[ ||t@phg L ordc by lryia3 thctwincelolt thcrop.,


poiltirS torrtd! thc cod, |!d ttc! p*ing aaml tur!! arould it,
4triu, t[o hy of tbc roF fh! twiic i. th.o loopcdirto r bight lnd
tgwml tight turlt r.t o rrourd thc cod of thr twitrc,FlriDg thc bi![t
orEi tb! codofthc loF rt Gacrh
turD.FiD![n tic vilibL cid ofthc f*ina
ir hor! tarrl bilditrg thc htt rur!, |!d cut ofclorc, Io t