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DRAFT

AMUSEMENT DEVICES

Code of Practice

DRAFT

TABLE OF CONTENTS
FOREWORD ......................................................................................................................... 4
SCOPE AND APPLICATION ................................................................................................ 4
1.

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................ 5
1.1
1.2
1.3

2.

THE RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS .......................................................................... 8


2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

3.

Inspections ........................................................................................................ 19
Operating an amusement device ....................................................................... 20
Public safety ...................................................................................................... 22
Access - entry and exit ...................................................................................... 23
Patron restraint and containment ....................................................................... 23
Working near electricity and electric lines .......................................................... 24
Patron responsibility .......................................................................................... 25
Other control measures ..................................................................................... 27

MAINTAINING, REPAIRING, DISMANTLING AND STORING .................................... 28


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

6.

Buying an amusement device ............................................................................ 12


Hiring an amusement device ............................................................................. 13
Registering plant - amusement devices ............................................................. 13
Information, training, instruction and supervision ............................................... 15
Installing an amusement device......................................................................... 16
Commissioning an amusement device .............................................................. 17
Emergency plan ................................................................................................ 18

INSPECTING AND OPERATING AN AMUSEMENT DEVICE ..................................... 19


4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8

5.

Identifying the hazards ........................................................................................ 8


Assessing the risks .............................................................................................. 9
Controlling the risks ............................................................................................. 9
Maintaining and reviewing control measures ..................................................... 11

BEFORE USING AN AMUSEMENT DEVICE............................................................... 12


3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7

4.

What is an amusement device? ........................................................................... 5


Who has health and safety duties relating to an amusement device? .................. 5
What is involved in managing risks associated with an amusement device? ....... 6

Maintenance, repair and cleaning ...................................................................... 28


Decommissioning and dismantling an amusement device ................................. 28
Record keeping ................................................................................................. 29
Storing an amusement device ........................................................................... 30
Modifying an amusement device ....................................................................... 30

CONTROLLING RISKS: SPECIFIC AMUSEMENT DEVICES ..................................... 32


6.1

Mobile amusement devices ............................................................................... 32


PAGE 2 OF 44

This DRAFT Code has been approved by Safe Work Australia Members and is ready for approval by the
Select Council on Workplace Relations (Ministerial Council). This Code will become a model WHS Code of
Practice under the Inter- Governmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational reform in OHS when it is
approved by the Ministerial Council.

DRAFT
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

Land-borne Inflatable amusement devices ........................................................ 32


Waterborne inflatable devices ........................................................................... 32
Roller coasters .................................................................................................. 33
Concession go-karts .......................................................................................... 33

APPENDIX A DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................ 35


APPENDIX B SAMPLE ANNUAL INSPECTION RECORD ............................................. 36
APPENDIX C AMUSEMENT DEVICES CHECKLIST ...................................................... 37
APPENDIX D CHECKLIST FOR OPERATORS ............................................................... 42
APPENDIX E OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION......................................................... 44

PAGE 3 OF 44
This DRAFT Code has been approved by Safe Work Australia Members and is ready for approval by the
Select Council on Workplace Relations (Ministerial Council). This Code will become a model WHS Code of
Practice under the Inter- Governmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational reform in OHS when it is
approved by the Ministerial Council.

DRAFT
FOREWORD
This Code of Practice on managing risks associated with the operation of amusement devices is
an approved code of practice under section 274 the Work Health and Safety Act (WHS Act).
An approved code of practice is a practical guide to achieving the standards of health, safety
and welfare required under the WHS Act and the Work Health and Safety Regulations (the
WHS Regulations).
A code of practice applies to anyone who has a duty of care in the circumstances described in
the code. In most cases, following an approved code of practice would achieve compliance with
the health and safety duties in the WHS Act, in relation to the subject matter of the code. Like
regulations, codes of practice deal with particular issues and do not cover all hazards or risks
which may arise. The health and safety duties require duty holders to consider all risks
associated with work, not only those for which regulations and codes of practice exist.
Codes of practice are admissible in court proceedings under the WHS Act and Regulations.
Courts may regard a code of practice as evidence of what is known about a hazard, risk or
control and may rely on the code in determining what is reasonably practicable in the
circumstances to which the code of practice relates.
Compliance with the WHS Act and Regulations may be achieved by following another method,
such as a technical or an industry standard, if it provides an equivalent or higher standard of
work health and safety than the code.
An inspector may refer to an approved code of practice when issuing an improvement or
prohibition notice.
This Code of Practice has been developed by Safe Work Australia as a model code of practice
under the Council of Australian Governments Inter-Governmental Agreement for Regulatory
and Operational Reform in Occupational Health and Safety for adoption by the Commonwealth,
state and territory governments.
A draft of this Code of Practice was released for public consultation on 8 June 2012 and was
endorsed by the Select Council on Workplace Relations on [to be completed].

SCOPE AND APPLICATION


This Code provides practical guidance for persons conducting a business or undertaking who
have management or control of an amusement device on how to identify hazards, assess and
control of risks associated with an amusement device.
This Code applies to amusement devices as defined in the WHS Regulations that are used in
the workplace or in a public place.
This Code should be read in conjunction with the Code of Practice: Managing Risks of Plant in
the Workplace and the Code of Practice: Safe Design, Manufacture, Import and Supply of Plant.
How to use this code of practice
In providing guidance, the word should is used in this Code to indicate a recommended course
of action, while may is used to indicate an optional course of action.
This Code also includes various references to provisions of the WHS Act and Regulations which
set out the legal requirements. These references are not exhaustive. The words must,
requires or mandatory indicate a legal requirement exists and must be complied with

PAGE 4 OF 44
This DRAFT Code has been approved by Safe Work Australia Members and is ready for approval by the
Select Council on Workplace Relations (Ministerial Council). This Code will become a model WHS Code of
Practice under the Inter- Governmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational reform in OHS when it is
approved by the Ministerial Council.

DRAFT
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1

What is an amusement device?

Amusement device means plant operated for hire or reward that provides entertainment,
sightseeing or amusement through movement of the equipment, or part of the equipment, or
when passengers travel on, around or along the equipment.
Amusement devices do not include:
a miniature train and railway system owned and operated by a model railway society,
club or association
a ride or device that is used as a form of transport and that is regulated under another
Act or an Act of the Commonwealth a ride or device used as a form of transport and that
is regulated under another Act or an Act of the Commonwealth for that purpose
a boat or flotation device that is solely propelled by a person who is in or on the boat or
device that is not attached to mechanical elements or equipment outside the boat or
device, and that does not rely on artificial flow of water to move
plant specifically designed for a sporting, professional stunt, theatrical, or acrobatic
purpose or activity
a coin-operated or token-operated device that:
o is intended to be ridden, at one time, by not more than 4 children who must be
below the age of 10 years
o usually located in a shopping centre or similar public location
o does not necessarily have an operator.
The designs and items of some types of amusement devices must be registered with the
regulator, see section 3.3. of this code.
The definitions of other key terms used in this Code are listed in Appendix A.

1.2

Who has health and safety duties relating to an amusement device?

A person conducting a business or undertaking has the primary duty to ensure, so far as is
reasonably practicable, workers and other people are not exposed to health and safety risks
arising from the business or undertaking.
This duty requires the person to manage risks by eliminating health and safety risks so far as is
reasonably practicable, and if it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate the risks, by
minimising those risks so far as is reasonably practicable. It also includes ensuring, so far as is
reasonably practicable the:

provision and maintenance of safe plant, including amusement devices


safe use, handling, storage and transport of amusement devices.

A person conducting a business or undertaking with management or control of an


amusement device has some specific obligations in relation to amusement devices.
If you own an amusement device you will be the person with management or control of the
device. If you hire or lease an amusement device you may have management or control of that
amusement device and will jointly have responsibility for health and safety with the person you
have hired or leased it from.
Designers, manufacturers, suppliers, importers and installers of amusement devices must
ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, the plant is without risks to health and safety. This
duty includes carrying out testing and analysis as well as providing specific information about
the plant or structure.
Designers, manufacturers, importers and suppliers have duties to provide information about the
plant to enable other duty holders to fulfil the responsibilities they have in managing the risks
PAGE 5 OF 44
This DRAFT Code has been approved by Safe Work Australia Members and is ready for approval by the
Select Council on Workplace Relations (Ministerial Council). This Code will become a model WHS Code of
Practice under the Inter- Governmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational reform in OHS when it is
approved by the Ministerial Council.

DRAFT
associated with it. Information must be passed on from the designer through to the
manufacturer and supplier to the end user.
Designers and manufacturers of amusement devices should refer to relevant technical
standards. Importers and suppliers should check devices against relevant standards before
supplying amusement devices to end users.
Further guidance is available in the Code of Practice: Safe design, Manufacture, Import and
Supply of Plant.
Officers, such as company directors, have a duty to exercise due diligence to ensure the
business or undertaking complies with the WHS Act and Regulations. This includes taking
reasonable steps to ensure the business or undertaking has and uses appropriate resources
and processes to eliminate or minimise risks that arise from using an amusement device.
Workers have a duty to take reasonable care for their own health and safety and to not
adversely affect other peoples health and safety. Workers must co-operate with reasonable
policies or procedures relating to health and safety at the workplace and comply, so far as they
are reasonably able, with reasonable instructions.
Other persons at the workplace, like visitors, must take reasonable care for their own health
and safety and must take reasonable care not to adversely affect other peoples health and
safety. They must comply, so far as they are reasonably able, with reasonable instructions
given by the person conducting the business or undertaking to allow that person to comply with
the WHS Act.

1.3

What is involved in managing risks associated with an amusement device?

R.203: A person with management or control of plant at a workplace must manage risks to
health and safety associated with the plant.
R.32-38: To manage risk, a person conducting a business or undertaking must:
identify reasonably foreseeable hazards that could give rise to risks to health and safety
eliminate risks to health and safety so far as is reasonably practicable
if it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate risks to health and safetyminimise those
risks so far as is reasonably practicable by implementing risk control measures according to
the hierarchy of control in regulation 36
ensure the control measure is, and is maintained so that it remains, effective, and
review and as necessary revise control measures implemented to maintain, so far as is
reasonably practicable, a work environment that is without risks to health or safety.
This Code provides guidance on how to manage the risks associated with amusement devices
following a systematic process which involves:

identifying hazards finding out what could cause harm


assessing risks if necessary understand the nature of the harm that could be caused
by the hazard, how serious the harm could be and the likelihood of it happening
controlling risks implementing the most effective control measure that is reasonably
practicable in the circumstances
reviewing control measures to ensure they are working as planned

Guidance on managing the risks of plant is available in the Code of Practice: Managing Risks of
Plant in the Workplace.

PAGE 6 OF 44
This DRAFT Code has been approved by Safe Work Australia Members and is ready for approval by the
Select Council on Workplace Relations (Ministerial Council). This Code will become a model WHS Code of
Practice under the Inter- Governmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational reform in OHS when it is
approved by the Ministerial Council.

DRAFT
Consulting your workers
S.47: The person conducting a business or undertaking must, so far as is reasonably
practicable, consult with workers who carry out work for the business or undertaking who are, or
are likely to be, directly affected by a matter relating to work health or safety.
S.48: If the workers are represented by a health and safety representative, the consultation
must involve that representative.
It is important to consult your workers as early as possible when planning to introduce new
equipment or make changes that may affect their health and safety.
Consultation involves sharing information, giving workers a reasonable opportunity to express
views and taking those views into account before making decisions on health and safety
matters.
Consultation with workers and their health and safety representatives is required at each step of
the risk management process. By drawing on the experience, knowledge and ideas of your
workers you are more likely to identify all hazards and develop effective risk controls measures.
Consulting, co-operating and co-ordinating activities with other duty holders
S.46: If more than one person has a duty in relation to the same matter under this Act, each
person with the duty must, so far as is reasonably practicable, consult, co-operate and coordinate activities with all other persons who have a duty in relation to the same matter.
Often other duty holders, for example people who install or repair the device or who share the
workplace where it is set up, have a role in ensuring the safety of an amusement device.
It is important that these duty holders consult each other about the risks associated with the use
of the amusement device and work together in a co-operative and co-ordinated way to control
the risks. For example, amusement device owners and operators at festivals, fetes, agricultural
shows or other events should consult with the event organisers about local factors, such as land
stability and underground or overhead services, which may affect the safety of amusement
devices and consult with the device owners on ways to ensure the safety of devices and
patrons.
Further guidance on consultation requirements is available in the Code of Practice: Work Health
and Safety Consultation, Co-operation and Co-ordination.

PAGE 7 OF 44
This DRAFT Code has been approved by Safe Work Australia Members and is ready for approval by the
Select Council on Workplace Relations (Ministerial Council). This Code will become a model WHS Code of
Practice under the Inter- Governmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational reform in OHS when it is
approved by the Ministerial Council.

DRAFT
2. THE RISK MANAGEMENT PROCESS
A range of things can go wrong with amusement devices if they are not designed,
manufactured, maintained and operated correctly, for example when:
a roller coaster car detaches from the rails
an inflatable jumping castle untethers by wind
patrons who are not properly restrained are thrown from amusement devices
amusement devices break down, stranding patrons in uncomfortable or dangerous
situations.
A risk management process that identifies the hazards and controls the risks will help ensure
the amusement device is safe to use.

2.1

Identifying the hazards

Identifying hazards in the workplace involves finding things and situations that could potentially
cause harm to people. Hazards could come from amusement device:

Design and characteristics for example an inflatable jumping castles inherent stability,
load carrying capacity, platform height, air supply security and number of anchor points.
Assembly or dismantling for example the need to work at height or in
awkward postures.
Set up location for example whether the soft fall area is adequate, local
weather and ground conditions, or location of overhead power lines and other
structures including other amusement devices.
Operation for example whether barriers are able to prevent unauthorised
access and the skill and experience of the operator.
Use for example the behaviour of patrons and the influence of their size and
weightfor jumping castles, patrons should be of a similar size and weight.

Design, equipment or machine failure, work processes and misuse can each create hazards,
including:
Entrapment for example, where people can access moving parts they could become
trapped between the moving parts and other parts of the device.
Entanglement - for example, long hair not restrained or loose clothing.
Electrical for example, from overhead or underground electrical services.
Impact many devices have large moving objects for example, roller coasters which can
hit people if access is not prevented. Patrons can be hit by items dropped onto people
below from devices which lift patrons into the air.
Slips, trips and falls for example, on walkways and stairs, or from inadequate restraints
on amusement devices.
Noise excessive noise levels can interfere with effective communication between
device operators and attendants or lead to temporary and permanent hearing loss if
noise from device motors or music is too high.
Exposure for example to ultraviolet rays, vibration, or hazardous chemicals.
When identifying hazards you should consider the life cycle of the amusement device, including
transporting, installing, commissioning, operating, inspecting and testing, maintaining, repairing,
decommissioning, dismantling and storing the device.
How to identify hazards
Information can be gathered from a range of sources to help identify hazards, including:
operator manuals and other manufacturer instructions and information for the
amusement device
PAGE 8 OF 44
This DRAFT Code has been approved by Safe Work Australia Members and is ready for approval by the
Select Council on Workplace Relations (Ministerial Council). This Code will become a model WHS Code of
Practice under the Inter- Governmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational reform in OHS when it is
approved by the Ministerial Council.

DRAFT

discussions with designers, manufacturers, suppliers, importers, maintenance


technicians, engineers and operators of similar devices
a visual inspection of the amusement device and the operating environment in which it
will be:
o transported
o installed, erected and commissioned
o used, including inspection, maintenance and repair
o decommissioned and dismantled
o stored
ergonomic and safety requirements of people who use the amusement device
safe entry and exit needs of people who install, erect, use, repair, maintain, clean or
dismantle the amusement device
talking to workers about how work is carried out
information from inspections, tests, maintenance and use, e.g. log books and health and
safety records.

If you have hired or leased the device you should consult the person who owns it about
potential hazards, because you both have responsibility for ensuring it is safe and without risk to
health and safety.

2.2

Assessing the risks

A risk assessment involves considering what could happen if someone was exposed to a
hazard and the likelihood of this happening.
Many hazards and their associated risks are well known and have well established and
accepted control measures. In these situations, this second step to formally assess the risk is
unnecessary. If, after identifying a hazard, you already know the risk and how to control it
effectively, you may simply implement the controls. Factors which may impact on the risk for the
hazards you have identified, include the:

2.3

location of the amusement device


condition e.g. it age, maintenance history and frequency of use
suitability and stability of the amusement device and supports, e.g. the potential for
inadvertent movement during operation
unauthorised operation of the amusement device
entry and exits for patrons and workers
the suitability and effectiveness of patron restraints.

Controlling the risks

Some control measures are more effective than others. Control measures can be ranked from
the highest level of protection and reliability to the lowest. This ranking is known as the
hierarchy of control.
Eliminating the risk
This means removing the hazard or hazardous work practice from the workplace. This is the
most effective control measure and must always be considered before anything else. For
example, a worker carrying out maintenance work on an amusement device on the ground
eliminates the risk of the worker falling from height.
If elimination of the risk is not reasonably practicable, you must consider using substitution,
isolation or engineering controls, or a combination of these control measures, to minimise the
risk.

PAGE 9 OF 44
This DRAFT Code has been approved by Safe Work Australia Members and is ready for approval by the
Select Council on Workplace Relations (Ministerial Council). This Code will become a model WHS Code of
Practice under the Inter- Governmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational reform in OHS when it is
approved by the Ministerial Council.

DRAFT
Minimising the risk
Substitution
Minimise the risk by substituting or replacing a hazard or hazardous work practice with a safer
one. For example, ensure patrons are in closed cages rather than open carriages from which
they might fall.
Isolation
Minimise the risk by isolating or separating the hazard or hazardous work practice from people,
either by distance or physical barrier. For example, provide a secure physical barrier around the
amusement device to prevent unauthorised entry to the area where the amusement device is
operating.
Engineering controls
Engineering controls are physical control measures to minimise risk, for example:
installing guards to prevent contact with the amusement devices moving parts
designing and installing padding or restraints inside devices where patrons could be
thrown against the sides
installing automatic barriers which operate when the device is being unloaded or loaded
to control patron entry and exit.
If a risk then remains, the duty holder must minimise the remaining risk, so far as is reasonably
practicable, by using:
Administrative controls
Administrative controls should only be considered when other higher order control measures
are not reasonably practicable, or to increase protection from the hazard. These are work
methods or procedures that are designed to minimise the exposure to a hazard, for example:
implementing a lock-out procedures so the amusement device is positively
isolated from its power source while maintenance or cleaning work is done
using warning signs for patrons about safe use of the device and size or height
restrictions
rotating operators to reduce fatigue and maintain concentration.
Any remaining risk must be minimised, as far as is reasonably practicable, by providing and
ensuring the use of:
Personal protective equipment
Personal protective equipment (PPE) is the lowest order control measure in the hierarchy of
controls. PPE should only be considered when other higher order control measures are not
reasonably practicable or to increase protection from the hazard. Examples of PPE include:
ear plugs or ear muffs if noise levels are above the exposure standard after other control
measures such as isolation have been implemented
long sleeved shirts and trousers, wide brimmed hat, sunglasses and sun screen to
protect workers against sun exposure
helmets for patrons e.g. when riding go-karts.
Administrative control measures and PPE rely on human behaviour and supervision and used
on their own tend to be least effective way of minimising risks.
Combining control measures
In most cases a combination of control measures will provide the best solution to minimise the
risk to the lowest level reasonably practicable. For example, to control risks associated with a
ghost train, control measures might include:
locating hazardous special effects behind a see-through barrier (isolation)
PAGE 10 OF 44
This DRAFT Code has been approved by Safe Work Australia Members and is ready for approval by the
Select Council on Workplace Relations (Ministerial Council). This Code will become a model WHS Code of
Practice under the Inter- Governmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational reform in OHS when it is
approved by the Ministerial Council.

DRAFT

2.4

installing patron restraints to prevent people from moving about the carriage or being
thrown from it (engineering)
providing safe ride signs and instructions to patrons (administrative).

Maintaining and reviewing control measures

R.37: A person conducting a business or undertaking must ensure control measures are
maintained so that they remain effective, including by ensuring that the control measures are
and remain:
fit for purpose
suitable for the nature and duration of the work, and
installed, set up and used correctly.
R.38: A duty holder must review and as necessary revise control measures implemented to
maintain, so far as is reasonably practicable, a work environment that is without risks to health
or safety.
Control measures must be reviewed and if necessary revised to make sure they work as
planned and no new hazards have been introduced, including then there is a change at the
workplace.
You should consult your workers to get feedback on the amusement device and work
processes. Discuss the following:
Have hazards associated with the amusement device been identified?
Are control measures, for example guards, barriers, patron restraints, working effectively
in both their design and operation?
Are safety procedures being followed?
Are signs available to help patrons be aware of the conditions of use?
Do workers know of, understand and follow the control measures?
Has an incident or a dangerous incident occurred in relation to the amusement device?
If it has, what can be learned from it?
Are legislative requirements such as daily checks and operation without passengers
being carried out and recorded in log books?
If new legislation or new information becomes available, does it indicate current controls
may no longer be the most effective?
When deciding how often to carry out a review you should consider the level of risk and the type
of device involved. There may be particular stages in the life of a device where more frequent
reviews are needed.
Further guidance on managing risks is available in the Code of Practice: How to Manage Work
Health and Safety Risks.

PAGE 11 OF 44
This DRAFT Code has been approved by Safe Work Australia Members and is ready for approval by the
Select Council on Workplace Relations (Ministerial Council). This Code will become a model WHS Code of
Practice under the Inter- Governmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational reform in OHS when it is
approved by the Ministerial Council.

DRAFT
3. BEFORE USING AN AMUSEMENT DEVICE
Before you buy or hire an amusement device you should consider what you will be using the
device for and whether it is suitable for your needs. You should consult the supplier to
determine whether the device will be suitable. The amusement device checklist at Appendix C
can assist with this process.

3.1

Buying an amusement device

Before buying an amusement device you should check the design and construction is suitable
for the intended use and it meets the relevant technical standards.
Discuss your needs with the supplier and ask for information about the following:
the purpose for which amusement device was designed or manufactured
the results of calculations, analysis, testing or examination
conditions necessary for the safe use of the amusement device.
For some complex amusement devices you should engage a competent person, for example an
engineer, to inspect the amusement device before you buy it. They can provide helpful advice
and assess the information provided by the supplier.
Second-hand amusement devices
R.198: A supplier of plant must:
take all reasonable steps to obtain the information required to be provided by the
manufacturer under section 23(4)(a) and (c) of the Act and these Regulations, and
when the plant is supplied, ensure the person to whom the plant is supplied is given the
information obtained by the supplier.
R.199: A supplier of second-hand plant must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that
any faults in the plant are identified.
Before plant is supplied, the supplier of second-hand plant must ensure that the person to
whom the plant is supplied is given written notice of:
the condition of the plant
any faults identified, and
if appropriate, that the plant should not be used until the faults are rectified.
R.8: A supply of a thing does not include the supply of a thing by a person who does not control
the supply and has no authority to make decisions about the supply, for example an auctioneer
without possession of the thing or a real estate agent acting in their capacity as a real estate
agent.
A person conducting a business or undertaking that imports, supplies or sells second hand plant
has obligations to the person buying or receiving the plant, including for an amusement device.
For further information see section 25 of the WHS Act, regulations 198, 199 and 200 of the
WHS Regulations and the Code of Practice: Safe Design, Manufacture, Import and Supply of
Plant.

PAGE 12 OF 44
This DRAFT Code has been approved by Safe Work Australia Members and is ready for approval by the
Select Council on Workplace Relations (Ministerial Council). This Code will become a model WHS Code of
Practice under the Inter- Governmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational reform in OHS when it is
approved by the Ministerial Council.

DRAFT
3.2

Hiring an amusement device

If you hire an amusement device, both you and the person you have hired it from must ensure,
so far as is reasonably practicable, that it is safe to use. During the time the amusement device
is in your possession you will have control over the amusement device. Duty holders must
consult, co-operate and co-ordinate activities with each other, so far as is reasonably
practicable.
A person who hires an amusement device to another person should check:
the amusement device has been inspected and maintained between each hiring or
leasing to identify and if necessary minimise risks to safety
regular amusement device testing has occurred to check if new or increased risks to
health and safety are present and if more frequent testing is required in the future
test results are recorded in the log book and these records maintained
the log book and maintenance manual are updated in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions each time it is hired or leased, erected or installed,
dismantled or removed
the customer has information about how to set up and dismantle the device safely if the
customer is required to setup or dismantle the device
the customer has the manufacturers instructions about how to use, operate and control
the device, or if not the instructions prepared by a competent person have been given to
the customer.
A person hiring an amusement device should check that:
the device is suitable for its intended use
the inspections and maintenance records are up-to-date in the log book
the supplier has appropriate public liability insurance
the supplier provides information about:
o plant registration
o the purpose of the amusement device and its proper use
o transporting, handling, setting-up, using and dismantling the device.

3.3

Registering plant - amusement devices

Schedule 5 to the WHS Regulations requires amusement devices covered by Section 2.1 of AS
3533.1:2009 Amusement rides and devices - Design and construction to be design and item
registered, with the exception of the following:
class 1 devices
playground devices
water slides where water facilitates patrons to slide easily, predominantly under gravity,
along a static structure
wave generators where patrons do not come into contact with the parts of machinery
used for generating water waves
inflatable devices that are sealed
inflatable devices that do not use a non-return valve.

PAGE 13 OF 44
This DRAFT Code has been approved by Safe Work Australia Members and is ready for approval by the
Select Council on Workplace Relations (Ministerial Council). This Code will become a model WHS Code of
Practice under the Inter- Governmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational reform in OHS when it is
approved by the Ministerial Council.

DRAFT
Table 1 Examples of amusement devices which must be registered
Registrable amusement devices

most powered and non-powered (manually operated) mechanical devices


most jumping castles, horizontal bungy and other continuously blown inflatables
climbing walls, giant slides
go-karts
high ropes courses, bridge swinging, bungy jumping
miniature trains not owned and operated by a model railway society, club or association

If your device is not covered by the above list you should seek guidance from the regulator
before treating it as not registrable.
You must not allow a registrable amusement device to be used unless it is registered.
Plant design registration
If plant design registration is required by Part 2 of Schedule 5 to the WHS Regulations, a person
conducting a business or undertaking that designs an item of plant may apply to the regulator to
register the plant design. Alternatively, a person with management or control of an item of plant
may apply to the regulator for the registration of the plant design.
An amusement device design must also be registered if:
it has not already been design registered, or
you alter the design by modifying the amusement device and the alterations to the
design may affect health and safety.
When a design is registered, the regulator will issue a design registration number to the person
with management or control of the amusement device. The person to whom the plant design
registration number is issued must give the registration number to the manufacturer, importer or
supplier of plant manufactured to that design. The person with management or control of plant
must keep the design registration number in a readily accessible location near the amusement
device.
Plant item registration
If registration of an item of plant is required by Part 2 of Schedule 5 to the WHS Regulations, a
person with management or control of an item of plant may apply to the regulator to register that
item of plant. The purpose of registering an item of plant is to ensure that it is inspected by a
competent person and is safe to operate. The person with management or control of plant must
notify the regulator if the person no longer has management or control of the item of plant. The
item registration number must be marked on the amusement device. The number should be
permanently marked, where it can be easily read and seen when the device is assembled and
where it cannot be damaged or removed.
It is important to make sure an amusement device requiring item registration has been design
registered before it is bought or hired, and the design registration number is supplied with the
device. If the amusement device is old and does not have a design registration number, contact
your regulator.
Further guidance on plant registration is available in the Code of Practice: Safe Design,
Manufacture, Import and Supply of plant and the Code of Practice: Managing Risks of Plant in
the Workplace.

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3.4

Information, training, instruction and supervision

S.19: A person conducting a business or undertaking must ensure, so far as is reasonably


practicable, the provision of any information, training, instruction or supervision that is
necessary to protect all persons from risks to their health and safety arising from work carried
out as part of the conduct of the business or undertaking.
R.39: A person conducting a business or undertaking must ensure that information, training and
instruction provided to a worker is suitable and adequate having regard to:
the nature of the work carried out by the worker
the nature of the risks associated with the work at the time of the information, training and
instruction, and
the control measures implemented.
The person must ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that the information, training and
instruction provided under this regulation is provided in a way that is readily understandable by
any person to whom it is provided.
There are three main categories of amusement device personnel:
device operators and attendants who are responsible for the day-to-day operation
maintenance personnel
competent persons carrying out inspections and testing.
Information and training for operators
Before an amusement device is used workers and operators must be provided with the
information, training, instruction or supervision necessary to protect themselves, patrons and
others. In addition, operators should be provided with regular refresher training.
Information and training should cover:
how to operate the device safely, focussing on the nature of the hazards and risk
controls, including:
o manufacturer or other written operating instructions
o general use of device controls including emergency braking
o speed limits, loads, ride times and frequencies
o operator distractions including restrictions on the use of mobile phones
o safe loading and unloading of the device
o passenger restrictions, e.g. height and weight
o procedures to manage patrons who misbehave
o safe waiting and viewing places for spectators
o use and maintenance of safety equipment
device inspection, testing and maintenance procedures
local environmental conditions e.g. weather and the procedures to follow in adverse
conditions
local area or location risks where the amusement device is to be operated, including
safe public viewing areas
emergency training including:
o procedures during equipment malfunction or failure
o using, fitting, testing and storing personal protective equipment during
emergencies.
Operators and attendants should be closely supervised by a competent person until they can
competently and safely use the device.
Emergency procedures should be clearly displayed and easily seen by workers and patrons.
Training programs should be practical and hands on and take into account the particular needs
of workers, for example their literacy levels, experience and the specific skills required for safe
use of devices.
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Supervisors should take action to correct unsafe work practices associated with amusement
device as soon as possible.
Safety information must be provided to anyone installing, commissioning, testing,
decommissioning, dismantling or disposing of the amusement device. This should include
information on the types of hazards and risks the amusement device may pose to them during
these activities.

3.5

Installing an amusement device

R.204: A person with management or control of plant at a workplace must not commission the
plant unless the person has established that the plant is, so far as is reasonably practicable,
without risks to the health and safety of any person.
A person with management or control of plant at a workplace must ensure that:

A person who installs, assembles, constructs, commissions or decommissions or dismantles


the plant is a competent person and is provided with the available information for eliminating
or minimising risks to health or safety.

The processes for the installation, construction, commissioning, decommissioning and


dismantling of plant include inspections that ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that
risks associated with these activities are monitored.

An installer has a duty to ensure the amusement device is installed, constructed or


commissioned based on the information provided by the designer, manufacturer, importer or
supplier. If information is not available from these people it should be installed, constructed or
commissioned based on health and safety instructions provided by a competent person.
Commissioning an amusement device involves adjusting, testing and inspecting the device
according to the designer or manufactures specifications to ensure it is in proper working order
before it is used.
When installing or erecting an amusement device the installer should check:
parts are properly aligned and not bent, distorted or cut, e.g. parts should not be force-fit
together
parts which are worn or damaged beyond specified discard criteria or limits are not used
parts requiring lubrication are lubricated regularly and when being erected
fastening and locking apparatus are installed and properly secured if needed for the
plant to operate safely
makeshift apparatus is not used, e.g. temporary or makeshift structural supports
artificial lighting is installed where necessary for passenger safety
the device and related safety equipment are kept in good working order and free from
obvious defects
welding is not conducted on load-bearing parts unless by a competent person and the
part is not compromised by the welding
where split pins or taper pins are used in floating spindles, washers are fitted between
the pins and adjacent rubbing surfaces
the correct pins, bolts and other connectors are used as specified by the manufacturer
or a competent person
protective padding is placed over sharp edges.
Site issues
You must identify and manage risks, so far as is reasonably practicable, related to the site
where the amusement device is to be operated. This may include:
ground and supporting surfaces, for example:
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firm and stable ground that can support the weight of the loaded device and plant
used to erect or maintain it
o temporary foundations or footings should be able to carry applied loads
o supporting surfaces and surrounding areas should be well drainedconsider
potential impact from rain like flooding, poor drainage
o where inflatables require anchoring, ensure the ground is suitable to hold the
anchors in place
weather conditions, e.g. high winds
vertical and horizontal clearance between the device and buildings, trees, and overhead
electric lines and underground services and other devices:
o check whether there are overhead or underground electrical or other services in
the area that may impact on the device and its operation
o check the proposed location relative to other amusement devices, buildings and
vehicle and pedestrian pathways
safe access for workers, patrons and emergency vehicles
putting in place measures to control the patrons and others public e.g. barriers or
fencing around amusement devices.
o

High risk work licenses


A high risk work licence is required to operate certain types of plant, including forklift trucks,
boom type elevating work platforms and certain cranes. If this plant is used to erect or install an
amusement device the person with management or control of the amusement device must
check that the plant operators hold an appropriate licence.
A high risk work licence is required to carry out dogging, rigging or scaffolding work. Dismantling
scaffolding requires the person to hold the appropriate scaffolding licence. Further guidance on
scaffolding is available in the Code of Practice: Scaffolds and Scaffolding Work.
Information about the type of activities requiring a high risk work licence can be found in
Schedule 3 to the WHS Regulations.

3.6

Commissioning an amusement device

An amusement device should undergo a range of safety tests as part of the commissioning
process and before it is put into service. Things to consider include, whether:
the device is soundly constructed of proper materials and free from obvious defects
the device is capable of supporting the maximum load to which it may be subjected and
of moving safely at the speeds at which it is designed to move
the speed of the device is limited for example, by a governor, within the range specified
by the manufacturer and operator manuals
the passengers can be thrown out of a device, and if so whether the restraint system
prevents accidental release or release by the passenger
how passenger safety will be maintained if the device or power fails where passengers
are normally held in position by dynamic forces
a braking system is necessary, and if so, if it is suitable and effective
a failure of the controls could result in an accidental collision, and if so is the device
provided with an emergency braking system to prevent such collisions
parts of the device passengers may touch are smooth, free from sharp, rough or
splintered edges and corners and have no protruding parts e.g. studs, bolts, or screws
part of a device moves over or under people,
people can come into contact with moving parts
devices operated on tracks are provided with anti-rollback apparatus which is
automatically activated if the propelling mechanism fails
inflatable devices have sufficient anchor points
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3.7

out-of-balance testing is carried out on amusement devices which include a degree of


out-of-balance loading check there is no adverse vibration, harmonic oscillation or
movement relative to footings and foundations
the integrity of the hydraulic and pneumatic systems and their components is tested
regularly
control devices, speed-limiting devices, brakes, other equipment provided so the device
operates safely, safety systems and evacuation procedures are tested regularly
electrical testing with reference to relevant technical standards is carried out regularly.

Emergency plan

R.43: A person conducting a business or undertaking must ensure that an emergency plan is
prepared and maintained so it remains effective for the workplace, and provides for the
following:
emergency procedures, including:
o
an effective response to an emergency
o
evacuation procedures
o
notifying emergency service organisations at the earliest opportunity
o
medical treatment and assistance
o
effective communication between the person authorised by the person conducting the
business or undertaking to co-ordinate the emergency response and all persons at the
workplace
testing of the emergency procedures, including the frequency of testing
information, training and instruction to relevant workers in relation to implementing the
emergency procedures.
Emergency procedures must be prepared and relevant workers trained.
A communication system should be in place to allow emergency services to be contacted
quickly. The emergency contact numbers should be displayed where they are easily seen and
read.
Emergency lighting and illuminated exit signs should be installed where amusement devices
operate in enclosed spaces.
Fire fighting and rescue equipment should be available at appropriate locations across the site.
Signs displaying evacuation locations should be displayed where they are easily seen and read
by workers, patrons and others at the workplace.
Emergency equipment recommended by the designer or manufacturer should be readily
available, including so the device can be moved or rotated to release passengers if the power
fails or the amusement device malfunctions.
Emergency procedures should include information about:

how to use warning systems and what to do when they sound


how to shut-down the device safely
how to use emergency stop systems
how to evacuate the device and the area nearby safely
evacuation points
effective communication between workers near the device to evacuate safely
how to use emergency equipment provided to release passengers from the device in an
emergency
training workers to respond to injured people and evacuate people.

Emergency procedures should be communicated to workers as well as to people who use the
amusement devices where necessary to manage the risks to their health and safety.
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4. INSPECTING AND OPERATING AN AMUSEMENT DEVICE
4.1

Inspections

An amusement device must be maintained, inspected and tested by a competent person


according to the manufacturers instructions or in accordance with instructions prepared by a
competent person.
Safety inspections of amusement devices should include the control mechanisms, speed
limiting apparatus, brakes, electrical systems, fastenings and other safety equipment, including
fences and barriers.
Control measures should be implemented to protect the health and safety of the person
conducting the inspection, including:

de-energising the amusement device


switching off or isolating the power source to stop the device from accidentally powering
dangerous parts during inspection
dissipating or isolating stored energy, e.g. releasing or containing stored hydraulic
pressure to stop the device moving or collapsing unexpectedly
ensuring guards removed during the inspection process are correctly replaced before
the device or part of the device is operated.

The amusement device checklist in Appendix C can be used by a person with management or
control of an amusement device to help assess whether regulatory requirements are being met.
Daily inspection
R.238 (2): The person with management or control of an amusement device at a workplace
must ensure that:
the amusement device is checked before it is operated on each day on which it is to be
operated
the amusement device is operated without passengers before it is operated with
passengers on each day on which the amusement device is to be operated, and
the daily checks and operation of the amusement device without passengers are properly
and accurately recorded in a log book for the amusement device.
A daily visual check must be made by the owner or operator before the device is operated.
Before it is accessed by members of the public, another check must be made with the device
running under power.
The daily check must be entered into the log book and include the:
date and time of the inspection or test
name of the person who performed the check
information about defects or problems identified and steps taken to fix them.
Annual inspection
R.241: The person with management or control of an amusement device at a workplace must
ensure that a detailed inspection of the device is carried out at least once every 12 months by a
competent person.
For an annual inspection, a competent person is a person who either:
has the skills, qualifications, competence and experience to inspect the plant and be
registered under a law that provides for the registration of professional engineers, or
is determined by the regulator to be a competent person.
The annual inspection must include:
a check of the operational history of the device since the last detailed inspection
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a check of the log book for the amusement device


a check that maintenance and inspections have been carried out as required under
regulation 240 of the WHS Regulations
a check that required tests have been carried out and that appropriate records have
been maintained
a detailed inspection of the amusement device which complies with the WHS Act and
Regulations, including a specific inspection of the critical components of the amusement
device.

Relevant technical standards and maintenance manuals should be referred to during the annual
inspection.
The annual inspection should include obtaining operating and maintenance manuals for the
device and observing the device in its various configurations including packed for transport,
partly erected, fully assembled and when operating. This may mean the inspection takes place
over a period of time.
The inspection should check:
the condition of
o structural and mechanical components - for example, seating, patron-restraint
devices, pods drive and brake systems, frames and motors
o electrical and electronic components - for example, cabling, sockets and
connections
disassembly of critical components of the amusement device and removal of paint,
grease and corrosion to allow a complete and thorough inspection
tolerance checking of critical components
non-destructive testing of all critical areas for evidence of cracking, fatigue and
excessive stress.
Non-destructive testing means the development and application of technical methods to
examine materials or components in ways that do not impair their future usefulness and
serviceability, in order to detect, locate, measure and evaluate flaws, to assess integrity,
properties and composition, and to measure geometrical characteristics.
R.240(2): A person is not a competent person to carry out a detailed inspection of an
amusement device that includes an electrical installation unless the person is qualified, or is
assisted by a person who is qualified, to inspect electrical installations.
If an amusement device requires electrical installation inspection you must ensure a suitably
qualified and experienced person inspects the installation. The person should then provide a
signed statement which is recorded in the log book, indicating the electrical installation is safe to
use or operate.
Following the annual inspection a report should be prepared by a competent person and the
inspection recorded in the log book. An example of what should be included in an inspection
record is attached in Appendix B.
The annual inspection report and the results of the tests and inspections carried out at the time
should be kept together and with the log book.

4.2

Operating an amusement device

Before the amusement device is used the person conducting a business or undertaking with
management or control of the device should check the operator:
is provided with instruction and training in its safe operation
understands the level of supervision of the device and patrons that is required
is able to check that patrons are safely contained where required.
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The person with management or control of the device should make sure attendants are also
provided with instruction and training.
The operator
The person with management or control of an amusement device at a workplace must ensure
the amusement device is operated by a person who has been provided with instruction and
training to operate the device competently and safely. The operator of an amusement device
should:
be trained by a competent person to operate the device
be able to demonstrate they understand and will follow operating procedures
be able to give clear instructions or warnings to patrons and attendants
immediately report faults or malfunctions to the supervisor or owner and stop the device
be familiar with emergency and first aid procedures.
The operator of an amusement device should not:
operate it in a reckless or negligent manner
operate the amusement device faster than the safe operating speed
operate the device in weather bad conditions, such as high winds
operate the device without ensuring that safety equipment is provided and functional
board or mount a device while it is moving
enter a hazardous area whilst the device is moving
be under the influence of drugs or alcohol
operate the device when ill
use a mobile phone or other things which may distract the operator
walk away from the device while it is operating, regardless of whether it is carrying
patrons or not.
The operators role includes managing patrons and their behaviour. The operator must comply,
so far as they are reasonably able, with any reasonable instruction given to them by the person
conducting the business or undertaking. For example, an operator should:
not allow a patron who appears to be under the influence of alcohol or drugs or who is
visibly ill onto the device
assist patrons on and off the device when necessary, but only if they have agreed
shut down the device immediately if it is being misused by patrons, e.g. seats being
rocked or patrons standing up when they should be sitting down
be alert when the device is operating and be prepared for an emergency stop
not allow smoking by patrons when on or near an amusement device
be cautious and ready for unexpected behaviour especially from children
ensure an adult accompanies a child where this is necessary for the childs safety
enforce a patron use restrictions e.g. height or size of patrons
keep patrons, waiting to participate, outside of device operating zones.
See Appendix D for a checklist for operators.
Other hazards
During high winds or torrential rain owners and operators should stop the amusement device
and take precautions to protect peoples safety.
For some devices, such as roller coasters, weather conditions should be continuously
monitored. If the wind conditions reach the critical condition identified by the manufacturer or
supplier, the amusement device should be cleared and operations stopped immediately or as
soon as it is safe to do so.

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4.3

Public safety

The health and safety of other people, for example people in public areas near the amusement
device, must so far as is reasonably practicable, not be put at risk from work carried out as part
of the conduct of the business or undertaking. You should work closely with event organisers on
public safety issues whenever the amusement device is used during a public event such as an
agricultural show or fete.
Control measures to protect the public include barriers, gates, fences and other physical
measures to prevent unauthorised entry.
The risk to unauthorised people entering the area of the amusement device should be
controlled, for example by barriers such as fencing. When permanent or temporary fencing is
installed around the perimeter it should be checked and maintained to prevent unauthorised
access.
Some amusement devices, when kept in one location for long periods of time or overnight, may
still pose a risk to workers and other people. In these cases locks should be fitted to prevent
unauthorised access. Securing the device should not limit emergency access or the ability of
people to evacuate if necessary. Barriers or locks should be regularly inspected and tested. .
Table 2 Permanent and temporary barriers
Permanent Barriers
Should:

Temporary Barriers

define the zone

Should:
be at least 900 mm high

be constructed from dedicated materials

prevent people from climbing or moving


through or under them
be stable and able to withstand
anticipated loads
be secured by installing gates and joints
so there is no weak point for entry
be at least 1 metre higher than adjacent
surfaces

be easily identifiable, e.g. a distinctive


colour
have signs marked NO ACCESS in
lettering 75 mm or bigger

When barriers are installed permanently they should be designed to relevant technical
standards. If an unsupervised area is to be enclosed to contain equipment or facilities that pose
a hazard to children for example pools, there are a range of relevant technical standards which
outline requirements.
Unauthorised people, including children, are more likely to comply with a barrier, for example a
fence, chain or gate, than a warning sign. In certain circumstances specific security measures
may be implemented which could include engaging security staff to prevent unauthorised
access.
The security of unattended amusement devices should be managed and examples include:
locking electrical switchboards
securing fuels or hazardous chemicals in accordance with regulatory requirements
locking access to operator controls and having safe storage of keys
safe storage of other plant and equipment.

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4.4

Access - entry and exit

An amusement device should be provided with crowd control fences, barriers or other physical
measures as necessary to:
assist the orderly queuing of patrons
ensure the safety of spectators, passers-by and other people queuing to use the device
define the safe loading and unloading area
provide safe passage for operating staff and patrons
exclude unauthorised people from accessing staff and patron areas.
Access ways for patrons boarding or disembarking from devices should be clearly defined,
illuminated where necessary, and free of trip and fall hazards. Passenger loading and unloading
platforms and similar facilities should be kept clear of debris, obstructions and slippery
conditions.
Gates providing access during maintenance, assembly or inspection should be locked or held
shut with keys or tools while the device is operating.
Entry to operating devices should be by a gate latched from the inside, unless entry is
supervised and defined by a barrier, drop-bar, chain or similar method. If the entry is
unsupervised consider using an interlock to the amusement device controls.
Barriers should be kept in a good condition.
Clearly marked exits should be provided for patrons, including those used for emergency
evacuation. Where ambient light is low exit signs should be illuminated. Exit points should be
fitted with a gate that is secure against entry from outside but provides an obvious means of
opening in the exit mode.
In the event of a power failure, malfunction, fire or unplanned stoppage the amusement device
should have facilities to bring the device to a position where patrons can disembark or fixed
walkways, stairs, platforms or hatchways that are readily accessible from sections of the device.

4.5

Patron restraint and containment

Where there is a risk people could fall or be ejected from an amusement device, even as a
result of unexpected behaviour such as panicking or skylarking, the risk should be controlled as
far as is reasonably practicable.
Control methods can include:
enclosing patrons in a carriage or gondola so the patron cannot enter or exit of their own
accord
containment of the patron and separation distances between them and moving parts of
the device
providing a restraint device to ensure passengers remain seated for the duration of the
ride
using unlocking mechanisms that cannot be accessed by the patron e.g. by having a
centrally controlled interlock mechanism for the operator to disengage the restraint
system
where the amusement device passes through an enclosed space, providing additional
measures to allow for remote emergency release
having screening procedures for patrons to ensure that only those who can be
effectively restrained are permitted to ride
checking patron restraints are in place and patrons are secured before the ride starts.

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4.6

Working near electricity and electric lines

R.166: A person conducting a business or undertaking at a workplace must ensure, so far as is


reasonably practicable, that no person, plant or thing at the workplace comes within an unsafe
distance of an overhead or underground electric line.
If this is not reasonably practicable to ensure the safe distance, the person must ensure that a
risk assessment is conducted for the proposed work and control measures implemented are
consistent with the risk assessment and the requirements of an electricity supply authority
where it is responsible for the electric line.
Electric lines
Overhead electric lines create significant risks, including electrocution, for people transporting,
installing, erecting, operating or dismantling amusement devices. The following should be
considered:
Will the amusement device go near electric lines, including when transporting,
installing, using or dismantling the device? If so, how high are the lines and the device,
including detachable parts?
Contact the relevant electrical supply authority to eliminate the energised electricity risk
by isolating the electricity supply for the duration of the work
Contact the electrical regulator for information on specific requirements when working
near electric lines, including safe approach distances and qualifications required for
people working near electric lines.
Does the amusement device operator have the training and competency to operate or
direct the truck near power lines?
Overhead lines may be hard to see in the sky or hidden by trees.
Is a safety observer in place to watch the amusement device when it is being
transported, installed or dismantled close to electric lines?
Emergency rescue procedures, including calling the electrical supply authority to
isolate the electricity supply before trying to rescue a person receiving an electric
shock.
Most risks can be addressed by observing safe working distances for people and plant working
near electric lines. Safe working distances will depend on the type of work being carried out and
the voltage of the electric lines.
Further information about electrical safety is available in the Code of Practice: Working in the
Vicinity of Overhead and Underground Electric Lines and the regulator.
Electrical devices
A person with management or control of an amusement device should check:
electrical inspections have been done on the amusement device and the power supply
equipment and Residual Current Devices (RCD) have been tested and tagged by a
competent person in accordance with regulatory requirements
electrical equipment like power outlets in meter boards and on generators, power
cables, extension leads, connection points and RCDs are suitably protected against
bad adverse weather conditions
power cables are secured and protected to avoid slip, trip fall hazards and damage
from traffic
display lighting and associated cables are in good working order, secured and located
so they are not hazardous
there are sufficient power outlets to avoid using double adaptors.
If an amusement device requires electrical installation, the person who does the inspection must
be a competent person to inspect electrical installations, or must be assisted by someone who
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is competent to inspect electrical installations. This would normally be someone with electrical
trade qualifications.
Further information about electrical safety is available in the Code of Practice: Managing
Electrical Risks in the Workplace.
Internal combustion generators
If there is an internal combustion generator used to generate power for the amusement device,
control measures should be implemented. For example:
putting the generator in an area with sufficient fresh air or venting exhaust gas to an
open area and away from people
ensuring a suitable fire extinguisher is provided near the generator
restricting access to hazardous areas of the generator
using noise attenuation to minimise noise levels.

4.7

Patron responsibility

Many incidents can result from inappropriate patron behaviours. In order for the public to enjoy
amusement devices it is necessary for:
the operator to enforce the safety requirements
the operator to communicate safety information to the patron
the patron to fully understand the information and instructions provided
patrons to respect and comply with size and weight restrictions, especially on those
devices specifically intended for use by children.
Table 3 Examples of hazardous patron behaviour

All patrons

Young children

Hazardous patron behaviour


Ignoring signposted safety restrictions for example, height
and weight limitations or pre-existing medical conditions
Reaching hands or feet outside the amusement device
Standing up while on an amusement device
Not using seat belts or other safety equipment as
instructed
Overloading an amusement device
Horseplay
Tripping or falling from not paying attention
Turning or twisting head or body on a high velocity device
Riding while tired, dehydrated or intoxicated
Falling off an amusement devicesome safety equipment
on amusement devices is not designed to restrain children
Getting off an amusement device prematurely due to
confusion, excitement, fear or because they miss their
parents
Putting hands or feet into the machinery
Running or jumping while getting on or off amusement
devices

Signs
The person with management or control of the amusement device should display information on
the possible effects the use of a device may have on patrons. Operators should provide
necessary oral instructions for patrons.
Information should be displayed for patrons where they can be easily seen and read near the
amusement device. This may indicate there are risks in the participation in or on an amusement
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device and that patrons, by their participation, accept the risks of which a prudent person is or
should be aware.
Signs encouraging patrons to use good judgement and act in a responsible manner should be
displayed. They should outline patrons have a duty to:
refrain from behaviour which could affect theirs and others safety or which may damage
the device
obey reasonable written, and particularly oral, instructions and warnings, given by the
proprietors or operators of a device, without objection.
use the safety equipment provided, whenever participating in a device.
Figure 1 Example of an amusement device safety sign

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Figure 2 Examples of height guides for amusement devices

4.8

Other control measures

Guarding
A guard is a barrier or device which stops a person touching moving parts or accessing
dangerous areas of an amusement device. Guarding near amusement devices should be
installed to stop patrons from accessing parts of the device or from getting clothing or body
parts caught.
Operator controls
Operator controls should be located or guarded so they cannot be used or activated
unintentionally. Emergency stops should be used in a planned and controlled way where
possible.
Emergency Stops
Emergency stop devices should not be the only method of bringing an amusement device to a
stop. They should be designed as a backup to other control measures.
Warning Devices
Warning devices should be used in addition to higher order control measures where there is a
likelihood of amusement devices colliding with other amusement device or patrons in the vicinity
or to warn of an incident with the device such as fire.
For further guidance on guarding, operator controls, emergency stops, warning devices and
isolation procedures see the Code of Practice: Managing Risks of Plant in the Workplace.

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5. MAINTAINING, REPAIRING, DISMANTLING AND STORING
5.1

Maintenance, repair and cleaning

The person with management or control of the amusement device must ensure the amusement
device is maintained and inspected by a competent person, in accordance with the designers
or manufacturers instructions. If a maintenance manual for the amusement device has been
prepared by a competent person the device must be inspected and maintained in accordance
with the maintenance manual.
A maintenance program for amusement devices assists the person with control of the
amusement device in maintaining its mechanical and structural integrity, and in identifying parts
that may be subject to excessive corrosion, wear, fatigue, stress or strain, or in identifying other
risks to health or safety.
If an amusement device needs to be operated for maintenance or cleaning, the person with
management or control of the amusement device must ensure the operator controls:
allow the amusement device to be operated during maintenance or cleaning
cannot be operated by anyone except the person carrying out maintenance or cleaning
allow the device to be operated in a way that the risks, when maintaining or cleaning the
device, are eliminated or minimised, so far as reasonably practicable.
You should check guards are replaced following maintenance and cleaning, if possible, before
starting the amusement device but otherwise before restarting normal operation.
Damaged amusement devices should be withdrawn from service until risks to health and safety
have been assessed and controlled.

5.2

Decommissioning and dismantling an amusement device

R.204: A person with management or control of plant at a workplace must not decommission or
dismantle the plant unless the decommissioning or dismantling can be carried out, so far as is
reasonably practicable, without risks to the health and safety of any person.
A person with management or control of plant at a workplace must ensure that:

A person who installs, assembles, constructs, commissions or decommissions or dismantles


the plant is a competent person and is provided with the available information for eliminating
or minimising risks to health or safety.

The processes for the installation, construction, commissioning, decommissioning and


dismantling of plant include inspections that ensure, so far as is reasonably practicable, that
risks associated with these activities are monitored.

You must identify foreseeable hazards inherent in the decommissioning and dismantling
process for the amusement device for example, exposure to hazardous substances. The
amusement device should be dismantled according to the designers and manufacturers
instructions.

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5.3

Record keeping

R.237: The person with management or control of the plant at a workplace must keep a record
of all tests, inspections, maintenance, commissioning, decommissioning, dismantling and
alterations of the plant for the period that the plant is used or until the person relinquishes
control of the plant.
R.242: The person with management or control of an amusement device at a workplace must
ensure that:
details of the erection or storage of the amusement device (including the date of erection)
are recorded in the log book for the amusement device on each occasion on which it is
erected or stored, and
the log book and operating and maintenance manuals for the amusement device are kept
with the amusement device.
Log book
A log book is used to keep permanent records about repairing, maintaining and using plant,
including copies of inspection reports for an amusement device. It may be kept as a booklet, a
loose-leaf folder or electronically on a computer.
The method adopted to provide and maintain the log will vary depending on the complexity of
the amusement device and the number of devices owned and operated by a person conducting
a business or undertaking.
Where appropriate, separate logs should be kept for additional equipment related to the
amusement devices, for example, steam, hydraulic and pneumatic systems, which are not able
to be covered by the general log for the entire device.
A log book and operating and maintenance manual must be kept for each amusement device
and must be easily accessible to people who need them, including people involved with
commissioning, installing, using, testing, decommissioning, dismantling, storing and disposing
of the amusement device.
The log book must be kept with the amusement device.
The log book contains information about the daily inspection and the annual inspection and
maintenance or modifications made to the amusement device.
Information to be recorded in the log book includes:
The amusement device and its classification under AS 3533.1 Amusement rides and
devices - Design and construction
The plant design registration information.
The plant item registration number.
For the daily inspection and operation without passengersthe date, time, comments
and who performed the test
For the annual inspection (see Appendix B for an example form):
o the date on which the annual inspection is done
o the name, address, telephone number, and the qualifications or status of the person
doing the inspection
o information verifying the steps taken to comply with the requirements of the
inspection program, including specific information relating to the inspection of the
critical components of the amusement device, and the certificate of inspection
o information about defects or problems found during the inspection program and the
steps taken to fix or address them
o information about maintenance, repair work or modifications carried out on the
amusement device.
Details of each time the amusement device is erected.
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Details about each time the amusement device is stored, for example when it is taken
back to a depot and returned to service and when it is taken out of service for a period
of time.
Maintenance, repair and modification records, including the name, address, telephone
number qualifications of the repairer and details about the repair or alteration including
information concerning the nature of damage.
Details of modifications made to the amusement device including the date on which it is
carried out; the name, address and telephone number of the person; the qualifications
or status of the person; specific details of the repair or alteration, including information
about the nature of alterations, should be included in the log book.
Relevant information and data from commissioning.
Results of hazard identification and risk assessments carried out on the amusement
device.
Manufacturers specifications.
A copy of set-up and dismantling procedure.
A copy of operating instructions.
Information, instruction and training provided to workers, and the competencies of
operators
A copy of improvement and prohibition notices issued in the last twelve months.
If the final and approved design drawings and calculations have been made available they could
be kept with the log book if they may assist with future testing and inspection of the device.

5.4

Storing an amusement device

R.239: The person with management or control of an amusement device at a workplace must
ensure that:
the device is stored so as to be without risk to health and safety, and
a person who stores the device is a competent person or is under the supervision of a
competent person.
An amusement device not in use must be stored so it does not create a risk to people in the
workplace. Storing a device can range from when it is taken back to a depot until it is required
again or when a device is taken out of service for a period of time. When in storage you should:
provide the health and safety information supplied by the designer or manufacturer to
the person who is dismantling or storing the amusement device
take steps to prevent the device from being damaged during storage, for example from
corrosion.
When an amusement device is used again after an extended period of storage, a complete risk
assessment should be carried out before erecting, installing or commissioning the device.

5.5

Modifying an amusement device

Before making changes you should consult with the designer or manufacturer to ensure
relevant safety issues have been considered. Where the original designer or manufacturer
cannot be contacted, modifications should be carried out by a competent person based on
relevant technical standards. Details of modifications made to an amusement device should be
recorded in the log book. Changes you make to the amusement device may mean you take on
the designer or manufacturer duties. You should check if you need to register the altered
design.
Before returning a modified amusement device to service you should:
have control measures in place to eliminate or minimise risks created by the changes
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inspect and test the amusement device having regard to the modified design
specifications and relevant technical standards and engineering principles
register an change to the plant design if the original design was registrable and the design
has been changed to an extent requiring new control measures to manage new risks
apply to alter the item registration to include the new design registration number, if a new
design registration is required.

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6. CONTROLLING RISKS: SPECIFIC AMUSEMENT DEVICES
There are many different types of amusement devices, each with their own risks. This section
outlines ways to manage risks for some of these amusement devices.

6.1

Mobile amusement devices

If you are an event organiser where mobile amusement devices are being operated you should
determine whether the amusement device can be operated safely. Check that the site provided
is suitable to operate the device and will not impact on people or other activities.
An event organiser is often a person conducting a business or undertaking who has duties in
relation to amusement devices, see sections 4.2 to 4.8 of this Code. Checking the devices log
book and using the amusement device checklist in Appendix C may assist event organisers to
meet their work health and safety obligations. Event organisers should consult other duty
holders who have management or control of the amusement device about controlling risks.

6.2

Land-borne Inflatable amusement devices

Inflatable amusement devices can present a risk if they are not set up and operated according
to the relevant instructions. Poor inflatable set-up or operation can lead to:
the device becoming airborne during strong wind gusts
device collapse and trapped patrons
injury to patrons who can move freely on a device without supervision, e.g. a jumping
castle.
Inflatable devices should:
be secured and anchored with anchor points provided according to the manufacturers
instructions and relevant technical standards
be evacuated when wind gusts exceed the manufacturers guidelines or when over
40 km per hour
have perimeter mats and soft fall area
be supervised at all times by people who are competent to operate the device safely
be monitored so that it is not used by more than the maximum number of patrons
be monitored so electrical or other powered components of the inflatable cannot be
interfered with by patrons, in particular children
be inspected regularly for wear or rips in the fabric.
Patrons should be monitored so that only those of similar size and weight are on the device at
the same time. This will reduce the risk of injury to smaller patrons. Somersaults, flips or tackling
of others should not be permitted.

6.3

Waterborne inflatable devices

A waterborne device means a device that involves patrons travelling, either for part of or for the
whole of the ride, in vehicles floating on and propelled by water in a flume. The flume may end
at the foot of an elevating system that returns vehicles and patrons to a higher point. Patrons
are not immersed at any time, and do not become wet except from incidental splashing.
Closer supervision is needed for patrons using waterborne devices because, being over water,
waterborne inflatable devices are more difficult to anchor than land-borne inflatable devices
which can lead to injury and drowning. Control measures should be implemented to prevent
patrons being caught between the device and other things such as the pool edge, ladders or
ropes.
For large inflatable pool devices, pool operators should:
check whether there is adequate pool supervision
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6.4

encourage parent or guardian supervision to complement other pool supervision


prepare and maintain adequate emergency plans, including procedures to deal with bad
behaviour and suspected drowning
hold emergency drills to test and practice emergency plans and procedures
review the storage and use of dangerous goods and hazardous chemicals at the pool.

Roller coasters

A roller coaster is a device which transports patrons in wheeled vehicles that are continuously in
contact with and travel along a fixed rail system. The roller coaster moves, in part or in whole,
from acceleration due to gravity.
Some roller coasters may be categorized as inverting roller coasters where, by virtue of a
rotation of the rail, patrons attain an attitude of head below abdomen for at least some portion of
the ride. Roller coasters can operate at high speeds, may take sharp turns or be subject to
sudden acceleration and g-forces. Special precautions should be taken. The following patrons
are at particular risk:
Table 4 Examples of at risk groups
Patrons at risk
Patrons with:

Patrons who are:

Back or neck problems

Pregnant

Heart trouble

Broken bones

Recovering from recent surgery or a


medical procedure

Hand held infants

Of a body shape that does not allow for the


safety bar to lock securely

Carrying camera, video or other loose and


bulky equipment

Children under 1.3 m tall

To minimise risk operators should:

Stop and clear the device if wind conditions reach the critical condition identified by the
manufacturer or supplier.

Ensure patrons keep their head, hands, arms, legs and feet inside the ride at all times
and do not stand up or reach toward fences or barriers.

Further information on roller coasters is available in AS 3533.4.3: Amusement rides and devices
- Specific requirements Roller coasters.

6.5

Concession go-karts

Concession go-karts are a common amusement device and to use them safely patrons need a
safe environment and close supervision by the operator.
Before allowing patrons to operate a go-kart, the operator should:

Instruct patrons about:


o rules and procedures for using the go-kart safely
o warning signs and signals and the importance of following all directions given in the
signs
o where the entry to the loading and unloading areas are
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o

instructions on overtaking procedure, collision response, vigilance and patron


responsibility.

Check and keep monitoring hair or clothing so they do not come loose during the ride
and become entangled in moving parts of the kart

Check the patron can reach controls such as the pedals and steering wheel and seat
belts are fitted correctly and securely on the patron. Safety helmets and their straps
should also be checked for correct fitting.

To minimise risks operators should check:

patrons remain seated in the go-kart at all times, including loading and unloading areas,
until instructed otherwise

patrons show consideration for other patrons, follow track rules and avoid deliberate
collisions

passengers in dual occupancy go-karts do not distract the patron in control of the device

regular inspections and maintenance of go-karts are carried out in accordance with the
manufacturers instructions

the go karts, the track and operating procedures comply with the relevant part of AS
3533.4.2: Amusement rides and devices - Specific requirements Concession go-karts.

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APPENDIX A DEFINITIONS
Attendant
Competent Person

A person working under the supervision of an operator who is able to


assist, guide and monitor patrons.
For annual inspecting of an amusement device means a person who:
either:
o has the skills, qualifications, competence and experience to
inspect the plant, and
o is registered under a law that provides for the registration of
professional engineers, or
is determined by the regulator to be a competent person.
For design verification means a person who has the skills,
qualifications, competence and experience to design the plant or verify
the design.
For inspecting an item of plant for registration a person is competent if
the person has:
educational or vocational qualifications in an engineering discipline
relevant to the plant to be inspected; or
knowledge of the technical standards relevant to the plant to be
inspected.
For any other case is a person who has acquired through training,
qualification or experience the knowledge and skills to carry out the
task.

Operator

A person who is competent to operate and control an amusement


device.
Note an operator may also be an attendant.

Patron

A person using or participating in an amusement device.

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APPENDIX B SAMPLE ANNUAL INSPECTION RECORD
Regulations 240 and 241 of the WHS Regulations require a detailed inspection of an
amusement device be carried out at least once every 12 months by a competent person.
Note See section 4.1 of this Code for further information on annual inspections of amusement devices.
Record of Annual Inspection of Amusement Device
Amusement Device details
Name and type of device...
Design Registration No. ....

Issued by ..

Item Registration No. .....

Issued by ..

Inspection Details
Name of person inspecting the device ....
Qualifications of person inspecting the device ...
Date(s) of inspection ..
Location(s) of Inspection .

The class of the device [to AS 3533.1 2009] recorded in the logbook was Class ..
As initialled, the following checks were carried out:
Operational history since the last annual inspection has been checked
Log book up-to-date
Maintenance and inspections have been carried out as required under Regulation 240
and are recorded in the logbook
Required tests have been conducted and records maintained
A detailed inspection of the amusement device has been carried out, including inspecting
the critical components, and the device complies with the WHS Act and Regulations.
Electrical Inspections have been carried out in accordance with AS 3533.3 Clause 11.4.3
and a statement that the electrical installation is safe to use or operate has been provided
by a qualified person and recorded in the logbook.
The integrity of the device, including critical components, has been assessed and a physical inspection,
of those components of the unit that were visible, was carried out in accordance with relevant technical
standards and by supplementary methods where necessary.
In my opinion, at the time of inspection, and as far as my inspection could determine, this device had
been correctly maintained, required testing satisfactorily completed and was free of visible defects that
could adversely affect the safety of the device.
__________________________________
Signature

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APPENDIX C AMUSEMENT DEVICES CHECKLIST
This checklist can assist amusement owners and operators assess whether a device is safe to
operate. The checklist is not exhaustive but is a guide to some of the regulatory requirements
and risks associated with amusement devices.
The checklist has two parts:
Part 1: Registrable Amusement Devices this part only applies to devices that require
design and item registration under Part 5.3 of the WHS Regulations, and
Part 2: Controlling Risk this part can be applied to any amusement device.
The checklist can also assist if you are considering buying, leasing or hiring an amusement
device. If you are leading or hiring, you should check to see if the device is covered by current
public liability insurance?
PART 1: Registrable Amusement Devices
Plant Registration
1. Does the device require plant design registration? (Regulation 243)

Yes record the Design Registration

Number

No go to Part 2

________________________________
2. Does the device require plant item registration? (Regulation 246)

Yes record the Item Registration Number No any device that requires design

registration will also require item registration.

______________________________
Date: _____ / ____ / ____
Expiry:____ / ____ / ____
3. Has the registrable device been repaired or altered in a way that may affect the health and
safety of workers or patrons? (Regulation 244)

Yes the device must be re-registered.

No go to Question 5

4. If yes to Question 3, has a competent person, for example an engineer, verified the repair or
alteration? (Regulation 251)

Yes

No plant designs must be verified by a

competent person before they can be


registered.

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Log Book, Maintenance and Inspections
5. Does the registrable device have a current log book? (Regulation 242)

Yes check that the log book includes all No a log book must be maintained and

of the elements listed in section 5.3 of this


code.

kept with a registrable device.

6. Is the log-book up-to-date including records of daily checks, maintenance and inspections?

Yes note maintenance, inspection and No maintenance, inspection and testing


testing must be carried out by a competent
person (Regulations 240).

must be kept and made available


(Regulation 237).

7. What is the date of the last annual inspection recorded in the logbook? (Regulation 241)
Date: ____ / ____ / ____

Within the last 12 months


go to Question 5

Over 12 months ago an annual

inspection must be carried out before using


the device.

PART 2: Controlling Risk


8. Is an amusement device to be installed, assembled, constructed, commissioned,
decommissioned or dismantled? (Regulation 204)

Yes regulatory obligations may exist,

including using a competent person and


minimising risks to health and safety (see
Regulation 204).

No the item is not an amusement device

(or related plant) and Part 5 of the WHS


Regulations do not apply.

Setting up the device


9. Are you a supplier of an amusement device? (Regulations 198 and 199)

No

Yes regulatory obligations may exist and

you should review your general and plant


related supplier obligations under the WHS
Regulations.

10. Are safe operating procedures available and do they include instructions to set-up and
dismantle mobile devices? (Regulations 198(b))

Yes

No check the log book for information, if

not available ask the supplier for relevant


safety information.

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11. Have hazards been identified and risk control measures implemented so the device can be
safely set-up and operated, for example emergency planning, overhead electric lines,
overhanging trees, sloping ground, and drainage) (Regulations 34, 35 and 36)

Yes

No identify hazards and implement risk

controls.

12. Are risk control measures maintained so they remain effective? (Regulation 37)

Yes

No review and revise risk control

measures so they are effective (see


Regulation 38)

13. So far as is reasonably practicable, have you made sure no device, person, plant or thing
comes within an unsafe distance of an overhead or underground electric line? (Regulation 166)

Yes

No check the area for electric lines and


consider how to control associated risks.

14. Has a competent person, for example a licensed electrician, checked the electrical safety
(where applicable) after the device has been set-up? (Regulation 150)

Yes

Not Applicable
No have a competent person check the
electrical components.

Note All motors, electrical leads, generators and RCDs should be tested and tagged in accordance with
regulatory requirements.

15. Are display, festoon lighting or any other electrical cabling or connections required?
(Regulation 150)

No

Yes extension leads and cables used to

feed the device within the device and plug-in


electrical equipment should be tested. Cables
should be secured and located to avoid
tripping hazards and damage.

16. Have you prepared and maintained an emergency plan for the workplace? (Regulation 74)

Yes

No prepare an emergency plan.

17. Are suitable device entry and exit points provided to evacuate the device in an emergency
and can emergency vehicles and equipment access the device? (Regulation 74)

Yes

No review the emergency plan including

local emergency response requirements and


device set-up.

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18. Is there adequate internal lighting and are illuminated exit signs needed for the amusement
device, for example where they are enclosed devices or are operated in enclosed areas?
Note For ghost trains and other devices requiring darkness during operation, the exit signs may illuminate
if power fails.

No

Yes check that the internal lighting and


emergency signs are adequate and lit.

19. Does the amusement device have suitable fire extinguishing equipment and has any
equipment provided been inspected?

Yes check that the fire extinguishing

equipment has the appropriate inspection tag


attached.

No reassess fire risk and if present

provide suitable fire extinguishing equipment.

20. Are barriers required to control access to the device? (Regulations 189 and 208)

Yes

No - confirm that no barriers are required


and if so go to Question 22.

21. Could a patron or member of the public reach over, around or through the barrier and
contact moving parts of the device or patrons using the device? Can patrons using a moving
device come in contact with moving parts, barriers or members of the public? (Regulation 208)

No

Yes - review the risk control measures and


implement suitable controls.

22. Are all patron restraints operable, maintained and effective? (Regulation 238)

Yes

No do not operate the device until the

restraints are repaired or prevent access to the


affected areas if it is safe to do so.

Operating the device


23. Are operators trained to use the device safely? (Regulation 238)

Yes

No check what information, training and

instruction is required to operate the device


safely.

24. Where applicable, are device loading and patron seating requirements clear and
implemented?

Yes

Not Applicable
No do not operate the device or prevent

access to the affected areas if it is safe to do


so.

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25. Is the device, or accompanying music, loud enough to create a risk of hearing loss for
workers, patrons or other people? For example is it necessary to raise your voice to almost
shouting to talk to someone one metre away? (Regulation 57)

No

Yes noise monitoring may be needed for

the device and any accompanying sound


system. Noise controls may be required.

26. When not in use, is the device stored so as to be without risk to health and safety?
(Regulation 239)

Yes the person who stores the device

must be a competent person or under the


supervision of a competent person.

No check that a competent person will

store the device.

PAGE 41 OF 44
This DRAFT Code has been approved by Safe Work Australia Members and is ready for approval by the
Select Council on Workplace Relations (Ministerial Council). This Code will become a model WHS Code of
Practice under the Inter- Governmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational reform in OHS when it is
approved by the Ministerial Council.

DRAFT
APPENDIX D CHECKLIST FOR OPERATORS
To operate an amusement device safely, the operator should be able to answer yes to all the
questions in the checklist below.
If the answer to a question is no you should not operate the device until the issue has been
resolved.
Set-up device (including operating without patrons)

Yes

No

Have all the required maintenance, replacements, repairs and inspections


been carried out?
Have you been provided with instruction and training to operate the device
safely?
Is a copy of the operating instructions available?
Is the device set up correctly?
Have site specific requirements and arrangements been addressed?
Are entrances and exits to the amusement device closed off before the
device is started?
Are emergency exits and signs clearly visible?
Is emergency equipment accessible and operational, for example fire
extinguishers and harnesses?
Is the automatic response safety control system enabled? Note safety
control systems may be capable of being bypassed for maintenance, setup
or dismantling tasks.
Is the device operating at a safe speed or slower speed than the
manufacturers maximum specified speed?
Are attendants being supervised and performing their duties according to
the instructions and training provided?
Before operating device with patrons
Are the patron entries to and exits from the device clearly defined, lit and
where necessary supervised?
Are all patron warning and information signs in place and clearly visible?
Have patrons been told about how to use the device safely without putting
themselves or others at risk?
Have patrons with loose clothing, accessories or unrestrained hair been
identified and stopped from using the device until there is no longer a risk of
entanglement?
Have loose items that could escape during the ride and create a hazard
been removed?
Are the patron restraints being correctly used and have they been checked
for function and correct fit and adjusted for each patron?
Does the device have less than the maximum number of patrons?
If applicable, is the device loaded so it will not be out of balance during use?
Operating device with patrons
Is the device operating at a safe speed or slower speed than the
manufacturers maximum specified speed?
Are patrons and attendants moving on or within the device in a controlled
PAGE 42 OF 44
This DRAFT Code has been approved by Safe Work Australia Members and is ready for approval by the
Select Council on Workplace Relations (Ministerial Council). This Code will become a model WHS Code of
Practice under the Inter- Governmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational reform in OHS when it is
approved by the Ministerial Council.

DRAFT
way to minimise so far as is reasonably practicable, the risk of collision or
injury?
Is the level of noise to which operators, attendants and patrons are exposed
below the workplace exposure standard for noise?
Additional checklist for inflatable amusement devices
Is the device securely anchored?
Is there soft fall on open sides?
Are patrons of similar size and weight?
Are you managing patron behaviour?
no-one doing somersaults, flips, pushing or tackling others?
no-one jumping from the top of slides or sliding head first?

PAGE 43 OF 44
This DRAFT Code has been approved by Safe Work Australia Members and is ready for approval by the
Select Council on Workplace Relations (Ministerial Council). This Code will become a model WHS Code of
Practice under the Inter- Governmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational reform in OHS when it is
approved by the Ministerial Council.

DRAFT
APPENDIX E OTHER RELEVANT INFORMATION
The following list of published technical standards provides guidance only and compliance with
them does not guarantee compliance with the WHS Act and Regulations in all instances. This
list is not exhaustive.
Australian Standard 3533 Amusement rides and devices
General requirements
Design and construction

AS 3533.1-2009
AS 3533.1-2009/Amdt 1-2011

Operation and maintenance

AS 3533.2-2009
AS 3533.2-2009/Amdt 1-2011

In-service inspection

AS 3533.3-2003

Specific requirements
Land-borne inflatable devices

AS 3533.4.1-2005
AS 3533.4.1-2005/Amdt 1-2007

Roller coasters

AS 3533.4.3-2007

Concession go-karts

AS 3533.4.4-2011

Waterborne inflatables

AS 3533.4.5(Int)-2012

PAGE 44 OF 44
This DRAFT Code has been approved by Safe Work Australia Members and is ready for approval by the
Select Council on Workplace Relations (Ministerial Council). This Code will become a model WHS Code of
Practice under the Inter- Governmental Agreement for Regulatory and Operational reform in OHS when it is
approved by the Ministerial Council.