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1. Regarding the kidney

a) Upper pole of the left kidney is related to the pleura. T
b) Polycystic kidney is caused by persistence of nephrons that normally degenerate. F
c) Collecting ducts drain into the calyces through papillae. F
d) Segmental arteries supply a specific area in the kidney. T
e) Ureteric pain is felt in the areas of T12-L2. F

Descending colon is supplied by pelvic splanchnic nerves. [F]
Anterior gastric nerve is formed by the right vagus. [F]
Megacolon occurs due to absence of autonomic nerve fibres.
Urogenital diaphragm is a voluntary sphincter of the bladder. [T]
Splanchnic nerves supply distal part of large intestine.
Hemorrhoids result from blocked venous drainage of superior rectal vein. [T]
Internal anal sphincter extends throughout the length. [F]
Kidney has segmental blood supply. [T]
Upper poles of kidneys are posteriorly related to the costodiaphragmatic recess.
j) Short gastric arteries pass along the gastrophrenic ligament.
k) Stomach drains directly to the supraclavicular nodes. [F]
l) Ureter passes close to the supravaginal part of the cervix of the uterus. [T]


Anal canal & rectum

In sagittal plane it follows curvature of sacrum. [T]
All sides of rectum are covered by peritoneum. [F]
Internal anal sphincter is found through the whole length of anal canal.
External haemorrhoids occur in the external rectal venous plexus. [T]
Stratified squamous epithelium is found below the white line.

4. The right kidney

a) The renal artery is anterior to the renal vein.
b) Upper pole is closely related to the diaphragm and pleura. [T]
c) Lower pole lies in the infracolic compartment. [T]
d) Fibrous capsule is directly continuous with the transversalis fascia.
e) Supra renal glands separate it from the liver.


Regarding the vagina

The upper part develops from the sinovaginal bulb. [F]
Posterior fornix is closely related to the peritoneal cavity. [T]
Anterior wall is related to the base of the bladder. [T]
Lymph from upper part drains into the internal iliac nodes. [F]




e) Internal surface is lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium.


T/F regarding the left kidney

It is posterior to the omental bursa.
Is separated by the descending colon by the peritoneum.
It is posterolateral to the left suprarenal gland. [T]
Its hilum is at L1 vertebral level.
Has 3 minor calyces. [F]



7. Regarding the peritoneum

a) The two coronary ligaments enclose the bare area of the liver. [T]
b) Splenic vessels are found in the lienorenal ligament. [F]
c) Left ureter is located in the inter sigmoid recess. [T]
d) The third part of the duodenum is related to the root of the mesentery. [T]
e) Fissure for the ligamentum venosum provides attachment to the lesser omentum.

8. Regarding the liver

a) Develop in the septum transversum. [F]
b) The central vein is included in the portal triad. [F]
c) It is supported by the hepatic veins. [T]
d) The IVC lies at the base of the bare area of the liver. [T]
e) The gall bladder is between ligamentum teres and the quadrate lobe.



Regarding the testis

Contains no spermatogonia in children. [T]
Drains into deep inguinal nodes. [F]
Has no parasympathetic supply.
Is enlarged in fragile X syndrome.
If detected in the inguinal canal is called ectopic. [F]

10. Regarding duodenum

a) Arterial supply is entirely derived from the celiac trunk.
b) The duodenal cap on X ray is due to first part of it.
c) There are glands in the submucosal layer.
d) Hepatoduodenal papilla opens into the major duodenal papilla.
e) Right ureter lies posterior to the third part.



11. T/F regarding the urinary bladder

a) Allantois participates in the development of the bladder.
b) Is held in place by puboprostatic ligaments. [T]
c) Pelvic splanchnic nerves are inhibitory to the detrusor muscle and motor to the internal
sphincter. [F]
d) Posterior rupture of the bladder results in escape of urine intraperitonially. [F]
e) In infants and children the urinary bladder is in the abdomen even when empty
12. Cervix of the uterus
a) Triangular in shape. [F]
b) Directly overlies the superior surface of the bladder without in between peritoneum.
c) Uterine arteries are laterally related. [T]
d) Supported by transverse ligament. [T]
e) Supplied by the vaginal artery.


13. Regarding the posterior abdominal wall

a) The quadratus lumborum lies in the anterior compartment of the lumbar fascia. [T]
b) The quadratus lumborum prevents the elevation of the 12th rib during contraction of the
diaphragm. [T]
c) The iliacus is supplied by the femoral nerve. [T]
d) Psoas major muscle is an extensor of the hip joint.
14. About rectus abdominis
a) Has a medial head arising from anterior pubic ligament. [T]
b) Is inserted into 5th 6th & 7th ribs. [F]
c) Is supplied by the 1st lumbar nerve. [F]
d) Posterior wall extends above costal margin. [T]
e) Has an anterior sheath fixed to the muscle by tendinous intersections.
15. Which of the following are related with the organ specified?
a) Mcburneys point and the tip of the appendix. [F]
b) Murphys point and the fundus of the gallbladder. [T]
c) Subcostal plane and 2nd lumbar vertebra. [F]
d) Posterior inferior iliac spine and end of dura mater. [T]
16. Regarding the arteries of the abdominal wall
a) Superior thoracic artery arises from the thoracic aorta. [F]
b) Collateral branch arises from the posterior intercostal artery
c) Internal thoracic artery divides at the costal margin. [T]
d) Coarctation results in notching of ribs. [T]


17. Biliary system

a) Cystic duct joins the common hepatic at an acute angle.
b) Gallbladder capacity is 30-50ml.



c) Cystic artery arises from right hepatic artery.

d) Mucosa of gallbladder contains numerous mucous glands.


18. Constrictions of the ureter are found

a) Opposite the transverse process of L3. [F]
b) At the junction between renal pelvis and ureter. [T]
c) Lateral to the lateral fornix of the vagina. [F]
d) Sacroiliac joint.
e) When it enters the bladder. [T]
19. T/F
a) Axis of the uterus lies in line with the axis of the cervix. [F]
b) Pouch of Douglas lies between posterior fornix of vagina and lower third of the rectum.
c) In the primordial follicle primary oocyte has commenced meiosis I.
d) In the nulliparous woman external os is a transverse slit. [T]
e) In ovarian fossa obturator nerve lies lateral to the ovary. [T]
20. Pelvic peritoneum covers,
a) Posterior fornix
b) Anterior surface of vagina [F]
c) Uterine tubes T]
d) Second piece of the sacrum [T]
e) Lower 1/3 of the rectum
21. Regarding levator ani
a) Inferior surface is covered with pelvic fascia.
b) It forms the superior surface of the ischiorectal fossa
c) It is supplied by the inferior rectal nerve.
d) Pubococcygeus part of the levator ani is partly connected with muscle coat of rectum. [T]
e) Iliococcygeus arises from ischial spine. [T]