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Pontianak, 05 Desember 2015

ASSIGNMENT: BILINGUALISM AND LANGUAGE EDUCATION


A Critical Review
Name
Student Number
Class
Journal Publisher and Year
The Title and Writer
Pages

: HAMID DARMADI
: F2201141022
:B
: www. Ijern.com/ International Journal of Education
and Research (2014)
: The Necessity of Multicultural Education in Indonesia
by Rachmawati, Y., Fong, P.Y., and Chen, H. H.
: 317 328

A Critical Review of Rachmawati et al. 2014. The Necessity of Multicultural Education in


Indonesia. International Journal of Education and Research, Vol.2, No. 10 p.317-328
Introduction
Using Bank (2010), Sleeter (1996) and some local experts theories, Rachmawati et al
(2014) conducted a study on the necessity of multicultural education in Indonesia. This
research aimed to find out how to maintain diversity in Indonesia, to emphasize national
identity and offer multicultural education as an idea of education reform in Indonesia and
how multicultural education is important for Indonesia citizens. The finding reveals that
multicultural education is the main foundation to offer the diversity of cultures, religions,
races, ethnics, and languages to the students. The situation or environment of the school must
be prepared to support it and all elements of group people should start to cooperate and work
together from the basic arrangement of social movement to find better change of future.
Overall, the reviewer gives remarkable point to the article on its effort of showing the
factual data of how Indonesia should be called as multicultural country. The explanations of
using chart, table or graph from the article were interest the reader to understand the message
of the writer. The writer also shows some previous research with some current issues in
multicultural education which ensure the reviewer about her broad-knowledge. In social class
phenomenon in Indonesia, the reviewer agree that teacher-centered were also negatively limit
the student thought of problem-solving. They tend to focus on using cause by the teacher
explanation rather than understanding or creating cause by their own thinking. It will
make the students with different cultural backgrounds personally need some appreciation, and
need to have more attention from their teacher. Furthermore, this research persuade the

reviewer to think about what are the best way to make Indonesia understand and love their
diversity rather than separate it, and how education keep the important point to emphasize
national identity. This study will also help other further researcher to get different result in
Multicultural Education. However the results show that the study is still need ongoing
research. It is to make sure for getting the essential part of how multicultural education could
be triggered, adapt or fit to Indonesia rather than compare it with different countries culture
background. Moreover, the reviewer prefers to choose understand the diversity of cultures,
religions, races, ethnics and language to the students rather than offer it. It means that the
students are hope to know, upgrade and develop the multicultural on each other rather than
choose and select ones. The author idea about national identity yet also not clearly stated in
her study. In spite of saying that the study is argumentative, the writers perception in
conceptual way was discovered all over her ideas and writings. Some perspectives also
showed by the writer in historical and social background of Indonesian which is obviously
great. It is true that Sumpah Pemuda, Taman Siswa and Bhinneka Tunggal Ika are the
boundaries of nationalism. But, in my opinion, the lack of understanding nationalism could
bring into extremism. For example, the way we use Bahasa Indonesia for the unity language
in Indonesia in every conversation is a must for citizens. Unfortunately, it will prohibit us
from being bilingual even forgetting our mother tongues (Zacharias, 2012: 233). English also
introduce for lingua franca almost in every country, but some will say that English is a threat
to multilingual (House, J, 2003). In Social class phenomenon, the author argues that
government uniform curriculum and centralistic-based called as discrimination. In contrary, I
would like to say that it does the Unity because we still need the person who can lead us
into better future, not in separate classification such as putra daerah (Raihani, 2011: 10).
In summary, the current study is not being conclusive yet. Further studies must be
continued by other researcher in every aspect or truly purpose of multicultural education.
There are so many purposes, types or characteristics of the way we see multicultural
education (Covert and Gorsky, 2000, Burnett, 1994, Linch, 1989, cited in Wahab, 2007). In
this opportunity, the reviewer intends to propose education way, social way, and culture way
to solve the questions of how Indonesia can be multicultural. In the education way, relate to
the preparation of the school atmosphere to support multilingualism awareness, the changing
of school institution phenomenon in Indonesia already show the people movement in
understanding education as an important pillar for their future life. But we should avoid
several causes of negative thought against multicultural such as the different fee for public

and private school and the different of lower, middle and high classes. The reviewer
recommends other researcher to consider (1) the students perspectives (Zacharias, 2012) and
(2) the teachers perspectives at school (Saban, 2013) and (3) the school curriculum (Kubota,
2010, cited in Raihani, 2014: 4) to see their understanding about multiculturalism. In the
social way, beside the constituent base, the power holders, the activist, and the general
publics should support each other and together cooperate to create better future life in
multicultural. The reviewer recommends the hierarchical of Indonesian social structure
should be in Hexagon Form rather than Pyramid Form. The reviewer also suggest Indonesia
government as the power holders to have some efforts for multiculturalism; (1) researching
from local stakeholders, (2) changing the focus from monolingual to bilingual, and (3)
broadening the search of experience and learning and adapt it (Pinnock, 2009). From the
culture way, the reviewer thinks that Art will be introduced as the new successful subject that
supports multicultural awareness. It is because multicultural competences in Indonesia are
infused only into religion, citizenship education and social science subject (Raihani, 2011:7).
Besides, multicultural education particularly in art education sets its goals in promoting
cultural awareness, equal opportunity for learning, promoting self-identity as well as
encouraging unity through diversity (Isa, 2000:6). It will make strong understanding of
society to build multiculturalism among others.
After reading this great article, the reviewer conclude that the author have a deep
effort and interest in studying multiculturalism. The authors writing style has successfully
delivers her ideas about multiculturalism to the reviewer or readers. It touches the reviewers
opinion and ideas to think critically about the solution for each problem in multicultural
issues especially in Indonesia. The writing styles of the researcher are well-organized so that
it is easy for the reviewer or other reader to comprehend. Overall, the reviewer realizes that
the study in multiculturalism is hard to generate only in once over the year. It is because the
situation of socio-cultural system and development could be change every year. The reviewer
can conclude that this study can be developed widely by other researcher. This study will be
beneficial for the reader and other interests who want to take further studies about
multiculturalism.

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