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E-Commerce :

lectronic commerce or e-commerce refers to a wide range of online business activities for products and
services. [1] It also pertains to any form of business transaction in which the parties interact electronically rather
than by physical exchanges or direct physical contact.
E-commerce is usually associated with buying and selling over the Internet, or conducting any
transaction involving the transfer of ownership or rights to use goods or services through a computermediated network.
A more complete definition is: E-commerce is the use of electronic communications and digital
information processing technology in business transactions to create, transform, and redefine
relationships for value creation between or among organizations, and between organizations and
individuals.

Types of e-commerce:
There are 6 basic types of e-commerce:
1.
Business-to-Business (B2B)
2.
Business-to-Consumer (B2C)
3.
Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)
4.
Consumer-to-Business (C2B).
5.
Business-to-Administration (B2A)
6.
Consumer-to-Administration (C2A)
1. Business-to-Business (B2B)
Business-to-Business (B2B) e-commerce encompasses all electronic transactions of
goods or services conducted between companies. Producers and traditional commerce
wholesalers typically operate with this type of electronic commerce.
2. Business-to-Consumer (B2C)
The Business-to-Consumer type of e-commerce is distinguished by the establishment of
electronic business relationships between businesses and final consumers. It corresponds
to the retail section of e-commerce, where traditional retail trade normally operates.
When compared to buying retail in traditional commerce, the consumer usually has more
information available in terms of informative content and there is also a widespread idea
that youll be buying cheaper, without jeopardizing an equally personalized customer
service, as well as ensuring quick processing and delivery of your order.
3. Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)
Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) type e-commerce encompasses all electronic transactions
of goods or services conducted between consumers. Generally, these transactions are
conducted through a third party, which provides the online platform where the
transactions are actually carried out.

4. Consumer-to-Business (C2B)
In C2B there is a complete reversal of the traditional sense of exchanging goods. This
type of e-commerce is very common in crowd sourcing based projects. A large number of
individuals make their services or products available for purchase for companies seeking
precisely these types of services or products.
5. Business-to-Administration (B2A)
This part of e-commerce encompasses all transactions conducted online between
companies and public administration. This is an area that involves a large amount and a
variety of services, particularly in areas such as fiscal, social security, employment, legal
documents and registers, etc. These types of services have increased considerably in
recent years with investments made in e-government.
6. Consumer-to-Administration (C2A)
The Consumer-to-Administration model encompasses all electronic transactions
conducted between individuals and public administration.
Examples of applications include:

Education disseminating information, distance learning, etc.


Social Security through the distribution of information, making payments, etc.
Taxes filing tax returns, payments, etc.
Health appointments, information about illnesses, payment of health services,
etc.

Advantages of e-commerce
Convenience & Easiness

Comprise Warranty Information:

Decreasing cost of inventory Management

Keep Eye on Consumers Buying Habit

Selling Products Across the World

Stay open 24*7/365

Boost Brand Awareness

Attract New Customers with Search Engine Visibility

Disadvantages of e-commerce
The main disadvantages associated with e-commerce are the following:

Strong dependence on information and communication technologies (ICT);


Lack of legislation that adequately regulates the new e-commerce activities, both
nationally and internationally;
Market culture is averse to electronic commerce (customers cannot touch or try
the products);
The users loss of privacy, the loss of regions and countries cultural and economic
identity;
Insecurity in the conduct of online business transactions.

10 Most Important Features of Ecommerce:


1. Quality of Image
When you go shopping at an actual store, you may talk to someone about the product in person although
ecommerce sites often have more accurate and in-depth descriptions of a product than someone who works at
the store but the visual process of shopping is the most crucial. For the web, its really the same and just as
important. Image quality is king when it comes to ecommerce. Invest in quality images of your own products.
Dont use the same images as other retailers.
2. Alternate Views
As important as it is to have quality images on your product pages, it is also important to display the product in
as many angles and details as possible. Remember, the sale is in the details. People want to see exactly what
they are getting. Having alternate views will likely decrease your return rate as youre showing customers
exactly what they are getting. If you are selling expensive goods, alternate views are a must. Remember that
online shoppers are concerned about product authenticity alternate views can help.
3. Zoom Feature
Related to alternative image views, the zoom feature on product images has become increasingly popular.
This helps consumers get a better view of the product.
4. Consumer Reviews
Shoppers care what others have to say. If your product pages have consumer reviews, youre helping shoppers
make a final decision. Not all products have positive reviews. In fact, many have both positive and negative
reviews, which,makes the shopping experience that much more authentic and real for the shopper. There are
many great review platforms to choose from, if your cart doesnt provide one.
5. Product Comparisons

Product comparisons can improve a shopping experience and increase sales. Consumers typically shop for
similar features. A product comparison feature on product pages can help them view features side-by-side,
instead of flipping through many pages. Many shopping carts are starting to incorporate this feature into their
platforms.

6. Live Chat
Live chat is very important to an ecommerce site. This feature should be site wide, but especially on every
product page. Live help can help close the sale. Customer questions can be answered immediately. There are
many live help platforms in the marketplace to choose from.

7. Product Demos
Product demos are increasingly popular. They inform the consumer and can really help decrease return rates.
Employees of Office Depot recently displayed that companys product demonstration feature at an Internet
Retailer conference, stating it sharply increased sales. Also, TigerDirect.com uses product demos to show,
explain and educate consumers about that specific product.

8.Email a Friend Button


It wasnt until the holiday 2011 season that I actually analyzed the live Google Analytics recently launched a
few months back on an ecommerce site. I looked where shoppers were going to get a better feel of user
navigation. I couldnt believe the amount of people that hit the email a friend button, a great feature to have in
all your product pages. It helps spread the word in a quick and efficient way.

9. Show Products on Human Models


For sunglasses, t-shirts or anything that fits on a human, it can really help consumers to see it on someone.
Showing products on models is very effective. It lets the online shopper have a much better understanding of the
product.

10. Share Buttons


Social buttons are a great marketing tool for your product pages. These buttons allow users to post and share
your product with their network of friends and family through Facebook, Twitter and countless social networks.
I recommend using individual social buttons such as the Facebook Like or Share button, the Tweet button, or
Google +1 button instead of an aggregate one. Individual social buttons are easier for shoppers to use, rather
than clicking on an aggregate button and then choosing a specific site.

Topology- definition and types of topology


A Topology of the network defines the manner in which the network devices are arranged and connected to each
other in a network. It defines the shape of communication network. There are five common types of network
Topologies.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Bus Topology
Ring Topology
Star Topology
Tree Topology
Mesh Topology

Bus Topology/ Linear Topology


In a bus topology a single main cable connects each node (computers) which allows single line of computers
accessing it from end-to-end. each node is connected to two others except those in end. The network
operating system keeps track of a unique electronic address for each node in the network, and manages the
flow of data based on this addressing scheme. This topology is often found in a client / server systems,
where one of the machines on the network is designated as file server.
In linear bus topology, all computers are connected by a single length of cabling with a terminator at each
end. the bus topology is the simplest and most widely used network design.
Bus networks are the most common LANs. they have no switches, and in their simplest form, no repeaters,
but simply share a common linear communication medium. Each station requires a tap (hardware for
attachment to the medium), which must be capable of delivering the signal to all stations in the bus.
The data is sent in packets, and each station hears all the transmissions, picking up those addressed to it.
Ring Topology/ Circular Topology
In ring topology the computers are arranged in a circle. Data travels around the ring in one direction, with
each devise on the ring acting as a repeater. Ring Networks typically use a Token Passing Protocol.
The ring topology is usually found in peer-to-peer (PCs connected in pairs) networks, in which each
machine manages both information processing and distribution of data files.

STAR Topology
In Star Topology, all the cables run from the computers to a central location, where they are connected by a
hub. Hub is a device used to extend a network so that additional work stations can be attached.
In Star topology each node is connected to single centrally located server, using its own dedicated segment
of cable. A star topology is a LAN architecture in which endpoints on the network are connected to a
common central hub, or switch, by dedicated links. In this topology each node is connected to a centralised
switch by a dedicated physical link. The switch provides a path between any two devices wishing to
communicate, either physically in a circuit switch or logically in a packet switch.

Tree Topology
This is a network topology containing zero or more nodes/computers linked together in a hierarchical
fashion. The topmost node is called the root. The root may have zero or more child nodes, connected by
edges (links); the root is the parent root to its children. Each node can have in turn zero or more nodes of its
own. Nodes sharing the same parents is called siblings. Every node in the tree has exactly one parent node
(except root which has no parents), and all nodes in the tree are descendants of the root node. These
relationships ensure that there is one and only one path from one node to any other node in the tree.
A tree topology LAN architecture is identical to BUS topology network, except that branches with multiple
nodes are possible in this case.
Mesh Topology/ Graph Topology
In this topology, two or more nodes are connected together in an arbitrary fashion. Any two nodes in a Mesh
or Graph may or may not be connected by a link. Not all the nodes need to be connected in a graph, but if
the path can be traced between any two nodes, the graph is a connected one.
A Mesh Topology is a Mixture of BUS topology, STAR Topology, Ring and Tree Topology, with no
restriction of connection among all the nodes in a network.

WHAT IS E-COMMERCE SECURITY


E-commerce security is the protection of e-commerce assets from unauthorized access, use, alteration, or
destruction.
6 dimensions of e-commerce security
1. Integrity: prevention against unauthorized data modification
2. Nonrepudiation: prevention against any one party from reneging on an agreement after the fact
3. Authenticity: authentication of data source
4. Confidentiality: protection against unauthorized data disclosure
5. Privacy: provision of data control and disclosure
6. Availability: prevention against data delays or removal

Importance of a policy in security Creation


A company's security policy is the central repository where intangibles such as corporate philosophy,
mission statements, culture, attitude to risk and other difficult to define parameters can finally be
crystallized into enforceable, measurable action statements, procedures and ways of working. The
sophistication and scope of such a policy will be influenced by the size and nature of the organization itself,
but the underlying need for a security policy is nevertheless irrefutable. The scope and content of an
effective security policy will vary greatly according to the nature of the organization, for which it is
prepared. For the purpose of this discussion, a few, general principles, which will remain effective
regardless of the size of the organization to which they apply, receive attention. Whatever the size of an
organization, and whatever its current state of information security policy, there is always scope for a useful
review of current policies and procedures. Just as security itself is not a product but a process, so it is
necessary to constantly ensure that an organization's security policy continues to meet the changing and
evolving needs of the underlying business.
The Importance of Laws in Security Creation.
Even before 300 B.C, the importance of law and command in the society baffled many thinkers. This was when
Plato came up with the right republic and wrote about obligation and justice to the state. Laws and commands
are very important if a society is to achieve order, justice and security.
In the place where the laws do not exist, insecurity and chaos are the norm. Whats more, civilization cannot
occur in a world that is lawless (Hobbes 256). Law however is not absolute and it can be amended or revised
based on societal needs. This means that laws and commands to a large extend depend on the societal values. It
is also an indication that laws cannot be effective if the society does not enforce and obey the laws.

OSI reference model (Open Systems Interconnection) definition


OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) is reference model for how applications can
communicate over a network. A reference model is a conceptual framework for
understanding relationships. The purpose of the OSI reference model is to guide
vendors and developers so the digital communication products and software programs
they create will interoperate, and to facilitate clear comparisons among communications
tools. Most vendors involved in telecommunications make an attempt to describe their
products and services in relation to the OSI model. And although useful for guiding
discussion and evaluation, OSI is rarely actually implemented, as few network products
or standard tools keep all related functions together in well-defined layers as related to
the model. The TCP/IP protocols, which define the Internet, do not map cleanly to the
OSI model.

Importance of OSI Model in Networking or Advantages:

The standard model for networking protocols and distributed application is the OSI model -7 network
layers.
The layers of OSI provides the levels of abstraction.
Each layer performs a different set of functions and the intent was to make each layer as independent
as possible from all the others.
Each layer uses the information from the below layer and provides a service to th layer above
Main advantages

Information hiding
Decoupling changes.
Breaks up complex problem into smaller manageable pieces
Abstraction of implementation details.
Separation of implementation and specification.
Can change implementation as long as service interface is maintained
Can use functionality
Upper layers can share lower layer functionality

clientserver computing
The clientserver model of computing is a distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads
between the providers of a resource or service, calledservers, and service requesters, called clients.[1] Often clients
and servers communicate over a computer network on separate hardware, but both client and server may reside in
the same system. A server host runs one or more server programs which share their resources with clients. A client
does not share any of its resources, but requests a server's content or service function. Clients therefore initiate
communication sessions with servers which await incoming requests.
Examples of computer applications that use the clientserver model are Email, network printing, and the World Wide
Web.

Packet switching
It is a digital networking communications method that groups all transmitted data into suitably sized blocks,
called packets, which are transmitted via a medium that may be shared by multiple simultaneous communication
sessions. Packet switching increases network efficiency, robustness and enables technological convergence of
many applications operating on the same network.
Packets are composed of a header and payload. Information in the header is used by networking hardware to direct
the packet to its destination where the payload is extracted and used by application software.
Starting in the late 1950s, American computer scientist Paul Baran developed the concept Distributed Adaptive
Message Block Switching with the goal to provide a fault-tolerant, efficient routing method for telecommunication
messages as part of a research program at the RAND Corporation, funded by the US Department of Defense.[1] This

concept contrasted and contradicted the theretofore established principles of pre-allocation of network bandwidth,
largely fortified by the development of telecommunications in the Bell Syste.

What is Computer Vandalism?


In everyday life, there are vandals that seem to enjoy destroying things even though it can be hard
to understand how they derive any tangible benefit from their acts of vandalism. Unfortunately, the
same type of behavior is also present in cyberspace. There are malware creators that devote time
and effort to acts of computer vandalism that can damage your computers and data, and affect the
services that businesses deliver.

spoofing

In computer networking, IP address spoofing or IP spoofing is the creation of Internet Protocol (IP)
packets with a forged source IP address, with the purpose of concealing the identity of the sender or
impersonating another computing system.