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You are on page 1of 10

Example 1

The upward velocity of a rocket is given at three different times in the following table

Table 1 Velocity vs time data

Time, t (s) Velocity, v (m/s)

5

8

12

106.8

177.2

279.2

vt a1t 2 a2t a3 ,

5 t 12

Find the values of a1 , a2 , and a3 using the Gauss-Seidel method. Assume an initial guess of

the solution as

a1 1

a 2

2

a3 5

and conduct two iterations.

04.08.1

04.08.2

Chapter 04.08

Solution

The polynomial is going through three data points t1 , v1 , t 2 , v2 , and t3 , v3 where from the

above table

t1 5, v1 106.8

t 2 8, v2 177.2

t3 12, v3 279.2

Requiring that vt a1t 2 a2 t a3 passes through the three data points gives

a 8 a 8 a 177.2

a 12 a 12 a 279.2

a1 52 a2 5 a3 106.8

2

or

64a1 8a2 a3 177.2

144a1 12a2 a3 279.2

25 5 1 a1 106.8

64 8 1 a 177.2

144 12 1 a3 279.2

106.8 5a2 a3

a1

25

177.2 64a1 a3

a2

8

279.2 144a1 12a2

a3

1

Gauss-Seidel Method

Iteration #1

Given the initial guess of the solution vector as

a1 1

a 2

2

a3 5

we get

25

3.6720

177.2 643.6720 5

a2

8

7.8150

279.2 1443.6720 12 7.8510

a3

1

155.36

a1

3.6720 1

100

3.6720

72.76%

7.8510 2

a 2

100

7.8510

125.47%

155.36 5

a 3

100

155.36

103.22%

a 1

At the end of the first iteration, the estimate of the solution vector is

a1 3.6720

a 7.8510

2

a3 155.36

and the maximum absolute relative approximate error is 125.47%.

04.08.3

04.08.4

Chapter 04.08

Iteration #2

The estimate of the solution vector at the end of Iteration #1 is

a1 3.6720

a 7.8510

2

a3 155.36

Now we get

25

12.056

177.2 6412.056 (155.36)

a2

8

54.882

279.2 14412.056 12 54.882

a3

1

= 798.34

a1

12.056 3.6720

100

12.056

69.543%

54.882 7.8510

a 2

100

54.882

85.695%

798.34 155.36

a 3

100

798.34

80.540%

a 1

At the end of the second iteration the estimate of the solution vector is

a1 12.056

a 54.882

2

a3 798.54

and the maximum absolute relative approximate error is 85.695%.

Gauss-Seidel Method

04.08.5

Conducting more iteration gives the following values for the solution vector and the

corresponding absolute relative approximate errors.

a1

3.6720

12.056

47.182

193.33

800.53

3322.6

Iteration

1

2

3

4

5

6

a 1 %

72.767

69.543

74.447

75.595

75.850

75.906

a2

7.8510

54.882

255.51

1093.4

4577.2

19049

a 2 %

125.47

85.695

78.521

76.632

76.112

75.972

a3

155.36

798.34

3448.9

14440

60072

249580

a 3 %

103.22

80.540

76.852

76.116

75.963

75.931

As seen in the above table, the solution estimates are not converging to the true solution of

a1 0.29048

a2 19.690

a3 1.0857

Well, a pitfall of most iterative methods is that they may or may not converge. However, the

solution to a certain classes of systems of simultaneous equations does always converge

using the Gauss-Seidel method. This class of system of equations is where the coefficient

matrix [A] in [ A][ X ] [C ] is diagonally dominant, that is

n

j 1

j i

j 1

j i

If a system of equations has a coefficient matrix that is not diagonally dominant, it may or

may not converge. Fortunately, many physical systems that result in simultaneous linear

equations have a diagonally dominant coefficient matrix, which then assures convergence for

iterative methods such as the Gauss-Seidel method of solving simultaneous linear equations.

04.08.6

Chapter 04.08

Example 2

Find the solution to the following system of equations using the Gauss-Seidel method.

12 x1 3x2 5x3 1

x1 5x2 3x3 28

3x1 7 x2 13x3 76

Use

x1 1

x 0

2

x3 1

as the initial guess and conduct two iterations.

Solution

The coefficient matrix

12 3 5

A 1 5 3

3 7 13

is diagonally dominant as

a22 5 5 a21 a23 1 3 4

and the inequality is strictly greater than for at least one row. Hence, the solution should

converge using the Gauss-Seidel method.

1 3 x 2 5 x3

x1

12

28 x1 3x3

x2

5

76 3x1 7 x2

x3

13

Gauss-Seidel Method

x1 1

x 0

2

x3 1

Iteration #1

1 30 51

12

0.50000

28 0.50000 31

x2

5

4.9000

76 30.50000 74.9000

x3

13

3.0923

x1

The absolute relative approximate error at the end of the first iteration is

0.50000 1

a 1

100

0.50000

100.00%

4.9000 0

a 2

100

4.9000

100.00%

3.0923 1

a 3

100

3.0923

67.662%

04.08.7

04.08.8

Chapter 04.08

Iteration #2

1 34.9000 53.0923

12

0.14679

28 0.14679 33.0923

x2

5

3.7153

76 30.14679 73.7153

x3

13

3.8118

x1

0.14679 0.50000

100

0.14679

240.61%

3.7153 4.9000

a 2

100

3.7153

31.889%

3.8118 3.0923

a 3

100

3.8118

18.874%

a 1

The maximum absolute relative approximate error is 240.61%. This is greater than the value

of 100.00% we obtained in the first iteration. Is the solution diverging? No, as you conduct

more iterations, the solution converges as follows.

Iteration

1

2

3

4

5

6

x1

0.50000

0.14679

0.74275

0.94675

0.99177

0.99919

a 1 %

100.00

240.61

80.236

21.546

4.5391

0.74307

x2

4.9000

3.7153

3.1644

3.0281

3.0034

3.0001

a 2 %

100.00

31.889

17.408

4.4996

0.82499

0.10856

x3

3.0923

3.8118

3.9708

3.9971

4.0001

4.0001

a 3 %

67.662

18.874

4.0064

0.65772

0.074383

0.00101

Gauss-Seidel Method

x1 1

x 3

2

x3 4

Example 3

Given the system of equations

3x1 7 x2 13x3 76

x1 5x2 3x3 28

12 x1 3x2 - 5x3 1

find the solution using the Gauss-Seidel method. Use

x1 1

x 0

2

x3 1

as the initial guess.

Solution

Rewriting the equations, we get

76 7 x2 13 x3

x1

3

28 x1 3x3

x2

5

1 12 x1 3x2

x3

5

Assuming an initial guess of

x1 1

x 0

2

x3 1

the next six iterative values are given in the table below.

04.08.9

04.08.10

Iteration

1

2

3

4

5

6

Chapter 04.08

x1

21.000

196.15

1995.0

20149

2.0364 105

2.0579 106

a 1 %

95.238

110.71

109.83

109.90

109.89

109.89

x2

0.80000

14.421

116.02

1204.6

12140

1.2272 105

a 2 %

100.00

94.453

112.43

109.63

109.92

109.89

x3

50.680

462.30

4718.1

47636

4.8144 105

4.8653 106

a 3 %

98.027

110.96

109.80

109.90

109.89

109.89

You can see that this solution is not converging and the coefficient matrix is not diagonally

dominant. The coefficient matrix

3 7 13

A 1 5 3

12 3 5

is not diagonally dominant as

However, it is the same set of equations as the previous example and that converged. The

only difference is that we exchanged first and the third equation with each other and that

made the coefficient matrix not diagonally dominant.

Therefore, it is possible that a system of equations can be made diagonally dominant if one

exchanges the equations with each other. However, it is not possible for all cases. For

example, the following set of equations

x1 x2 x3 3

2x1 3x2 4x3 9

x1 7 x2 x3 9

cannot be rewritten to make the coefficient matrix diagonally dominant.

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