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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL STATEMENT
Oil sands, tar sands or, more technically, bituminous sands, are a type of
unconventional petroleum deposit. The oil sands are loose sand or partially consolidated
sandstone containing naturally occurring mixtures of sand, clay, and water, saturated with a
dense and extremely viscous form of petroleum technically referred to as bitumen (or
colloquially tar due to its similar appearance, odour and colour). They are characterized by their
high viscosity and high density (low API density) at reservoir conditions (Gwynn and Hanson,
2007).
This natural bitumen is the remnants of very large volumes of conventional oils that have
been generated and subsequently degraded, principally by bacterial action (Attanasi and Meyer,
2007). The resource base of Nigeria bitumen is enormous and can make a major contribution to
oil supply if it can be extracted and transformed into useable refinery raw material at costs that
are competitive with alternative resources. Beside, bitumen is a useful mineral resourcein road
and building construction. Previous studies on the Nigerian tar sand deposit included, research of
its occurrence, geology and geochemical by Enu, 1985 and Ekweozor and Nwachukwu, 1989.
Its nature and occurrence were described by Enu (1985); he also remarked that the tar
sand porosity ranges from 16% to 35%. Ekweozor and Nwachukwu (1989) determine the
Nigerian bitumen origin and identify the causative factor for its transformation to asphatic
residues. Studies using geophysical method for sub-surface understanding of Nigeria tar sand
deposit have been carried out in recent times (Ako et. al., 1983; Odunaike et al, 2010 and
Akinmosin et al, 2011). Some other examples of the application of geophysical methods
employed in tar sand exploration have also been reviewed in this work i.e. Cristall et al., 2004;
Bauman, 2005 and Kellet and Mavis, 2005. The present study considers the use of geophysical
method of electrical resistivity (VES) as tools to establish the stratigraphic profiles across the
study area, map possible structures and determine the depth, thickness and extent of its tar sand.

Fig. 1.1 Geological Map of Southern part of Ondo State showing the Study Area (Modified
after PTF, 1997).

1.2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES


This study was aimed at determining the occurrence of oil sands (tar sands) by employing
the use of electrical resistivity method. The objectives of the study are:
1. To determine the thickness of each layer involved during the survey.
2. To identify potential reservoirs of oil sands in the study area based on the geo electrical
parameters of the layers.
3. To characterize the electrical properties of the layers by the introduction of induced
current.

1.3 LOCATION AND ACCESSIBILITY OF THE STUDY AREA


The study area is located within the geographical grids of latitude 6 0 35 16.3N and 60
37 13.9N and longitudes 40 49 29.0E and 40 50 20.7E Gbeleju-loda, Ondo State,
southwestern Nigeria about 134km from Akure. Also, it is within the 120km long and about 5-6
km wide belt of tar sand deposit which trends approximately East-West.

Fig.1.2 Location map of the study area

1.4 RELIEF AND DRAINAGE


The study area is composed of lowlands and rugged hills with granitic outcrops in several
places. In general, the land rises from the coastal part of llaje/EseOdo (less than fifteen metres
above sea level) in the south, to the rugged hills of the north eastern portion in Akoko area. Some
of the more prominent hills rise above 250 metres above sea level. The geomorphological units
of the creek and riverine areas include sand ridges, lagoons, swamp flats, creeks and the
anatomising distributaries of the western Niger Delta. Numerous rivers flowing southwards to
the Atlantic Ocean drain the state.
These rivers include the Owena, Oluwa, Oni, Ogbese and Ose (Fig.1.2). The most
outstanding characteristics of the drainage systems over the areas of Basement Complex rocks
are the proliferation of many small river channels. The channels of the smaller streams are dry
for many months, especially from November to May. The major rivers flow through sedimentary
rocks in deeply incised valleys aligned in a north-south direction, into the coastal lagoons. The
lagoons flow in a westeast direction, parallel to the coast.
Another aspect of the relief of the study area is the prevalence of many erosion gullies
along hill slopes. The gullies are very common and rather devastating in Owo and Akoko areas.
Gullies also occur in areas of sedimentary rocks in Okitipupa and Araromi Rubber Estate. Along
the Creeks, there are no sandy beaches since the entire area is swampy.
1.5 CLIMATE AND VEGETATION
1.5.1 CLIMATE
The climate of the study area is of the Lowland Tropical Rain Forest type, with distinct
wet and dry seasons. In the south, the mean monthly temperature is 27C, with a mean monthly
range of 25C, while mean relative humidity is over seventy five percent. However, in the
northern part of the state, the mean monthly temperature and its range are about 30C and 45C
respectively. The mean monthly relative humidity is less than seventy percent. In the south, rain
falls throughout the year, but the three months of November, December and January may be
relatively dry.
The mean annual total rainfall exceeds 2000 millimetres. However, in the north, there is
marked dry season from November to March when little or no rain falls. The total annual rainfall
in the north, therefore, drops considerably to about 1800 millimetres.
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1.5.2 VEGETATION
The natural vegetation is the high forest, composed of many varieties of hardwood timber
such as Melicia excelsa, Antaris africana, Terminalia superba, Lophira procera and Symphonia
globulifera. In the northern districts, the vegetation consists of woody savanna featuring such
tree species as Blighia sapida and Parkia biglobosa. The swamp flats are the domain of the fresh
water swamp forests in the interior and the units of mangrove vegetation near the coast. The sand
ridges are characterised by savanna and stunted rain forests.
Over most of the state, the natural vegetation has been very much degraded as a result of
human activities, the chief of which is based on the rotation of bush fallow system. As a result,
the original forest is now restricted to forest reserves. An important aspect of the vegetation of
the state is the prevalence of tree crops. The major tree crops include cocoa, kola, coffee, rubber,
oil palms and citrus, cocoa being the most prevalent.
It is also important to note that rubber and oil palms have been cultivated in large
plantations in Odigbo, Okitipupa and Irele Local Government Areas. Trees that are not native,
have also been intro duced as forest plantations. These exotics have been used to revegetate large
portions of harvested old forest reserves in Omo and Owo. They include mainly Tectona grandis
(teak) and Gmelina arborea (pulp wood).

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 REGIONAL GEOLOGIC SETTING AND STRATIGRAPHY
2.1.1 GENERAL STATEMENT
The Benin (Dahomey) Basin constituting part of a system of West African pre-cratonic
(margin sag) basin (Klemme 1975; Kingston et al 1983) developed during the commencement of
the rifting, associated with the opening of the Gulf of Guinea, in the Early Cretaceous to the Late
Jurassic (Burke et al, 1971; Whiteman, 1982). The crustal separation, typically preceded by
crustal thinning, was accompanied by an extended period of thermally induced basin subsidence
through the Middle Upper Cretaceous to Tertiary times as the South American and the African
plates entered a drift phase to accommodate the emerging Atlantic Ocean (Storey, 1995; Mpanda,
1997).
The Ghana Ridge, presumably an offset extension of the Romanche Fracture Zone, binds
the basin to the west while the Benin Hinge Line, a Basement escarpment which separates the
Okitipupa structure from the Niger Delta basin that binds it to the east. The Benin Hinge Line
supposedly defines the continental extension of the Chain Fracture Zone.
The onshore part of the basin covers a broad arc-shaped profile of about 600 km2 in
extent. The onshore section of the basin attains a maximum width, along its N-S axis, some 130
km around the Nigerian Republic of Benin border. The basin narrows to about 50 km on the
eastern side where the basement assumes a convex upwards outline with concomitant thinning of
sediments. Along the northeastern fringe of the basin where it rims the Okitipupa high is a brand
of tar (oil) sands and bitumen seepages (Nwachukwu and Ekweozor, 1989). The onshore part of
the basin covers a broad arc-shaped profile of about 600 km2 in extent. The onshore section of
the basin attains a maximum width, along its N-S axis, some 130 km around the Nigerian
Republic of Benin border. The basin narrows to about 50 km on the eastern side where the
basement assumes a convex upwards outline with concomitant thinning of sediments. Along the
northeastern fringe of the basin where it rims the Okitipupa high is a brand of tar (oil) sands and
bitumen seepages (Nwachukwu and Ekweozor, 1989).
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Fig.2.2 Geological Map of the Dahomey Basin (modified after Agagu, 1985)

2.1.2 STRATIGRAPHY
The lithostratigraphic units of the Cretaceous to Tertiary sedimentary sequence of eastern
margin of Dahomey basin according to Idowu et al.,(1993), are summarized in Table 1. The
study area belongs to the Ise Formation of the Cretaceous Abeokuta group, the oldest group of
sediment in the basin unconformably overlying the basement (Jones and Hockey, 1964).
Omatsola and Adegoke (1981) on the lithostratigraphy of Dahomey basin recognized (3)
formations belonging to the Abeokuta group based on lithologic homogeneity and similarity of
origin.
This group is the thickest sedimentary unit within the basin. The formations from oldest
to youngest are Ise, Afowo and Araromi formation. Ise formation unconformably overlies the
basement complex of Southwestern Nigeria, consisting of conglomerates and grits at the base
which is in turn overlain by coarse to medium grained sands with interbeded kaolinite. The
conglomerates are imbricated and at some locations ironstones occur (Nton, 2001). An age range
of Neocomian-Albian is assigned to this formation based on paleontological assemblages.
Afowo formation overlies the Ise formation, and composed of coarse to medium grained
sandstone with variable but thick interbedded shale, siltstone and claystone. The sandy facies are
tar-bearing while shales are organic-rich (Enu, 1985). Using palynological assemblage, a
Turonian age is assigned to the Lower part of this formation, while the upper part ranges into
Maastrichtian.
The youngest Cretaceous formation in the group is Araromi formation, which
conformably overlies the Afowo formation. It is composed of fine-medium grained sandstone at
the base, overlain by shales, silt-stone with interbedded limestones, marl and lignite. Omatsola
and Adegoke (1981) assigned a Maastrichtian to Paleocene age to this formation based on faunal
content.
The Abeokuta group is overlain by the Imo (Ewekoro and Akinbo formation- Adegoke,
1977, Jones and Hockey, 1964, Ogbe, 1972, Nton and Elueze, 2005, Nton 2001), the Oshosun
formation (Jones and Hockey, 1964; Nton, 2001), Coastal plain sands and the Recent
Alluvium(Jones and Hockey, 1964).

Fig.2.3 Stratigraphy and lithological features of Dahomey Basin (Omatsola et al, 1981)

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2.2 GEOLOGY OF THE STUDY AREA


The study area falls within Ondo State South Western part of Nigeria. The Geology of
Ondo state comprises of basement complex and sedimentary terrain. The area covered by south
western Nigeria basement complex lies between Latitude 7 oN and 10ON and Longitude 3oE and
6oE. The basement complex consists of different lithologies such as migmatite gneiss, porphyritic
granite, granite gneiss, older granite, schist e.t.c. The pegmatitic intrusion comprising both quartz
and feldspar are dominant mineral depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. The
kinds of granite found are the granitic gneiss consisting of feldspar, quartz, with biotite as
dominant minerals.
However, the study area falls within the sedimentary terrain in the Dahomey basin of
southwestern, Nigeria. The Dahomey basin is an Atlantic margin basin containing MesozoicCenozoic sedimentary succession reaching a thickness of over 3000m. It extends from
southeastern Ghana to the western flank of the Niger Delta. Its stratigraphy is classified by
various authors into Abeokuta Group, Imo Group, Oshosun Formation, Ilaro Formation and
Coastal Plain sands and Alluvium (Jones and Hockey, 1964; Omatsola and Adegoke, 1981 and
Agagu, 1985).

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Fig. 2.3: Geological Map of the study area (Adapted from the Nigeria Geological survey
agency, 2006).
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2.3 PREVIOUS WORK DONE


Adeyemi et al (2013) determined the geophysical and sedimentological characterization
of the tar sand rich area in southwestern Nigeria and also its occurrence at Ijebu-Itele, Eastern
Dahomey Basin by Akinmosin et al (2013). Odunaike et al (2013) determined the physicochemical characterization of oil sands at Imeri in Ogun State southwestern Nigeria. Studies using
geophysical method for sub-surface understanding of Nigeria tar sand deposit have been carried
out in recent time (Ako et. al., 1983; Odunaike et al, 2010 and Akinmosin et al, 2011). Omosuyi
et al (2008) used the geoelectric sounding to delineate shallow aquifers in the coastal plain sands
of Okitipupa area in southwestern Nigeria.
Some other examples of the application of geophysical methods employed in tar sand
exploration have also been reviewed in this work i.e. Cristall et al., 2004; Bauman, 2005 and
Kellet and Mavis, 2005.
Ekweozor and Nwachukwu (1989) determine the Nigerian bitumen origin and identify
the causative factor for its transformation to asphatic residues.
Previous studies on the Nigerian tar sand deposit included, research of its occurrence,
geology and geochemical analysis by Enu, 1985 and Ekweozor and Nwachukwu, 1989. Its
nature and occurrence were described by Enu (1985); he also remarked that the tar sand porosity
ranges from 16% to 35%.
The present study considers the use of electrical resistivity geophysical method (VES) as
a tool to establish the stratigraphic profiles across the study area and determine the depth at
which the tar sand deposit occurs.

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CHAPTER THREE
3.0 MATERIALS AND METHOD OF STUDY
3.1 ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY SURVEYING
3.1.1 GENERAL STATEMENT
The electrical resistivity method is one of the oldest geophysical methods, originally
designed in the 1920s for mineralogical prospecting by the Schlumberger Company in France.
Since then, electrical resistivity methods have been used to find potable groundwater supplies,
trace contamination as it migrates through the saturated zone and determine soil resistivity for
purposes of designing electrical substations, grounding arrays and estimating pipeline corrosion.
This is due to the fact that the field operation is easy, the equipments are portable, less
field pressure is required, it has greater depth of penetration and it is accessible to modern
communication systems (i.e. computer). Electrical resistivity is used to detect shallow structures
and subtle changes in soil apparent resistivity, which also makes it conducive for use in
archaeology surveys. The resistivity method typically uses a four-electrode array, two current and
two potential (voltage) electrodes; in specific geometric configurations called arrays for data
acquisition. A very low-frequency or direct current is applied to the current electrodes. The
potential difference, or voltage, between the two potential electrodes is measured by the
instrument called the resistivity meter, and Resistance determined using a very simplified version
of Ohms Law:
V=IR
Where
V = Voltage (v),
I = current (A) &
R = resistance ().
Resistance is then automatically calculated by the resistivity meter, and recorded on a
geophysical data sheet. The parameter that is actually calculated and from which an
interpretation is derived is called apparent resistivity. This is because Resistance values, besides
being influenced by a soils mineralogy, porosity, and water saturation, is also influenced by the
electrode geometry used. By converting Resistance values to apparent resistivity values, the
influence of the array configuration is removed from the data. Apparent resistivity is calculated
by the equation:
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a = 2R(GF) where
a = apparent resistivity(m)
R = resistance () &
GF =the geometric factor intrinsic to the current and potential electrodes configuration.
In mineral exploration, the wenner and the schlumberger arrays are commonly used.
The wenner array is a mere measurement of lateral variation in ground resistivity with respect to
a specific depth determined by electrode spacing.
The schlumberger array measures vertical variation in ground resistivity with respect to a
fixed center. However, in all, electrical apparent resistivity is plotted as a function of depth
against the distance which is the electrode spacing.
3.1.2 BASIC PRINCIPLE OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD
Consider a current flowing in a cylindrical conductor of length L, cross-sectional area A,
with current I, flowing through in it as shown below (Fig, 3.1).
I

L
Fig.3.1 Cylindrical conductor
The resistance R from ohms law is expressed as:
R L (1)
R I/A.. (2)
Combining (1) and (2)
R L/A (3)
R = L/A. (4)
Where is the constant of proportionality called resistivity.
But from ohms law:

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R=

V
I

(5)

By substituting for R in equation(4)


V
L
A
I

VA
L
I
VA

IL

.. (6)

(7)

Where:
V = Potential difference between any two points measured in volts.
The equation below is called the Geometric factor (K) because it can be regarded as the
contribution of the geometry of the electrode system to the observed voltage.
2

r1

r2

r3

r4

-1

Therefore, = KR
3.1.3 TECHNIQUES EMPLOYED IN ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY SURVEY
There are three main techniques employed for electrical resistivity survey in investigation of
mineral deposit. These are:
Electrical Resistivity Profiling/constant separation traversing(CST)
Electrical Resistivity sounding/Vertical Electrical sounding(VES)
Combined Resistivity profiling and Vertical Electrical sounding
For the sake of this work, emphasis will be laid on the Vertical Electrical sounding (VES) which
is the basic technique that was employed for the tar sand exploration.
3.1.3.1 VERTICAL ELECTRICAL SOUNDING TECHNIQUE
Vertical electric sounding (VES) employs collinear arrays designed to output a one
dimensional (1-D) vertical apparent resistivity versus depth model of the subsurface at a specific
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observation point. In this method a series of potential differences are acquired at successively
greater electrode spacing while maintaining a fixed central reference point. The induced current
passes through progressively deeper layers at greater electrode spacing. The potential difference
measurements are directly proportional to the changes in the deeper subsurface. Apparent
resistivity values calculated from measured potential differences can be interpreted in terms of
overburden thickness, water table depth, and the depths and thicknesses of subsurface strata. The
resistivity sounding method is used for obtaining a detailed picture of electrical nature of the
subsurface formations with depth. The measurements are made of progressively increasing
electrode separation from one to several tens or hundreds of meters depending on the depth to be
investigated. Since the progressive increase of electrode separation implies the probing of
corresponding deeper portions of the region, the resistivity sounding measurement facilitates the
study of the variation of electrical resistivity with depth.
The field curves of measured resistivity values plotted against electrode separation is
compared with theoretical curves or standard curves and the true resistivity of the various layers
and their thickness are deduced. This method is useful for detection of water bearing horizons in
the earth and the depth to the bed rocks.
3.1.4 ELECTRODE CONFIGURATION
An electrode

configuration/array

is

set

of

electrodes (current

&

potential

electrodes) used for resistivity measurements. These measurements are associated with varying
depths depending on the separation of the current and potential electrodes in the survey, and can
be interpreted in terms of a lithologic and/or geohydrologic model of the subsurface taking into
consideration

the

type

of

electrode

configuration/array

used.

A typical

electrode

configuration/array consist of a central Electrode, potential Electrode (usually at the middle of


the array), and current Electrodes (usually at the extremes of the array) .
However, the goal of any array in Electrical Resistivity survey is to obtain Data about a
subsurface and to calculate apparent resistivities of the obtained data, so as to determine the
lateral or vertical variation of the subsurface under investigation, depending on the type of array
being used. Data are termed apparent resistivity because the resistivity values measured are
actually averages over the total current path length but are plotted at one depth point for each
potential electrode pair.
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The most common arrays in Electrical resistivity survey are:

Wenner array

Schlumberger array

Dipole-dipole array

Pole-dipole array

Pole-pole array

3.1.4.1 SCHLUMBERGER CONFIGURATION


The Schlumberger array is similar to the Wenner array with respect to having a nested
electrode configuration except the potential electrodes have an internal spacing of a and the
current electrodes are spaced an increased distance of na from the potential electrodes, where the
integer value n varies dependent upon target size and depth.
The Schlumberger technique is somewhat easier to use than the Wenner technique
because only two of the four electrodes are moved between successive readings. As an example,
we can conduct a Schlumberger VES survey by keeping the potential electrodes fixed at one
location while the current electrodes are expanded about a center point. Only when the current
electrodes become relatively distant does the potential electrode spacing need to be expanded in
order to have measurable potentials

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AnaMNnaB

L
R (n 1)na
Fig 3.2: Schlumberger Configuration

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Fig.3.3 Electrode and datum point in pseudosection.

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3.1.5 APPLICATIONS OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD


(a) Groundwater Exploration: The relevance of this method to groundwater involves:
i.

Direct location of subsurface water through mapping of the water table. Indirect
location of potential aquifer such as weathered zone, porous and permeable
sandstones, alluvium deposits and sand gravel within clay deposit, e.t.c.

ii.

Mapping of geological structures that are favorable to groundwater accumulation,


such as fractures, basement depressions, buried channels, Sand lenses and network
of joints.

iii.

Determination of saline zones and fresh/saline water interface in the coastal areas.
of groundwater flow di

(a) Engineering Site Investigation: Application of engineering study as earlier mentioned is


relevant in various areas;
i.

Determination of the depth to bedrock (overburden thickness) at construction


site this may include building highway roads, bridges and dam sites.

ii.

To map seepage zones across contaminated structures such as dam embankment


or reservoir floors.

iii.

Mapping of subsurface structures inimical to Engineering foundations such as


bedrock depression, fault and fracture and joint.

iv.

Location of buried pipes, cables, mine shafts etc.

v.

Evaluation of volume of hydraulic sand fills in recline area e.g. Lagos, PortHarcourt and Warri.

vi.

Mapping of water table i.e determination of surface depth of water of wells

vii.

It can be used to map the nature of superficial deposits, particularly the soil and
rock corrosivity along oil pipelines routes and at industrial sites.

(b) Environmental Pollution Studies: Mapping of chemical pollution plumes arising


Industrial waste disposal or oil spillage.

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from

(c) Geological Mapping: Electrical Resistivity method is used for the following:
i.

Mapping of geological boundaries/contact zones e.g between a sedimentary


rock and a basement complex unit.

ii.

It can be used to structurally map geologic features which include faults, joints,
basement depressions, ridges, ancient stream channels e.t.c.

iii.

It can also be used to delineate, though approximately structural trends of


foliations, faults, fractured zones, e.t.c. particularly in the area where the
bedrock is Conceal.

(d) Mineral Exploration:


The method is limited in its application to mineral exploration. However, it could be use in
location or mapping of massive mineral deposit; non-metallic or metallic such as pyrite,
Chalcopyrite, graphite, Charnockite, salt, clay, Kaolin, Barite.etc
(e) Geothermal Studies
The Electrical Resistivity method is used in the delineation of geothermal reservoirs and
fractures/faults associated with geothermal centers.
3.1.6

FACTORS INFLUENCING ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD


There are various factors that influence the electrical Resistivity method which include:
i.

Mode of conduction of rocks and soils

ii. Rock texture


iii. Rock types
iv. Temperature
v.

Degree of water saturation

vi. Permeability and porosity


vii. Geological processes e.g. weathering, jointing, faulting etc.

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3.1.7

FACTORS FAVOURABLE TO THE USE OF ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY


METHOD FOR SITE INVESTIGATION

i.

Existence of sufficient geophysical contrast between the bedrock and the overlying deposit.
ii. Existence of simple geological features and configurations.
iii. Existence of suitable contrast in the electrical property of the targeted feature.
iv. Existence of large expanse of land to work with little or no restriction.
v. Availability of electrolyte in formation.

vi.

Absence of fill materials over the site, scattered metal and brick, buried Pipes and wire,
fences, buried and overhead power lines and nearby industries using electrical plant that
adversely affect electrical sounding.

3.1.8 GENERAL FIELD OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS AND AMBIGUITIES IN


ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY METHOD
3.1.8.1 FIELD OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS
i.

Lateral inhomogeneity: This usually degrades the quality of our resistivity data. The
problem could be reduced by employing a special land of configuration called Tri-potential
array system.

ii.

Poor electrical contact: This could lead to acquisition of erroneous data especially if the
poor contact is at current electrodes position. It may be due to a very dry ground surface. The
problem could be solved by creating saline water medium around the electrodes.

iii.

Dip effect: In a situation where the horizontal interface is dipping, the quality of data is
seriously affected likewise the interpretation. However, if the dip angle is less than 45 o then it
is negligible.
3.1.8.2 AMBIGUITIES

i.

Equivalence: This is a phenomenon whereby a multiple layer resistivity curve can


correspond to a great number of different geo-electrical models.

ii.

Suppression: This occurs when the layers are having a resistivity, which is intermediate
between those of enclosing layers. It may be suppressed and not having any significant
influence on the appreciable thickness.

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3.2 METHODS OF STUDY


Nine vertical electrical sounding (VES) points using Schlumberger array with maximum
half way spread length (AB/2) of 100m were acquired along three traverses namely TR1, TR2
and TR3. The Global Positioning system was used to take the coordinates of each station
including the Northings, the Eastings and the elevation (i.e. height above the sea level). The
DDR1 model resistivity meter was employed for data acquisition on the field. Electrical
resistivity geophysical method is one of the major geophysical methods used in investigation of
mineral deposits such as shale, bituminous sandstone and so on. In this study area, tar sand
deposit is explored using vertical electrical sounding technique (VES). Locations that were not
easily accessible were made accessible by the use of cutlass cutting along a traverse. Traversing
is the process of choosing a predetermined line along which the geophysical investigation will be
carried out.
Since all the rock types in Nigeria especially in south west trend in North South direction
which is due to the Pan African Orogeny. So it is therefore of paramount importance to traverse
in opposite direction or perpendicular or at an angle to the general rock trends. This enables one
to come across different rock at a shorter distance and to cut across the different geological
features.
However, getting to the location, the equipment were set up (resistivity meter, cables and
reels, electrodes, measuring tapes, etc.) and the survey was carried out by systematic expansion
of the electrode spacing especially the current electrodes at both sides about a fixed center point
of the array. Parameters such as the resistivity value, thickness, depth and the layers of the study
area were revealed and established for recommendations. The resulting potential differences
were determined, and that was done in each of the location. Schlumberger array was employed
for easy resolution, reduction of despairing effects and determination of geoelectric parameters.
3.2.1 EQUIPMENT USED
The equipment employed for the geophysical investigation carried out in this area includes the
following:
Topographical map at a scale of 1:50,000 was used.
Geological hammers:- They are used to drive down the electrodes into the ground.
Measuring tapes:- It is used to measure distances between each electrodes on the field.
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Cables and reels: They are used to connect the current source to the electrodes while reels
are used to wrap up the cables after use.
Electrodes:- potential and current electrodes are used to transfer the induced current into the
Resistivity meter:- This is the major equipment which is used to measure the equivalent
voltage and current which makes up the resistance (R=V/I)
Calculator: This is used to determine the apparent resistivity value from the resistance and
the schlumberger array constant value.
G.P.S.: The global positioning system is used in locating points on the map and the
geographical longitudes and latitudes.

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(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)
26

(f)
Fig.3.4 (a) Cables and reels (b) Electrodes (c) Geological hammers (d) Measuring tapes
(e) Resistivity meter (f) Global Positioning System (GPS)
3.3 CHALLENGES ENCOUNTERED ON THE FIELD
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During the geophysical investigation, several challenges were encountered such as:
i. Instrumental malfunctions and cable leakage
ii. Cultural and or geographical noise from telluric, magneto-telluric currents, power lines,
iii. Buried pipes, buried or overhead power line, fence, barbed wire etc.
iv. Electrical Resistivity method cannot determine the amount of stress in the soil.
Hence, leading to inconsistency in readings at particular points at different time or season

3.4 DATA PRESENTATION


The vertical electrical sounding (VES) data are presented as depth sounding curves. This is
established by plotting apparent resistivity (a) values against electrode spacing (AB/2) on a bilog or log-log graph paper. The points are then joined together with a smooth curve.
Generally, sounding curves are classified into four major curve types; they are obtained
by the combination of two or more of these curves. The curves are interpreted for layer resistivity
thickness and depth. The basic curve types are A, Q, H, and K. Where the types H and K have a
definite minimum and maximum values indicating bed of anomalous low or high resistivity at
intermediate depths.

3.4.1 ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY CURVE TYPES


In Electrical Resistivity method of geophysical prospecting, four primary resistivity curve
types do exist whereas; other curve types could be generated by the combination of the primary
ones. The curve types are:
3.4.1.1 CURVE TYPE H
This is the type of resistivity curve where the resistivity values of a 3-layer earth model
differ as we prospect down the layers in such a way that the resistivity of the first layer is greater
than that of the second, while the second is lower than that of the third. i.e. 1>2<3. This is
represented graphically in fig. 3.5a
3.4.1.2 CURVE TYPE K
28

This is the type of resistivity curve where the resistivity values of a 3-layer earth model
differ as we prospect down the layers in such a way that the resistivity of the first layer is lower
than that of the second, while the second is greater than that of the third. i.e. 1<2>3. This is
represented graphically in fig. 3.5b
3.4.1.3 CURVE TYPE Q
This is the type of resistivity curve where the resistivity values of a 3-layer earth model
differ as we prospect down the layers in such a way that the resistivity of the first layer is greater
than that of the second, while the second is also greater than that of the third. i.e. 1>2>3. This
is represented graphically in fig. 3.5c
3.4.1.4 CURVE TYPE A
This is the type of resistivity curve where the resistivity of a 3-layer earth model differ as we
prospect down the layers in such a way that the resistivity of the first layer is less than that of the
second, while the second is also less than that of the third. i.e. 1<2<3. This is represented
graphically in fig. 3.5d
Other curve types also exist from the combination of two or more primary curve types.
An example of this is the HK curve of a 4-layer earth model where the resistivity of the first
layer is greater than that of the second, the resistivity of the second being less than that of the
third and the resistivity layer of the third being greater than that of the fourth, i.e (R1>R2<R3>R4)

29

Resistivity(m)

Resistivity(m)

Distance (m)

Distance (m)

Fig. 3.5a: Curve Type H

Fig. 3.5b: Curve Type K

30

Distance (m)

31

Fig. 3.5c: Curve Type Q

Fig. 3.5d: Curve Type A

Resistivity(m)

3.5 DATA INTERPRETATION


The resistivity sounding curves were interpreted qualitatively and quantitatively. This is
done by partial curve matching technique and computer iteration using the Data Collection (DC)
software. The data was imputed into a notepad and read on the software.
3.6 COMPUTER ITERATION
Several computer programmes have been made for resistivity and other geophysical
interpretation and these can be used by those who have vast knowledge of computer and
resistivity technique. Geophysical softwares used in interpretation include: WIN resist, DC inv.,
RES inversion and so on.
3.7 PARTIAL CURVE MATCHING
Partial curve matching was done automatically by the software employed for this work.
The Data Collection (DC) software was employed by imputing the data in a notepad document.

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 RESULTS
4.1.1 GENERAL STATEMENT
The resistivity data from this survey are displayed in several formats i.e. depth sounding curves,
profiles, geo-electric sections and depth sections. The typical depth sounding curves were
presented and interpreted with their equivalent geoelectrical model (Fig.4.1 a-i)

32

S/

AB/2 MN/2 VES

VES

VES

VES

VES

N
1
2

(m)
1
2

(m)
0.5
0.5

1
1964.32
123.70

2
2241.91
6277.76

3
7464.84
2974.99

4
1881.41
1373.84

5
829.34
663.03

3
4

3
4

0.5
0.5

157.95
242.47

2236.29
2521.78

3626.33
4266.39

1643.96
1852.78

853.10
996.73

0.5

434.42

2755.98

5572.20

1994.53

1002.43

1.0

4068.72

2829.96

5203.23

1969.17

1014.21

7
8

8
12

1.0
1.0

3967.85
3753.78

3028.54
3338.06

5508.25
4893.42

2123.18
2311.64

970.68
1053.97

15

1.0

3661.57

3213.03

4378.19

2364.81

1073.36

10

15

2.0

3584.17

3357.13

3800.52

2258.71

1272.25

33

11

20

2.0

4043.87

2902.08

2663.90

1764.33

1062.83

12

25

2.0

3515.56

2548.78

1592.99

1491.16

735.23

13

32

2.0

2857.07

2073.16

688.76

984.99

401.78

14
15

40
40

2.0
5.0

1545.85
2175.69

1532.32
1392.10

558.22
333.84

799.27
810.75

139.56
278.20

16

45

5.0

1691.47

1092.41

302.05

619.55

202.98

17

50

5.0

1262.39

870.61

195.89

802.66

164.96

18
19

65
80

5.0
5.0

308.33
129.60

101.98

20

100

5.0

69.78
105.73

TABLE 4.1 APPARENT RESISTIVITY DATA FOR VES 1-5

TABLE 4.2 APPARENT RESISTIVITY DATA FOR VES 6-9

S/N

AB/2

MN/2

VES

VES

VES

VES

1
2

(m)
1
2

(m)
0.5
0.5

6
3344.21
1610.35

7
31588.07
14077.06

8
293.18
1176.99

9
3919.44
3056.87

3
4

3
4

0.5
0.5

1498.59
1335.59

11625.12
9247.18

394.71
450.24

4019.26
4674.00

0.5

1029.1

7680.60

579.48

5812.41

1.0

1247.78

7149.77

496.74

5757.62

7
8

8
12

1.0
1.0

1193.45
1036.25

5751.47
4818.13

622.36
715.90

6509.75
6685.16

15

1.0

882.70

4236.96

695.78

6885.06

10

15

2.0

879.75

5454.45

683.69

6510.15

34

11

20

2.0

663.67

4387.6

682.11

4074.20

12

25

2.0

420.13

2842.87

541.74

3234.99

13

32

2.0

238.09

7231.95

378.14

3342.77

14
15

40
40

2.0
5.0

167.47
200.30

5024.00
3004.53

2084.43
2834.06

3064.64
3625.47

16

45

5.0

158.58

1691.47

818.45

3171.50

17

50

5.0

123.72

1709.56

3083.65

2914.81

18
19

65
80

5.0
5.0

77.99
97.99

20

100

5.0

232.60

35

Fig.4.1 (a) Typical VES curve for location 1

Fig.4.1 (b) Typical VES curve for location 2

36

Fig.4.1 (c) Typical VES curve for location 3

37

Fig.4.1 (d) Typical VES curve for location 4

38

Fig.4.1 (e) Typical VES curve for location 5

39

Fig.4.1 (f) Typical VES curve for location 6

40

Fig.4.1 (g) Typical VES curve for location 7

41

Fig.4.1 (h) Typical VES curve for location 8

42

Fig.4.1 (i) Typical VES curve for location 9

43

4.1.2 GEOELECTRIC INTERPETATION


The successful application of geo-electric techniques in tar sands exploration is based
upon the existence of measurable physical contrast associated with tar and the host geology. The
various products of petroleum such as oil, gas and bitumen have very high electrical resistivity.
The tar (bitumen) and tar-bearing sands in formations are known to be characterized by high
resistivity (Eke, 2005) but some tar sands are characterized by low apparent resistivity values
depending on their composition. The interpretation results of the VES data measured in the study
area are presented as geoelectric sections in Figures 4.2 a-c. Figures 4.2a, 4.2b and 4.2c describe
the 2-D geoelectric sections along Traverse TR1, TR2 and TR3

44

Fig. 4.2a Geoelectric section across traverse 1

45

Fig.4.2b Geoelectric section across traverse 2

46

Fig.4.2c Geoelectric section across traverse 3

47

4.2 DISCUSSION
Four geoelectric layers are shown beneath these traverses. These include the topsoil, tar
sand, clayey sand and sandy layer. The topsoil resistivity values vary from 336 to 29106 m
with thickness range of between 1.01 and 10.05 m. The second layer is composed of bituminous
sand having apparent resistivity values ranging from 410 to14115 m. Its thickness varies
between 2.9 and 18.7 m. The third layer is clayey sand; they range in resistivity from 50 to 1613
m with thickness varying between 2.5 and 74 m. The fourth layer is a sandy layer and it ranges
in resistivity between 24 and 6546 m.
The second layer is considered the formation hosting the tar (bitumen) in the study area.
The lithologic log sample (Fig.4.3) was used to determine the lithology of the study area. This
was done by taking samples at different intervals of 3m from the top soil down to the bottom
layer.

48

Fig.4.3 Borehole log section of the study area (WATSAN 2011)

49

TABLE 4.3: VES INTERPRETATION RESULTS FOR RESISTIVITY CURVES IN THE


STUDY AREA.
VES

CURVE

THICKNESS (m)

RESISTIVITY (m)

NUMBER

TYPES

d1/d2/d3/d4..dn

p1/p2/p3/p4.pn

AK

1.44/12.20/4.27

337/4752/689/101.4

KQ

5.71/7.46/6.40

2918/5538/880/24

KQ

10.05/8.81/74.06

3240/410/50/1416

HK

2.30/5.32/9.06

1529/1963/1344/378

KQ

2.90/3.93/6.31

748/3184/89/74

2.33/5.67/5.07

1922/1156/494/109

1.01/18.71/10.30

29106/5536/1376/174

KA

1.97/2.92/2.52

462/1001/123/1963

1.94/3.68/15.86

3300/14115/1614/6547

50

Fig.4.4 Traverse 1 lithological section

51

Fig.4.5 Traverse 2 lithological section

52

53

Fig.4.6 Traverse 3 lithological section

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0 CONCLUSION
This study has shown the successful application of vertical electrical sounding in
electrical resistivity geophysical method in the exploration of Gbeleju-loda tar sand. The
inversion of the geoelectric parameters of VES indicate the possible presence of tar (bitumen) in
the bituminous sandstone layer located at a mean depth of 14m. The results have also indicated
that the tar sand layer is characterized by good lateral continuity and its sufficiently thick for
commercial exploitation. The tar bearing (bitumen) sandstone layer is infinitely thick based on
the geophysical study carried out in this area. The fine sand layer is the major aquifer which is
moderately porous and permeable thereby making it a good reservoir rock for tar sand extraction.

54

Tar sand development by way of surface mining is considered feasible at this location in
Gbeleju-loda village.

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Enu E.I (1985). Textural characteristic of the Nigeria Tar Sands. Sedimentary geology. V. 44, pp
65-81.
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and Trontman, London.

APPENDICES
GEOPHYSICAL DATA SHEET (VES)
GPS COORDINATES: N 060 38 48.6s

ELEVATION: 37.4m

E 0040 53 18.5s
VES NUMBER: ONE (01)
S/N

AB/2

MN/2 (m) V

DATE: 17-01-2014
I

R (V/I)
58

a (RK) m

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19

(m)
1
2
3
4
6
6
8
12
15
15
20
25
32
40
40
45
50
65
80

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0

10,277
10,150
1752
1234
671
1386
1118
451
241
515
287
138
76
34
78
62
30
5
1

27
40
44
49
55
55
74
61
53
54
62
53
59
56
56
72
54
43
31

380.63
253.75
39.82
25.18
12.20
25.20
15.12
7.39
4.55
9.54
4.63
2.60
1.29
0.61
1.39
0.86
0.56
0.12
0.03

5.89
24.74
56.16
100.15
225.9
112.3
200.3
451.7
706.16
351.9
626.8
980.3
1607.1
2512.0
1001.51
1268.6
1567.1
2651.6
4017.6

2241.91
6277.76
2236.29
2521.78
2755.98
2829.96
3028.54
3338.06
3213.03
3357.13
2902.08
2548.78
2073.16
1532.32
1392.10
1092.41
870.61
308.33
129.60

GEOPHYSICAL DATA SHEET (VES)


GPS COORDINATES: N 060 38 50.3s
E 0040 53 18.7s
ELEVATION: 41.6m
VES NUMBER: TWO (02)
DATE: 17-01-2014
S/N

AB/2 (m) MN/2 (m)

R (V/I)

a (RK) m

1
2
3
4
5
6
7

1
2
3
4
6
6
8

10,672
150
90
92
50
942
416

32
30
32
38
26
26
21

333.5
5.00
2.81
2.42
1.92
36.23
19.81

5.89
24.74
56.16
100.15
225.9
112.3
200.3

1964.32
123.70
157.95
242.47
434.42
4068.72
3967.85

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
1.0
1.0

59

8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

12
15
15
20
25
32
40
40
45

1.0
1.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
5.0
5.0

241
140
275
200
104
48
24
63
36

29
27
27
31
29
27
39
29
27

8.31
5.19
10.19
6.45
3.59
1.78
0.62
2.17
1.33

451.7
706.16
351.9
626.8
980.3
1607.1
2512.0
1001.51
1268.6

3753.78
3661.57
3584.17
4043.87
3515.56
2857.07
1545.85
2175.69
1691.47

17

50

5.0

29

36

0.81

1567.1

1262.39

GEOPHYSICAL DATA SHEET (VES)


GPS COORDINATES: N 060 38 52.3s
E 0040 53 23.2s
ELEVATION: 38.6m
VES NUMBER: THREE (03)
DATE: 17-01-2014
S/N

AB/2 (m) MN/2 (m)

R (V/I)

a (RK) m

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

1
2
3
4
6
6
8
12
15
15

10,139
962
452
426
148
278
220
65
31
54

8
8
7
10
6
6
8
6
5
5

1267.38
120.25
64.57
42.60
24.67
46.33
27.50
10.83
6.20
10.80

5.89
24.74
56.16
100.15
225.9
112.3
200.3
451.7
706.16
351.9

7464.84
2974.99
3626.33
4266.39
5572.20
5203.23
5508.25
4893.42
4378.19
3800.52

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.0

60

11
12
13
14
15
16

20
25
32
40
40
45

2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
5.0
5.0

17
13
3
2
3
5

4
8
7
9
9
21

4.25
1.63
0.43
0.22
0.33
0.24

626.8
980.3
1607.1
2512.0
1001.51
1268.6

2663.90
1592.99
688.76
558.22
333.84
302.05

17
18

50
65

5.0
5.0

3
1

24
26

0.13
0.04

1567.1
2651.6

195.89
101.98

GEOPHYSICAL DATA SHEET (VES)


GPS COORDINATES: N 060 38 49.5s
E 0040 53 4.3s
ELEVATION: 35m
VES NUMBER: FOUR (04)
DATE: 17-01-2014
S/N

AB/2 (m) MN/2 (m)

R (V/I)

a (RK) m

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

1
2
3
4
6
6
8
12
15
15
20
25
32
40

10,220
1432
507
240
82
200
143
39
10
20
18
6
4
2

18
22
19
18
18
18
24
17
8
8
17
14
27
30

567.78
65.09
26.68
13.33
4.56
11.11
5.96
2.29
1.25
2.50
1.06
0.43
0.15
0.07

5.89
24.74
56.16
100.15
225.9
112.3
200.3
451.7
706.16
351.9
626.8
980.3
1607.1
2512.0

3344.21
1610.35
1498.59
1335.59
1029.1
1247.78
1193.45
1036.25
882.70
879.75
663.67
420.13
238.09
167.47

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0

61

15
16

40
45

5.0
5.0

6
5

30
40

0.20
0.13

1001.51
1268.6

200.30
158.58

17
18
19
20

50
65
80
100

5.0
5.0
5.0
5.0

3
1
1
1

38
34
41
27

0.08
0.03
0.02
0.04

1567.1
2651.6
4017.6
6280.1

123.72
77.99
97.99
232.60

GEOPHYSICAL DATA SHEET (VES)


GPS COORDINATES: N 060 38 51.9s
E 0040 53 16.4s
ELEVATION: 45m
VES NUMBER: FIVE (05)
DATE: 18-01-2014
S/N

AB/2 (m) MN/2 (m)

R (V/I)

a (RK) m

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

1
2
3
4
6
6
8
12
15
15
20
25
32
40
40
45

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
5.0
5.0

10,138
670
319
209
142
289
126
84
38
94
39
12
5
1
5
4

72
25
21
21
32
32
26
36
25
26
23
16
20
18
18
25

140.81
26.80
15.19
9.95
4.44
9.03
4.85
2.33
1.52
3.62
1.70
0.75
0.25
0.06
0.28
0.16

5.89
24.74
56.16
100.15
225.9
112.3
200.3
451.7
706.16
351.9
626.8
980.3
1607.1
2512.0
1001.51
1268.6

829.34
663.03
853.10
996.73
1002.43
1014.21
970.68
1053.97
1073.36
1272.25
1062.83
735.23
401.78
139.56
278.20
202.98

17
18

50
65

5.0
5.0

2
1

19
38

0.11
0.03

1567.1
2651.6

164.96
69.78

62

19

80

5.0

38

0.03

4017.6

105.73

GEOPHYSICAL DATA SHEET (VES)


GPS COORDINATES: N 060 38 59.2
E 0040 53 20.4s
ELEVATION: 47m
VES NUMBER: SIX (06)
DATE: 18-01-2014
S/N

AB/2 (m) MN/2 (m)

R (V/I)

a (RK) m

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

1
2
3
4
6
6
8
12
15
15
20
25
32
40
40
45

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
5.0
5.0

10,647
1977
947
560
283
564
390
222
78
148
104
122
79
33
94
100

16
16
13
12
11
11
12
15
8
8
16
37
38
27
26
40

665.44
123.56
72.85
46.67
25.73
51.27
32.50
14.80
9.75
18.50
6.50
3.30
2.08
1.22
3.62
2.50

5.89
24.74
56.16
100.15
225.9
112.3
200.3
451.7
706.16
351.9
626.8
980.3
1607.1
2512.0
1001.51
1268.6

3919.44
3056.87
4019.26
4674.00
5812.41
5757.62
6509.75
6685.16
6885.06
6510.15
4074.20
3234.99
3342.77
3064.64
3625.47
3171.50

17

50

5.0

54

29

1.86

1567.1

2914.81

63

GEOPHYSICAL DATA SHEET (VES)


GPS COORDINATES: N 060 38 37.7s
E 0040 53 19.3s
ELEVATION: 31.4m
VES NUMBER: SEVEN (07)
DATE: 18-01-2014
S/N

AB/2 (m) MN/2 (m)

R (V/I)

a (RK) m

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

1
2
3
4
6
6
8
12
15
15
20
25
32
40
40
45

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
5.0
5.0

10,204
10,181
745
517
413
721
348
168
67
136
37
21
16
78
266
60

205
214
106
115
161
163
112
106
68
70
34
38
68
94
94
93

49.78
47.57
7.03
4.50
2.57
4.42
3.11
1.58
0.98
1.94
1.09
0.55
0.24
0.83
2.83
0.65

5.89
24.74
56.16
100.15
225.9
112.3
200.3
451.7
706.16
351.9
626.8
980.3
1607.1
2512.0
1001.51
1268.6

293.18
1176.99
394.71
450.24
579.48
496.74
622.36
715.90
695.78
683.69
682.11
541.74
378.14
2084.43
2834.06
818.45

17

50

5.0

61

31

1.97

1567.1

3083.65

GEOPHYSICAL DATA SHEET (VES)


GPS COORDINATES: N 060 38 49.7s
64

E 0040 53 22.0s
ELEVATION: 37m
VES NUMBER: EIGHT (08)
DATE: 18-01-2014
S/N

AB/2 (m) MN/2 (m)

R (V/I)

a (RK) m

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

1
2
3
4
6
6
8
12
15
15
20
25
32
40
40
45

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
5.0
5.0

10,541
1777
966
259
362
754
424
261
144
276
228
108
38
7
17
21

33
32
33
14
41
43
40
51
43
43
81
71
62
22
21
43

319.42
55.53
29.27
18.50
8.83
17.53
10.60
5.12
3.35
6.42
2.81
1.52
0.61
0.32
0.81
0.49

5.89
24.74
56.16
100.15
225.9
112.3
200.3
451.7
706.16
351.9
626.8
980.3
1607.1
2512.0
1001.51
1268.6

1881.41
1373.84
1643.96
1852.78
1994.53
1969.17
2123.18
2311.64
2364.81
2258.71
1764.33
1491.16
984.99
799.27
810.75
619.55

17

50

5.0

21

41

0.51

1567.1

802.66

GEOPHYSICAL DATA SHEET (VES)


GPS COORDINATES: N 060 39 6.3s
E 0040 53 22.4s
ELEVATION: 44.8m
65

VES NUMBER: NINE (09)


DATE: 18-01-2014
S/N

AB/2 (m) MN/2 (m)

R (V/I)

a (RK) m

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

1
2
3
4
6
6
8
12
15
15
20
25
32
40
40
45

0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
0.5
1.0
1.0
1.0
1.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
2.0
5.0
5.0

10,726
1707
621
277
102
191
201
32
24
62
28
29
9
2
3
8

2
3
3
3
3
3
7
3
4
4
4
10
2
1
1
6

5363
569
207
92.33
34
63.67
28.71
10.67
6
15.50
7
2.90
4.5
2.00
3.00
1.33

5.89
24.74
56.16
100.15
225.9
112.3
200.3
451.7
706.16
351.9
626.8
980.3
1607.1
2512.0
1001.51
1268.6

31588.07
14077.06
11625.12
9247.18
7680.60
7149.77
5751.47
4818.13
4236.96
5454.45
4387.6
2842.87
7231.95
5024.00
3004.53
1691.47

17

50

5.0

12

11

1.09

1567.1

1709.56

66