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Radio School
Digital Radio Transmission
DT14 Spread-spectrum
techniques CDMA



Channel decoder

Channel coder

Speech coder

Speech decoder

Core Unit Radio Systems and Technology


Index to DT14
CDMA, Code Division MA
code sequences
cellular systems
cluster size 1
coordinated frequency hopping
discontinuous transmission, DTX
DS-CDMA, multipath propagation
DS-CDMA, synchronization
DS-CDMA, traffic capacity
fast frequency hopping
freqency hopping for military use
Gold sequences
interference-limited systems
interference suppression
jamming margin
matched filter detector
near-far problem
processing gain
rake receiver
slow frequency hopping
Walsh functions


Digital Radio Transmission
DT14 Spread-spectrum
techniques CDMA

1.1. Different types of spread spectrum
1.2. How DS-CDMA works
1.3. CDMA for mobile cellular networks
1.4. Characteristics of interference-limited systems
1.5. Other uses of band-spreading
1.6. Interference suppression
DS-bandspreading systems
2.1. Processing gain and anti-jamming margin
2.2. Transmitter and receiver arrangements
Technical aspects of DS band-spreading systems
3.1. Synchronization
3.2. Code sequences
3.3. Adjusting the receiver structure to multipath propagation 14
3.4. Use of FEC (Forward Error Control)
Frequency hopping for military systems
4.1. Fast frequency hopping
4.2. Slow frequency hopping
4.3. DS-CDMA
Cellular systems based on band-spreading
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Band-spreading through channel coding
5.3. DS-CDMA
Appendix 1. Characteristics of pn sequencies
Appendix 2. Walsh functions



The name CDMA refers to the fact that a spread-spectrum system with sufficient bandwidth expansion can give so large suppression of interference from radio connections. There are several ways of achieving band spreading. In military applications. not marked by the right code. the Swedish ”Truppradio”. which can also give considerable bandwidth expansion. normally expressed in dB. that enough isolation is obtained between simultanious connections to permit multiple access. Fast Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum It has only been used in military communication systems. Compared to FM. so long as synchronism can be maintained between the transmitter and the receiver. the code is generally determined by a cryptographic key. 4 . Suppression of jamming was the original use of spread spectrum. an acceptable transmission quality can be obtained even if the interference/jamming (I or J) is considerably stronger than the desired signal (received power C) at the receiver input. Thus. to prevent jamming signals from being marked with the same code. Due to the bandwidth expansion. The suppression of hostile jamming is based on the assumption that the code can be kept secret.1. spread spectrum techniques can provide more noticeable improvements in receiver sensitivity when interference is the limiting factor. b. Slow Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum It is normally called Frequency-hopping Code Division Multiple Access (FH-CDMA) in civilian communication applications. discussed in previous modules and in module DM1. marked with the wrong code. The bandwidth expansion is achieved through applying a modulation (coding) that is not directly related to the baseband information. even if the desired signal is considerably weaker than the interfering signals within the wideband radio channel being used. similar to that used for encrypted transmissions. The major reason to apply band-spreading in military applications is the discrimination against hostile interference (jamming) with the intention to disrupt the communication.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES 1. It is used in military mobile networks. If overall system considerations permit bandwidth expansion. spread spectrum systems can continue to discriminate against unwanted interfering signals. which explains the name of one of the most important characteristics: the Anti-Jamming or Jamming Margin. Overview 1. This corresponds to a negative protection ratio (C/I)min. c. CDMA is thus an alternative to FDMA and TDMA. Different types of spread spectrum It has already been shown in connection with frequency modulation and channel coding that the detection characteristics can be improved through bandwidth expansion (modulation gain and coding gain). i. The three most common ones are: a. there is no limit (or threshold) to the improvement that can be obtained.e. Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum It is normally called Direct-Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS-CDMA) in civilian communication applications.

each primary radio symbol is coded with a ”chip” sequence of much higher rate than the symbol rate. also corresponds to the system selectivity at a FDMA system.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES The definition of the jamming margin (I/C)max is the maximum relative level of the interfering signal. The ratio between the chip and symbol rate determines the spreading ratio (ratio between the modulation bandwidth after and before band-spreading). not marked with this code. This is achieved by adding FEC channel coding with interleaving. that is discussed in modules DT10 (channel coding) and DM1 (GSM). which results in collisions. the hopping rate is so slow that many information bits. Frequency hopping was motivated in the GSM system mainly by the need to introduce frequency diversity to support channel coding with interleaving in connection with quasi-stationary propagation channels. In a basic direct-sequence system. using normal narrowband modulation. which means that also the short term frequency spectrum is spread out. This means that if the propagation channel has a large delay spread. This is the same hopping arrangement. This limits the mutual isolation and thus the CDMA capability. This is obtained with direct sequence and to a large extent also with fast frequency hopping. In frequency hopping. How DS-CDMA works The ability to detect the desired signal against a background of strong interference is based on the incoming desired signal being marked with a specific code known to the receiver. are sent during the duration of each frequency hop.2. at the receiver input. The processing gain is closely related to the jamming margin. In direct sequence band-spreading systems. see section 2. see section 2. A more detailed coverage is given in module DM3. 1. for acceptable transmission quality. the spreading ratio is equal to the processing gain which is closely related to the jamming margin. In true spread spectrum systems. even is the code is right. the hops occur at least as fast as the rate of the input signal to the transmitter modulator. I. the codes define the differerent frequency hopping patterns. which determines the processing gain. The degree of suppression is determined by the spreading ratio. At fast frequency hopping. as sometimes more than one connection occupy the same time-frequency slot. All interfering signals into the receiver (besides the wideband input noise No). The jamming margin. The optimum interference suppressing capability is obtained with random patterns. This module deals primarily with DS-CDMA. The problem is that it is necessary for good interference suppression that the information in each source bit is spread out over the whole assigned frequency band. only part of the multi-path signal can be detected with full sensitivity by a simple receiver with one detection channel. as this is the preferred type of spread spectum for cellular radio. the bandwidth expansion occurs for each information bit. for interference falling within the assigned frequency band. are considerably suppressed by the receiver signal processing. An additional condition for maximum receiver sensitivity is that the timing of the locally generated code sequency matches the coding on the received wanted signal. Input signals with wrong timing are suppressed. 5 . and not used by any other of the simultanious connections in the system. At slow frequency hopping (FH-CDMA).

several signal components can be combined coherently in a multi-channel receiver. the transmission quality will be unsufficient.3). which can simultaneously receive signals with different propagation delays and/or different codes. 6 .1. Se figure 1. resulting in better utilization of the received signal power and also in a diversity gain (multi-path diversity against frequency-selective fading). can also be used for base-station diversity with soft handover in the outward direction. Soft handover. At CDMA the maximum number of simultanious connections is determined by the fact that all users beside the studied one (wanted signal) will contribute to the total interference level. CDMA for mobile cellular networks An interesting question is whether CDMA can give better spectrum efficiency than other types of multiple access. see section 3. (Cf.1) T: Base-station transmitter R: Terminal receiver The receiver knows the spreading codes used by the transmitters. Macrodiversity. on the other hand the jamming margin allows several connections to share the same band. the detector will try to match its code timing to the largest multi-path component of the wanted signal. fig. The same condition can be expressed as the need for the system bandwidth to exceed the correlation bandwidth of the propagation channel to make frequency diversity possible. Such a receiver. If this grows too much. With more advanced signal processing (rake structure. it is necessary that the modulation bandwidth is wide enough to enable the different propagation paths to be distinguished in time by the receiver signal processing.1 The same baseband signal with suitable spreading is sent from several base stations with overlapping coverage. such as FDMA and TDMA. 3. one-channel receiver.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES In a simple. 1. On one hand the bandspreading consumes more spectrum.3. It is necessary that the terminal receiver knows the spreading codes used by the base transmitters involved. To obtain diversity gain. The terminal receiver decodes and combines signals from several base stations simultaneously. Figure 1.

balanced speech each direction is active less than half the time. can be used within each cell. This is referred to as the near-far problem. where the needed cluster size is more or less determined by the worst case interference level. This means that the number of cochannel interferers will be much larger than at a corresponding FDMA/TDMA system.4 below. the b. which reduce the total interference level.e. advantage is taken of the very efficient interference averaging.) In a basic DS-CDMA system (without interference cancellation) orthogonality cannot be obtained in the inward directions (see page 15). These signals often have a high degree of burstiness. An option at GSM is frequency hopping.r. during a connection the maximum source data rate is much higher than the average rate. is determined by the ratio between the wanted signal (C) and the combined interference (I) from all the other connections in the receiver input. but random between differerent cells. but instead has the advantage that coordinated hopping. enough bandspreading is generally used so that all cells can share a common frequency band (cluster size 1). A simple case. This is called an orthogonal arrangement. It means that the transmitter is cut off during speech pauses. 7 . 1. hopping patterns used at different cells shall be mutually random. A major additional advantage of DS-CDMA is very efficient dynamic resource allocation (bandwidth-on-demand). which must use fairly large cluster size. which is much higher than the average level. Therefore. The cluster size is therefore nearly determined by the average level of the interference. The interference averaging gives a considerable improvement in frequency economy compared to traditional FDMA and TDMA systems.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES In a cellular system based on DS-CDMA. In a suitable designed. i.e. giving in principle perfect isolation between the connections in each cell. (To obtain maximum suppression of interference from other cells.4. For normal. which is arranged so that the hopping patterns are coordinated within each cell. see section 1. which must handle non-speech signals. which eliminates collisions. FH-CDMA is not quite as efficient in this respect. often used at two-way speech connections is Discontinuous Transmission (DTX). i. Characteristics of interference-limited systems The transmission quality. This is an important consideration in future systems.e. This is the main reason why a DS-CDMA or a FH-CDMA system typically gives better frequency economy than a FDMA or a TDMA system. Therefore. DTX gives two times improvement in system capacity in a typical case. all features that have an influence on the level of I (relative to the value of the wanted signal C and assuming a fixed spreading ratio) will have an impact on the normalized system capacity (normalized with respect to a given system bandwidth) and thus the frequency economy. UMTS.. One consequence is the need to control the signal levels into the receiver (mainly the base receiver) very accurately. improve the frequency economy. This is one of the main reasons why DS-CDMA will be usd for the next generation cellular system. so called interference-limited system. which results in a small difference between the worst-case interference level and the average level. On the other hand all system facilities. Otherwise a nearby terminal with low propagation loss will prevent detection of a weak signal from a terminal at the outskirts of the cell.

is proportional to the instantanious source data rate. 8 .5 Other uses of band-spreading As a DS-CDMA detector strongly discriminates against received signals with the wrong timing relative to the local code. the next largest one is detected. so that the reduced I/C ratio falls below the AJ-margin and thus can be handled by the basic CDMA system. (For a given bandwidth after spreading. The wide bandwidth of the transmitted radio signal also means that the signal power per hertz is low. Interference suppression An advanced attachment to a DS-CDMA system is interference cancellation or joint detection. This information is used to improve the isolation between the wanted signal and the interference. Propagation delay measurements of signals coming from different transmitters with known positions can be used for navigation or position dermination. that shall be cancelled. This is one of the most important advantages of DS-CDMA in connection with future cellular systems. The ideal situation is to establish full orthogonality between the wanted signal and the interference. no central allocation of channel resources is necessary. and also can estimate the propagation channels for these signals. For the same reason. The principle is to use very advanced and complicated signal processing to analyse the mixture of wanted signal and interference signals in the receiver input. 1. To the input is added out-of-phase a cancelling signal corresponding to the strongest interferer. The procedure continues until the remaining interfering level is low enough. and thus the corresponding transmit power. This makes hostile interception of the signal more difficult. After that.6. very accurate measurements of propagation delays are possible. The simplest procedure is successive cancellation of one interferer at a time. the signal will be masked by the input noise of a surveillance receiver. starting with the largest one. the needed level of C at the receiver input. GPS. 1. The accuracy of the delay measurement is roughly inversely proportional to the modulation bandwidth (roughly corresponding to the chip length). spread spectrum facilitates the coexistence of uncoordinated radio services in the same frequency band. An example is the Global Positioning System. Therefore. and a suitable cancelling signal subtracted. If the bandwidth is wide enough. This procedure can only work if the receiver knows the code markings of all the interfering signals. the processing gain and thus the jamming margin is inversely proportional to the source data rate. It is planned to use interference suppression in the two system alternatives chosen for UMTS (see module DM 3).) Demand assignment of channel capacity is simply achieved through adaption of the transmit power to the source data rate.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES This concept is exteded further as fast dynamic demand assignment of channel capacity (bandwith-on-demand). As is discussed in more detail in module DM 3.

If the antipodal modulation is used.1). that is. An example of suitable sequences is maximum-length shift-register sequences (see Appendix 1). Tc = 1 ⋅Ti M Ti Modulation bandwidth after spreading = B B >>W "Spread spectrum" Processing gain = G p = Fig. We assume that that the chip modulation is also 2 ASK. the signal will comprise a sequence of chips of length Tc = Ti/M.1. 2. After coding. in rough terms the modulation bandwidth before spreading will be W = 1/Ti = di. If the information bit rate is di. the duration of each information bit will be Ti = 1/di. Spread spectrum through direct modulation with p-n sequence Modulation bandwidth: Information bit stream: W ≈ di = Ti 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 I Ti 1 One chip Tc 1 1 "0": 1 1 0 "1": 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 Each information bit is coded with an M-chip code sequence. of M times. This corresponds to a processing gain. 2. the output signal from the normal transmitter modulator is mixed with a local oscillator signal modulated with a code sequence (pseudo-noise or pn sequence) (see Fig. The bandwidth expansion is obtained by replacing each incoming information bit with a code sequence comprising M ”chips”. DS-CDMA 2. Often 2 ASK (antipodal modulation) is used.1 9 B W B≈ 1 M = ≈ M ⋅W Tc Ti . the bandwidth expansion will be B/W = M. or 10 log M dB. Gp. The modulation bandwidth will be B = 1/Tc = MW.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES 2. Processing gain and anti-jamming margin In direct-sequence spread spectrum systems.

An example is given in Fig. W/B = 1/M. Thus. the noise from the matched filter for all types of interfering signals that are not correctly coded is very similar to Gaussian noise. in practice a somewhat lower value is obtained than the theoretical value of Gp indicated above. of the interfering signals can pass the matched filter. the receiver detector is similarly influenced by the noise density of the interfering signal and the thermal noise No. W W ≈ di Code generator B B B Modulated LO τm r Signal bandwidth Bsign = W Gp = τpu B W B C B jam ≥ B No PSK (FSK) Output signal Demod. Inasmuch as the signal from the receiver LO has a noise-like characteristic.regardless of the structure of the interfering signal in the receiver input. making the bandwidth M times greater. the LO is modulated with the same pn-sequence. Processing Gain Gp di b / s input signal Code key PSK (FSK) Mod. In the receiver. especially if contributions from many chips are added in the filter (impulse response much longer than a chip). which means that we can apply the same detector characteristic as previously derived for white Gaussian noise. 2. All other signals that have not been coded with the right pnsequence included time shift will have their bandwidth expanded to at least B when they pass through the receiver mixer (convolution of the input spectrum and the LO spectrum). which is syncronized in time to the corresponding sequence enbedded in the received signal. 2 An approximate derivation of this expression is shown in Fig. However. 2.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES Spread spectrum technique.3.2. 10 . at most a fraction. The result is that exactly inverse operations are performed by the transmitter spreading mixer and the receiver despreading mixer. Consequently. The original. owing to implementation difficulties. As an example a spreading factor of 1 000 corresponds to a processing gain Gp = 30 dB. W Attenuation C ≈ 0dB Attenuation J ≈ G p B B>>W τm r = τpu τpu : Propagation delay I I = Jammer (Hostile or within system) Fig. non-spread signal spectrum from the transmitter modulator has thus been regenerated and can pass through the matched filter of bandwidth W without any attenuation.2. the interfering signal from the matched filter will also be noise-like . The spreading is obtained by antipodal modulation of the transmitter oscillator using a pn-sequence with M times higher data rate. The bandwidth of the desired output signal from the receiver mixer is thus despread to the original bandwidth W. The bandwidth of the matched filter is approximately W ≈ 1/Ti. Closer analysis reveals that if the bandwidth expansion is enough. The starting point is a conventional 2-ASK/2-PSK link with a matched receiver.

derived above. Other modulation types than antipodal. J/C. This is a rough estimate. The basic processing gain relates to the source data rate not the rate after the channel coder. 11 . Part of the bandwidth expansion can be achieved through coding. As an example.3. the power density of the interfering signal. From this we get the expression for the jamming margin. Maximum permissible bit error rate of 1%. can be used for the basic modulation and the spreading modulation.4). The required value of C/Jo will be the same as the required value of C/No for the basic arrangement without spread spectrum. are still valid as long as the processing gain is defined as the ratio beween the bandwidths after and before spreading.3 Since the interfering signal occupies a bandwidth of at least B in the input to the detector filter. 2. as shown in Fig. Spreading factor: B/W=500. 2. at the systems to be used for UMTS. If so. which have different ratios between modulation bandwidth and modulation data rate. J/C = 27-5 = 22 dB Fig. that is. The influence of Jo on the detector can be regarded as equivalent to the corresponding noise. the basic modulation will be either 4QAM or 16QAM.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES Jamming Margin = J/C Jo = W ≈ di J B (Noise density. Jo. No. In a detailed analysis we would have to take into account the auto and cross correlation characteristics of the code sequences and also the fact that the amplitude distribution of the incoming interfering signals to the detector can somewhat deviate from Gaussian. the coding gain is added to the basic value of the processing gain before adding channel coding (see section 3. The relations. Watt/Hz) C C C E ≡ = ⋅ B = i ⋅ di No No Jo J C C = Ei di J = JoB p-n sequence C Ei di = ⋅ J No B Gp = B di  Ei  J − = Gp   dB  N o   C  dB dB ( ) Jo ⇒ No Example: Information bit rate: d i = 10 kb / s ⇒ W ≈ 10 kHz 2-ASK modulation. B=5 MHz Required Ei = 5 dB No Processing Gain. Gp = 500 times or 27 dB Jamming margin. in the worst case will be J/B.

one way of despreading the received signal is through the modulation applied to the local oscillator. the information and spreading bits are defined in terms of the polarity of the code sequence (see Fig.4 As can be seen from Fig.2. One possibility is to use a matched transversal filter whose outputs correspond to the train of ”+” and ”-” bits in the code sequence (see Fig.5).4).) Transmitter for pn-sequence CDMA NRZ generator Info source A modulus 2 + Code generator NRZ generator C 2-ASK modulator B Code key A Tc B C Ti Fig. 12 . (The bit rate of the spread sequence should be synchronized to and be a wholenumber multiple of the information bit rate. 2. The receiver mixer correlates the received signal with the LO signal. determined by modulus-2 addition of the source signal and the spreading sequence. An NRZ signal. that is matched to the code sequence (matched filter-receiver). 2. 2. 2.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES 2. This means that a common modulator can be used in the transmitter for both the source information and spreading code (see Fig. 2.1).2 Transmitter and receiver arrangements If antipodal modulation is used. is applied to the phase modulator. Another procedure involves the use of an unmodulated LO combined with a detector arrangement incorporating a filter.

5 A fixed sequence can be realized by a SAW filter. LO Matched filter Env. The correct synchronization in this arrangement is obtained by sampling the output from the matched filter at the right instant. det Autocorrelation function T S1 1 1 M Unmod. 13 ..- Instant Matched filter (SAW line) Fig. T = M ⋅Tc P-n sequence mod.. 3.-1 PSK mod. These occur at different times in the output and can be distinguished provided that the difference in the propagation time is at least Tc.. LO C= I S1 (t )S1 (t − τ)dt T ∫ (Maximumlenght sequence 0 T 0 τ 2T + + . At modest bandwidths.+ .+ . (The usual way of implement the optimum receiver for multipath signals is the RAKE structure.+. a more advanced convolver-type SAW structure can be used for a filter adjustable to different codes..+ . The advantage of a matched filter-receiver is that it facilitates synchronization of the detector to the incoming signal. the matched filter can also be realized using digital signal processing.++++ . see Fig. The matched filter can simultaneously process signal components having different propagation delays.1).+ + + +.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES Detection using a matched filter Tc +1 ++ . 2.

The autocorrelation function determines the output signal from the correlator. is often used for the initial locking in.e. where the main requirement is high resistance to jamming. Technical aspects DS bandspreading systems 3. In this context. Different time squences of the same basic pn-code are assigned to different connections. The synchronization arrangement is often the most complex subsystem in the receiver. However. A strong output signal from the correlator is only obtained when the relative time shifts of the received signal and the sequence applied to the local oscillator match. (See appendix 1). the phase of the code sequence that modulates the local oscillator slides slowly in relation to the corresponding sequence in the received signal. and part of the bandspreading is obtained by FEC channel coding. Once the correlation peak is detected. The largest secondary peak of the cross-correlation function is typically only 10 dB lower than the main correlation peak. A short sequence with good correlation characteristics. a maximum-length sequence. Despite their good autocorrelation characteristics. e. a. Several types of code types can be used for DS-CDMA. for example using a nonlinear combination of two maximum-length sequences (nonlinear requires a different mathematical operation from modulus-2 addition). 14 . it is clearly a drawback of maximum-length sequences that their integral structure is such that if only a small part of the sequence is known (twice the number of stages in the generating shift register). Differerent pn-sequencies are used to code different connections.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES 3. the the correct code must be used and also the pn-sequence shifted to the correct time to match the propagation delay. In the calculation of the processing gain in section 2. The sequences are generated by shift registers with different feedback structures. modulated by the chip sequence. A sequence with a much more complex structure can be obtained.2 Code sequences Despite their good autocorrelation characteristics. maximum-length sequences have relatively poor cross-correlation characteristics. The synchronization initially involves seeking of the correct code delay (locking in) and then maintaining the synchronization during the connection. maximum-length sequences (pnsequences) have some limitations in connection with spread spectrum systems. so that the effect of interfering signals coded with incorrect sequences was equivalent to that of noise. The right setting is indicated by a strong signal from the correlator. For optimum reception of the wanted signal. During the locking-in phase. the entire sequence can be calculated. i.g. b. it was assumed that the cross-correlation characteristics were nearly perfect. In military applications. the slide ceases and a feedback loop is switched in to maintain the synchronization. it is essential that the code sequences used cannot be cracked by the enemy. 3. Often the total bandspreading is obtained by a combination of more than one spreading process.1. this does not apply if the cross-correlation has prominent side lobes. Time shifted versions of the same pn-sequence have optimum autocorrelation characteristics.1 Synchronization The usual despreading arrangements at a spread spectrum system is based on a local oscillator. the correlation curve may have prominent side lobes.

greater modulation bandwidth would be needed since the time dispersion is smaller and therefore the correlation bandwidth greater. a modulation bandwidth of 3 MHz (time resolution ≈ 1/3 µs or a 100-m length difference) is required for a considerable diversity gain. see module DM3. With normal cell structures of the small cell or large cell type. More advanced functions with similar properties as the Walsh functions will be used for the WCDMA version of UMTS. for a shift register having a length of 10 there are 60 different sequence variants. the correlation will be insignificant as soon as the relative time position differs by at least one chip. which has several detection channels matched to different propagation delays (see below). Sequencies are used with improved orthogonality characteristics. The limitation is that full orthogonality is only obtained if there is very good time synchronization (at the receiver input) between the sequencies used for the mutual isolation of simultanious connections. The timing is so critical that it cannot be obtained in the inward direction. The simplest class of such function is the Walsh functions. In the case of good code sequences (maximum length pn-sequences). In a system based on micro cells and pico cells.only a small part of the radio channel’s impulse response is used by the data demodulator if there is extensive time dispersion. For instance. This has two important implications for a system. If these sequences are added modulus 2 with different relative timeshifts. see appendix 2. 3. see module DM3.3 Adjusting the receiver structure to multipath propagation Essential properties of a spread spectrum system are related to the criterion that the receiver code must have exactly the right time relation to the wanted input signal to be detected. this means that the full suppression. with a wide modulation bandwidth: .DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES For long maximum-length sequences of a certain length there are many variations (different feedback arrangements of the signals from the shift-register cells). In the case of a simple receiver structure. a large number of new sequences are obtained which also have good cross-correlation characteristics. The advantage with these improved functions is adaptivity to a large spread of source data rates. some improvement to the sensitivity characteristics can be obtained if the fading depth is reduced when the receiver is influenced only by reflections having almost the same propagation delay. their crosscorrelation characteristics will be much better than in the typical case given above. will be obtained if the time position of the receiver sequence deviates by more than 1/B from the optimum time setting (where B is the modulation bandwidth after spreading). Even in the outward direction. The Gold sequences (see Appendix 1) are the best known sequences of this type. corresponding to Gp. c. The 64-symbol class of Walsh functions is used at the US DS-CDMA standard IS-95. the isolation is somewhat degraded at the input to the terminal receiver.the impulse response of the radio channel can be measured very accurately (resolution corresponding to one chip interval) . If a suitable pair of sequences is chosen. if there is multi-path propagation with large delay spread. The requirement on exact timing is given by the autocorrelation function for the code sequence. Broadly speaking. 15 . Greater improvements in sensitivity can be achieved with a more complicated receiver structure known as a rake receiver.

in addition to time adjustment of the code.3). 16 . A more effective diversity arrangement is obtained using a rake receiver. to jump to another. This corresponds to equal-gain type of diversity (see module G2.1). (A pilot sequence can be used for this purpose).DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES Rake receiver Thresholddetector τ1 Code-sequence generator τ2 τ3 h (t ) R (microdiversity) Impulse response T T1 R (macrodiversity) τ1 τ2 t τ3 T2 h(t) = Impulse response for channel T2 T R microdiversity T1 R macro+microdiversity Fig. the relative phase positions of the LOs for the detector channels must also be adjusted. which gathers the energy from several propagation paths (see Fig. 3. As shown in Fig. For coherent combination of the contributions from different propagation paths to be possible. This achieves macro diversity with soft handover. when necessary. 3. stronger propagation path (corresponds to selection diversity).1. figure 5. a rake receiver can also be used to combine signals from two base stations. 3.1 The simplest arrangement for reducing the necessary fading margin is that whereby only a small part (one chip interval) of the impulse response is used at any given instant but where it is possible. This is made possible by a separate receiver channel that continuously measures the impulse response and locates the strongest propagation paths.

DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES 3. it is very attractive to obtain part of the spreading through error-correction coding. The resulting coding gain (time diversity gain) enables the required E/No (local average) for acceptable transmission quality to be reduced. No channel coding di di Modulator Spreading dc C Band compression Detector  Ei  N   o I GPI J I  J  =  No  ⋅ dc  C  ggr  Ei  di d = c di Legend  Ei Ei C / di   =⋅ =   No Jo J / dc  d i = Information data rate d b = Data rate from channel coder With channel coding (same d i and dc as above) di Channel coding db Modulator db Spreading E b =C ⋅Tb E i =C ⋅Ti Detector Spreading J } d Eb = Ei i db GPII II Gck = Coding gain d  Processing gain GPI =  c   d i  dB with no channel coding dc C Channel decoding d c ≈ B = Chip data rate (= radio bandwidth) d = c db II II  J  =  No  ⋅ dc =  No  ⋅ db ⋅ dc    C  ggr  Eb  db  Ei  ggr di db ggr I  J  =  No  ⋅ G ⋅ G I ( c) ( P)  C  ggr  Ei  ggr I  Ei   Ei  1 N  = N  ⋅ G  o  o  ( ck ) ggr I E  J ∴   = − i  + Gc + GPI dB  C  No  Fig. A transmission channel subjected to pulsed interference resembles a channel with fading dips below the sensitivity threshold. the processing gain is unaffected by the increased data rate from the channel coder and still given by the ratio dc/di. especially if a relatively low error rate is required by the transmission system. obtained without any need for additional bandwidth expansion (see Fig. i. pulsed interference is highly effective. for a given value of Gp and di.2 Channel coding combined with interleaving is an important addition to military spread spectrum systems subjected to jamming. the error rate will be close to 50%. 3.2). During jamming periods. For a given spread bandwidth and source data rate. 17 . (The coding gain is expressed in relation to Ei/No. the coding gain is ”gratis”. Thus. where Ei is the received energy per bit from the source).e.4 Use of FEC (Forward Error Control) In a spread spectrum system. (The same applies to E/Jo). Without this arrangement. 3. The most effective jamming is achieved when the duty cycle is adjusted such that the relative power of the interference at the input to the receiver to be jammed is just above the jamming margin.

transmission of the information is generally based on orthogonal. 18 .1 applies to a simple transmitter arrangement. to the frequency-dependent delay on a radio channel with time dispersion). The width of the frequency slots is often chosen such that it corresponds to the lowest value that will give orthogonality (W = di = 1/thop for the case in which the hop frequency coincides with the information data rate).1 For instance. 4. the available frequency band is divided into a large number of frequency slots. Fig. if the available frequency band B is divided into ”n” frequency slots each having a width of W = B/n. The receiver incorporates a corresponding hopping frequency synthesizer and suitable time synchronization. Since it is hardly possible to achieve phase coherence between adjacent received pulses (owing to implementation complications of the frequency-hopping frequency synthesizer and. The hop sequence determines where these pair of slots is placed within the allocated bandwith B. whereby the useful information is sent by 2-FSK with the use of two adjacent frequency slots. above all. noncoherent 2-FSK or MFSK. which results in synchronized hopping of the receiver and the transmitter. The code sequence in turn is determined by the code key.1 Fast frequency hopping In fast frequency hopping. The spreading is achieved by generating unmodulated radio pulses whose frequencies (corresponding the available frequency slots) are determined by a combination of the input signal and code-sequence generator. The digital input signal and the code sequence control the frequency synthesizer in the transmitter. Frequency hopping for military systems 4. Spread spectrum through fast frequency hopping (1 bit transmitted per hop) f "1" Code key "0" Codesequence generator 001110 Serialparallel converter Frequency synthesizer di = From information source I t thopp hop =W B t t hop Fig. a given hop frequency can be defined by sending ”k” bits at a time (n = 2k) from the code sequence generator. 4.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES 4.

fm. In frequency hopping. However. Using M frequencies. the requirement for synchronization precision in direct pn-sequence is determined by the chip length. fM). 4. 4. 19 . is generated from a group of M different frequencies (f1. f2 .. during each frequency-hop interval. a 10-bit code sequence and 2-FSK. (Basic modulation MFSK)..2 The signal energy in both frequency slots is compared in the decision circuit. a frequency. A suitable receiver arrangement is shown in Fig. i. On the basis of this. They can be placed independently in random frequency slots over the allocated band. Above it has been assumed that the frequency slots for 2 FSK and MFSK are packed together. det. One considerable advantage of frequency hopping over direct-sequence spread spectrum is the much easier synchronization. 1/B. which decides which channel has the highest energy. this is not necessary. 211 (2048) different hop frequencies are defined. The receiver has M parallel channels. det.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES For example. B. information is sent about n = 2log M information bits. it is also possible to send on more than one of these during each hop interval. circuit f1-fIF HF f1 or f2 Frequency synthesizer Decision Code sequence "0" Select highest IF Env. For a given bandwidth.2 In MFSK (M > 2). In the receiver the identical code sequence is fed to the frequency-synthesizer arrangement. Compared with direct sequence. the receiver can determine which two frequency slots (f1 and f2) are to be monitored during a hop interval to determine whether a ”0” or a ”1” has been applied to the transmitter. Depending on the value of n information bits. the frequency band is split into a large number of frequency slots each having a width of B/n (where ”n” is the number of frequency slots).e several source bits can be transmitted during each hop interval. the required time precision in the synchronization will be ”n” times lower. f2-fIF Frequency Code sequence "1" synthesizer "0" / "1" Fig. Receiver for frequency-hopping CDMA IF Env. The outgoing sequence of n bits corresponds to the channel which has the highest signal energy. This corresponds to a minimum length of radio symbols of n/B.

2. In slow frequency hopping. is used. typical adjacent channel selectivity is 70 dB. it needs to be designed such that the transmission quality is acceptable even at a high error rate. the more blocks will be lost and the higher will be the bit error rate.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES 4. This results in very strong interference because of low isolation between the nearby transmitters and receivers. This incurs the risk of mutual interference between terminals in close proximity to each other. suitable speech codecs (e. The more terminals there are in close proximity. the radio equipment has to meet stringent selectivity requirements.e blocks will be completely lost. The basic framework for the network is based entirely on the terminals included. relatively narrow frequency band. Therefore. slow frequency hopping. adaptive delta modulators) can be used up to a bit error rate exceeding 10%. Substantially better selectivity is obtained at greater frequency separation from the interfering signal. giving a selectivity of 70-110 dB.g. Many information bits are sent by normal narrowband modulation during each frequency-hop interval. Even with very large bandwidth expansion. Instead. the network must be able to function without fixed base or relay stations. Mutual interference between terminals is caused by collisions. if the same time-frequency slot is used by more than one connection at a given instant. (In some system configurations it is possible to coordinate the frequency hops such that collisions can be avoided. The extreme case with respect to interference levels occurs when terminals on the same vehicle have set up simultanious connections with remote terminals. If the speech-quality requirement is modest. It is impossible in practice to get anywhere near these selectivity characteristics in a direct-sequence or even fast frequency hopping bandspreading system. In an FDMA system. i. Military radio networks have to be designed such that they can quickly be reconfigured if sections (nodes) of the network are knocked out. In an FDMA system this problem is overcome by suitable spread out of the radio channels plus the use of highly selective channel filters. This solution is known as orthogonal or coordinated frequency hopping. This leads to a one-frequency simplex network. A direct sequence spread-spectrum system would be completely jammed by mutual interference in the system. Selectivity is reduced by a negligible amount by the widening of the transmitted spectrum and the receiver selectivity as a result of the frequency hopping. the hop sequence is so slow that the same level of selectivity is obtained as in normal FDMA transmission. 20 . employing typically 100 hops a second. the selectivity performance expressed as the jamming margin is modest in a direct-sequency bandspreading system in comparison with FDMA. Also the system selectivity of a system based on fast frequency hop would be unsufficient (spectrum spreading at the transmitter and receiver caused by transients due to the very short dwelling time per slot).) A one-frequency simplex system uses the same frequency band for communications in both directions. Slow frequency hopping In network planning for military mobile and portable communications. civil mobile radio applications use duplex networks or two-frequency simplex networks with base stations. (By way of contrast. if selectivity is limited between links in a common. Data transmission with a low bit error rate can be obtained using low-rate channel coding with interleaving over several hops.) If a system is to have good tolerance both to mutual interference within the system and to external jamming.

DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES The disadvantage of slow frequency hopping as regards hostile interference is that it incurs the risk of repeater jamming. 21 . the scope for effective jamming in practice is considered to be limited. This makes it extremely complicated in real time to sort out which combination of hops belongs to any individual link. corresponding to the AJ-margin. Repeater jamming is clearly possible on a system using slow frequency hopping.000 km. based on direct sequence or fast hopping.3 DS-CDMA DS-CDMA has been little used for terrestrial military networks without central control and therefore based on simplex. 4. desired propagation path is small enough. The main reason for this is that many radio connections are established simultaneously within a geographical area. The alternative is for the enemy to adopt wideband (subband) interference. so that this can then be jammed selectively. However. since the hops is of the order of 10 ms. the reason is the limited system selectivity. If the time difference between the propagation path via a hostile jamming installation and over the direct. the enemy will in principle have enough time to measure the frequency of the transmitted radio signal (each frequency hop) and generate a jamming signal on the same frequency. repeater jamming is impossible if the additional propagation delay via the jammer is greater than the duration of individual hops and if also the hopping structure is unknown to the enemy. As mentioned above. in which case a system based on slow frequency hopping can jamming is more or less as resistant to jamming as a system. This corresponds to a propagation distance of 3. However.

DS-CDMA c.which together determine the antijamming margin (see Section 2). FH-CDMA Of these.1. at low values of E/No. If a base-station arrangement with sector antennas is used. Therefore. Channel coding. Introduction Three basic alternatives have been studied: a. each site can use the same set of frequencies. the scope for achieving low values of the C/I ratio is limited by the fast performance degradation that occurs at high ber from the data detector. than was possible for the first-generation of digital mobile telephone systems based on TDMA. The reduction in the C/I ratio is due to the coding gain. So additional bandspreading is necessary to reach cluster size one. AJ: AJ = I/C = Gp .Eb/No dB 22 . 5. coding alone is not enough. Cellular systems based on band speading 5. proposed for GSM. combined with a sufficient modulation bandwidth to provide strong frequency diversity and interference averaging. Very low rate channel coding. DS-CDMA The necessary protection ratio in a spread-spectrum system based on DS-CDMA is determined by the processing gain.2. Thanks to large bandwidth expansion and other improvements.3.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES 5. From section 2. However.1 we get the following basic relations (to which coding gain might be added): Protection ratio: C/I = Eb/No . A concrete example is the ”Wideband TDMA” system. i. which simplifies frequency planning of the cell structure. Bandspreading through channel coding Reduction of C/I through increased bandwidth can be achieved through channel coding. only DS-CDMA has found commercial applications. enables the cluster size to be reduced to three. Gp. 5. each site covers three cells.e. frequency and antenna diversity and averaging of cochannel interference. using orthogonal codes b. See module DM1. Several factors contribute to the reduction in the necessary C/I: processing and coding gain. It is used in the US standard IS-95 and will be used for UMTS. the required transmission quality can be obtained at much lower values of C/I (global average). and the required E/No ratio .Gp dB Antijamming margin.

DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES In a cellular system. strong cochannel interference is obtained especially from adjacent cells. Therefore. I 5 < C (on average) .1. See figure 5. especially as with DS-CDMA all cells share the same radio band (cluster size 1).1 23 Power control: Within a cell: C = I1 = I3 = I4 Interference from other cells: I6 < C . All cells using the same frequency band B2 B3 T6 (Base station) (Terminal) T4 T5 I5 I1 T1 I4 B1 I6 I3 C T3 T2 ΣI < AJ C Figure 5. but in addition there are interference from other cells. the major part of the interference comes from the other connections within the same cell. CDMA .

DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES If we assume a DS-CDMA system for a telephony application with a speech coder rate d and DTX with an activity factor α and a bandwidth B after bandspreading. c. Again using a factor of 1/4 to account for the different degradations relative to the ideal. In a typical case the interference level is increased by around 40 %. b. a margin for the multi-path fading must be added. The fading margin can be reduced by diversity. Also when estimating the necessary Eb/No. Therefore. i. We can make the same type of very rough capacity analysis for the IS-95 system (taken from module DM3). frequency diversity. in a practical case several degradations must be accounted for. A major difficulty is the need to compensate also for the fast fading due to multi-path propagation. Due to the different degradation factors. and DTX with α = -3dB is used. the interference level is increased due to interference from other cells. if the spread bandwidth is larger than the correlation bandwidth of the propagation channel. The ideal system capacity N becomes: (N-1) = B/d .25 MHz. The main ones are listed below: a. Let us study a concrete case: At a cellular system. the system capacity is 1/4 of the ideal. N= 40+1 = 41 The practical figure becomes 1/4 x 41 ≈ 10. even if soft handover is used. This is determined by the jamming margin: AJ = (SI/C) = (N-1)Iα/C = (N-1)α = (B/d)(No/Eb) Going over to a dB expression we obtain: (N-1) = B/d . Over a nonfading channel Eb/No = 4. especially adjacent cells. or coding gain through channel coding. The transmission quality is somewhat degraded also of the wideband.5 dB fading margin we obtain Eb/No = 7 dB (local average). thermal receiver noise (No). Adding 2. It is impossible to obtain perfect power regulation.7 = 16 dB. Due to these degradations and a few additional ones. antipodal signalling is used.e. we can derive the channel capacity for an ideal case. The bandwidth expansion is 100 times. The major simplifications are that we neglect the interference from other cells and assume perfect power regulations (all signals into the base receiver have the same level).α .e. and an optimistic figure for Eb/No including fading margin is 7 dB. The data rate of the speech coder is 13 kb/s. the spread bandwidth is 1.5 dB corresponds to pb = 1%.α .Eb/No However. with the same channel allocation to all cells. The system capacity is the maximum number N of simultanious connections within a cell.Eb/No dB = 20 + 3 . the system capacity is about 1/4 of the ideal figure derived above.e. i. we obtain: 24 . all cells share the same band. i. referred to above. Generally a cluster size 1 is used. DTX with α = -3dB.

However.Possibility to introduce base-station diversity (macrodiversity) with soft handover. random hopping sequencies shall be used. are eased if interference cancellation is introduced in future systems or if DS-CDMA is combined with time duplex TDD (identical fast fading in up and down directions. 25 . with the advantages mentioned in section 1. since the same frequency can be used by all cells. for the same total system bandwidth. The collision rate can also be reduced by coordinating the hopping patterns within each cell.Simple frequency planning. thus achieving full orthogonality. FH-CDMA has the characteristics of an interference-limited system. but the same advantages are obtained at a normal.8 one-way speech channels per cell and MHz. The advantages of DS-CDMA with a cluster size of 1 are as follows: . .4 with respect to interference averaging and bandwidth-on-demand.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES Gp: 20 dB AJ-ratio: 13 dB (N-1) 20x2 (before correction for degradations) N = 11 (practical value considering all degradation factors) Normalized to 1 MHz bandwidth. including soft handover. as long as the collision rate is fairly low. The capacity limit has been reached. Bandspreading also gives the potential for improved frequency diversity. channel-limited TDMA system with frequency hopping. the error rate from the channel demodulator becomes so high that the quality of the connections becomes too low. which requires extensive practical measures for equalization of power levels. the collision rate becomes so high that the error correction capabilities are degraded. i. The major disadvantage is the limited jamming margin in combination with the near-far-problem. the main factor. as direct sequence CDMA.e. that improves the frequency economy of FH-CDMA. Also the signal variations due to multi-path fading is much reduced if very wide spread bandwidth (much larger correlation bandwidth of the propagation channel) is used.It is a perfect interference-limited system.4. 5. For optimum interference averaging. if the time between the up and down time slots is sufficiently small. is good interference averaging. The resulting error bursts out of the radio demodulator can be nearly completed eliminated by FEC. which means that it is a certain risk for collisions. The problems. The collision risk can be reduced by band spreading and by DTX. permits open loop regulation). . The disadvantage of FH-CDMA is less efficient dynamic demand assignment of channel capacity. Compared to a normal FH-TDMA system. as the system is more and more loaded. Finally. FH-CDMA Bandspreading through slow frequency hopping in combination with fairly extensive channel coding with interleaving can give comparable system capacity. connected with power control. the system capacity becomes 8.

The corresponding estimate for IS-95 in section 5.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES An example of an advanced TDMA system is GSM. 26 . Taking the cluster size and the bandspreading into account. the spectrum needed by the FHCDMA system to offer one speech channel in each cell therefore becomes: 25x3x1.8 channels per MHz. with only a small amount of bandspreading (spreading ratio ≈ 1.3 is 8. This corresponds to normalized capacity of 8.e. see module DM1. a 200 kHz TDMA channel is shared between 8 one-way speech channels. It includes channel coding. In GSM. The result is that the cluster size can be reduced from 9 to 3. interleaving and a frequency hopping structure. one one-way speech channel uses 25 kHz of spectrum. i.5 = 112 kHz. Extensive simulations have been made by ERA of the improvement in frequency economy that can be obtained if a normal GSM-system (TDMA using the frequency hopping option) is redesigned for operation in an interference-limited mode.5 one-way channels per cell and MHz.5) and using DTX. which combines a random structure with risk for collision between different cells (gives optimum interference averaging) and coordinated hopping between connections within each cell (giving full orthogonality as the collisions are eliminated).

A1-2).) c) Modulus-2 addition of two ML sequences of the same classproduces another ML sequence of the same class. Thus.1 and length Tc. (Of the same class means from the same shift registerarrangement but with different starting states.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES Appendix 1: Characteristics of pn-sequences The starting point is binary maximum-length sequences.e. which generates a train of bipolar Dirac pulses which are low-pass-filtered in a filter having an impulse response in the form of a rectangular pulse of length Tc.g. 1 + 1=0.1) ”0”s. A1-1). Before sequence generation starts the shift register is set to a suitable initial state (of M possible states) by loading the shift register with a starting vector of n bits. The digital sequence is fed into a D/A converter.) Fig. A1-1 Such a pseudo-noise sequence has a spectrum very similar to white Gaussian noise. i. Number of "1"s minus number of "0"s =1) (a) and b) explain the term "pseudo-noise sequence". This corresponds to an almost white spectrum. 1 + 0=1. where Tc is determined by the clock frequency (1/Tc) of the shift register. One period comprises 2(n-1) ”1”s. The value otherwise is -1. During one period of the sequence. The autocorrelation function for the analogue pn-sequence is periodic. a random sequence of positive and negative rectangular pulses is generated. which can be generated by a shift registers with n cells and suitable feedback arrangements (see Fig. From this binary sequence the corresponding bipolar sequence can be generated: (”1” ⇒ +1. B1-2). and (2(n-1) . Apart from different starting phases. if this state should occur. "0" → +1) has an autocorrelation function in the form of a pulse train (see Fig. • Example: n=4 Modulus addition: 0 + 0=0. the sequence generator stops working (thereby causing an infinite train of ”0”s to be generated). This means that the length of one period of the sequence is M = 2n . The ”0” state corresponds to a stable condition. Binary sequence 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 Binary p-n sequence + 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 +1 +1 -1 +1+1 +1 -1 -1 -1 -1 +1 -1 +1 -1 -1 +1 +1 -1 +1 +1 2 Period= M=4 -1=15 Bipolar sequence • Characteristics a) Bipolar ML sequence ("1"→ -1. 27 . the same ML-sequence is generated regardless of which starting vector (excluding the 0-vector) is applied. this actually applies to the analog bipolar signal that is generated by the sequence (see Fig. (e. having a period of MTc. The generated sequence contains nearly an equal number of ”0”s and ”1”s. the autocorrelation function has a triangular top of height M = 2n . ”0” ⇒ -1).1. Strictly speaking. Maximum length ("ML") means that during one period of the generated sequence the shift register goes through all possible states apart from the ”0” state. b) The sequence contains a random train of "0" and "1"s. This determines the starting phase. 0 + Modulus-2 addition 1=1. Maximum-length (ML) and Pseudo-noise (pn) shift-register sequences • A shift register with n stages can assume (2n -1) states (excluding the "0" state) • A shift register with a suitable feedback passes all states and generates a periodic ML sequence with a period of 2n -1.

1. For example. The number increases with the length of the shift register. the power in the DC component of the analogue pn-sequence is suppressed by 30 dB relative to the total power of the signal. in a 1. One limitation with pn-sequencies of different types (generated by different shift register structures) is that only some feedback arrangements result in maximumlength sequences. the baseband spectrum has a DC component. that 2n . a length of 13 produces 630. this can be used in a code multiplex arrangement in the direction from the base station towards the terminals. n) is obtained. The signals are pn-sequences with different time shift determined by the start vector values. and a length of 17 gives 7. A more practical arrangement for a number of orthogonal channels in the outward direction is based on Walsh functions.000-chip-long code.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES pn-sequence. the carrier component is almost negligible (given a perfectly balanced mixer). (The code is called a maximum-length code.710 sequences. The set of signals corresponds to a linear code (2n . A further limitation is that some values of mutual time shifts typically result in considerable peaks in the cross-correlation function. The spectrum can be moved up to a lines of MT c c suitable wideband radio channel by passing the analogue pn-sequence through a balanced mixer (DSBAM-ub modulator). the introduction of the necessary time synchronization would be extremely complicated.) In theory. n). A1-2 The corresponding power spectrum is a line spectrum with spacing between the 1 and a spectrum width ≈1/T . Since the number of positive pulses is slightly higher than the number of negative ones. In the case of a long pn-sequence. It follows from the autocorrelation function.1 almost orthogonal signals can be formed. If also the 0 code word is included a linear code (2n. 28 . A length of 7 produces 18 such sequences. In the inward direction from the terminals towards the base station. the code words for which are almost mutually orthogonal. which is moved up to the carrier frequency on mixing. autocorrelation function p-n ak sequence generator ak ⋅ δ(t − kTc ) D/A converter h (t) +1 a= −1 M b (t) h (t) b (t) t Tc +1 -1 +1 +1 -1 -1 -1 +1 0 3 5 6 Autocorrelation function: t Tc ∞ ∫ b (t ) b (t + τ)dt −∞ τ Tc -1 M = 2 n −1 Fig.

1. the main peak of the autocorrelation function will be M = 2n . A1-3). For a Gold code. A1-3 29 + Gold sequence . the highest cross-correlation peak is ≈ 2n ≈ M Generation of Gold sequence + Start vector Clock Start vector + + + Fig.1 = 2n + 1 words. for a given shiftregister length.DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES Acceptable correlation characteristics can be obtained for a relatively large code group by using the Gold codes procedure. For a maximum-length sequence of length M. two feedback arrangements are chosen that produce two maximumlength sequences with good cross correlation characteristics. The principle is that. Additional code words are then obtained through addition of the two base code words with all possible mutual phase differences (see Fig. Thus. This provides a base of two good code words. a code word group is obtained that comprises a total of 2 + 2n .

DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES Appendix 2. defined over the same time interval. a condition for the orthogonality is mutual time synchronization of the waveforms. are mutually orthogonal. Members of a group of Walsh functions. However. Walsh functions Walsh functions are bipolar binary sequencies. A few of the Walsh functions belonging to the 64 group are shown in figure A2-1 Waveforms related to the 64-group of Walsh functions W0 W1 W2 W3 W32 W61 W62 W63 0 1 Figure A2-1 30 .

Core Unit Radio System and Technology Publisher Ericsson Radio Systems AB T/Z Ragnar Lodén Ericsson Radio Systems AB Torshamnsgatan 23.1998 31 .DT14 SPREAD-SPECTRUM TECHNIQUES Author professor Sven-Olof Öhrvik in cooperation with Ericsson Radio Systems AB unit ERA/T. Sweden Telephone: +46 8 757 00 00 Telefax: +46 8 757 36 00 EN/LZT 123 1244/14 R6 © Ericsson Radio Systems AB. Kista S-164 80 Stockholm.