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5 Continents Regulation

Power Plants
Solar PV (Curbans, France)

Market Overview
South Africa
United Arab Emirates (UAE)

Energy Storage
Off Grid Applications
Solar PV
Solar Thermal


Solar Inverters
by Power Electronics
Outoor (HEC)

Indoor (HE)

Outoor (HES)


Automatic Redundant

10 Motorized circuit
breakers protect against
any downstream

Maximum DC Bus flexibility
that allows up to 10
independent MPPt per


Independent end
efficient cooling system


Totally sealed


Grid management
and dynamic grid support

Configurable rating

25 years have passed since Power
Electronics was born. The early stage as
importer of automation products showed
Power Electronics the right way to
compete in an ever increasing competitive
market: the implementation of a customeroriented strategy. Even though Power
Electronics has already accumulated a
wide experience as manufacturer of soft
starters, variable speed drives and more
recently of solar inverters, we continue to
be a service company and are proud to
have been the first company to offer all
their customers a 24/7 hotline, 24 hours
onsite assistance, free commissionings
and stock of products and components
in all the markets with physical presence.
Customers no longer look only at the
technology the product incorporates, but
also the company supplying it. Current key
factors such as service levels, availability
or know-how have been considered the
corporate principles of Power Electronics
since the very beginning.
The company has succeeded in combining
an increasing product portfolio with a high
level of specialization. We have managed
to be more flexible and adaptable while
launching new products to meet the market
needs. Furthermore, the vertical integration
of the whole value chain has enabled
Power Electronics to take complete control
of all the production process and be able to
design, manufacture and sell customizable
products in a relatively short period of time.
In this sense, it is not any more a matter of
technology but also the ability to supply
customized software solutions, dedicated
hardware applications, improved interface
packages, highly skilled commissionings or





training focused on the end user’s needs.
Despite the increasing competition and
the worldwide economical crisis, Power
Electronics has steadily grown through
its sales branches in the most important
markets worldwide. Since the first
branch was set up in Germany in 2002,
the company has opened twelve sales
companies distributed throughout four
continents. 2012 will see the opening of
new offices in South Africa, India, Peru and

The extension of our portfolio with new
products has enabled Power Electronics to
offer complete package solutions, which
open up great business opportunities not
only in our traditional markets, but also
in other fast growing markets with great
business challenges in the water sector,
fuel and oil, mining or infrastructures.
Technological developments cannot stop if
we want to continue to extend our market
share. In our ambition to widen our product



offer, later on in 2012 we will launch an
active front end variable speed drive. Our
customers are concerned about saving
energy but as the total amount of electronic
devices increase in every industrial site,
they are really worried about the negative
effect that harmonics produce. The new
launching of the AFE variable speed drive
will help us to cover this market segment.
It is not only in the industrial sector where
Power Electronics has managed to become
a top player. The market share of the
company in the renewable energy sector
has gone far beyond our expectations
and our FREESUN solar inverter series
was really well received by the market. In
addition to our LVT solar inverters with
transformer, we plan to launch this year
low power transformerless inverters, which
will make our LVT more price competitive.
Moreover we will introduce to the market
a new IP65 outdoor central unit, which
will reduce the external dimensions of our
current outdoor version and will allow us to
easily penetrate overseas markets.
In Power Electronics we know that the
modern world is getting faster and more
complicated by the day, and that often our
priorities in life get confused. When we
design and create our products, we don`t
only think about numbers and graphics, we
think about our clients and their needs, like
we would think about our own. And that
is exactly why we understand that there
are more things in life, not only work. We
don’t want our clients to worry about our
products, we want to save their energy so
that they can invest it in the things that
really matter, their families, their friends…

Leonardo da Vinci, 24-26 - Parque Tecnológico
46980 Paterna - Valencia - Spain
Tel.902 40 2070 / +34 96 136 6556


# 120 - MAY 2012












EWS76. monitoring and control systems for the photovoltaic sector and offers solutions for the entire energy conversion chain in photo-voltaic solar power plants.4AKE!DVICE8. Germany’s largest Science and Technology Park.. Vital performance criteria such as efficiency. Solar PV Solar Thermal 4 energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . reliability and www. France) Solar PV (Curba view Market Over India South Africa Emirates (UAE) United Arab ge Energy Stora ications Off Grid Appl Tel:+49 (0)30 688 31 59 .EWTECHNOLOGIESFORTHEMANAGEMENT OFRENEWABLEASSETS s 3OLARSOGOOD 62 64 66 SOLAR THERMAL MARKET OVERVIEW s )NDIA/PPORTUNITIESANDCHALLENGESIN06PROJECTS ANDMANUFACTURING s 3TATEOFENERGY3OUTH!FRICAS3USTAINABLE%NERGY 3ITUATION s 3OLARPOWERINTHE5NITED!RAB%MIRATES5!% 50 52 s )NTERNATIONALHARMONIZATIONOFSTANDARDS FORSOLARTHERMALCOLLECTORS s 4RESERT3USTAINABLECONCEPTOFDECENTRALIZED CLEANENERGYSUPPLYIN3OUTH%AST!SIA 68 72 54 6.ATEST'LOBAL%NERGY. Monitoring and control concepts from skytron® energy make the photovoltaic installation controllable just like any conventional power generation Skytron develops and manufactures high-precision measurement.0 Reception Fax: +49 (0)30 688 31 59 – 99 info@skytron-energy. Headquartered in Berlin Adlershof.3ERVICE'UIDE ON COVER SKYTRON ENERGY skytron® energy GmbH Ernst-Augustin-Straße 12 D-12489 Berlin Germany lation inents Regu 5 Cont ts Power Plan ns.3PAIN 58 60 36 SOLAR PV 40 POWER PLANTS s #URBANS!06GIANTALONGSIDETHE!LPS s 4HEPATHTOYOUROWNPOWERDISTRIBUTIONGRID s 2URAL06MICRO GRIDWITHINDIVIDUALENERGY ALLOWANCESCHEMEPOWERSAHOMESVILLAGE IN3ANTO!NTÎO#ABO6ERDE 44 s !RCSIN0HOTOVOLTAICS s .%DITORIAL10. the company has been devoted to the sustainable use of solar energy since the 70s – always with one eye on the aspects of operating efficiency and profitability. Skytron’s power plant control Skycontrol is nominated for the Intersolar Award 2012. and a long service life are standard features of today’s photovoltaic power plant.

maximum yields and absolute reliability. We provide top-class Swiss Quality: Our products stand out through optimum efficiency. www. And the inverter is the champion that can make the difference. In addition. Go for the Hall C4 I Booth 110 . our Service Center will support and advise you throughout the entire life span of your plant.solarmax. SolarMax has been developing and marketing grid-connected solar inverters for more than 20 years.Maximise your results Connect to the net with SolarMax! Solar plants are just like football: only the result counts. Get SolarMax on your team.

Brazil Email: Date: 7-10 November 2012 Place: Date: November 2013 Place: Valencia. Florida (USA) Email: Web: Web: MOROCCO SINGAPORE ASIA FUTURE ENERGY FORUM & EXHIBITION / ASIA SMART GRID Date: 22-24 October 2012 Place: Singapore Email: Date: 15-17 January 2013 Place: Abu Web: Date: 3-5 September 2012 Place: TURKEY TURKEY USA MOROCCO ALL GREEN EXPO TURKMEN ENERGY 2012 SOLAR POWER INTERNATIONAL SOLARPACES 2012 Date: 6-9 September 2012 Place: Date: 19-20 June 2012 Place: Web: http://euroled. Turkey Email: fatma.1 November 2012 Place: Sao Date: 2-5 October 2012 Place: Web: www. Senegal Email: info@sinergie-afrique. South Africa Email: amanda@glopac-partners.turkmen-energy.mahnken@messe. Brazil Email: Web: Web: India Email: info@biec. UK Email: Web: Date: 2-4 October 2012 Place: Panama city.worldfutureenergysummit. India Email: Web: BRAZIL TURKEY 19TH AFRICA OIL WEEK 2012 INTERNATIONAL BIOENERGY CONGRESS TURKISH WIND ENERGY CONGRESS INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION OF RENEWABLE ENERGIES IN AFRICA Date: 29 October-2 November 2012 Place: Cape Web: Web: www.chantrell@ greenpowerconferences. Email: v@aregreenexpo. United Arab Emirates Email: marites. Argentina Email: info@eolicaexpo.TAKE ADVICE UK ITALY SERBIA EUROLED 2012 20TH EUROPEAN BIOMASS CONFERENCE AND EXHIBITION 5TH ANNUAL BALKAN ENERGY FINANCE FORUM Date: 13-14 June 2012 Place: Birmingham. UK Email: nfo@euroled. USA Email: Web: UK USA GLOBAL WIND POWER FINANCE & INVESTMENT Date: 26-27 June 2012 Place: London. Morocco Email: Date: 7-9 November 2012 Place: Web: www.ferrarafiere. Italy Email: Date: 18-22 June 2012 Place: Web: www.mda-india. Turkey Email: energy@negusmesse. Serbia Email: energy@eelevents.bioenergia. Morocco Email: Web: SOUTH AFRICA SENEGAL 2013 ৗ INDIA 6 energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 .br Web: ARGENTINA ITALY SOLARCON INDIA 2012 GEOTHERM EXPO 2012 FERRARA PANAMA ARE GREEN EXPO INTERNATIONAL ENERGY EXHIBITION & CONFERENCE SIDE Date: 19-21 September 2012 Place: Ferrara. Italy Email: info@ferrarafiere.solarconindia.twec2012. Panama Web: BRAZIL METERING BILLING CRM LATIN AMERICA INDIA EOLICA ARGENTINA 2012 SIXTH GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON POWER CONTROL AND OPTIMIZATION Date: 3-5 July 2012 Place: Buenos Date: 8-10 September 2012 Place: Date: 11-14 September 2012 Place: Marrakech. Turkey Email: Date: 10-13 September 2012 Place: Web: www. Spain Email: Web: Date: 21-23 August 2012 Place: Sao Web: Date: 28 February 2013 Place: Rome. Italy Email: Date: 30 UNITED ARAB EMIRATES ITALY SPAIN MDA INDIA WORLD FUTURE ENERGY SUMMIT 2013 3RD PV MODULE RECYCLING CONFERENCE EGÉTICA-EXPOENERGÉTICA 2013 Date: 21-24 November 2012 Place: Web: Web: Web: Web: Date: 6-8 August 2012 Place: Las Vegas.


Ingeniería Térmica y de Fluidos de la Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. YOU ARE HOLDING THE FIRST ISSUE OF ENERGETICA INTERNATIONAL. EMMA. our sincere thanks to all advertisers who have chosen to support Energetica International with its presence in the magazine and the web. Ingeniero Industrial y Presidente de Stratconsult. What are you going to find in these pages? Requirements marks the selection of material in a publication that hits the streets with the ambition to collect the global solar market trends through reports on large power generation plants. The views expressed in the magazine are not necessarily those of the editor or publisher. A PUBLICATION that comes from a belief shared by the entire team that made its release possible : Today we are interested in the energy sector wherever it occurs. It has already become a reference for Internet users to follow the news of the sector throughout the world. without forgetting the present and new products that companies show every day. 104. Our publication will be there in the hands of professionals who demand reliable and quality information.: M-8085-2001 | ISSN: 1577-7855 Layout Contras-t | Webmaster: Francisco José Reina Arana OMNIMEDIA S. Energética XXI es una empresa colaboradora de Energía sin Fronteras. José Luis García Fierro. Zaragoza. D. D. S. Antonio Soria-Verdugo. C/ Rosa de Lima 1 bis. en Química y Resp. Germán Bueno.L. which is on track to meet its second year of life. Finally. which will pay attention to an energy sector whose dimension is now more global than ever. 28290 Las Matas (Madrid). Switzerland & Austria Eisenacher Medien. Your support helps us to continue a project to which we wish a promising future. Oscar Miguel Crespo. Tel: +34 902 36 46 99 Fax +34 91 630 85 95 E-mail: info@energetica21. ofic. 8 CONSULTING EDITORS you may obtain the rights by calling OMNIMEDIA. de Energía de CIDETEC.L. D. Tel: +49-228-2499860. Eduardo Collado. D.EDITORIAL Energy globalization DEAR READER. Herein lies the reason for this new magazine header. Dr. the new portal streamlines its image to allow the user a more intuitive and easy navigation. The launch of a new header always requires the best possible scenario to ensure its success. Avani Media. S. Dpto.L. Dr. mail: info@eisenacher-medien. PADE del IESE. Ingeniero de Montes y Profesor de la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid. del USA an Canada: Leslie Hallanan. Coordinador del Grupo de Usuarios del motor 18V34SG. Guillermo Calamita. extensive photo galleries or a practice business directory complete a tailor-made offer that has continuity in social networks through the new channels of Energetica International on Facebook. Carlos Martínez Renedo. energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . Journalist Gloria Llopis. Ingeniero Industrial y Profesor de Univ. Financial Director Carlos Fernández. Consultor y Director de Proyectos de Cogeneración y Head of Editorial Department Javier Monforte. That is the reason that has deter- mined the occurrence of Energética International at this time. director técnico de ASIF. Editor Eugenio Pérez de Lema. Edificio Alba. when two of the most important fairs in the international calendar are going to be held: Intersolar Europe in Munich (13-15 June) and Intersolar North America in San Francisco (10-13 July). D. The magazine and all of the text and images contained therein are protected by copyright. the website Energetica International (www. de investigación del Instituto del Catálisis y Petroleoquímica del CESIC. This association is member of FIPP. quicker access to content as well as a friendlier and more visual environment .L. mail: leslie@avanimedia. The efforts made towards democratizing access to energy throughout the world and the global nature of the companies operating in this sector make it necessary to broaden the focus to all media that seeks to provide the energy professionals with the best technical information. Ángel International Department Andrew Callaway. Ahmed Energetica India is member of the Spanish Editorials and Newspapers publications Association.energetica21. Videos. Francisco Marcos Martín. If you would like to use an article from Energetica India or our website www. Director Álvaro López. interviews with executives from the major multinationals and technical articles signed by reference specialists in the energy sector. D. Ingeniero Industrial. Prof. live stream.energetica-india. director general de REC Solar.energetica-international. Twitter and LinkedIn. D. Web: www. D. CEPYME and CEOE. Concurring with the launch of the magazine. renewed its design and content. Coordination Gisela Bühl. Tel: + 1 415 331 2150.


albeit from a small base. the latter coming from Spain (APPA) and Bulgaria (APEE).LATEST GLOBAL ENERGY NEWS European Union PV market largest worldwide The global and European photovoltaic market has continued to expand during 2011. Even more impressive is the 75% reduction in system costs for solar PV in as little as three years in some countries. It argues that the distinct design and composition of urban areas compared to rural areas alters climate change impacts in cities. The drop completely outpaced the feed-in tariffs and led to a new rush on installations as investors tried to make the most of the differential between feed-in tariffs and the real cost of the photovoltaic kWh. 10 IEA urges governments to seize the opportunity to accelerate clean energy deployment While progress is being made on renewable energy. Most of Europe’s wealth is generated in cities. the soaring growth of the photovoltaic market again caught the public authorities off guard. Despite the implementation of increasingly complex incentive systems that are intended to take market dynamics into account. ac- cording to the EEA report. bringing the European Union’s capacity to date to 51357 MWp. the report concludes that most clean energy technologies are not on track to make their required contribution to reducing carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and thereby provide a more secure energy system. The European Union accounts for 74% of all newly connected PV capacity. however.6 TWh in 2010). The cumulative EU solar PV electricity production doubled compared to last year (44. Tracking Clean Energy Progress. The biggest crude oil exporter nation has the intention to generate almost a quarter of its electricity from solar energy. Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes represents the German Federation of Renewable Energy Associations (Bundesverband Erneuerbarer Energien. The report is the first Europe-wide assessment of urban vulnerability to climate change. and solar PV has grown at 42%. In Europe. temperature is increasing. Yet again the PV power sector was the leading electricity generating capacity installer in the European Union. the total installed photovoltaic capacity worldwide at the end of 2011 being 69 GWp. the effects will not be uniform across the continent. Not a single government had counted on the continuing and accelerating downward slide in the price of photovoltaic modules. The ambitious solar targets will turn the country in one of the most important market worldwide. installing around 2GW/year. most clean energy technologies are not being deployed quickly enough. The report also warns that delaying adaptation will be much more costly in the long-term. In fact. However. which stood at 9368 MW. For example. leading to many diverse challenges for cities within Europe. Saudi Arabia plans to emerge as the next solar hub Saudi Arabia has unveiled one of the world’s most ambitious solar-energy programs. BEE). During an event in Riyadh representants from the King Abdullah City for Atomic and Renewable Energy (KA-CARE) announced the country’s renewable energy plans until 2032. highlighted the rapid progress made in some renewable technologies. the International Energy Agency (IEA) said recently in an annual progress report presented to ministers and representatives of nations that together account for four-fifths of global energy demand. EREF re-elected president During its General Assembly in Madrid. ‘Urban adaptation to climate change in Europe’. energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . according to a report from the European Environment Agency (EEA). with a promising mix of re-elected members and new board members. and urban areas are particularly at risk due to climate change. Europe should seize the opportunity of improving quality of life while adapting to climate change in cities. with 41 GW of solar power capacity. This serves as evidence that rapid technology change is possible. Europe’s future depends on cities resilient to climate change Around three quarters of Europeans live in cities. a lot of artificial surfaces and little vegetation exacerbates heatwaves in cities. This socalled ‘urban heat island’ effect leads to much higher temperatures in cities than in the surrounding area. Speculation in Germany was finally stopped in its tracks when installers ran out of stock in December. The report. unanimously re-elected Rainer Hinrichs-Rahlwes for a second term as president. The General Assembly also elected the new EREF board. This figure is higher than the one of the new EU wind power plants. the European Renewables Energies Federation. EREF. precipitation is changing and sea level is rising.8 TWh in 2011 and 22. Unfortunately. onshore wind has seen 27% average annual growth over the past decade. notably the solar panels easily installed by households and businesses (solar PV) and in onshore wind technologies. as 21529 MWp went on grid from photovoltaic power plants during 2011.

otto-solar. adhesives and encapsulants are only a minimal expense factor in photovoltaic modules. the wind energy sector’s growth rate was twice that of EU GDP. energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 Bonding of back rails Stabilisation of frames Sealants.1 billion for energy networks should be allocated to electricity. today. In the new fab Manz will produce manufacturing equipment for the photovoltaic and the flat-panel display industry. and two-thirds of the EUR 9.while creating growth.7 billion in 2010 alone . More R&D funding is needed under ‘Horizon 2020’ to bring costs down and allow wind energy to reach its potential. With the opportunity to increase the staff from 400 in the already existing fab to a total of more than 700 in first stage.www. currently under discussion. This will allow more renewables onto the system.0 0 fa x: +49 -86 8 4-1260 E-Mail: solar@otto-solar. One of the first products made by Manz in Suzhou will be equipment for wetchemical processing of crystalline silicon solar cells. increasing security of supply and bringing down power prices. But wind energy replaces imported fuel saving EUR 0 Internet: 11 . 14 0 83413 Fridolfing 0 GERMANY phone: + 49 -8 6 8 4-9 High-quality connections for PV modules Manz opens its new fab in Suzhou. Manz strengthens its commitment to Asian customers. Every EU citizen is paying more than EUR 700 for energy imports and this is increasing as prices climb and domestic resources deplete. Bonding of frames Bonding and potting of junction boxes EU leaders: invest in wind energy for growth European leaders meeting on 23 May to discuss how to achieve growth despite massive budgetary challenges must turn to wind energy for immediate job-creating and economic benefits. two hours west of Shanghai. Wind energy and its benefits must also be prioritised in the EU’s 2014 to 2020 budget. Applying the premium products of OTTO ensures you to benefit from more than 40 years of expert knowledge in research. as well as equipment for the PCB (printed circuit board) segment. decreasing the need for fuel imports. In 2010. and as overall unemployment rose between 2007 and 2010. over 50 new jobs were created in the European wind industry daily. Put us to the test! OTTO – always a good connection! Hermann Otto GmbH Krankenhausstr. But they have a considerable influence on the life time and on the durability of the photovoltaic module against climatic influences. China Hightech-engineering company Manz AG held the grand opening of its new production facility in Suzhou. development and production.otto-solar.

called Regions4GreenGrowth. Regions with the 12 ambition to be leaders in sustainable energy must therefore themselves create innovative instruments and facilities to generate these financial flows and investments in their territory. to analyse its challenges and problems regarding the project issue and. affordable and low emissions energy already made possible by the solar industry and to emphasize the importance of a supportive policy and trade environment. Other tariff reductions also apply for larger installations. These limitations of the funding ‘market’ are holding back realisation of the targets set by EU regions in their sustainable energy strategies. Regions4GreenGrowth project: regional policy instruments and approaches for improving access to finance and speeding up investments in sustainable energy The EU. Public funding is an alternative or complementary source for these investments. A new tariff rate of 21p/kWh will take effect for domestic size solar panels with an eligibility date on or after 3 March this year.LATEST GLOBAL ENERGY NEWS UK: Reminder of changes to Feed-in Tariffs from April DECC is introducing a range of changes to the FITs scheme to come into effect since 1 April 2012 following a consultation at the end of last year. more energy efficiency and less carbon emissions in order to make Europe’s energy supply sustainable and future proof. Experienced regions shared their expertise with less experienced regions to determine concrete sustainable energy actions and projects.g. R4GG applies the Peer Review method. This INTERREG IVC project was dedicated to creating regional strategies for increase energy efficiency and renewable energy. In these reviews the ‘landscape’ in each partner region related to access to finance for sustainable energy projects will be assessed by expert staff from other partner regions. energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . Regions4GreenGrowth (R4GG) is an initiative of EU regions within INTERREG IV C Program. which will enable the ongoing development of competitively-priced solar energy. and to plan the actions needed to achieve the energy targets in each region. Global Solar Council members will engage with policymakers worldwide to demonstrate the progress towards abundant. a CEO-level industry coalition whose aim is to expand the global deployment of solar energy in a sustainable and cost-competitive way. its Member States and EU regions have defined ambitious energy strategies. the consortium agreed to continue the undertaken path with another project. renewable energy generation capacity. an interregional cooperation project called More4NRG was initiated. Late 2010/early 2011 a new consortium was formed. It is a mutual learning process in which also the ‘peers’ build their knowledge and capacities. driving job creation and economic growth. Near the end of the More4NRG project. and that solar PV is considered as part of a whole-house approach to saving energy and carbon. In 2007. Solar Industry CEOs launch Global Solar Council Representatives of leading international companies in the solar photovoltaic industry announced 3rd May the founding of the Global Solar Council. based on their experience. which involves several partners (the ‘peers’) visiting a partner region. The private financial sector (banks. Peer Reviews represent a very intensive and demanding form of interregional cooperation. The overall objective of the project is to equip these regions with regional policy instruments. energy efficiency measures) in their territories. setting firm targets for an increased share of renewable energy sources. who have defined high sustainable energy ambitions and now encounter these financial obstacles. to provide solutions in order to overcome this financial barrier to develop sustainable energy projects. The changes will help ensure that current tariff levels for solar PV are more closely matched to installation costs. and to propose concrete measures to the host region to strengthen regional policies and instruments. mechanisms and approaches for improving access to finance and speeding up investments in sustainable energy projects (e. But the financial volume of national financial support schemes in most EU countries is limited and they often lack continuity or are difficult to acquire. launched in January 2012. An important obstacle for widespread introduction of renewable energy production capacity and energy efficiency measures is the fact that actors (public and private) willing to invest in sustainable energy hardware and infrastructure often have difficulties to attract financial means to support their investments. investors) is often hesitant to invest in sustainable energy. adding two new partner regions to the existing partnership.

otto-solar.otto-solar. Once they intent to enter those new niche markets. Solar equipment manufacturer are facing a worldwide decline in demand. 14 0 83413 Fridolfing 0 GERMANY phone: + 49 -8 6 8 4-9 08. the price per unit of produced solar energy is nowadays less than one quarter compared with the year 2000.www. Based on globally subsidized markets and speculative investments in production capacities. regardless of their 13 . where customers pick and choose certain equipments instead of demanding turnkey solutions. face. This new scenario force solar equipment companies to control costs and form strategic alliances and networks to provide desired geographic market coverage. Companies that want to survive must act and think globally. Turkey. the PV business is nowadays in a deep transition: Chinese large scale manufacturer are leading the price race and force western competition to shut down. while at the same time dealing efficiency in global diversified markets. The pressure of global competition in international markets is rising constantly. acquire major internationally skills and gain access to synergies and markets. A new collaborative approach need to be developed. Companies organized in PV equipment clusters will be able to lower expenses through sharing sales. low prices animate new markets like India. A huge challenge is to leverage core competencies in international waters and to build a position with a strong local presence. The PV industry undergoes fundamental changes. certain lessons have to be learned before they can successfully compete. AWS core market is India. large and small. marketing and distribution channels. development and production. AW Solution GmbH (AWS) supports small and middle sized equipment manufacturer and material suppliers with smart networking and sales solutions and bundle their competences and synergies. South Africa and South America are expansion markets. Being active in global markets means to beat worldwide competition and be responsive to local markets. South Africa or Saudi Arabia to The tight market situation moves PV equipment providers closer together Globalization is no longer a modern saying but a reality which all solar enterprises. But they have a considerable influence on the life time and on the durability of the collector against climatic influences. Put us to the test! OTTO – always a good connection! Hermann Otto GmbH 0 Internet: www.0 0 fa x: +49 -8 6 8 4-1260 E-Mail: solar@otto-solar. but even new upcoming markets like UAE. All firms. energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 High-quality connections for solar collectors Bonding of glass panes Bonding of the bottom plate Bonding of angle brackets Adhesives are only a minimal expense factor in solar collectors. The 1st quarter of 2012 is the weakest PV Equipment Sales quarter since the last +2 ½ years with around 27% decline in sales compare to 4st Quarter 2011 and 51% compare to 1st Quarter 2011. Small equipment providers are forced to concentrate on less competitive niche markets apart of the huge manufacturing countries. Applying the premium products of OTTO ensures you to benefit from more than 40 years of expert knowledge in research. where innovative concepts permit to generate joint projects and to leverage synergies. have to elaborate strategies and methods for a successful participation in these changing markets. high competition and selective markets.

for the National Water and Sewage Authority (Nawasa). 14 Thornton Bank: First six-megawatt turbine for offshore wind farm installed Repower Systems SE and Belgian offshore project development company C-Power NV installed the world’s most powerful offshore turbine. the facade plant’s 36 aleo modules produced 1. Two years after. In the early hours of 21 March the rotor star was connected to the nacelle by a team of C-Power and REpower engineers and the crew of Neptune. Grenada. Centrotherm. wastewater treatment.283 kilowatt hours per kilowatt peak of nominal output – the German average for rooftop plants. Facade plants on flat land generate between 650 and 700 kilowatt hours. energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . irrigation and water re-use.15 MW is the first of 48 REpower 6M to be constructed in the phases 2 and 3 of the Belgian offshore wind farm Thornton Bank. The highest photovoltaic plant in Germany has a total output of 12. the installation vessel of GeoSea (DEME group) carrying the components for the turbine.962 metrehigh Zugspitze. defines it as being a great success story. The criteria for the selection of centrotherm as partner for IPC were besides the supply of competitive polysilicon technology and equipment also the subsequent extension opportunity along the solar value chain up to the module.76 kilowatts. Saudi Arabia. The turbine with a rated power of 6. Farmex technologies whose activities include water pumping. which is located in the Southeastern Caribbean Sea. the 2. The factory with an annual capacity of 10. is approximately 900 kilowatt hours. new provider for large-scale polysilicon project in Saudi Arabia Centrotherm SiTec signed a contract for the basic engineering and the technology concept for a polysilicon factory with IDEA Polysilicon Company (IPC) in Riyadh. Within a single year.000 tonnes will be situated in the Saudi Arabian city of Yanbu. They are located in the surroundings of Les Avocats and Mamma Cannes. 28 kilometres off the port of Oostende. Both solar photovoltaic and energy storage installations were provided and installed by The meeco Group on the island of Grenada. the meeco Group was selected by the French Farmex Technologies to install two off-grid systems on the island of Grenada. by comparison. The 58 aleo S_18 modules (output class 220 watts) are distributed on a facade and rooftop plant. These stand-alone renewable energy systems are since then reliably powering water treatment plants. Aleo solar modules hold up under extreme conditions on Zugspitze Aleo modules at the highest-situated plant in Germany have to be tough: Modules from aleo solar AG provided above-average yields in 2011 on Germany’s tallest mountain.LATEST GLOBAL ENERGY NEWS Success story from Grenada: off-grid solar installation saves fuel and associated costs Back in September 2010.

intersolarchina. 2012 China's International Exhibition and Conference for the Solar Industry China National Convention Center (CNCC).000 sqm Exhibition Space 7. Beijing 250 Exhibitors 11.500+ Visitors .December 12–14.

Within this framework. with these two new branches. Back in 2011. throughout the production of local goods and services and in developing spaces for innovation.000 solar panels.000 kilowatt hours of clean energy every year. currently in progress. in the surfers’ paradise of Hawaii. In collaboration with its local partner Brightergy. energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . Proinso strengthens global presence with new branches in Australia and India Proinso is growing globally. The new branches in both countries will provide services to existing installers and try to attract new installers and customers. training in renewable energy generation systems -such as photovoltaic solar energy. Cooperation agreement to promote photovoltaic solar power in Chile Fujifilm chooses Conergy yet again Fujifilm North America Corporation has opted for Conergy quality once again in its support of a corporate commitment to sustainability. and it has announced the opening of two new branches in Australia (Brisbane) and India (Mumbai). Besides. implement and assess a Work Plan establishing the joint cooperation actions among the parties within the areas of innovation. energy efficiency. The plant. development. Proinso has a total 12 around the world. which will generate 60. Conergy installed a 320 kilowatt rooftop plant at Fujifilm’s US facility in Oahu. This has now been succeeded by another project realized at the company’s office in North Kansas City. which confirms its interest in emerging solar PV markets. Missouri. which is very interested in cooperating in Chile to implement energy technology. development and innovation actions to transfer their results into the industry. they will have products in stock to be delivered as soon as installers need them. and specially photovoltaic solar energy. will be connected to the national network at the end of 2012 and shall produce 45 Gwh per year thanks to its privileged position in an intense solar radiation area and provide the national system SEIN with 22 Mwp by its 80. 16 The signing of this document relates to an important cooperation agreement between Federico Santa María Technical University (USM) through its Energy Innovation Centre (CIE) and Gehrlicher Solar company. Gehrlicher Solar is interested in cooperating to launch research. In this context.LATEST GLOBAL ENERGY NEWS Sanjose starts the execution in Peru of a PV Solar Plant of 20 MW Sanjose has started the execution in Alto de la Alianza (Tacna) of a solar plant of 20 MW. both institutions agree to design. process optimization and automatic systems. among others. The multinational company has delivered products to different PV projects in both India and Australia. which will be the first solar plant directly connected to the electrical supply system of Peru. Conergy has supplied over 200 Conergy PH solar modules for the 50 kilowatt plant. So currently.

and built by juwi solar Inc (JSI). Completion of the 2 MW landfill project in Malaysia is expected by the end of May 2012. The solar farm is part of PSE&G’s Solar 4 All™ program and was developed. New Jersey.8 MW installation for Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE&G). Ditrolic Sdn. Bhd.Solar Frontier supplies 3. with annual electricity output of approximately 2. Solar Frontier supplied approximately 29. Powerway’s newly developed antisubsidence PV mounting system has won great interest in Malaysia. The system has gained professional recognition from Panasonic Malaysia and the developer. designed.92 million kWh. the largest EPC company in Malaysia.8MW to Power Plant in New Jersey Solar Frontier announced that it has supplied modules to a 3. The Mill Creek Solar Farm is the largest project of any thin-film solar technology in the state. 17 . energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 Powerway develops an anti-subsidence PV Mounting System for a project in Malaysia R e c e n t l y. where it is expected to be applied to a landfill-based 2MW solar plant. The project illustrates PSE&G’s commitment to solar power and the ever-growing significance of CIS technology in the industry.400 CIS thin-film solar modules to the Mill Creek Solar Farm in Burlington County. The Mill Creek Solar Farm will provide enough emission-free electricity to power about 575 average-size homes. New Jersey’s oldest and largest regulated gas and electricity utility.

Colorado. energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . spread across a total of eight segments. IHI. Generation Partners. With 145. the power plant can supply electricity to the equivalent of 7. Degerenergie is global market leader for solar tracking systems and operates two production facilities in North America. distributed generation photovoltaic projects. six areas of the Jura solar park are now operational with a total output of 28. Advanced Energy inverters selected by Regeneration finance for more than 8 MW of PV projects Advanced Energy Industries announced that its inverters have been selected by Regeneration Finance to power more than 8MW of U. To be built in Kagoshima City (Kagoshima Prefecture).000 solar modules. by the Bavarian Prime Minister. and Mizuho CB applying its wide-ranging finance knowledge. The “mega-solar plant” is being built to help solve Japan’s power supply issues caused by the effects of the Great East Japan Earthquake. AE Solar Energy’s PV inverters were selected for their ability to meet the unique design and system size requirements of each project. and save about 18.26 MW Buckeye Elementary School District project in Buckeye. the 3. connected to the electricity grid Photovoltaics specialist IBC Solar has successfully commissioned six out of eight areas of the Jura Solarparc. Arizona. IHI implementing its proactive stance on promoting the increased use of renewable energy. the project spans over 80 hectares and runs alongside the A70 motorway between Bamberg and Bayreuth. 2012.800 households per year.000 tons of CO2. Apex has established the four small solar plants with tracking technology “made in the US and Germany” as part of the TVA Renewable Energy Program. This makes the Jura Solarpark Bavaria’s largest photovoltaic project planned in 2011. Horst Seehofer on June 16 2011.5 MWp.LATEST GLOBAL ENERGY NEWS Kyocera. The 6000NT Degertraker is an innovative dual-axis solar tracking system which always aligns the solar modules to the brightest source in the sky to guarantee maximum yield. Producing an output of almost 33 MWp. The aluminum parts are supplied by Hydro Aluminum Extrusion Americas. in the USA and installed them together with Apex´ construction team. IHI Corporation and Mizuho Corporate Bank. and to make a contribution to environmental protection. 18 Jura Solar Park. ranging in power levels from 35kW to 260kW. the solar power project is being undertaken by combining the strengths of the three companies: Kyocera utilizing its more than 35 years of experience in the solar business.29 MW Buckeye Union High School District project. Regeneration has deployed more than 60 of Advanced Energy’s industryleading commercial inverters. The inverters are being used at three school district projects developed by Regeneration: the 3 MW Douglas County School District project in Douglas County. The systems have been installed in four solar fields that began operation on April 14. and Constellation Energy’s 4. Degerenergie establishes MLD solar parks in Tennessee Degerenergie has shipped 112 Degertraker with MLD technology to Apex Construction Services. Following the symbolic groundbreaking ceremony.S. Mizuho Corporate Bank reach basic agreement to build & operate Solar Power Plant in Japan Kyocera. including the reduction of CO2 emissions. announced that the three companies have reached a basic agreement to construct a 70MW solar power plant in southern Japan and to further explore a business model for utility-scale solar power generation.

06.2012 Hall B3 / Booth B3. . .06.GENERATE STORE UTILISE Our service only pursues one objective: energy.231 Solar service – considerably better. Intersolar Munich 13.15.

9 GW. The solar systems supplied are Solarizer Plus Heat Exchanger Models with a 300LPD and 500LPD capacity.3º C. which was recently acquired by IHS. many suppliers had quickly expanded their in-house wafer capacities. that monitoring and maintenance opera- tions can be honed and to help drive down costs in operations and installation. The company’s plans to develop a 10MW tidal array in Islay received planning consent from the Scottish Government in March 2011. The 1MW power generator was installed last December. one of Orkney’s northern isles. 57 percent and 44 percent year-on-year respectively.73º C to 26. Wafers & Polysilicon . Emmvee has gained an expertise for remote and high altitude regions by having installed a large number of solar water heating systems in this area. caused by a global oversupply. PV module suppliers switch tactics as wafer prices fall 70% The average price of photovoltaic wafers in the first quarter of 2012 fell by more than 70% in a year according to the latest research released by IMS Research. having stood at just over $1/W one year ago. All the installed systems are used for bathing purposes. IMS Research’s report reveals that global PV wafer capacity grew by 50% to reach 50 GW by the end of 2011. However. whose majority shareholder is Andritz Hydro. and has since been undergoing a range of tests in the fast flowing tidal waters around Orkney. The temperature in Kullu and Manali varies from -1. The installation was very challenging as there was a gradient roof top at an altitude above 6. Under normal conditions.LATEST GLOBAL ENERGY NEWS Tidal turbine powers up in Orkney An underwater turbine that is set to be used in Scotland’s first and only consented tidal power project has successfully com- Solar water heater systems installed above 2000m/ 6400ft height Emmvee have installed more than 25 solar water heating systems in the northern state of Himachal Pradesh. energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . This rapid decline in prices was driven by severe oversupply and highly competitive market conditions caused by huge capacity expansions that far out-weighed demand growth in 2011. average wafer prices fell to $0. has significantly changed the cost structures and strategies of leading PV module suppliers and making many switch from in-house production to buying in their wafer supply. The HS1000 tidal turbine has been developed by Andritz Hydro Hammerfest. with average prices in the first quarter declining by 48 percent.30/W in the first quarter of 2012. whilst installation demand grew just 35% to 26. as wafer prices have fallen by over $0. The average price of polysilicon. the hot water requirement per person is about 25 litres per day (LPD). although less severely than wafers. ScottishPower Renewables (SPR) plan to use this technology as part of the world’s first tidal turbine array in the Sound of Islay. This dramatic price collapse. Throughout 2010 and 2011.Supply & Demand’.400 ft. The test device in Orkney aims to fully prove that the technology can operate efficiently in Scotland’s fast flowing tides. India. Emmvee’s planning and design team configurated a system for 40 LPD per person to bring more efficiency for the needs of the people of a rather cold region. The initial testing period has been very positive with the device achieving full export power. The 1MW machine can power the annual electricity needs of 500 homes. in some of the worst weather conditions Scotland has experienced in more than a decade. cells and modules also dived throughout 2011. and is providing electricity for homes and businesses on the island of Eday. Two 500 LPD systems for two residences were installed in Manali and three 300 LPD systems for 3 residences were installed in Kullu. suppliers are now reducing their in-house manufacturing and purchasing more wafers from third-party suppliers. According to IMS Research’s latest quarterly ‘PV Modules. and also includes partners Iberdrola and Hammerfest Energi. Cells.70/W to record lows. 20 pleted an initial testing period in Orkney.

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The contract included planning and construction of the first photovoltaic system on a soccer stadium in Latin America. It produces electricity for more than 4000 households. for one of the first. procurement and construction as well as maintenance. “Pituaçu should be an example of how solar power works and the growth potential of this technology in a country like Brazil. Areva and Technip to work on solar thermal applications for oil and gas industry Areva has signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Technip to work on integrated Concentrated Solar Power solutions for oil and gas industry. commercial projects to be commissioned in South Africa this 2012. that is suitable to accommodate 2 units of Stirling engines with a total power of 60 KW. This project will be likely the most efficient around the world and therefore an international reference in the use of Stirling for solar applications. with an output of 170 kWp and installed in the locker room and parking canopies. with a total capacity of 408 kWp. integrates two different module technologies: PVL modules of 144.” says Ana Mascarenhas. The new business unit is to develop turn key projects. The new unit project management is the new asset besides the existing pillars. two installations of considerable size have been implemented. In Saxony’s Doberschütz. The tracker delivered is the 125-228 Stirling model. The Areva group will provide its CSP technology based on proprietary Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) solution for enhanced oil recovery through steam injection for oil and gas industry. In August 2011. flexible and very light manufactured by United Solar Ovonic (Uni-Solar). extension of Pituaçu football stadium in Salvador de Bahia. plan and implement solar installations of size. Emmvee have installed the biggest roof installation with structured glass in Germany and in Bronkow. From the planning stages the maintenance of existing solar parks. enabling countries to increase their energy capital. 22 Ecoluz Solar do Brasil completes the construction of the PV plant of Pituaçu football stadium Gehrlicher Ecoluz Solar do Brasil has completed the construction and commissioning of the photovoltaic plant of 5. 24th March. The new business unit consists of engineering. was awarded an international tender by the Brazilian utility Coelba (belonging to Neoenergia Group). The involvement of Coelba and the State Government of Bahia. which was built under the guidance of a design and engineering team of Gehrlicher Solar. First projects have already been successfully undertaken: In two cities in Germany. The plant. From 0 to 12 MWp in seven weeks Emmvee. Areva also offers energy solutions for the design. has been the key to the success of the project. owner of the stadium and the photovoltaic plant. Emmvee have planned and developed the Bronkow solar park with almost 12 MWp within 7 weeks. power augmentation for conventional or hybrid power plants. Some of the energy produced will be used for own consumption of the stadium.560 sqm. Gehrlicher Ecoluz Solar do Brasil S. Technip will bring its world-class expertise and project management experience in oil and gas-rich countries and markets which will also bring value to Areva’s operations and commercial initiatives. a defunct military airport is to be transformed into a solar park with almost 12 MW. at the end of March. amounting to a power of 238 kWp and which have been installed on the roof of the stadium and monocrystalline modules manufactured by Yingli Solar YL265. manufacturer of photovoltaic modules has embarked on a new business activity. Brandenburg.LATEST GLOBAL ENERGY NEWS Titan delivers solar trackers for Stirling engines to be commissioned in South Africa Titan has successfully delivered 4 double axis solar trackers with parabolic dish concentrator for Stirling engines. thin.A. energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . solar-thermal and photovoltaic as well as toughening glass. connecting it to the grid on Saturday. The solar park is now one of the twenty biggest parks in Germany. construction and commissioning of stand-alone solar thermal plants. energy efficiency advisor of Neoenergia Group.

16K. Siemens to provide long-term service to first hybrid solar power plant in Algeria Siemens Energy has been awarded a contract to provide long-term maintenance services at Algeria’s first solar-combined cycle hybrid power plant. the Hassi R’Mel solar-combined cycle hybrid power plant generates electricity through both the 25-MW parabolic trough solar collectors field and a 130-MW 2x1 CCPP (Combined Cycle Power Plant). 2) with a battery bank of 390 Ah as energy storage consisting of 2 banks of batteries of 150Ah and 240Ah batteries.5 million as it boosts production of the inverters. HIT-C 100kW. The gas turbine and steam cycle are fired by natural gas. One of the world’s first ISCC plants when it began operation in May 2011. This project may be considered an important milestone in new applications of Renewable Energy in India. Maharashtra in India.Refusol opens manufacturing facility in Greenville. These inverters have officially met the guidelines for the Buy American provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Section 1605. The order was placed by Abengoa for its 150 megawatt (MW) solar hybrid plant operating at the Hassi R’Mel natural gas field in northern Algeria. South Carolina Refusol received the necessary safety certificates to begin distribution of its solar inverters produced at the Greenville County plant of its sister company. 23 . The contract includes preventative and corrective maintenance for two SGT800 gas turbines. which Siemens installed in April 2011. Located at Algeria’s largest natural gas field. Prettl Electronics. This 100kW Off-Grid System is located at a beautiful countryside where solar irradiance is rather high throughout the year and powering a 1.000 square meters. the plant consists of 224 parabolic trough collectors that cover an area of 180. installation has been successfully completed by the end of March of 2012 at the location of Lonavala. Zigor India completes solar photovoltaic hybrid inverter installation Zigor India has recently announced that its first solar photovoltaic hybrid inverter. The heat generated by the solar field decreases the already low emissions of a combined cycle power plant and increases the efficiency even more. This facility has already created a strong relationship with the community and solar advocacy associations in South Carolina and beyond.600 m2 green house (see fig. The installation includes a total of 80kW of Solar PV panels connected to a Zigor HITC 100kW hybrid inverter (see fig. Refusol also announced an investment of $1. 1) plus a residential house. one of the world’s most innovative power stations. with the steam turbine receiving additional solar-generated steam during the day. Integrated Solar Combined Cycle (ISCC) technology combines the environmental benefits of solar energy with the opera- energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 tional advantages of a ‘conventional’ combined cycle plant. The service contract for the gas turbines will help to ensure long-term reliability and predictable maintenance costs for Abengoa at Hassi R’Mel. Refusol (Prettl) announced plans earlier this year to hire 80 people as it began production of the Refusol 12K. 20K and 024K inverters.

2011.2 M USD in the US market in 2011 sDuPont Innovations amp up ROI for Solar Energy sNew York’s largest on-farm biogas power project sMoventas wins 80M contract to supply new 5MW offshore wind gears to Areva sSiemens receives its first wind power order in Chile sMoog wins contract to supply Narec with a test system to evaluate 100 m wind turbine blades sBrasil: Aneel approves rules to facilitate the generation of energy in consumer units sIsofoton increases watt sales revenue by 10% and delivers positive results for the second consecutive year sTeleperformance Colombia opens one of the most modern Contact Centers in the country sAvailon strengthens customer advice team for Vestas systems sLargest financial announcement in the history of Israel\’s solar industry sSolar Impulse’s first intercontinental flight begins sQSTEC and QEWC sign MOU to develop power using solar energy sDegerenergie renders energy customers independent of the grid end-to-end system for self-supply celebrates its world premiere sSGS wins inspection contract for Gas Power Plant project in Iraq sIn 2011 the italian PV industry covered 33% of the global demand Malaysia considers changes to feed-in tariff due to over-subscription of PV Rooftop PV project in Malaysia. SEDA notes that Malaysia’s National Renewable Energy Policy and Action Plan has identified other renewable energy resources to be developed as well as PV. 24 sHittite Solar Energy joins SolarTAC Connected the world’s largest CIS thin-film solar power plant to the grid in Germany Solar Frontier and Belectric announced the completion and grid connection of the world’s largest CIS thin-film solar power plant in Bochow. The CIS thin-film power plant shows the increasing significance of CIS technology in the project business and the confidence major banks have in Solar Frontier and its products. Malaysia’s Sustainable Energy Development Authority (SEDA) reports that the nation has supported 140 MW of solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity through its new feed-in tariff (FiT).S. energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . The organization notes that small hydro plants can require at least 30 signatures to get all the necessary approvals. Applications for PV generation represented 348 of 377 applications for the FiT program. and the quota for non-individual PV was filled within less than three hours following the opening of the application window on December sGreat Park Accepts $1 Million Grant from U. such as low light. SEDA notes that 348 out of 377 applications for its feed-in tariff were for PV projects. Brandenburg.Emmvee takes to the roads of Germany sAcciona and Aveng awarded two renewable energy projects in South Africa sAMSC receives 100 MW wind turbine electrical control system order from Inox Wind sGE energy’s Entellipro motor management system receives Atex certification sNew turnkey service for environmental engineering leak testing automation announced by Uson sMartifer Solar reached a turnover of $71. Department of Energy for Solar Decathlon 2013 sVector Cuatro kick-starts activity in South Africa sTour d’e-bike . SEDA states that it is “very likely” to take corrective measures to adjust FiT levels or degression rates before the next round of quotes from July to August 2012. Approximately 205. Germany. Solar Frontier modules are valued for their high efficiency and excellent performance even under conditions that are considered to be less than optimal. The project’s investor is CommerzReal and the financing is provided by HypoVereinsbank (HBV) /UniCredit.000 Solar Frontier CIS thin-film modules have been installed in Bochow.energetica-international. Brandenburg. out of a total of 312 MW contracted for all renewable energy sources. and that it can take up to 36 months to build small hydro and biomass plants. calling the large amount of PV generation the “wrong signal” for the market. Their uniformly black finish also offers aesthetic integration into landscapes. SEDA has suggested that the reason for the large amount of PV generation could be that it has less administrative barriers compared to other forms of generation. delivering more kilowatt hours and enhancing project economics.LATEST GLOBAL ENERGY NEWS ENERGY NEWS IN BRIEF further information: visit www.

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the economical balance has not yet been properly achieved. Unfortunately there is no –strictly speaking– a common energy policy in the European Union. It is envisaged that additional thermo –solar 3000 MW will be added in a 100. Energy Policy and Regulation as an Incentive for Internationalization Politics is the art of the feasible. maintain and operate the non-manageable sources of energy. and increasing 20% the energy efficiency by year 2020. thermo-solar energy is showing up in the pipeline winning outstanding 26 media attention each time a commissioning comes down the pike. Energy Policy certainly follows the same rule. 3) Environment Efficiency.9 1.FIVE CONTINENTS REGULATION JORDI DOLADER CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD AT AF-MERCADOS EMI. and technologies to install.2 2010 87 2011 98 2012 109. not only EU but also OEDC by means of its International Energy Agency supports the rule of the triple ‘E’ since 2001 and encourages its members to harmonically balance these three pillars when defining their energy framework.7 Pacific 2.4 48.6 4. S. Swap among scenarios may take a few hours and in some cases even less than one hour and requires complex operational and technical solutions that were not present before the introduction of renewable technologies into the grid.000 MW. As an example.4 6.6 57. Whereas the industry solved successfully and accurately all technical and operational issues. Setting an energy policy is a tough exercise of selecting one among endless options by wisely combining the following three key independent aspects: 1) Energy Security.5 · Nº 120 · MAY12 . the paradigmatic 20-20-20 (unique in the entire world) commits the EU members (and other signing countries) to produce 20% of the energy with Renewable Sources.4 5. The Spanish case has not been easy and some errors were made (mostly because there was no reference and trialerror learning process was absolutely necessary). Wind and Photovoltaic are currently participating largely in its energy portfolio. 2) Economic Efficiency.000 MW system with an annual peak demand between 35.2 10. Parliament and Council with regard to the deployment of renewable energy plants. it is also a reality that not all-27 EU members are equally enthusiastic about complying with the targets.3 2.000 and 40.8 97.9 3. the technical solutions are outGW standing and Spanish industry can show excellent mechanisms.1 5.7 4.3 3. it is also important to mention that Countries and Plans (and the results thereof) are subject to be claimed in the European Court in case they do not reasonably point to the 20-2020 by 2020.5 North America 38. I n fact.3 76.5 Asia 39. Nonetheless. it is important to always keep present the lessons learnt in the home experience. Spain developed a very generous legal and regulatory framework with regard to the encouragement of Renewable Energies. EU has been using several Directives over the past years to encourage its members to include elements that create a regulatory framework that in a way can be considered a pseudo energy policy. Among them.8 148.1 energetica 2013 122 INTERNATIONAL 2014 136. The stunning growth for the renewables in Spain has boosted Eolic power up to 20.2 8. This knowledge 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Europe 2009 76. Members have been requested to submit their action plans to the European Commission.2 2. Nevertheless. These three options constitute the three main pillars in the European Union Energy Policy and so forth in all 27 state members. the Spanish TSO Red Electrica de España (REE) is a clear worldwide reference for the management of Eolic and Solar large system that depends on external random meteorological parameters.1 4.8 Latin America 1.5 59 71 85 101.3 6.5 2.5 Middle East an Africa 0. On one hand. Scenarios faced by REE go from 50% of the demand supplied by the renewable energy to the opposite scenario where no renewable is present and the combined cycle gas plants (CCGP) supporting the peaks of the system. Having said that.8 121. methodologies. reducing 20% the greenhouse gases.000 MW and solar power to almost 4000 MW in no more than seven years.A. In addition.


that will hardly present in the and its successful results have not passed unadvertised and are requested in other countries to avoid wasting time and suffering the same problems. Though they are very interested in the development of the new energy sources. conditions are placed for the internationalization of our companies. and hence the profits. and Asian Development Bank are clearly promoting the development of the regulatory and legal conditions in different world areas through a number of granted projects. It’s strategic participation in the development of the regulatory framework and the technical procedures for the integration of renewables in the grid has provided it a wide and deep view of the opportunities and future growing areas. perhaps a decade. Therefore. Cards are dealt. regasification stations. In fact. large investments in the gas network (pipes. and Turkey are currently leading these initiatives. Bishop & Associates Inc. Many other -distant. However. the economical global –and in particular Spanish– crisis makes almost impossible to further maintain this growth trend reducing the possibilities for further short term development of renewable energies within the Spanish system. They are adapting their regulations and energy policies in order to develop local renewable sources and to integrate them into their electrical networks. This framework definitely requires short and medium term financial extra efforts for final users. It has Opportunities and Threats as in any strategic decision Source for graphics: Jennifer Bieksha.areas in the world are replicating the directives of the European Union and (in a different level) the 120% 102% 100% 80% 60% 53. and b) it leverages the regulatory risks because of the instability of the Spanish regulation until the economical mistakes are solved. The collaborating companies that helped REE with the developments also share this reputation. built for a 6000 hours per annum business case. A stable energy sector requires that all these problems be correctly addressed within the existing regulations. are backing the renewable energy plants with merely 2000 hours per annum in some of the cases. they do not want to start over and go through all the experiences and thus they are eager to bring that experience into the country from areas like Spain in order to save time and money. North of Africa. Spanish renewable industry has no other than to export its knowledge and developments as a strategy for the future. Failing to admit this reality –and therefore avoiding the implementation of the correct economical/ pricing measures. South Africa. As a summary. it is necessary to insist that the Spanish companies related to the renewable energy are therefore in a unique position to jump into the international market and to assume a more preeminent role worldwide. this industry –same as any other with a clear added value. Investors are definitely seeking out new opportunities in other areas and multilateral funding institutions like World Bank. On the other hand. Actually it is a must that the Spanish companies profit the gained experience in the past years in order to export it and consolidate the industry. Additionally. these CCGP.) have been necessary. energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 .FIVE CONTINENTS REGULATION ment. It has two main benefits namely: a) it increases the level of activity. The inception of the opportunities has sometimes come from the investors/companies (pushing scenario) and some other from the institutions willing to have specific development in the country (pulling scenario).00% 51% 44% 41% 40% 27% 32% 19% 21% 20% 20% 12% 10% 28 ow er lp rm a oth e Ge rt po herm we al r pro d no l Eh a So la uc tio n r So lar h he ot w ati ate ng r/ we po nd Wi So la So lar PR tie (gr d) id- 0% rP sc V (u ale tilit y ) 4% 4% 9% Bi pro odie du sel cti on 60% United States of America. Ukraine. It is particularly important to enlist the medium size companies in this challenge since large companies are already participating in other markets. AF-Mercados EMI. sophisticated trading agreements for gas. S. China.may represent a heavy burden for the energy sector that can put at risk the viability of present and future investments. In this way. In any case.A. South and SouthEast Asia. etc. Unfortunately. these countries are now realizing they lack technological upgraded companies that can feasibly implement the policies and guidelines contained in the new framework. Experience and lessons learnt in the previous years have positioned Spain in the top-five countries with capabilities to implement and operate in a relatively short term a large amount of renewable energy sources plants.should chose to internationalize its operations as a strategic alternative for future develop- Unfortunately there is no –strictly speaking– a common energy policy in the European Union Spanish market for the following years. In fact. Spain currently owns a unique gas network supporting the renewable technology. the reality is that the spanish industry cannot stand still while a number of opportunities show up in the world. has been helping Spanish and European investors and companies to internationalize their operations in the booming countries in the world. However. European Bank.

com . solar modules. wafers.180 n a t S . (NASDAQ: CSIQ) is one of the world’s largest solar companies and a leading vertically integrated provider of ingots.canadiansolar. solar power systems and specialized solar products. Key Product Features ͻ. 2 A ll a H QUALITY I VALUE I INNOVATION Canadian Solar in Visit our boo d A2.ŝŐŚƉŽǁĞƌŽƵƚƉƵƚƐŚŽǁŶŽŶƚŽƉWsh^;WdͿƌĂƚŝŶŐ ͻ'ƵĂƌĂŶƚĞĞĚŵŽĚƵůĞƉŽǁĞƌŽƵƚƉƵƚ by plus-only tolerance of up to 5W ͻϮϱLJĞĂƌƐƉĞƌĨŽƌŵĂŶĐĞǁĂƌƌĂŶƚLJŝŶƐƵƌĞĚďLJůĞĂĚŝŶŐ  ŝŶƐƵƌĂŶĐĞĐŽŵƉĂŶŝĞƐŝŶƵƌŽƉĞĂŶĚƚŚĞh^ www. solar cells.

The solar industry stands by its commitment to cut costs radically.7 GW of capacity installed. In Germa- ny costs have been halved since 2007 and a pro-rata cut in subsidies since then has been absorbed. generating approximately 3% of its electricity. Germany has been the main engine. But now that has failed.S. energy association BDEW data shows. BSW said if there were reliable conditions.9 percent of the power mix. Europe contains nine of the largest 15 solar markets in the world. So-called green power in 2011 captured 19. 1. in addition to a generous grants system. besting the current energy system has become tougher.FIVE CONTINENTS REGULATION MIGUEL PÉREZ DE LEMA Trends in public subsidies and incentives around the solar industry in the world SUBSIDIES FOR DISCUSSION The international experts say that attempting to accelerate a transition to a low-carbon economy is expensive and risky. This surge is due to changes made to the solar power subsidies in Italy in 2010 – there was a feed-in tariff introduced. With natural gas prices so low due to huge new supplies of shale gas. Feed-in tariffs paid to producers will fall by 15 percent on Jan. amid an explosion in new panel installations. wants to avoid repeating the same mistakes as Spain. The sector already produced enough power to supply some 5.S. were cut by 13 percent on Jan. both globally and in the United States.1 million households. Italian growth Italy is the world’s second largest installer. If government officials wish to accelerate the next energy transition. P olicy of subsidies for solar energy is being discussed around the World. the industry would continue with targets to supply 10 percent of all power by 2020. Aid policy is based on clear rules that are maintained over time. 2012 and by another 9 percent in mid-2012 as the government aims to force the industry to lower its costs faster. Italy has some of the most favorable weather conditions in Europe for energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . and is closing the gap on Germany.7 GW). 1. creating an industry dependent on public money. The German case If Europe has been the main driver of solar energy. Supporters of renewable energy point out that public subsidies for these technologies are a fraction of those for fossil fuels. to follow in its footsteps. and companies must invest in road improvements to be competitive. The risk of distorting the market through public support and create a bubble in the field of solar energy in Spain has been shown as an obvious example. This prevents the entry of speculative interest in the sector. and other countries is to find a fair distribution of aid. In 2011. compared with 16. The guaranteed tariffs. But the oil industry says the amount of energy produced is the variable to be considered 30 and not the total amount of aid. United States has observed with great interest the growth of the Spanish renewable energy. new European PV installations amounted to 20.9 GW. one that prioritizes funding to commercialize decarbonized energy technologies that can compete dollar-for-dollar against carbon-based energy. A study by GSE showed Italian installations tripling in capacity from 2009 to 2010 (from about 1 GW to over 3 GW) and then almost tripling again in 2011 after an additional 9 GW of solar were installed (the worldleading amount in 2011). they will need a different strategy to develop an industry that can survive without major subsidies. Germany has long held the crown within Europe as the clear leader in installed solar power capacity and now has a total of 24. which must be borne by all consumers. Policymakers need to realize that achieving a transition with governmentaided commercialization programs will require putting billions of taxpayer dollars at risk. First. over 75% of the global total (27. a move that has hurt leading companies such as Conergy and Solon. both in the U. President Obama said that Spain was a model. often in a high-profile way. which has now slowed. The big question. Power from photovoltaic (PV) installations was the fastest growing segment within all German power derived from renewable sources in 2011. 2011. Germany was the country that has shown the world the way forward in the development of solar energy. The industry is subsidized but they gradually reduce each year. the U.4 percent in 2010.

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S. The rates rose again. Subsidies for clean vehicles coming from the Bush era. The rate is differentiated according to the power and the type of system and is constant throughout the incentive period. The Local Exchange is a mechanism for managing solar plants with up to 200 kW. Recently the Department of Energy of the U. In East Europe public support for the solar industry is scarce. Lithuania have started to produce solar panels recently for neighboring countries.2 Dedicated Retirement is a service that offers producers the ability to market the power generated easily. The case of the premiums to other solar industries in Britain is another example ofscandal.FIVE CONTINENTS REGULATION solar. And so far no legislation is contemplated to promote change. because its electric motor car. Aid for cheap energy Renewable-energy tax credits need to be changed. 32 Energy gives a value to rise to the grid following a criterion of financial compensation to the value of the energy taken from the mains. but if the goal is to achieve great heights of clean energy the focus should change. The Department of Energy and Climate Change was forced to cut aid sharply by over 50%. and are under close surveillance policy to not deviate from the objective of benefiting the consumer and the economy of the nation. From 2010 to 2011 the price of the panels were reduced by 30% by the high demand in the residential market. energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . However. Some problematic examples The campaign of subsidies for electric vehicles in the United States has shown an interesting example of the contradictions that these policies can generate. soil in Finland. For the development of clean energy in large quantities. The incentive is recognized for the production of electricity from the date of entry into the facility for a period of twenty years. The generous aid in Spain was drastically reduced trapping thousands of investors. And the system quickly became unsustainable for the public purse. Latvia and Lithuania have less than 0.S. Until now public aid has been proposed to help domestic industries. Small countries like Estonia. It had set a goal of reaching one million electric cars operating in 2015.1 MW of installed solar power each. who would not have entered the sector had they known about these changes. boom-andbust approach to renewable energy. the Retreat Dedicated. The current credits have contributed to an inefficient. But even then there are grievances and controversies. And the subsidy policy of Italy should learn from the Spanish failure to avoid repeating the same mistakes. The explosive growth figures remind Italy that had the solar sector in Spain. The measure was taken to court by large solar companies and was outlawed.500 per car. the laws should be opened to imports of cheaper solar equipment as those from China. But that number seems far away. The GSE is the intermediary between the producer of photovoltaic and grid. the Green Certificate. called Karma. up to $ 10.000 may receiveaid each electric vehicle. in the first two million kWh of electricity supplied to the network during the year. Owners of solar photovoltaic systems may use the following incentives and / or services: The Energy Hill. The money will come from new taxes to the taxpayer but the reduction of aid to the oil industry worth 4 billion dollars and its di- version to the other industry. and it is manufactured outside the U. and the Exchange Locally. Rates of Income Energy Certificates can not be combined with Green Certificates. In April 2010 began operating a bonus scheme which increased with great rapidity small installations of solar energy production.S. To revive the idea. government has frozen two-thirds of the aid granted to the brand new electric vehicle Fisker Automotive. but the cut caused a complete stoppage in the sector and investors received a message of insecurity. despite having a contribution up to $ 7. President Obama had intended to electrify the American roads by subsidies but the public is not engaged in its aid program. supported by an internal combustion engine is actually a luxury car of some 120. The Energy Bill is the mechanism of production of solar incentive introduced in 2005 and is currently regulated by Ministerial Decree of 05 May 2011. and so it seems logical that it has the most beneficial grants structure. The Green Certificates are marketable securities and showing the annual production of electricity from renewable sources. president has raised the help.000 euros. Plants with a total capacity of up to 1 MW may require application of guaranteed minimum prices set by the Authority. the U. So far the industry has only sold in that country a few tens of thousands.


FIVE CONTINENTS REGULATION in the next two years.Il GSE publica il rapporto solare fotovoltaico del 2011. a rebate is available through the Australian Federal government for solar power installations anywhere in Australia. China’s economic policy is still based on keeping its currency artificially low to increase export competitiveness.US-China Relations. Besides China promotes exports its products to mass production subsidies that allow their companies to sell at low prices. It places restrictions on foreign exchange for its businesses and citizens. Both the World Bank and the Obama Administration are pressing China to restructure its economic system. Stanford Report.9 GW of Installations in China. . That’s not just good news because it means more renewables. Government efforts to help accelerate an energy transition will require massive and risky investments.Use of public and private dollars for scaling up clean energy needs a reality check. The Australian solar industry is now focused towards large installations. Many experts believe that these violate the international trade principles China agreed to when it joined the World Trade Organization (WTO). By Jeffrey Ball.Solar Power Becomes Cheaper than Diesel in India. which pose an unreasonable risk to private capital. The region as a whole grew 165% . Queensland. Renewableenergyworld. In addition to these high-profile projects. May 1. It restricts foreign direct investment and foreign businesses — foreign firms are prohibited from establishing Wholly Foreign-Owned Enterprises in certain economic sectors. the gradual allocation of this solar capacity should mean that solar becomes the cheapest form of energy in India with- Australia looking for another model Australia experienced its own solar bubble in the residential sector in recent years caused by incentives. There are a number of large-scale projects in the pipeline. which reserves massive subsidy programs. Restructuring Required. An Analysis of State-owned Enterprises and State Capitalism in China. also known as Small-scale Technology Certificates or STCs).32-billion industry in India. After rapid growth in domestic installations incentives have fallen dramatically and are paid 66c per kilowatt-hour. The international solar industry is experiencing strong protectionist policy of China on their industry. Solar Energy & Trade: Radical Rethink. The Hill. shifting away from government investment and subsidizing the manufacture of exports and infrastructure to stimulating domestic markets and demand. the Chinese model of aid seeks to exploit the strong demand for solar equipment in the world. energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . which would make solar cost-competitive with other energy sources even without subsidies correcting for the social costs of dirty energy.German solar power output up 60 pct in 2011. CleanTechnica. The great objective is that public support will serve to develop efficient and competitive solar equipment to end the need for support for energy production.000 MW of solar power over the next ten years. Making Wind and Solar Power Affordable. the rupee per kilowatt price of solar is projected to drop from 11-12 to 7-8. India is the third-biggest carbon emitter and has launched the ‘Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission’ a government scheme which is set to allocate funding for 20. This rebate is offered in the form of Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs. Firstly.Thursday’s global agenda: The US goes to China. Solarbuzz. Unlike the European model of support 34 for the solar industry based on support for clean energy production. the next giant Solar power costs in India could come down 40% by 2015. Public money will go in the coming years for the development of new prototypes. including the Solar Flagships projects — the proposed but beleagueredMoore Solar Farm and the Solar Dawn consortium’s CSP plant in Chinchilla. The “non-market” economy of China is wining in terms of economic growth and job creation against the market . 2012. say Stanford scholars. .Asia Pacific Solar Photovoltaic Markets Soar 165% in 2011. as well as those from overseas. The chinese problem Asia Pacific photovoltaic markets continue to surge ahead of expectations. China is the largest Asian solar power and is becoming a major source of problems for the sector internationally. a $2. Led by 2. Its government has arranged a series of stimulus measures that protect their own industries and foreign markets. Reuters. Gestore dei Servizi Energetic. Bibliography . but no country has taken steps to prevent this unfair competition. .-China Economic and Security Review Comisión. Foreign Affairs.Tough Love for Renewable Energy. installing 6 GW in 2011. a solar power generation system may be eligible for Solar Feed-in Tariff incentives. . . there are primarily two types of financial incentives schemes designed to encourage the uptake of solar power generators (as well as other types of renewable energy): Federal Renewable Energy Certificates and state-level feed-in tariffs. China considers the solar industry Solar among fast-growing emerging sectors. Due to the growing solar market for solar and technological development. there are also numerous other medium (~100kW) to large-scale project in the works or already operational throughout the country.S. but because it means a likely shrinkage of India’s reliance on diesel. These efforts should focus on supporting large investment necessary to develop the next generation of the solar industry. and is forecast to grow an additional 40% in 2012. According to Renewable Energy World. India. In Australia. . By Andrew Szamosszegi and Cole Kyle .

Combined Cycle Qatar (3000 MW) One of the largest in the Middle East. . Iberdrola Ingeniería. one of the most important energy engineering companies in the world.Our goal is to overcome all challenges And to apply all our technical know-how to drive those projects that once seemed impossible.

We can’t stop support so dramatically now that solar PV is so close to competitiveness with conventional electricity sources. schemes. to continuing the technological evolution that is making PV a mainstream energy source. (EPIA©) What are your main goals for the EPIA organization since your appointment? EPIA is committed to helping build markets for solar photovoltaic. In the coming years. Policy and regulatory stability – Feed-in tariffs that are phased out gradually rather than abruptly – will be more important than ever. and after Vice-Presidents Boris Klebensberger and Virgilio Navarro Sanchez-Sicilia declined the presidency. We will also need to make sure that European policymakers understand the importance of maintaining a stable regulatory environment and of markets based on principles of free and fair trade and fair competition principles. At a time of economic crisis.D. We also need governments to remove bureaucratic obstacles to PV deployment – a cost-effective way to promote the uptake of the technology.with more than 28 GW of new gridconnected capacity globally in 2011. and to helping regulators understand the importance of policies that allow us achieve our energy. As EPIA’s new President. Winfried Hoffmann became the new President of the European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA). a Member of the Supervisory Board of SMA Solar Technology AG. But if you properly manage the FiTs. He holds a Ph. Hoffmann has also served as the Chairman of the Board of RWE Schott Solar GmbH. with investors who are nervous and banks that are reluctant to lend. you help bring competitiveness closer. Few could have predicted the speed at which the technology has advanced and energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . where he was later a consultant. What is the point of view of EPIA and its members in relation to the new regu- lations affecting Spain and Germany´s FIT´s? The developments in Germany and Spain (and elsewhere in Europe) have vividly illustrated how tinkering with the Feed-in Tariff can steer the development of industry segments – for good or for ill. environmental and economic goals. Dr. is a pioneer in the European solar industry having spent more than 30 years working in photovoltaics. Companies will have to find new markets and new business models to adapt to these changing realities. I look forward to addressing these challenges and helping guide our industry into a bright and sustainable future. governments are naturally struggling with budgetary concerns and rethinking public support 36 On March Dr. Too much in one direction and you can kill off a segment. Solar PV has just had another record year -. He takes over the position after having been elected as EPIA’s new Vice-President. we will need to work to create new markets and business models for PV. Hoffmann. which has shown the political will to promote the residential sector. the FiT level for that segment is still reasonable while unfortunately the one for large systems was reduced too much. What have been the main conclusions after EPIA´s annual meeting in Brussels? That the PV market is strong and still has great potential but that it faces one or two years in which new challenges will arise. and in 1979 joined the photovoltaic R&D group for thin film solar cells of Nukem in 1979. private financing is also less certain. Dr. He took over the company’s leadership in 1985. and as Chief Technology Officer and Vice President of the Solar Business Group at Applied Materials GmbH. Look at the recent changes in Germany.INTERVIEW Winfried Hoffmann President of the European Photovoltaic Industry Association (EPIA) “Before the end of this decade PV will offer every European citizen the chance to become a prosumer” Winfried Hoffmann at EPIA’s Annual General Meeting in Brussels on 22 March 2012. Today the industry faces major challenges even as our technology approaches competitiveness with conventional electricity sources. reduce them gradually. in biophysics.


a strong commitment to continued innovation. This will require a commitment to new incentives for decentralised storage or demand-side management.EPIA’S booth during the EPIA Investors Day event on 6 September 2011 at the 26th EU PVSEC in Hamburg. the EU must develop a real industrial policy that would encourage and strengthen further local investments. we need more emphasis on R&D in components – not just modules and inverters but also the balance-of-system components that will become increasingly important for European industry  energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . What areas of R+D innovations should PV industry strengthen efforts? EPIA strongly supports an increased budget for R&D and innovation in solar PV energy in the EU. these could include demand-side management or decentralized storage. No one believes that PV support schemes should last forever – or even for much longer – and everyone knows that these need to be smart. dedicated support for investments in the manufacturing industry. and ambitious policy to develop skills and competencies. Germany. its costs have come down over the past decade. improved access to financing. greater use of standardization. What strategies should be implemented by Europe to compete with the Chinese PV manufacturing capabilities? Europe has been the world leader in producing and deploying solar PV energy on a commercial scale but is now facing increased competition in the production sector from other regions in the world as the industry globalizes. Yet here we are. Do you consider that self-sufficient systems could become the future of Photovoltaic installations? If by self-sufficient systems you mean those where most of the energy is consumed on site or in the low-voltage area. Today. However. This empowerment of individuals is at the heart of the decentralised nature of PV – a source of electricity you can produce where you use it – and should be a key component of Europe’s energy future. Europe needs a strong industrial base to remain competitive in the global economy. These prioirites will be important if governments want to achieve their ambitious and necessary climate goals. As I mentioned above. In our upcoming EPIA report on grid integration we will show how PV can be a major part of Europe’s energy mix without requiring massive investments in new infrastructure or creating unnecessary burdens on regulators or utilities. How can this be developed and the concept to be sold to the various government regulators? It’s a question of devising new kinds of support in the post Feed-in Tariff world. Specifically. That requires some sector-specific measures aimed at maintaining and developing a competitive local manufacturing base: a favorable long-term policy framework for renewable energies. sustainable and properly adapted to changing market conditions.” before the end of this decade PV will offer every European citizen the chance to become a “prosumer. this does not mean that they should be reduced all of a sudden to unsustainable levels. then the answer is yes. The priority should be the financing of the Solar Europe Industrial Initiative in the context of the next multiannual financial framework (and notably through the Horizon 2020 instrument) in order to attract companies to maintain and create new high-volume production in Europe.” producing and consuming his or her own decentralised source of elec- 38 tricity at a competitive price. even fewer would have said that PV would be approaching competitiveness with conventional electricity across a range of market segments. The EU also needs to ensure the development of markets based on principles of free and fair trade and fair competition principles in order to ensure full reciprocity at international level. That’s why the decisions in some countries to abruptly halt support come as such a shock to the system. close to competitiveness. and to additional network services that contribute to network stabilityAs we have shown in our recent study “Solar Photovoltaics Competing in the Energy Sector – On the road to competitiveness. and also to ensure security of energy supply into the future.


We do not sell square meters. tertiary sector. industrial control and electronics. We want to reinvent MATELECT to turn it into a “tailor-made exhibition” for exhibitors and visitors. The idea is that professionals see it as a tool to generate business opportunities through greater specialization of its content. It is our obligation to know the particular objectives of each company. So if we want to turn it into a commercial tool we first need to transform the content and objectives of the participants into business goals. so we are designing the business event based on the particular needs of every business. because they are different. empowerment and greater identity of each of these You have described MATELEC as a “tailormade exhibition”. We must find effective tools so that we can offer our own products and services to many clients within a very short time. The four main strategic work lines are 40 purely the commercial positioning and the profitability of the event.LJOUVSVN`. we advise those participating in tailor-made fairs. the geographic scope of international action (with a program of over 650 international guests which are customers characterized by their purchasing potential as well as more than 3. or how many visitors. What synergies are you going to enhance among the four lines or integrated sectors gathered this year? We are going to improve each sector speenergetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . I want to insist on the fact that we do not seek a target with regard to the exhibition space. Our goal is to adapt the commercial tool which. MATELEC 2012 is going to be a very special edition. we seek a qualitative objective. If you come to sell. medium or small. as stated. no matter who you are.. as we are transforming it into a commercial tool that can help many participating companies to meet their specific business objectives in a context in which the investment return has become absolutely necessary and required given the very difficult year we are undergoing. and redefinition of the sectors…What lies behind turning MATELEC into a “new fair show”? MATELEC has changed its image and structure to be a reflection of the sector. But the important thing is not how many exhibitors are going to be at MATELEC. makeover.). [LSLJVTT\UPJH[PVUZ`Z[LTZ integrators and KPNP[HS OVTL.SLJ[YPJP[`. Madrid. Raúl Calleja Manager of MATELEC. has been so successful for companies.. are designed as “tools that generate I\ZPULZZVWWVY[\UP[PLZMVY both exhibitors HUK]PZP[VYZ¹ Deep renewal. an ‘umbrella brand’ which brings together Ä]L THQVY. JVTWSLTLU[HY` HUK Z`ULYNPZ[PJ fairs: Electrical . but how much business those who have come have done. sectors and industries at other fairs that the MATELEC group has held. public works . )\PSKPUN (\[VTH[PVU. whether it is large. What does it mean? We work under the new concept of “tailor-made exhibition” which. Spain) “We want to position MATELEC within the International Trade Fair Calendar” Raúl Calleja is leading MATELEC. the International Trade Fair for the Electrical and Electronics Industry (23-26 October. even in times of crisis. extending the visitor profile of the show (prescription) and new business areas (rehabilitation. architecture. (SS VM [OLT in his own words.INTERVIEW sectors. which is giving way to a wide range of complete solutions and not just individual products. The fair must work in commercial terms for those companies participating. as well as transforming the four-day fair into 365 days of trading opportunities. Lightec: lighting solutions and lighting. basically means that the show can not be equal for all. property managers. you can sell and achieve your sales targets at the fair. hospitality industry. . as well as the reinvestment of all resources of the fair on every exhibition so that the exhibitor meet their objectives. our goal is not quantitative. within the framework of MATELEC. new stage.500 nights of hotel available for free for their exhibitors´ customers and free bus routes from the whole Spain to attend the fair). trade. We create business events tailored to each company.

es .SPAIN International Trade Fair for the Electrical and Electronics Industry S 4 dFOARY ESS BUSIN ADVANCE NOTICE OF ACTIVITIES.ifema.23-26 OCTOBER 2012 MADRID .matelec. 2012) SEE4: 1st Energy Efficiency Solutions Forum O ITH Hotel and Catering Conference O Shopping Centres and Restaurants O Illumination and Lighting: · Illumination and Architecture · Lighting and Designers · Public lighting · Effective illumination for selling in Shopping Areas O Residential and Land Agents O Health Centres and Residences O Town Halls and Public Buildings O Restoration and refurbishment SEMANA DE LA EFICIENCIA ENERGÉTICA 20-28 OCTUBRE 2012 What would you like to see? Building tailor-made events together PLAY A LEADING PART IN MATELEC 2012 (34) 91 722 30 00 · matelec@ifema. WORKSHOPS AND CONGRESSES O Energy Efficiency Week O 1st Smart Grids Congress O 2nd Energy Efficiency Congress O 9th National Congress of Telecommunication O B2B Workshops O Training Boxes O KNX Forum O Industrial Productivity Forum Installers and Integrators O (1 · www.

In this line. We want to position the event within the calendar of international trade fairs. what differentiates MATELEC from other major trade fairs in Europe? As for internationalization . distribute. Of course. Qatar. services and solutions based on the KNX standard. we have also enhanced the internationalization of the event in collaboration with AMEC AMELEC that will promote MATELEC in those international forums in which it participates. IBA. commercial or industrial. UAE. What other conferences and events will have a preferential place in the show? Just to name some activities already organized. a fair space where those Spanish companies and technology developers with export potential may exhibit. It will also coordinate a reserved space at the exhibition. with talks on how to export and with business rounds based on closed agendas. On the one hand.view which considers as well business opportunities to meet. This promotional campaign will take place in Mexico. we are creating together the Energy Efficiency Week. cialization much more. We also work in other types of events to attract interna- 42 tional engineering and major projects. Brazil. These measures are crucial for the profitability of many companies. Each sector has to exploit the full event. and the whole offer will help entrepreneurs to have a larger number of solutions for their work. Turkey. Venezuela. the Forum for Industrial Productivity. an entire national media campaign to raise public awareness on the importance of being energy efficient by displaying the solutions that exist today from the viewpoint of professionals and private homes. Internationalization is one of the key issues this year. the Second Congress of Energy Efficiency of the Community of Madrid. dealing with savings. It includes various activities in the city aimed to raise awareness among the media and end users on the importance of efficiency energy. The first and second day of the fair shall focus on the markets in North Africa and the Middle East. Chile. so that we provide them with more depth and specific content. with paid travel and accommodation. we will have the new exhibition area. Egypt. and generate international business opportunities in the natural geographical scope of business. the IX National Congress of installers and Telecommunication companies. among others. from a social point of view. and the sum of all specialized sectors as a whole shall achieve a greater ability to attract independent parties. Thursday on Eastern European countries and the last day on Latin American purchasers. Additionally. This area will host exclusive conferences and lectures at the Fourth KNX Congress. market trends necessarily define the directions. integrate. comfort. aimed to certify the quality of communication technology designed for the monitoring and automation of any building. Integration is hence a market reality. and specific content for different profiles demand / end customer). Tunisia. the first Forum on Energy Efficiency Solutions SEE4 (conference space and open debates at the fair. for which there will be an auditorium at MATELEC 2012 as well as an area of exhibition stands for the companies from the Association. offer and attract new niche markets to offer them energy efficient solutions. install or promote products. MATELEC 2012 should be an international fair held in Madrid. safety and environment. a professional point of Domotics and building automation will also have their space at the show thanks to the KNX Congress. Bahrain and Kuwait. as well as exports and imports. Therefore we are talking about new demand niches and generating business at the fair. The industrial sector is progressively implementing energy efficiency solutions as a priority factor in saving and improving productivity. We want to transform the show into an effective business tool to help many of the participating company achieve their goals. At MATELEC we speak from two perspectives when talking about energy efficiency. MATELEC 2012. high profile decision makers and specializing every day at the fair according to the kind of market. the first MATELEC Awards for Innovation and Energy Efficiency and. we are preparing an ambitious program for more than 450 international buyers invited to the event. the great week of Energy Efficiency  energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . they can obtain quantifiable results to amortize their investments. Spain Xport Technology. Panama. whether residential. organized by the Spanish KNX Association that brings together companies and entities which manufacture. On the other hand. Algeria. What notable events will the Energy Efficiency Week include? Energy Efficiency Week is an initiative in collaboration with entities such as COAM and the Madrid City Council. of course. The conference will consist of a series of presentations on the latest developments relating to automation and control of buildings and houses. Morocco. MATELEC will host the Fourth KNX Congress. what topics will the presentations refer to? Indeed. That is the essence of the new orientation of the International Trade Fair of Solutions for Electrical and Electronics Industry. Those in charge of the companies demand a trade fair where. beyond the mere display of its products in a given space. even more in times of need. known as International Business Area. and will organize business meetings between the Spanish companies and about 60 foreign buyers. especially taking into account the economic environment in the last few years. we can cite the First Congress of Smart Grids.

2012, May

A PV giant alongside the Alps
Curbans: the first large PV project (33 MW) directly
connected to the RTE´s transport network in France

The plant, with an investment of 100 million Euros led by the French giant GDF SUEZ, has been fully
executed as an EPC by the Spanish engineering company Maetel, and it is currently the highest
capacity facility built in France.



A PV giant alongside the Alps
The Curbans photovoltaic power facility has a total output of 33 MWp with approximately 145,000
photovoltaic panels producing 43,5 million kilowatt hours of renewable energy each year. This is
equivalent to the annual electricity consumption of 14,500 households (excluding heating) and,
compared with a fuel oil power plant, sparing close to 120, 000 metric tons of CO2 emissions
annually. The plant, with an investment of 100 million Euros led by the French giant GDF SUEZ,
has been fully executed as an EPC by the Spanish engineering company Maetel, a company
belonging to the ACS Group’s industrial division, and it is currently the highest capacity facility
built in France.


he PV plant in Curbans, located in
the French region of Hautes-Alpes
(Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur) and
already operating has a total of 33 MW
and is the first large-scale PV power plant
to be directly connected to the network
RTE in France. The plant covers a total area
of 120 hectares, it is located in an area
with altitudes up to 1,200 meters.
The execution of the plant has been entirely made in the form of an EPC (Engineering, procurement and construction)
by the engineering Maetel, a Spanish company owned by the ACS Group’s industrial
division specialized in the construction of
industrial projects , electricity generation
and distribution.
The economic measures created in
France for the photovoltaic sector up to
the government moratorium in November
2010 as well as the specific funding lines
for these plants made it possible to launch
such an ambitious project like this one in
Curbans, whose financial boost has been
led by the French group GDF SUEZ, which
signed an agreement between two important partners: EuroFideme 21 (Natixis
Environnement & Infrastructure) and SEIEF
The sector legislation in France, which
adopted from the experience developed
for years by the EU countries which are


· Nº 120 · MAY12

at the forefront of renewable energy facilities, such as Spain and Germany, has
redefined the PV promoter figures that
makes turnkey PV installation projects as
a financial product, as it already happened
in Spain until the approval of the Royal Decree 661, 2008.
The Curbans power plant project can be
traced back to 2008 with the signing of
the 30-year lease agreement between GDF
and the municipality. It was followed by
different milestones like the environmental
review, building permit obtained in Febru-

ary 2009 or the prefecture of the French
Water Act. Meanwhile, an international
selection process between twelve companies to implement the turnkey project
began in September 2009 led to a shortlist of eight participants, culminating in
the selection of Maetel as the benchmark
The Spanish company submitted a design that included all the necessary solutions to solve the environmental, terrain
and electrical conditions required for the
island operation. Thus, a contract was con-



cluded amounting to more than 100 million Euros, which in addition to the EPC for
33MW PV plant, the construction also included in the form of EPC with a 20/225kV,
35 M-VA substation, and an operation and
maintenance contract for 10 years.

Serie YL 235
P-29b-1 / 1650x990
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Serie YL 235 P.29-b1 / 1650x990 are high
efficiency, multicristaline solar cells with
high transmission and textured glass deliver
a module efficiency of up to 14.4% minimizing installation costs and maximizing
the kWh output per unit area. Tight positive
power tolerance of +/- 3% ensures modules are delivered at or above rated power,
improving system performance through the
reduction of module mismatch losses.
Regarding Quality and Reliability, Serie YL
235 YL 235 P.29-b1 / 1650x990 has a robust, corrosion resistant aluminum frame
independently tested to withstand wind
loads of up to 2,4KPa ensuring mechanical stability. Manufacturing facility certified
to ISO 9001 Quality Management System
standards. All the modules are tested independently in order to ensure compliance
with certification and regulatory standards.
On the other hand, module packaging is
optimized to protect product during transportation and minimize on-site waste.
5-years limited product warranty and
25-years limited power warranty in compliance with our warranty terms and conditions.


Viability of the project
The project is framed within the mountains of the Haute -Alpes and it provides
all the necessary elements to complete a
financial model suitable for development.
Curbans is located in an area called PACA
because of its high level of Peak Solar
Hours, which daily measures the number
of hours that, with an ideal solar irradiation of 1000 W/m2. In fact, thanks to the
exceptional weather it enjoys, the area is
known in the region with the name of “Triangle du soleil”.
If we consider the Annual Capacity,
which is the number of local peak sun
hours multiplied by the size of the system
and multiplied by the factor of utilization
which is 74% including the correction factor concerning shadows, etc.; Curbans
displays a record 1,280 kWh / kWp / year,
assuming an average of 300 sunny days a
year. These 1,280 peak sun hours, multiplied by the size of the system (24,416 kW)
and multiplied by 74%, account for the
plant a production amount to 23,126,835
kW / h.
All this ensures savings in CO2 emissions in the local energy mix amount to
15,032,443 tons of CO2 annually, equiva-

lent to the average electricity consumption
of 3,340 families of four members per year
with an average consumption of 4,500
kWh per year.
Once the viability of the plant was demonstrated by the studies, MAETEL had to
overcome different obstacles and situations during the construction to bring the
project to a successful end.
These circumstances were mainly conditioned by the enormous work done in the
area of civil works as well as the adjustment of all the electrical and substation
systems to comply with the novel demands
that the PV sector power plants connected
to the transmission network in France.
Among the different milestones during the
construction of the project, we can highlight the following
Environmental protection
The construction of the plant required the
guarantee of an efficient environmental
management and protection of the ecosystem (flora and fauna), so that the reserved
areas and natural parks were preserved
during the implementation phase Similarly,
the continuity of existing ecosystems, species whose degree of protection has been
particularly critical and self-demanding to
ensure the conditions for protected species, was secured The earthworks carried out (over 660,000 m3 and 6,500 m3
amounted to rock fill) and the selection of
the land to provide implementation solutions specific to each area was made possible by a technical staff which developed
detailed field engineering.
Legal requirements
Local legislation and oversight by various
control bodies proved to be very strict given the commitment to achieving a landmark project for the country. In this regard,
special emphasis was placed on strict compliance with the Water Act, which made
securing the natural watershed after making the cuts and fills selected for the implementation of the platforms.
Logistics and assembly
Logistics was set up as a key factor as it
was necessary to supply 2,000 tons of
steel, with a strict traceability of its quality
by batch and casted from manufacturing
in Belgium to the photovoltaic field. In toenergetica


· Nº 120 · MAY12


substation.000 variables. the regulation system of the plant to be able to generate or absorb. tear and abrasion. Inverters are coming with the following certifications: TUV. Components used inside are all from first brands coming from Germany or Japan. which houses the five core areas of generation in which the project is subdivided: access roads. constructed. they are mechanically very robust to impact. because of the distances in a plant of this size. AS4777. allowing recognition of performance failures in the photovoltaic value chain . They have excellent thermal properties. The photovoltaic modules were distributed in 526 shipping containers (20 ‘) in the course of four months to the different mounting heights. who oversee the production parameters. In fact. made for IT grid in medium voltage from 6. we must point out the control system and data acquisition based on a topology of industrial programmable logic controllers (PLC). From the standpoint of monitoring a plant of this type. network interconnection and medium voltage evacuation substation that directly connects the plant to the network RTE’s state with a 225KV voltage Monitoring and control Another major challenge was focused on the aforementioned connection for evacuation to the 225kV transmission network of the state company RTE.6KVac up to 33KVac. by means of voltage set points received from RTE and the measurement of voltage. regular frequency amount to 225kV from the network by reducing the exported active power according to the increasing frequency of the network. UL1741. service platforms. the most appropriate for a “clean energy”.POWER PLANTS tal. equipment redundancy and ring topology in the optical fiber communication networks where. These characteristics provide a service life greater than 25 years with the highest reliability. Among the range of cables. together with String boxes and communication Cabinet (Scada). The HSI1250 is the one used in the plant of Curbans. fiber optic links and mono multi-mode cohabit  Exzhellent Solar cables (General Cable) The cables used in the 33 MW photovoltaic installation at Curbans (France) were all halogen free cables. and the answer must be in accordance with the requirements of RTE. Moreover.8 kV DC and are constituted by a flexible tincoated copper conductor with double jacket of cross-linked LSF-OH materials. 24. without transformer. VDE0126. it is the first time that such behavior is required in a photovoltaic generation system. Large size of the project The project covers an area of 120 hectares of affections. generating or absorbing reactive power required by the network at all times. in the northern city of Flensburg. with more than 60 ha. having TÜV approval and also French approval to UTE C 32-502. which marked perhaps one of the biggest challenges for a PV plant. we designed and introduced an auxiliary grid system with cassette type closure in aluminum to ensure easy mounting of the modules with the ratio amounted to productive assembly set in which all generator elements were electro technically controlled. the system is able to meet response times and a very strict generation capabilities. typical of a traditional generation system.200 m. Exzhellent Solar provided the panels’ interconnection and from those to the string boxes. meteorological stations and anti-intrusion and monitoring system. being suitable to work at extreme ambient temperatures (-40 ºC to +90 ºC). which manages a large number of variables and availability of the monitoring directly affects the production. The availability of supervision is ensured through the use of major Inverters HSI125 (Helios Systems) All the inverters Helios Systems are manufactured by the German company called FeCon GmbH (ISO9001-Wind&Sun Tech Group). and may work permanently outdoors or in contact with mineral oils. current reversal. it requires a distributed solution automation equipment of high quality capable of processing large amounts of data. Reactive Power. Real Decreto. The monitoring and control system expressly created for that purpose by MAETEL´s Depart- 48 ment of Automation and Instrumentation allows. in short. we had to run a side project of paved road on the old track of hunters to ensure access to all parts of the park. the fact of having to guarantee access for heavy machinery and materials up to the different mounting heights (up to 1. These single-core cables are rated up to 1. DK5940. since the requirements posed by RTE require the ability to participate in voltage regulation network. Exzhellent Solar cables are designed to German specification TÜV 2 Pfg 1169. This is a three phase inverter. The Helios Systems range of products comes from central inverters of 80KW up to 1250KW. and reaching real-time monitoring over 60. High) in critical times for the local weather with snow depths up to 30 cm was an important logistical effort. Thus. LVRT. energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . For this. all in the DC side of the installation. and the company tests each single unit at 110% of the nominal power before shipping. which allows the system to absorb the voltage dips and generate reactive power during the island operation. On the other hand.000 were vertical posts embedded in concrete for the installation of the main structure. In addition.


According to data from the World Bank. Until recently. in India there is significant support not just through the nationwide Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission (NSM) but also through state-specific programmes. The Californian power company SunEdison. A glance through the finance pages of any paper should be enough to confirm that business activity in the sector is definitely on an upward trend. This combination of factors has led to growing interest in the Indian PV market. But according to Bridge to India data published in Energetica India. By April 2012 the installed capacity across the country.16 billion. Haryana. mind. that increase in energy needs had been met mostly through fossil fuel. much higher than that of established PV markets in places such as Europe. energy use in India had risen from just under 280 kilos of oil equivalent per capita in 1972 to almost 585 in 2009. the Indian PV sector has its share of growing pains.MARKET OVERVIEW JASON DEIGN PV INSIDER India: Opportunities and challenges in PV projects and manufacturing India’s rapidly expanding solar power market represents a wealth of potential opportunities for home grown and foreign PV manufacturers and project developers. New Delhi-based Bergen Associates. almost 319MW of that capacity came on stream in the first quarter of 2012. at 540MW. First of all there is the local content requirement. And the activity is far from confined to local players. With the first batch of NSM projects (although not. But with the population and energy use figures continuing to grow. Gujarat. so good. is providing the inverters for the 1MW ESSAR Solar Photo Voltaic Power Plant in Bhuj. at a time when incentives for solar energy are being slashed in many markets worldwide. A cursory review of recent announcements reveals a veritable who’s who of Indian and global energy and photovoltaic (PV) industry companies. So far. But the Indian PV sector’s first footsteps have not been without a few trip ups. there is no doubting the fact that India needs more energy… and has got plenty of sunlight to fill that need. demonstrating the rate at which the market is picking up speed. And Gamesa Electric. the population rose from 573 million to 1. It is not all plain sailing. in newer state energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . has recently teamed up with US thin-film maker Advanced Energy to build a 1 megawatt (MW) ground-mounted plant in Kalanaur. like any emerging market. Y ou do not need to be an avid reader of Energetica India to have realised that solar power is hot property right now in India. For a start. a subsidiary of a major Spanish wind turbine maker. meanwhile. Solar fits the bill nicely. though. for example. there has been a realisation that India needs to make as much as it can of renewable energies. then. has chosen Narmada Canal in Gujarat as the site for a ground- 50 breaking solar concept designed to generate 1MW of clean power while reducing water loss by up to 7 million litres a year. It is hardly surprising that the Indian PV market is drawing interest from around the world. Over the same period. notably. was still modest in comparison to that of established markets abroad. Furthermore. Higher irradiance than established markets Studies by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory show most of the country gets more than 5 kilowatt-hours per square metre a day in terms of direct normal irradiance.

have initially dominated the PV project landscape in India. Gujarat. Surat and Vadodara. USA. for example. there’s tons of rural areas.” Financial aid for US thin film manufacturers US thin film makers. As a consequence. Thin film is also believed to have superior technical capabilities in hot climates. maybe a 5MW in the beginning. and it is getting brighter. for example. there is an urgent need for Indian debt providers to come forward as well. thin film or crystalline silicon. Many of the challenges encountered so far could be viewed as part of the usual learning process for any new market.” programmes in Gujarat. This measure was clearly designed to help stimulate a nascent PV manufacturing industry in the country. many are wary because of a lack of familiarity with the solar industry and. thin film formats. the local content issue is not the only one facing the PV industry in the country. you say ‘I’m a big conglomerate. the local content requirement and Ex-Im Bank are not the only reasons for thin film’s popularity in India. Banks and other backers are becoming more confident about funding. “There’s obviously a big opportunity. At one point they accounted for about 80% of projects in the country. In Gujarat. This essentially opens the door to cheap foreign crystalline silicon imports. This puts India in stark contrast with established PV markets such as Germany and Spain. state-run programmes have experienced problems of their own. because PPAs are considered to be not strong.MARKET OVERVIEW tionship bank. Policy makers are learning from past mistakes. of Indian crystalline silicon module makers such as Central Electronics. especially smaller projects. an understandably cautious attitude towards the true value of the power purchase agreements (PPAs) offered by electricity companies. there was a stipulation that crystalline silicon PV modules had to be made in India. in particular. In fairness. it looks as though PV will continue to be welcome in India for the foreseeable future  51 . were aided in their efforts to enter the Indian market through large handouts from the Export-Import Bank of the United States (Ex-Im Bank). Another significant challenge is financing. “A lot of India is driven by local feedin tariffs and local incentives that don’t necessarily have the local manufacturing rule. for example. thin film. 1MW. and in practice the levels of sunlight are frequently affected by the presence of airborne soot and other particulates from diesel and wood burning. “Off-grid is pretty relevant in the Indian market. in the case of power plant projects. Even though the NSM is backed by one of the most ambitious budgets of any green energy programme worldwide. although that claim has been cast in doubt this year following comments from a top executive at US-based First Solar. In April. not least thanks to the growth. However. Solar irradiation data is not always great. early project developers got around the crystalline silicon local content requirement by importing a different type of PV. as originally intended. Rajasthan and Karnataka). an attempt to prevent PPA reselling has resulted in a policy framework which restricts the level of flexibility available to new market entrants. “A second option is you go to your rela- energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 Irradiation rates affected by particulates There are other challenges for PV in India. Neither will state-level subsidies. In any case. duction capacity that favours crystalline silicon that it will be the dominant technology in India. So far. Mehsana.’ I want to have a debt. And meanwhile. There’s an energy deficit. from abroad. where support is rapidly falling away. Bridge to India managing director Dr Tobias Engelmeier says: “Some companies have financed projects from equity. managing director of GTM Research’s solar practice.” says MJ Shiao. the outlook for PV in India remains bright. There is tremendous potential for PV in off-grid applications across the country. Indosolar and Moser Baer. international funding bodies such as the Ex-Im Bank. Another factor has been the increasing importance of state programmes with no local content requirement. because of the electricity boards being in constant debt. Overseas Private Investment Corporation and Asian Development Bank have stepped in to back early projects. though. thin film’s share of the national market is falling. which is difficult in the Indian market. which have always occupied a minority market share compared to crystalline silicon modules elsewhere. too. which has greatly reduced the take up of projects allocated under the first two phases of the state’s solar programme. Rajkot. but the initial result was to help create a market that is like no other in the world. one of biggest manufacturers of this form of module technology. pilot of rooftop solar systems to the cities of Bhavnagar. In addition. it alone will not be enough to meet India’s solar power targets. a solar analyst for GTM Research in Cambridge. For all that. Right now.” So whether it is off-grid or on-grid. according to Bridge to India. foreign or national. This can make it difficult for project developers and owners to get a truthful estimate of the rate of return from their plants. “There’s just such an imbalance of pro- Financing: another significant challenge Whether that technology is made in India or imported from abroad (most likely China) still remains to be seen. and I give you my whatever as collateral. Or you get nonrecourse financing. And it is just the start.” confirms Shayle Kann. Indian manufacturers and project developers are now increasingly aware of how to deal with them. the World Bank’s International Finance Corporation agreed to fund the extension of a Gandhinagar. Specifically.

with wind and solar photovoltaic expected to deliver 8 400 MW of capacity each. Theo Covary. as each tender represented a distinct and separate installation. wind. Challenges and opportunities for the IPP “This over subscription is an indication of South Africa’s appetite for renewable energy. Denmark. ranking it in the top 15 global polluters. and then proceed with the next round of bidding as soon as possible to capitalise on the interest. While South Africa experiences some of the highest levels of solar radiation in the world at anything between 4.5 kWh/m2 and 6. The current SESSA representative is mechanical and mechatronic engineering specialist.000 MW. 90% of its electricity is from coal-fired power stations.800 MW of renewables capacity should be deployed between 2010 and 2030. since 1974. which is almost three times the 1 275 MW allocated for the March window. Jacob Zuma. 75 MW for small hydro. and concentrated solar thermal a further 1. thermal heating and cooling. SUSTAINABLE ENERGY SOCIETY OF SOUTHERN AFRICA (SESSA) CEO State of energy: South Africa’s Sustainable Energy Situation Compared to developed countries in Europe and North America. 12. wind. a landmark project designed to stimulate the country›s renewable energy sector. all is not doom and gloom – the country is committed to reducing its emissions growth path by 42% over the next 15 years.850 MW set aside for onshore wind.MARKET OVERVIEW THEO COVARY. hydro.5 KWh/m2). A further 2 300 MW is still available for allocation under the programme at a future date. In April 2011. S ESSA is the Sustainable Energy Society of Southern Africa and has. South Africa’s President . ranking it in the top 15 global polluters.233 MW of potential power generation capacity. 25 MW for landfill gas capacity.725 MW. Tying in with Zuma’s promises.450 MW for solar photovoltaic solutions. In the first phase of the project. 90% of its electricity is from coal-fired power stations. Leading the country’s bid to achieve this goal is the government’s Renewable Energy Independent Power Producer Procurement Programme (IPP). This is the opinion of SESSA acting-CEO.” said Covary. committed the country to reducing its emissions growth path from a ‘business as usual’ track by 34% by 2020 and 42% by 2025. the relevant documentation states that some 17.5 kWh/m2 and 6.5 MW for biomass and biogas respectively.5 kWh/m2 (parts of Europe receive only 2. biomass and biogas. and the financial services sector is working on models or programmes that will encourage the uptake of solar and other energyefficient technologies. 52 Government leading the way At COP15 in Copenhagen. which closed on March 5. new building regulations stipulate that 50% of a building’s hot water supply must be generated by renewable or sustainable energy sources. and a further 100 MW for small-scale IPP projects of less than 5 MW. “We’ve also suggested that Government consider increasing its target of 3 725 MW energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . Covary highlights a disturbing fact: While South Africa experiences some of the highest levels of solar radiation in the world at anything between 4.5 kWh/m2 (parts of Europe receive only 2. These 79 tenders represented some 3. Professor Wikus van Niekerk of Stellenbosch University. South Africa’s sustainable and renewable energy sector is under-developed. In fact. biomass and hydro power. been dedicated to the use of renewable energy and energy efficiency including all solar-based energies such as photovoltaics. All told the capital investment associated with the programme is expected to be more than R100-billion. in 2009. the Department of Energy said it would procure 3. Technologies under consideration include solar.5 KWh/m2). To prove his point. the goal is to generate 42% of all new electricity from renewable energy sources over the next 20 years. the Department of energy confirmed that it had received a total of 79 tenders during the second bidding round of the first phase of the programme. “SESSA has therefore recommended that government speedily resolve all legal requirements for locking in successful bidders. 200 MW for concentrated solar thermal. It is the duly appointed African office of ISES and has a position on its board. The allocation sees 1. a further 1. However.

The regulation. largely relating to hot water usage and energy efficiency. reducing the risk of water damage substantially. “Additionally. A landmark project “The remarkable success of one of the largest private photovoltaic installations in southern Africa at Villiera Wines between Paarl and Stellenbosch proves this country has the expertise and technical skill to deliver world-class solar solutions. The fact that the second round of bidding has attracted nearly three times as much capacity as called for indicates that the 2016 target may be set too low. “However. heat recovery or a renewable combustible fuel. For example Solar Water Heating installations have increased dramatically. Unfortunately most of these were imported and at least two long standing manufacturers have closed down.” said Covary. SESSA said it was to be expected but stressed that future bidding rounds must demand higher local content and skills. Of this demand. sends the wrong message about the importance of renewable energy and does energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 New building legislation Another of the steps taken to assist South Africans along the path of achieving this goal is new national building regulations relating to efficient energy usage in new buildings. This makes the industry the largest purchaser of all geyser types. with over 180. “The average short term insurance spend for middle class households is typically divided between motor vehicle insurance. The latter. and also save them money well into the future. energy usage.” Most of the technology specified in the bids received is coming from abroad. that about 35 000 high pressure solar geysers are installed in this country each year by the market segment that has homeowners insurance.000m² last year. the local solar industry could be boosted by some 200 000 units a year. if all South Africa’s new homes and new commercial buildings undertook mandatory ceiling insulation and advanced window systems immediately. “This is major step forward for South Africa in terms of meeting our emissions target reduction. and using it to grow the industry instead of ploughing it into other service delivery areas. SESSA is working closely with Government and other industry bodies to ensure that South Africa reaches its full renewables future  53 . If this went ahead. of all sizes” said Covary. floors. usually the primary residence. or SANS 10400XA. he South African Insurance Association (SAIA) is currently conducting a supply chain readiness assessment to understand the volume of green geyser replacements that the supply chain can effectively produce and install should the industry’s Green Geyser Replacement Project (GGRP) be signed off. In a nutshell.” Covary said. as it may create conflict between different policy objectives. These came into effect in November 2011 and relate to energy efficiency in some of the following areas: hot water supply. household insurance and insurance of a physical building. Some 70% of all building insurance claims are related to malfunctioning geysers. would reduce the homeowners reliance on Eskom’s grid. if the industry will accept consumers opting to replace their electrical element geysers by solar water heaters when the electrical element geyser fails. This should be a key consideration when negotiating new trade agreements with key trading such as BRICS or other regions.” of renewables capacity. building.MARKET OVERVIEW nothing to support the fledgling industry. design. SESSA suggested Government begins ring fencing the revenue it received from carbon taxes. contributing to the growth of a healthier and more sustainable industry. with 50% of the costs being the replacement of the geyser. a heat pump. insulation. It has been estimated by Karin Kritzinger of an organisation called Green Cape.” added Covary. those that use electricity to heat the water they hold – to be about 450 000 a year. in reality it is very difficult to implement if local content and skills targets are not set and enforced. states that at least 50% of the annual average hot water heating requirement will be provided by means other than conventional electricity like the existing electrical geyser and be complimented by either solar water heating. orientation and windows. Any plans submitted after this date will have to comply with these energy efficient regulations. and 50% resultant water damage. The insurance industry has proposed a Green Geyser Replacement Project under which consumers replacing their traditional geysers could opt for the solar alternative. which requires financial incentive to spur on further growth. an estimated 3800 MW electricity saving could be added to that saved. if locally produced solar heating units are used at the point of failure.” Financial services industry to contribute towards renewable growth A paradigm shift by the local insurance industry when it comes to the replacement of ‘burst’ geysers could dramatically change the solar water heating industry landscape in South Africa. And. about 200 000 are geysers that need to be replaced by the insurance industry. the demand for solar water heaters will spiral. By contrast. this could be the catalyst for growth local manufacturers of solar heaters are looking for. she estimated the market for ‘traditional’ geysers in South Africa – that is. “Government tasking industry with creating ‘green jobs’ is one thing. Many solar geysers are placed outside.

Most of the power plants in the UAE run on natural gas. residents in the UAE pay only a fraction of what their European counterparts pay for electricity. One option is to bring utility prices closer to the cost of production and distribution. And then sun shines exactly when we need it most. Much of the gas is also ‘sour’. switching to solar power would for the most part be a cheaper alternative to using diesel. Using diesel. This country is blessed with at least 350 sunny days. T his surge in demand is fueled by rapid growth in the industrial sector (aluminum smelters.000MW. In Dubai. there are some simple steps that can be taken to remedy this energy challenge. And according to official government forecasts. one of the highest in the world. the ‘export’ of electricity from Abu Dhabi to the Northern Emirates is expected to soar from 2.500 megawatts. higher requirements from ADNOC for oil and gas production. demand is expected to continue growing by over 10% until at least 2019. As a result. their target is 5% by 2030. the UAE is finding it hard to get the stuff out of the ground fast enough. In 2011. our consumption is climbing higher and higher. and larger transfers to the Northern Emirates. With an abundance of desert land. EMIRATES SOLAR INDUSTRY ASSOCIATION (ESIA) Solar power in the UAE On a per capita basis. particularly solar. In 2013. Asia or North America. each year the Abu Dhabi government has to spend significant sums on diesel fuel costs to keep power plants running during peak demand periods. equivalent to at least 1.500MW of renewable energy. the UAE is finding it hard to get the stuff out of the ground fast enough gas within the region. Fortunately. Currently. so will this financial burden. thereby putting less strain on reserves.000 megawatts to over 3. It is like trying to eat Jell-O using a straw. And despite sitting on the world’s fourth largest natural gas reserves.MARKET OVERVIEW ADRIAN WOOD MARKETING AND COMMUNICATIONS DIRECTOR. which makes it more costly to extract and process. Already the leadership of Abu Dhabi has taken the bold step of setting an ambitious renewable energy target: 7% by 2020. there is no shortage of space either. Abu Dhabi has had to turn to diesel. Moreover. UAE residents consume more electricity than almost anyone else on the planet – certainly much more than people in Europe. The big question is: will supply keep up with demand? The answer is not encouraging. If the electricity wasn’t so cheap (or in some cases free) people would use it more carefully. Faced with a periodic shortage of gas domestically and an inability to source cheap 54 Despite sitting on the world’s fourth largest natural gas reserves. In the Northern Emirates where the diesel generators are typically older and less efficient the cost can be as high as 70 fills/kWh. Large-scale solar power plants are able to produce electricity at roughly 55 fills per kilowatt hour. The problem in due to country’s subsurface DNA. it would cost roughly quadruple that amount. Despite the simplicity of such a policy. the cost of producing electricity in Abu Dhabi using a conventional gas-fired power plant is 11 fills/kWh. residential and commercial megaprojects. the government subsidizes wa- ter and electricity costs up to 100% depending on the end-user. peak electricity demand in Abu Dhabi grew by almost 14%. The trouble with using diesel is that it costs a lot more and the CO2 emissions are higher. This is equivalent to roughly 1. Financially. high in sulfur content. Alarmingly. it is nevertheless politically sensitive and will therefore likely take several years to roll out. petrochemical plants. demand would stabilize. As a result. Another option is to turn to renewable energy. And as demand continues to rise. For example. The next step is implementation. A significant portion of gas reserves are in associated oil deposits that makes gas production more challenging. etc). during the daytime when air conditioning units are running at full capacity. This naturally leads to inefficiencies and wastage. the cost of solar has been dropping by roughly 10% year-on-year while energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . Consequently.

pairan. As solar prices continue to fall and the technology continues to improve it is going to become an increasingly viable and sustainable source of energy. For one. the volume of electricity generated by even large-scale solar plants is a fraction of what conventional power plants can produce. however. that both solar projects and initiatives to drive The concept of excess power generated from solar being exported onto the Middle East grid or even to other markets is a not so distant possibility better energy efficiency are implemented by the Government. the concept of excess power generated from solar being exported onto the Middle East grid or even to other markets is a not so distant possibility. it is clear that CAPEX costs for solar projects. And because of the large land requirement. ESIA supports this and is working with key public and private stakeholders to create market awareness for solar energy and drive the business forward”  Sistemas fotovoltaicos de Alemania directamente desde el fabricante. trabaja desde hace casi 20 años en el sector de la electrónica industrial y desde 1998 diseña y fabrica productos solares de alta calidad bajo el nombre de la marca pesos®. Marketing and Communication director of ESIA and Regional Director for Siemens – “The Middle East offers an excellent opportunity to develop and implement cost-effective renewable energy projects.|Polígono Industrial Rafalet s/n|46723 Almoines (Valencia)|Tel. Desde entonces. Alternatively. Despite these hurdles.L. ¡Pídanos un presupuesto sin compromiso! Productos solares pesos®|Sistemas de seguimiento solar|Inversores|Módulos fotovoltaicos PAIRAN SOLAR S. Los sistemas fotovoltaicos de PAIRAN ^ŽƐƚĞŶŝďůĞƐ͘ĮĐŝĞŶƚĞƐ͘ĐŽůſŐŝĐŽƐ͘ La empresa alemana PAIRAN. It will also enable the UAE to benefit from opportunity cost of|www. But what about the perceived electricity generation – demand gap in the UAE or the carbon foot-print ? Well.: 962 804251|Fax: 962 804443|info-es@pairan. el grupo PAIRAN crece constantemente y después de haber establecido ŽĮĐŝŶĂƐĞŶůĂZĞƉƷďůŝĐĂŚĞĐĂ͕'ƌĞĐŝĂĞ/ƚĂůŝĂ͕ ƟĞŶĞĚĞƐĚĞĞƐƚĞĂŹŽŽƚƌŽƉĂƌƚŶĞƌƉŽƚĞŶƚĞĂ ƐƵůĂĚŽ͕ůĂĞŵƉƌĞƐĂ^ŽůǀĞůŶŝƵƐ'ŵď. However. coupled with better energy usage / more efficient energy use by industrial as well as residential consumers will definitely support the electricity generation-demand gap to help reduce carbon footprint metrics per capita in the UAE. The Renewable Energy targets set by Abu Dhabi and Dubai of 7% and 1% respectively will definitely support this drive to reduce the electricity generation-demand gap. Solar generated electricity. solar power will influence the dependency of the UAE on oil or gas needed for electricity generation. Of . are continuing to reduce. solar’s future is looking bright. and thereby the cost of generated electricity from solar projects. exporting oil saved due to the use of solar power to the world market is a factor to drive the use of solar energy.͘ Los sistemas fotovoltaicos de PAIRAN están comprobados durante muchos años en condiciones reales y ƐŝŐƵĞŶŽƉƟŵŝnjĄŶĚŽƐĞƉĞƌŵĂŶĞŶƚĞŵĞŶƚĞ͘ ŶĞůĂŹŽϮϬϬϲƐĞŚĂĨƵŶĚĂĚŽůĂŽĮĐŝŶĂĞŶƐƉĂŹĂ para estar más cerca del mercado de la Península Ibérica.MARKET OVERVIEW diesel prices are expected to creep up in line with rising oil prices. after this. It is essential. power plants are often far away from urban hubs which means higher transmission costs. sĂƌŝŽƐƉĂƌƋƵĞƐƐŽůĂƌĞƐƌĞĂůŝnjĂĚŽƐ͕ĚĞŵƵĞƐƚƌĂŶůĂĐĂlidad excelente de los productos pesos® de la cual queremos convencerle. The first priority will no doubt be to meet its own internal / domestic power demand. Depending on size of installed solar power. solar has its own challenges. Quote by Adrian Wood.

The same isagement of the energy producsue appears when the generation tion.for PV integration and as the technology duction and loads. most common each day. In this case the ESS allows to use the extra energy not used during the day. is not nec- 56 little charge/discharge cycles.increase to the double. According to them. high efficiency. easiness of Other case. so the storage system which will provide PV plants with capability must be fast and be able to support a lot of for grid applications  energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . the best option for the ESS Frequency regulation must be accomplished is electrical storage in batteries. GPtech suggests a doudefined by the system operator. Usually. This lifetime depends on the numin this case must be sized to have the power ber of cycles of charge and discharge and on required by the droop law applicable. A smart grid can always be defined by three types of nodes (see Figure 1): generation nodes. Reactive power provision for in Figure 2). but this reduces the real power.utes. optimal sizing would be close to the total plant energy production during one regular day. The system has to create energy into the grid at the highest the grid where the loads are goconsumption time which is the ing to connect. However the using storage systems. if the generation In the case of power plants oristops it has to support all the load ented to sale the energy to the power until the load disconnects grid.ENERGY STORAGE SERGIO HURTADO CTO. consumption nodes and a third kind. Short charge and discharge voltage control purpose can be provided by cycles. with a other way is to give priority to Q generation much higher lifetime. Regarding voltage regulation. Double Dynamic GPtech’s ESS. which includes the increasing level of distributed generation from new energy sources. The ES requirements for those charge power must be about the power up to 1MVA applications include: fast reaction plant rated power. respectively. Figure 1. essary a big discharge power. Additionally. In this until the generation is ready to incase. to its current usually force the power plant to participate technological state and fast development in the grid frequency and voltage regulation. Smart grid Nodes The use of Energy Storage Systems (ESS) in PV Power Plants allows an optimal performance in all PV systems applications: For power plants oriented to the self-consumption. giving the capability to inject starts. However. Depending on the application. Nowadays and in the near future batteries ated and controlled by smart grid nodes. trend.Figure 2. the Point Of Interconnection (POI).pacitors working together (scheme is shown sumption. time. ESS allows minimize the exchange with the grid. these variables will be real and reactive power exchange. a fourth kind of node must be used to allow a complete smart grid management: the Energy Storage System node. GPTECH Energy Storage Systems integration into PV Power Plants New challenges are growing currently in the field of operation of electrical power system. Battery discharge will depend on the customer consumption. increasing the percentage of energy used from photovoltaic generation. a relatively short time. These requirements age system. Batteries lifetime. it is per. To solve this issue. In this On this way the lifetime of the batteries can case voltage and frequency must be gener. so the dis. micro grid control is performed by managing the state variables of the point of interconnection. In all cases. ESS allows an active manin a controlled way. so high capacity batteries are needed. especially as more power generation from inherently intermittent sources such as solar and wind come online. nowadays. with characteristic times about minPV inverters having extended VA rating. while batteries will instead of P. will be supplied by capacitors. The last case is the isolated systems. In stable operation it has to are considered as the most important issue smooth the differences between power pro.ble dynamic ESS based in batteries and caformed by reactive power injection or con. usually their depth. or voltage and frequency control. Depending on local regulations this selfconsumption increase can give extra profits in the power plant operation. battery discharge is done in ject energy into the grid. especially renewable sources. is the necessity to meet the connection maintenance and possibility to indepenrequirements for generation plants to weak dently sizing power and energy of the storgrids like the islands. Energy storage will soon become a key element of smart grids. ESS is an imperative requirement in this kind and the associate power electronics control of installations. supply long time cycles in the order of hours. An. and support them highest energy prize too. since the power main problem of the batteries is its limited source is not available at all time.

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it is also very simple to install and can be expanded freely. In contrast to DC coupling. On the generator side. Due to its modular structure. Why alternating current? AC coupling is the basis for modular offgrid power supply of up to 300 kW. At energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . there components are considerably cheaper because they normally have to carry higher voltages but also much lower currents. The Sunny Island will take care of storing any excess energy in the battery. Thus. often referred to as a combined inverter/battery charger. Sunny Island – the grid and battery manager The central component of the stand-alone grid is the Sunny Island battery inverter. Compared to components for direct current grids. since they execute both functions via the same power semiconductor devices. it is a bidirectional battery inverter. such systems are today already more cost-effective than conventional systems running on diesel generators. In addition. which offers a number 58 of advantages: commercial and therefore affordable AC power devices can be used on the consumer side. but also with a highly developed battery management function. batteries and consumers can be implemented. all energy sources and consumers are connected through an AC power grid. Thus it is continuously updated on the batteries’ exact state of charge and as system manager makes on-going decisions. of supplying the grid with power from the battery. Through the integration of renewable energy sources which avoid fuel costs and are steadily becoming more economically viable. The Sunny Island is equipped not only with grid management. any number of renewable or conventional energy sources can be incorporated. Such devices are particularly cost-effective. and in the reverse case. the connection of generators and consumers in alternating current grids is possible practically at any random point in the network – thus providing optimum conditions for subsequent expansion.OFF GRID APPLICATIONS SMA The path to your own power distribution grid Off-grid systems on AC basis open up new possibilities for providing a stable and powerful energy supply independent of the power distribution grid. There is also much more planning flexibility involved since even large distances between the generators. Alternating current grids can be expanded without specialized technical knowledge and using standard components that are available everywhere. T his article explains the basic technical principles of off-grid power supply systems and demonstrates their structure and function using the example of a large hybrid system with around 270 kW installed generating capacity. In its role of grid former and manager. including monitoring. This kind of stand-alone network not only provides the customary supply quality usually associated with power distribution grids. it is in charge of the stability of the alternating current grid and ensures that voltage and frequency remain with the permissible limiting values.

An asymmetric grid load caused by a single-phase consumer can also be compensated for automatically by having the inverter draw more power from the battery based on the phase with the greater load. If the system is properly wired and configured. a three-phase energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 configuration has proven effective – this is true both for large power distribution grids and for stand-alone grids. and in doing so. The Sunny Island 5048 can handel 6. Apart from all this.e. some consumers may require a lot of energy just for a short while. It also determines the optimum strategy for charging the batteries. which in turn operate exactly at 120 or 240 degrees phaseshifted from each other. Thus. Another advantage of this connection is that the entire cluster can be configured using only the master inverter.4 kW for three seconds – i.. As grid manager. provide its entire nominal power in the form of reactive power. three-phase consumers have practically continuous power at their disposal. However. transformers. it is capable of compensating for phase shifts in the standalone grid caused by lagging or leading leads (e.. approximately two and a half times its nominal power. without a problem.g. however. but will continuously reduce their power output. a three-phase stand-alone grid can function just as well as the single-phase version. it can activate a permanently available backup energy source (e. high start-up currents are frequently encoun- Three phases – no problem For the transmission of large capacities in alternating current grids. For the sizing of off-grid systems it is extremely important to use battery inverters with a high overload capability. the Sunny Island can. The advantage: Due to the overlap of the phaseshifted individual capacities. the Sunny Island specifies the frequency in the stand-alone grid and can thus limit the power of all the generators and maintain the energy balance of the grid – without any further lines of communication.g.OFF GRID APPLICATIONS times when the batteries are empty and there is a little generation capacity. since in this case the energy must be put through two additional Sunny Island inverters. For larger capacities. Sole proviso: All the inverters are SMA devices and their stand-alone grid mode is activated. increases their service life. A “master” device sets the frequency for both “slave” devices. engines.. Even completely asymmetric operation is possible. hydropower systems or wind turbine systems. In addition. for efficiency reasons. tered which can be well in excess of the normal operating current. this will ensure that such load peaks can be handled Automatic reactive power compensation With a possible phase shift of -90 degrees to +90 degrees (shift factor cos(q) from 0 to 1 lagging/leading). PV management via remote control When the batteries are full and electricity demand is low. 8. it is still better to keep the distribution of loads and generators as symmetrical as possible  59 . a diesel generator) or even switch off certain consumer loads. cable lines). the compact device provides further special functions specially geared to the requirements of stand-alone grids. Synchronization is achieved via a special communication connection between the devices. It is actually possible to set up single-phase systems up to a battery inverter power of 20 kW (parallel switching of four Sunny Island 5048 to one phase). when solar power is fed to phase 1 and there is consumption on phase 3. three-phase stand-alone grids are usually preferred. if necessary. the devices will no longer disconnect from the grid with rising frequency. the Sunny Island reduces the electricity produced by all renewable energy generators – whether PV plants. The generators in diesel power units or wind turbine systems also supply three-phase power in most cases.5 kW for 30 minutes. thus creating short peaks on the load profile. Extreme overload capability When certain loads are switched on. for instance. This is accomplished by always having three Sunny Island inverters connected to a three-phase cluster. If this is the case.

A reliable and clean source of energy. one school. energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . This ensures the plant operates within its rated design and prevents black outs or unforeseen increases in operating costs because of higher back-up diesel fuel consumption. three general stores and 22 street lights. 9 February 2012. and the implications of the different charging levels of the batteries. concepts such as the sustainable and rational use of solar energy. which would enable sustainable and affordable electricity. This limit is. a satellite TV dish centre.OFF GRID APPLICATIONS SIMON ROLLAND SECRETARY GENERAL ALLIANCE FOR RURAL ELECTRIFICATION Rural PV micro-grid with individual energy allowance scheme powers a 60 homes village in Santo Antão (Cabo Verde) The 27. The PV micro power plant can produce an average of 74kWh per day. and villagers have frequent five-hour boat trips to purchase it. The challenges and added-value of controlling energy demand Generally speaking. communication and community services. came together to finance and develop an off-grid solar energy project that consists of a rural Multi-user Solar micro-Grid (MSG) based 60 on a photovoltaic generator mounted on a special wooden pergola that also provides shade to the village’s schoolyard. but also productive uses like ice production. depending on the plant’s condition. W hile you were probably having a normal day’s work. The needs of the village are supplied with standard electricity of 230V. Let there be light It was to respond to this need that local entities. The need for ice to preserve fish is vital. a church. a kinder garden.3 kWp PV pergola in Monte Trigo – Cabe Verde / (PHOTO: APP). To address this. came together to finance and develop an off-grid solar energy project that consists of a rural Multi-user Solar micro-Grid (MSG) based on a photovoltaic generator mounted on a special wooden pergola that also provides shade to the village’s schoolyard. On very sunny days users’ are encouraged to make use of the surplus generation at no extra cost. the concept of Energy Daily Allowance (EDA) was established in the Monte Trigo project by the system designers . The 60-family community of Monte Trigo. The implementation is done through a special type of meter (called an electricity dispenser) that permanently shows the user the available energy allowance and includes a signal to encourage or refrain consumption. a small village in Africa experienced its first 24 hours of electricity. It was to respond to this need that local entities. a village in the Cape Verdean island of Santo Antão. nevertheless. is only reachable by boat and is completely dependent on fishing and its trade with nearby villages. The 60-family community of Monte Trigo. a health centre. The EDA makes the demand-management more intelligent and flexible by caping the power and energy available to each user to an agreed maximum. on Thursday. is only reachable by boat and is completely dependent on fishing and its trade with nearby villages. and villagers have frequent five-hour boat trips to purchase it. so it is essential that users understand the implications of their behaviour on the electricity service and cost. a village in the Cape Verdean island of Santo Antão.Trama Tecnoambiental (TTA). The need for ice to preserve fish is vital. would not only respond to basic needs like lighting. The old 20kVA genset can be used as a backup burning expensive diesel fuel. with the support of the ACP-EU Energy Facility programme. 50Hz AC delivered through an 800m aerial distribution line to 60 users including households. Part of this energy is consumed during the daytime and part is stored in batteries with a capacity of about 370 kWh for night time consumption. with the support of the ACP-EU Energy Facility programme. flexible. are not easily understood or introduced into the end-users’ daily habits. always according to the plant’s condition.

But most of all. maintenance and. Studer Innotec contributed with technical know-how. Tariff collection is based on fixed monthly rates related to the EDA and was established within the population’s payment capacity. The villagers’ habits adapted very easily to their new quality of life and what it brought. supporting TTA to accomplish this original solution where two micro-grids share excess energy. as demonstrated by the visit of the President of the Republic of Cape Verde (Dr. Their Xtender inverter-chargers allowed a flexible management of the system’s energy production and consumption. converters and all the structures required for installation of the system. The first level includes the users themselves. It was the first time they were able to use something like this in the village. that also designed the pergola to aid the installation of the modules and supplied the batteries. The EDA is a vital design feature. The objective is not only to support them in maintaining their home installation. solar surplus generation will improve the commercial activities on which the village sustains its economy  61 . the quality of the different components of the system gains new importance. Founded in 1986. Finally. as well as for specific maintenance and overall activities.55 Medium 1 650 1. Josep Coll) shortly after the project was commissioned (see pictures 6 and 7). So it is essential to determine in a detailed and accurate way each user’s energy demand. the operator’s technical personnel are the focal point for problem-solving. The O&M activities are organised in order to involve local users and are structured around a concept of three levels of involvement: (1) final users. the local authorities showed their satisfaction with the new 24-hour electricity service.55 Low 1 100 0. Project Outcome From the first days of operation. O&M technicians.10 High 2 200 1. responsible for the basic daily operation. TTA is an international consulting and engineering firm working in the field of renewable energies. It is expected that with the two ice machines capable of up to 500 kg/day production using peak of the day. The design and implementation of the Monte Trigo project were managed by TTA on behalf of the developers. Monte Trigo involved many partners from different parts of the world working together. environmental projects and technology development in many developing countries. but also make their electricity consumption behaviour and habits more efficient. it is the enthusiasm of the Monte Trigo population which demonstrates the success of the project. The EDA also estimates future increase according to the community’s specific social and economic environment. The 214 A-130P modules (each containing 36 polycrystalline cells) were supplied by ATERSA. The second level includes a team of trained users. (2) fist-level O&M up-keeper/user and (3) second-level energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 User charging her tariff. This not only sustains O&M but also partially pays back the capital costs. in which CMPN and APP are directly responsible for the service management and operation and maintenance (O&M) activities of the facility.OFF GRID APPLICATIONS Training session for final users / (PHOTO: TTA). and enables components like batteries and inverters to operate within their specified range. In isolated communities such as this one. regulators. so it is essential to involve the right (and experienced) companies for each job. hence increasing system efficiency and lengthen their life duration. Jorge Carlos Fonseca) and of the European Union Ambassador in Cape Verde (Mr. in case of specific alarm and issues.65 Table 1. as it is the element from which the PV generator (and then all the other major system components) is sized. / (PHOTO:TTA). ensuring substitution when end-of-life is reached. reporting. Major changes are already shaping the life of this community: one user already bought his first refrigerator (an A+ energy rating!) and local workers brought in a welding machine from the nearby village to fix a structure with a defect.10 Very High 3 300 1. An example of the adopted tariff options in Monte Trigo: Energy demand type Very Low Energy Daily Allowance [Wh/ day] Power limit [kW] 825 0. The Monte Trigo project’s service was setup using a mixed private/public-utility concept. The importance of strong partnerships As with any successful rural electrification project. Example of tariff options for Monte Trigo. as they are the first component of a successful and durable service.

The periodically varying voltage means that the arc is extinguished upon each voltage zero crossing. It is vital that these standards continue to evolve and that any potential system weaknesses continue to be identified and resolved. 62 The arc may be subsequently reignited but ultimately this type of arc is less stable than those in DC systems because it is continually extinguished. safety and quality standards have been continuously updated in order to ensure that today’s systems are as safe and reliable as possible. the two ends of the wire act in the same way as the electrodes. mentioned above. PV systems are subject to the risk of arc faults. Occurrence of Arcs If a wire in a circuit is cut. In other words electrons are “forced out” of the gas molecules and atoms. creating a plasma of positive ions and electrons. Depending on the voltage and the dis- Figure 1: Occurrence of a serial arc. The main difference between AC and DC systems is that arcs in AC systems are easier to extinguish. an arc may therefore occur (see Figure 1). tance between the two wire ends. One current topic of discussion is the occurrence of arcs in PV systems and the ways to eliminate this risk.. The electrical voltage causes the gas between the electrodes (generally air) to ionize. the number of PV system installations has grown enormously in certain parts of the world.000°C and create a flow of current between the electrodes. energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . This plasma can heat up to several 1. Read on to find out more.. Various studies have shown that arcs can occur at just 20 V and with very small amperages. Parallel Arcs Parallel arcs are those that occur either between the positive and negative pole or between one of the two live wires and the ground in grounded systems.or live wire to ground). separated by air. and s Defective insulation on the main DC wires ( + to . The high arc temperatures can cause severe damage to the system and in extreme cases even cause fire. These occur when a sufficiently high voltage is generated between two electrodes located a certain distance apart. Moreover arcs can occur in circuits with either an AC or a DC voltage source supplying the voltage between the two electrodes. As a result. Figure 2: Serial and parallel arcs in PV systems. L ike all electrical systems. Types of Arc Occurring in Photovoltaic Systems Two main types of arc can be distinguished depending on their position in the PV system (see Figure 2). Typical causes of parallel arcs in PV systems are: s Short circuits (between + and -) in DC receivers.SOLAR PV THOMAS MÜHLBERGER FRONIUS Arcs in Photovoltaics Over the last few years. causing a characteristically bright arc to appear.

year-in-year-out. snow. and s String fuses that are the wrong size or not permitted for PV applications. in order to extinguish the arc. and ice. it is also vital that the systems are installed by experts with due care and attention. researchers are currently looking into the option of using an arc detector. plus safely grounded and short-circuit-proof wiring). These features ensure that defects (such as defective insulation on a live wire) are always identified as soon as they occur. s Poorly connected cable on the DC side.g. parallel arcs are very unlikely to occur. However. string fuses that are suitable for PV systems). This includes tightening the screw terminals to the correct torque and crimping and assembling the DC plug exactly as per the instructions. Nonetheless. long wires and diverse module technologies (all with different electrical systems) make it extremely difficult to detect arcs.. Generally speaking. The PV generator comprises a circuit with protection class 2 (double insulation on the DC cable. In order to eliminate any residual risk. there is always a risk of an arc fault occurring due to the high thermal load the system is subjected to every day. Likewise. In the majority of cases. The inverters also provide additional safety features in the form of insulation monitoring and fault current monitoring. suring that connections remain secure in the long term. In order to eliminate this risk. its use in photovoltaics poses new challenges for manufacturers. In addition to selecting the correct components (e. Summary As with any electric circuit. New Challenges Even though this type of detector is already in use in other industrial sectors. This device can either be integrated into the inverter or installed energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 as a separate unit on the DC side of the PV system. An electronic device with evaluation capability can be used to monitor these changes and switch off the system by means of a suitable control mechanism. researchers are currently looking to develop arc detectors that meet the requirements of PV systems.SOLAR PV Serial Arcs This type of arc typically occurs when the contacts in the circuit are opened. Typical causes of serial arcs in PV systems are: s Poorly crimped/assembled DC plug. s Defective module junction boxes. as well as the impact of weather conditions such as rain. even if the PV system meets all of the above requirements. this prevents short circuits and thus arcs from occurring. the electricians responsible for installing the system have a key role to play. Figure 3: Current and voltage curves when an arc fault occurs. Intensive research is currently being conducted in order to find ways to overcome these challenges and arc detection products are expected to be launched on the market in the next few years. where necessary. this type of arc is very unlikely to occur. Preventing Arcs in Photovoltaic Systems Serial and parallel arcs have different causes and therefore require different prevention measures. These will help make PV systems even safer and even higher quality. Arc detectors that make PV systems even safer and higher quality are expected to be launched on the market in the next few years  63 . s High resistance solder connections between the cells of a module. Serial Arcs The key to preventing serial arcs is to ensure that the connections between individual wires in the PV system are completely secure and thus cannot become disconnected unintentionally. they must also ensure the system is correctly installed. The installation and production standards currently in force and the components produced in accordance with these standards help to prevent arcs and increase safety standards to a large extent. defects in PV systems can give rise to arc faults. Parallel Arcs Thanks to the comprehensive combination of protective measures prescribed in the applicable standards. Fixing any defects right at the start prevents further defects from developing that could cause a parallel arc. High quality processes for the production of module junction boxes and the solder connections in the module are vital for en- Arc Detector The principal behind the arc detector is that the occurrence of an arc in the PV generator causes significant changes in the current and voltage signals for the PV system (see Figure 3). There are two fundamental requirements for secure connections: Premium components and meticulous and correct installation. even if they do not pose any immediate danger. The high voltages.

the key issue being the particular customization capability of CMC to any investor group taking into account its particular needs and economical circumstances. The AMS permits improvement with less expensive services as the system can supervise all those said services for the investment managers. in three main areas: management. technical supervision and other services. but with a mere integration into our ASM of the production and natural resources of a Plant. improving confidence in the management team or investment directors. heat & power or any other renewable facilities. It can easily generate dashboards and automatically issue reports. We all are aware of the investment constraints in the current situation for many customers. on site security. accountant and mercantile compliance. T raditionally investor groups had a high degree of dependence on their local staff and the OM service providers. This creates an undue bureaucracy and quite often makes difficult the flow of information to top management and stakeholders. as the track record of the plants will be fully transparent making easy any Due Diligence and simplifying the management needs for the new owners. as it is modular. These systems named Asset management systems (AMS) or Assets intelligence systems are changing rapidly the way of doing business in the renewable energy sector. in real time. tax compliance. but also because it can coordinate the different activities carried out by the numerous service providers usually hired on site for the plants: O&M. To do so. as a consequence of simplifying bureaucracy in the reporting tasks. increasing the quality of any investment/ venture capital group perceived by their stakeholders and bank institutions that follows the performance of their assets. it can increase the value of a Portfolio. knowing the real performance of their installations. delaying reporting processes and reducing transparency in the operation of the plants. can be the upgraded in different phases at any time  energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . biomass. regardless of whether we talk about wind farms. the benefits of ASM provide a rapid pay back in just a few months. the stakeholders can follow the evolution of their investments on the corporate web site or even on their smartphones with semi real time applications. and always working in close cooperation with their customers. 64 It can facilitate the future sale of assets of a Portfolio. commenced integrating SCADA systems in renewable plants and recently has developed an integral solution customized to fit the needs of any investor group.000 MW in different technologies in renewable energy at international level. becoming able to put pressure on the officials responsible for the operation of the plants. CMC leads the development of the said AMS combining their experience.SOLAR PV CARLOS NAVARES | EMILIO MENÉNDEZ DIRECTOR OF ENERGY EFFICIENCY | BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT MANAGER CMC New technologies for the management of renewable assets The introduction of new technologies to Renewable asset management is already underway. New technologies allow investment managers to obtain information directly from the renewable plants. The system. CMC. the AMS represents a positive development from the traditional way to manage investments in the renewable energies sector. achieved during more than a decade. the system collects information in real time from the different agents or service providers involved with the operation of the renewable plants. solar PV or CSP plants. In the first place. allowing them to reap the advantages of implementing new technologies in the way to do their business. as it improves the management capabilities of the investment management staff. That means a great flexibility to customize the system to the real circumstances of the plants and their service suppliers. avoiding any further dependence on third parties. The AMS also helps to decrease management expenses. A workflow application monitors all the management duties opening new process and establishing deadlines for the new tasks to be monitored by the managers. The company has integrated almost 3. In addition. On top of all these advantages. learning about their needs and adapting the new technology solutions to fit their specific requirements. more than a decade ago. IT & Communications and SCADA systems for renewable generation plants. as the system can be easily transferred with the plants. The benefits of implementing an assets management system are numerous. The general interest of investors in our AMS is high.


No other fuse manufacturer has achieved this landmark voltage rating in this package.35 x l (fuse rating) @ 1000Vdc and is suitable for industry standard dimensioned 4. L ooking to the future the trend is to extract greater efficiencies and power from PV installations through new materials and improved insolation technology ie. The new range of XL Style. the available short circuit current on a typical PV system is limited and the overcurrent protective device needs to operate effectively on low levels of fault current. Typically the effects 66 of fault currents may range from permanent damage to PV modules and reduced efficiency to broken conductors resulting in electric arcs and fire. 5 and 6in crystalline solar cell based modules and thin film modules. clearing faults as low as 1. representing a significant breakthrough in fuse design and performance. Typically they are looking for certainty and assurances in terms of proven performance and capabil- ity. correctly rated PV fuses are able to protect PV modules or strings and internal wiring against these dangerous reverse overcurrents. In effect. from storage batteries in the system or from backfeeding through gridinteractive inverters. In addition these fuse links have been tested to withstand the typical cycling conditions specific to solar panel operation and the environmental impact associated with system location. most notably protection up to 1000Vdc. During this time a number of key changes have occurred to the topography and dimensions of the basic components and indeed the types of components themselves. this means that the fuse will perform to its optimum level for the duration of the system life. Dangerous fault currents can originate from external sources. ie. our 10 x 38mm fuse links that meet all the specific requirements demanded by system manufacturers. PV concentrators. The net result of this work is a range of PV fuse links that meet the necessary protection criteria across the system. At string level. The new series of NH1 square bodied energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . square body fuse links in voltage ratings up to 1500Vdc provide OEMs greater flexibility in the protection of higher power PV arrays. This has put pressure on PV system OEMs to source and install protection solutions that are not only capable of meeting the protection requirements but can be easily packaged. As a manufacturer of fuses we are constantly receiving approaches from PV power supply manufacturers for solutions that meet these challenges. It is worth reminding ourselves that in faulted circuits PV modules may be damaged by reverse overcurrents exceeding the reverse current withstand of the modules IMOD_REVERSE. Unlike typical grid connected AC systems.SOLAR PV BEN ROOKE PRODUCT MANAGER PV FUSES AT BUSSMANN Solar so good In a relatively short time the small PV systems of only a few watts have developed first to a few kilowatts and more recently to as large as 10MW. Already the move globally is for the use of higher voltages of up to 1000Vdc and beyond. especially those whose primary function is overcurrent protection. from modules or strings of modules that are connected in parallel to the faulted string. The corollary of that will be the requirement for better system overcurrent protection. To this end we have conducted extensive research and development of devices that are specifically designed and tested to safely protect PV systems with high DC voltages and low fault currents. The Solar PV range offers class leading performance. in some cases. However.

IEC 60269-6. This new ferrule-bodied series comprises 15 and 20A ratings at 1100Vdc and 25 and 32A ratings at 1000Vdc. new wiring procedures and methods of installation. was published in September 2010 together with UL 2579 which gave the PV industry standards to work with. However. Also available is a range of IEC 60269-6 (gPV) 14 x 51mm photovoltaic fuse links.SOLAR PV photovoltaic fuse links has ratings up to 1000Vdc. definitions and test procedures are still undefined and used in different ways. together with installation guides for PV systems such as IEC 62548 “installation and safety requirements for photovoltaic (PV) generators”. Needless to say we at Bussmann are on the case!  Instituto de Formación Continua de la Universitat de Barcelona OCTUBRE 2012 > PRESENCIAL NOVIEMBRE 2012 > ON-LINE MÁSTER EN GESTIÓN DE EFICIENCIA ENERGÉTICA OCTUBRE 2012 > PRESENCIAL NOVIEMBRE 2012 > ON-LINE MÁSTER EN GESTIÓN INTEGRADA DE PROYECTOS . in terms of the revenue that can be generated. making this the only series to offer these voltage and amp ratings in this package size. with space limited in combiner boxes because of the desire to minimise the footprint and improve the Másters y Postgrados MÁSTER EN INGENIERÍA Y GESTIÓN DE LAS ENERGÍAS RENOVABLES overall aesthetic. installation codes such the NEC in the USA and IEC 60364* in Europe. The low power dissipation of the fuse also contributes to minimum energy loss and heat generation within the combiner box. The other factor that provides certainty and comfort for OEMs is compliance with SÍGUENOS EN: Blog . What is certain is that as PV systems evolve with new equipment. The 14 x 65mm range of photovoltaic fuse links comprises 15 and 20A ratings at 1500Vdc and 25 and 32A ratings at 1300Vdc. Updates to IEC 60269-6 are already being considered to better meet the requirements of the industry. are also due for publications shortly.il3. here the situation is fluid to say the least. it would be wholly inappropriate and commercially suicidal not to protect that asset with a product that meets the necessary performance requirements and standards. LA SEGURIDAD Y EL MEDIO AMBIENTE OCTUBRE 2012 > PRESENCIAL ADÁPTATE A LAS NOVEDADES DEL SECTOR Descúbrelos y amplía toda la información en: www.ub. these are among the smallest NH style fuse links to achieve this rating and are one of the most comprehensive ranges of NH size fuse link solutions on the market with amp ratings from 50A to 160A. the preferred dimensions for the fuse link is 10 x 38mm. Packaging is also a key criteria for system OEMs. This globally accepted package size is further enhanced by a choice of mounting options with standard ferrule.” The existing standard. Industry expert Dr Herbert Bessei puts it succinctly: “Increasing demand for alternative energy and strong financial support by some governments has boosted the installation of PV power systems faster than commonly accepted rules and international standards could be developed. For example. providing PV system OEMs with a compact protection solution for higher voltage distribution networks. Many terms.PROJECT MANAGEMENT OCTUBRE 2012 > PRESENCIAL MÁSTER EN GESTIÓN INTEGRADA DE LA CALIDAD. bolt and versatile PCB mounts on offer. As the asset value of PV energy systems increases. the development of the PV fuse will continue in tandem.

SPAIN International harmonization of standards for solar thermal collectors The testing and characterization procedures for solar thermal (ST) collectors and components have been investigated since the beginning of the International Energy Agency (IEA) Solar Heating & Cooling Programme (SHC). The standardization activities described below for ST low to medium temperature applications are leading to a unique global standard EN ISO 98061 for ST collectors broadening its scope to include new ST technologies. laboratories and certification bodies. ALBERTO GARCÍA DE JALÓN. many aspects have to be taken into account like: quality assurance and labelling. the developed performance tests and short-term tests to predict long term durability have been mainly focused on low temperature collectors. To reduce time and expenses for manufacturers. safety and durability issues. technical aspects and even economy issues which are relevant for designing regulations. but in order to achieve this. MARCELINO SÁNCHEZ AND ANA MONREAL SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY DEPARTMENT. A global certification scheme is the key step in order to avoid present-day technical trade barriers related to different ST collector regional certifications schemes. certification schemes and subsidy programs for solar ST new products. several standardization activities have been recently established to harmonize ST collector standards and work to- wards a worldwide certification scheme. The Spanish National Renewable Energy Centre (CENER) has been actively contributing in these standardization activities involving national and international technical committees. http://www. aspects like thermal performance. because there is not a detailed test procedure definition for such ST collector types. Current status of ST collector standardization activities for low to medium temperature applications Up to now several ST technologies like concentrating/tracking collectors or air heating collectors do not have specific standards for their performance and durability characterization.SOLAR THERMAL ENRIC MATEU. The existing testing and characterization procedures do not always accommodate these new ST products and in general their evaluation in a consistent manner is difficult. On the other energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY CENTRE (CENER). T he existing test procedures for ST collectors are included in several regional and international standards which are leading to a wide spectrum of certification schemes to assess and compare ST products. new and advanced ST collectors are continually launched on the market and submitted to national certification bodies. Through the development and harmonization of standards some of the previous gaps are overcome for main ST technologies. The development of a common international standard for ST collectors began in 2009 with the European project QAIST2 which served as a platform to develop the technical aspects of the EN 12975 standard revision process in close collaboration with the technical committee TC312 of 2 Quality Assurance in Solar Heating and Cooling Technology. Since then. like flat plate and evacuated tube. while assuring the quality of solar thermal collectors. contrary to the typical low temperature collector test procedures which were established many years ago. under well-defined standard test conditions. at least. ST products are certified based on test certificates issued by accredited test laboratories according to a standard and their assessment should consider.qaist. 1 68 ISO 9806 standard revision based on the present EN 12975 standard revision CENER´s Indoor Solar Simulator.

Development. and Innovation Carries out studies. Because we care about the world we live in.cener. energy Phone: +34 948 25 28 00 www. and resource (sun.NATIONAL RENEWABLE ENERGY CENTRE The energy of knowledge At CENER we are working on the development of renewable energy. Applied . wind and biomass) assessment Highly-skilled services for testing and certifying components and systems Development and technological transfer Technical training It is a member of International Standardisation Committees e-mail: info@cener.

A better rain penetration testing method was defined. in close collaboration with AENOR (Spanish Association of Standardisation and Certification) to develop standards for solar thermal electric plants. Acknowledgements: The CENER contribution to international standardization activities and IEA-SHC Task 43 has been possible thanks to the QAIST project which is supported by the Intelligent Energy Europe Program (Contract Nr: IEE/08/593/SI2. internal and external thermal shock. etc. design and component characterization has played an important role in the development of a Spanish Standards (UNE) series that define procedures to qualify components (like parabolic trough receiver tubes.). This international standard is important due to its relevance in paving the way towards a global certification scheme for solar thermal collectors. The new method has been improved regarding the apparatus. 2) the harmonized collector energy output calculations. effective thermal capacity and leakage. s Rain penetration test: Reduced to two accepted test methodologies. Another important issue dealt within the ISO/TC180 is the creation of a multi-part standard on collector components and materials responding to China’s interest to develop a specific standard for evacuated tubular collectors which was against the approach of having a unique ST collector standard independent of the collector technology. devices and testing conditions such as water pressure. exposure. Within the SC1 subcommittee. An additional aspect of the EN ISO 9806 harmonization is the contribution of the CSP standardization activities related to the new set of definitions. A close collaboration between the new IEC/TC117 and the ISO/TC180 was agreed on issues related to thermal performance and durability for concentrating/ tracking collectors and their components. A pre conditioning exposure test sequence and new daily calculation irradiation method are defined in order to reduce the testing time. Due to the lack of activity during last decade on the ISO 9806 revision. New ice diameters and classes definition have been included and harmonized with the IEC 61215 standard.Durability and performance s Part 3: Durability of absorber surface. To promote the CSP standardization at an international level. three different working groups have been established: s Aspects related to the solar field and the CSP plant as a whole s Test procedures for solar thermal power plant components s Test procedures for CSP thermal storage systems. The new set of definitions has been agreed also within the new technical subcommittee (SC1/CTN206) which was promoted jointly by CIEMAT (Research Centre for Energy. glazing. Other activities within EN ISO 9806 scope are: 1) the harmonization with fire safety and weather tightness requirements. in coordination with the standardization activities for concentrated solar power (CSP) components like: receiver. mass flow.529236). The new set of definitions already included in the EN ISO 9806 will also be incorporated in the future revision of the ISO 9488 . energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . PROTERMOSOLAR (Spanish Association of the Thermoelectric Solar Industry) and CENER. pressure drop. The second test methodology is to be performed at the end of the test sequence previous to the final inspection. the technical committee TC180 of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) decided to develop a common international standard for ST collectors based on the developments of the EN 12975 new revision. incident angle modifier. high temperature resistance. The ice ball impact locations have been also defined s Final inspection: Better acceptance criteria have been defined in order to harmonize the laboratory´s final evaluation. thermal storage system and power block) and complete CSP plants. simulation. reflectors. s Impact resistance test: This test is now mandatory.SOLAR THERMAL the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). The CENER’s CSP expertise in modelling. Most of the definitions deal with concentrating/tracking collector terms and are mainly applicable to line-focus collectors due to the difficulty of having broad definitions covering also point focus collectors and systems such as parabolic dish and central receiver systems which are out of the scope of this stan- dard. instrumentation. s Mechanical load test: It is still under development. spray angles and specific spraying areas. Environment and Technology). The first one is the weighting procedure of the present EN 12975. mechanical load. type of nozzles. The content has also been harmonized with the Canadian standard CSA F378. rain penetration and final inspection. The expected date of availability for the EN ISO 9806 standard will be within the second semester of 2013. reliability tests for concentrating/ tracking collectors: internal pressure for absorbers. and insulation materials. active and passive con- 70 trols. This standard will include for the first time in its scope a steady-state test procedure for the thermal performance of air heating solar collectors considering: the performance dependency on flow rate. the EN ISO 9806 standard is presently being elaborated. Finally the EN ISO 9806 also clarifies and extends existing test procedures whose highlights are listed below: s Exposure test: Reorganized to increase flexibility allowing part of the test to be performed indoors. reflector or tracking system Harmonized global standard for ST collectors As a result of the low-to-mid temperature standardization activities. At the same time. subsystems (solar field.Solar Energy vocabulary. new minimum pressure has been defined and harmonized according to the IEC 61215 standard. The agreed multi-part standard on collector components and materials consists of: s Part 1: Evacuated tube durability and performance s Part 2: Heat pipes for evacuated tubes . for the first time.2 for air heating solar collectors. As a significant highlight. the EN ISO 9806 standard also includes in its scope clarified performance test conditions based on the quasi-dynamic test method and. The testing pressure shall be at least 2400 Pa achieved in 250 Pa steps. indoor/ outdoor test conditions. tracking systems. Ice balls and steel ball methods are enabled. the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) technical committee TC117 for Solar Thermal Electric has been recently created and its work program was established during the kick-off meeting held in March 2012 in Madrid. IEA-SHC Task 43 set the focus on the dissemination and acceptance of the EN 12975 revision technical work on a global level.


notes: “Projects like TRESERT are the right approach to finding a long-term solution to energy problems in the rural areas of Thailand. turbines for energy production. The solar thermal biomass power plant created by Solarlite. This results in much greater use of solar radiation and much more efficiency in power plant operations. The system produces a total thermal output of 500kW and up to 50kW of electrical output from the lowtemperature turbine. Dr. heat and refrigeration can be created from solar thermal energy and biomass. The goal of the project is to raise awareness of green technologies in the region. Working with the SERT was absolutely terrific and provided the infrastructure and contacts we needed to successfully market the TRESERT project. Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU). based in Mecklenburg-Western-Pomerania. In fact. Although solar radiation can be used for free. The absorption cooling machine generates 105kW from the waste heat for cooling. TRESERT intends to show how a parabolic trough power plant can generate electricity. An additional 224 kW of heat output is available to heat water. and the use of low-temperature turbines and an absorption chiller is a technical innovation that has tremendous marketing potential. the system offers three (representing the TRE in the TRESERT name) major benefits: It supplies electricity. The project was developed with funding from the Federal Minister for the Environment. Thailand. Joachim Krüger. CEO and founder of Solarlite GmbH. In total.SOLAR THERMAL SOLARLITE TRESERT – Sustainable concept of decentralized clean energy supply in South East Asia The project demonstrates how a decentralized supply of electrical energy. heat and refrigeration. training and information initiatives are underway to 72 help spread the technology in an effort to tap and further develop its CO2 –reduction potential. A biomass boiler was integrated as a backup solution in order to keep the operating temperature stable. is in operation since February 2012. A cost-effective solution for supplying regions without a grid connection TRESERT harnesses local. and an absorption cooling machine for air conditioning. Germany. hot water and air conditioning.” An innovative combination of tried and tested components The entire system is built with Solarlite SL 2300 and SL 4600 parabolic trough collectors for steam generation. is an innovative example of a decentralized energy supply that can reduce CO2 emissions. green energy sources in its solution to the challenge of providing a safe and clean power supply to less developed regions of Southeast Asia. T he TRESERT project located at the energy park of the School of Renewable Energy Technology (SERT) of Naresuan University in Phitsanaluk. the technology is subject to variations energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 .

July 10–12.intersolar. 2012 North America’s Premier Exhibition and Conference for the Solar Industry Moscone Center.000 Visitors Co-located with www. San Francisco 950 Exhibitors 1.600 Conference Attendees .

the direct steam generation implemented by Solarlite is more efficient. absorption cooling or also for seawater desalination. it is generally locally available. Solarlite is using this green energy production technology to raise awareness in emerging countries of environmental and climate change issues. CO2-neutral energy supply. The location of the School of Renewable Energy Technology (SERT) makes it possible to present the innovative power plant technology to a wide international audience of experts. A reliable supply of low-cost energy will make it possible to improve the living conditions of local electricity consumers. According to projections by Egat (Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand). As for biomass. South East Asia. these two sources of energy form a green. TRESERT is a positive example of an efficient. thermal energy and power). Solarlite was founded in 2007 by Joachim Krüger  energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . When combined. India. less expensive and more environmentally friendly. South Africa. decentralized energy supply. Solarlite GmbH develops and builds decentralized solar-thermal parabolic trough plants (CSP – Concentrated Solar Power) for combined heat and power generation (steam. and experts say that it will remain high in the coming years. strengthen the economy and create new jobs from that growth. Rural regions without any grid connection located in sun-belt areas can profit immensely from such a technology. Solarlite is globally the only supplier of parabolic trough plants that can be used in different applications such as electricity production or for the stand-alone electricity consumption of small and medium-sized industrial facilities. the government is pushing for more energy efficiency measures and continued development of pro- 74 The direct steam generation implemented is more efficient. US. In response to this projection. Growing energy needs in Southeast Asia Electricity consumption in Thailand rose steadily between 2000 and 2009. The Thai government’s goal is to show leadership in the area of renewable energies and cut CO2 emissions by at least 15% by 2018. These power plants have an electrical output in the range of 500 kWe up to more than 50 MWe. Applications in combination with cogeneration can be used for the production of heat.5% in electricity use. Moreover. for example in the MENA region. Thailand can expect an annual increase of 5. Compared to traditional parabolic trough collectors that use thermal oil and an additional heat exchanger.SOLAR THERMAL in seasonal and weather conditions. Australia and Mexico. A plus is an additional feed in tariff for renewable energy production. less expensive and more environmentally friendly duction capacities. The concept can be replicated in every region where the sun radiation is high enough.

000 sqm Exhibition Space 10. 2012 India's Largest Exhibition and Conference for the Solar Industry Bombay Exhibition .intersolar. Mumbai 350 Exhibitors 20.November 6–8.000+ Visitors www.

This allows customers to bypass purchasing the tooling SolarEdge Technologies will introduce its next generation power optimizer featuring the new “IndOP” technology. A lot Indian module manufacturer are facing problems not only with the Chinese competition.8 % per year. energetica INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 .7% to 99.linear power decrease of no more than 0. REC developed the program together with installers.PRODUCTS PV plant supervision software suite Robotina has launched the SolarWorx Application Suite. This energy management system facilitates comprehensive household energy consumption management.besides the positive tolerance and 10 years product warranty. Polylux has a range of three phase transformers with the Polylux Ecology signet. a mark that identifies those optimised products with higher efficiency that thanks to lower losses helps to reduce the electrical energy consumption. This new Line Concept achieves the flexibility and necessary quality standards for Grid Connected but also Off Grid purposes in one line. a PV plant supervision software suite. The ECO transformers feature high efficiency (from 97. with certain advantages under Indian conditions. the Indian market is expected to grow in 2012 to 1 GW. All the modules of the IBC TX Series Next generation PV power optimizer are manufactured in Europe and are subjected to ongoing quality checks. In addition most of these lines are designed 76 to run 24h/7 and not made of disruptive production cycles. To serve the competitive Indian market the companies run mostly semi automated production lines for standard modules and parallel manual lines for off grid modules. The modules live up to the highest of aesthetic demands thanks to the application of a black aluminum frame. Acrylite solar pre-fab package offers first optical train for CPV modules Evonik Cyro is launching the first optical train package. Indian PV market now and a snap into the future After two slow years. Therefore AWS developed together with its partners a new 25 MW line concept. The Cenpilot energy management system device needed to create the product and avoid the required time-consuming installation process. They are known as ECO transformers. and without any unnecessary/ costly software modules.1%) resulting in much lower losses that a standard transformer. to ensure that the benefits are of real value. The SolarWorx is a new PV plant supervision and control application product based on Genesis64 HMI/ SCADA platform by Iconics. the new SolarEdge optimizer will be compatible with any inverter. Eco transformers for high efficiency New series of IBC Solar PV modules IBC Solar has a new series of photovoltaic solar modules IBC MonoSol and PolySol TX with modern full-square technology that guarantees an optimum efficiency. Industry certification program for solar installers REC has launched an industry leading certification program for solar installers including warranty extension and service fees for those who comply. the IBC TX modules are a valuable good option. without the need for added interface hardware. It runs on the local server in the PV plant control room. Centrosolar will introduce the newly developed Cenpilot energy management system at the Intersolar trade fair. With 25 years linear power warranty. It is suitable especially where the elevated performance/price ratio is required. Acrylite Solar Pre-Fab acrylic lens panels are combined with a Secondary Optical Element (SOE) to create a complete optical train package for assembly directly into Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV) modules. Unlike other power optimizers on the market. but also with internal technical issues caused by high-tech automation. The independent capability of these new power optimizers and their improved ease of installations is expected to significantly increase the total available market for power optimizers. with remote accessibility. The line is available with fully or semi automatic tabber and stringers and can produce equally high quality off grid or standard solar modules. for Concentrated Photovoltaic (CPV) modules saving customers tooling costs and manufacturing time. without any compromises to the performances. Acrylite Solar Pre-Fab lens panels.

es@egl.6ª 28046 Madrid Tel: 915 947 170 e-mail: info. 66. width x 65 mm. height Price 500 euro / year Grupo EGL Energía Iberia Paseo de la Double module Dimensions 55 mm. ENERGÉTICA INTERNATIONAL CLASSIFIED Single module Dimensions 55 mm. height Price 675 euro / year +INFO: +34 902 36 46 99 9 Representación de productores en Régimen Especial 9 Despacho Delegado homologado por REE 9 Suministro de electricidad y gas 9 Líder en trading energético en el mercado ibérico 9 Gestión y logística de biomasa RENEWABLE ENERGIES 77 energética INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 .eu www. width x 150 mm.offers the most practical way to locate your suppliers.egl. The most comprehensive service pages with manufacturing and service companies in the sector of power generation.


expertos en solar. 902 100 724 www. Suministramos sistemas completos para instalaciones residenciales DVtFRPRLQGXVWULDOHV$GHPiVSODQLÀFDPRVLQVWDODPRV\JHVWLRQDPRV parques solares en el rango del megavatio. Captadores Paquetes solares Compactos termosifón Reguladores solares Estaciones de bombeo Acumuladores solares Calentadores. calderas y accesorios Junkers compatibles con la gama solar. también a sus clientes los componentes perfectamente encajados de GermanSolar! Z Z Z J H U P D Q V R O D U F R P +34 657 30 17 04 RENEWABLE ENERGIES Sistemas solares térmicos Junkers: Soluciones completas para cualquier edificación. Las ventajas de los sistemas GermanSolar:      ‡0yGXORVFRQDxRVGHJDUDQWtDGHSURGXFWR ‡DxRVGHJDUDQWtDGHUHQGLPLHQWR ‡&ODVLÀFDFLyQSRVLWLYDGHQXHVWURVPyGXORV ‡6LVWHPDGHPRQWDMHPRGXODU ‡7RGRVORVFRPSRQHQWHVQHFHVDULRVGLVSRQLEOHV ¡Ofrezcan Confort para la vida 79 energética INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . Junkers.RENEWABLE ENERGIES &RPSRQHQWHVSHUIHFWRV SHUIHFWDPHQWHHQFDMDGRV GermanSolar AG ofrece módulos fotovoltaicos y sistemas completos según los más altos estándares de calidad.

CLASSIFIED RENEWABLE ENERGIES Gracias. SOLUCIONES MEDIOAMBIENTALES EFICIENCIA ENERGÉTICA GENERACIÓN ELÉCTRICA ® ZZZJXDVFRUFRP‡ZZZGUHVVHUUDQGFRP 7                    ‡ 7                   RENEWABLE ENERGIES energética INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 80 . EGIR GUASCOR. reto es diseñar soluciones vanguardistas aseguren un mañana. es debemos un futuro. POR ELEGIR FUTURO.

gavazzi-renovables. Valencia y Zaragoza 81 energética INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 .com Barcelona. www. 489940 Leioa (Bizkaia) www. A. 944 804 037 t Fax 944 801 061 gavazzi@gavazzi. Bizkaia. Sevilla. S.RENEWABLE ENERGIES RENEWABLE ENERGIES Gestor Energético PowerRouter * * * * the PowerRouter Distribuidor en España CARLO GAVAZZI.powerrouter.

.net 82 VISIT. . . .EXPOENERGÉTICA 2013 EU PVSEC FATOR / TINDSA FILTROS CARTÉS GILDEMEISTER GRUPO CLAVIJO IBERDROLA INGENIERÍA Y CONSTRUCCIÓN IL3 INTERSOLAR CHINA INTERSOLAR EUROPE INTERSOLAR INDIA INTERSOLAR NA INTERSOLAR SA MAETEL MATELEC OTTO CHEMIE PAIRAN SOLAR POWER ELECTRONICS POWER ELECTRONICS REFUSOL SANTON INTERNATIONAL SCHOTT SOLAR SKYTRON ENERGY SMA IBÉRICA TECNOLOGÍA SOLAR SOLARMAX VALENTIN SOFTWARE YINGLI 17 43 37 23 29 69 21 31 33 7 65 39 15 19 49 35 67 15 Inisde Backcover 75 73 71 49 41 11 y 13 55 Inside cover 3 Backcover 9 25 Cover 27 5 15 47 ONLINE ADVERTISERS ABB Web AENOR Web CHINT ELECTRICS Web CLIENSOL Web GREEN CITIES Web IL3 Web IMF FORMACIÓN Web INTERECONOMÍA Web SCP TODAY USA Web TERMIGO Web English language www.energetica21. .www. . . .com/suscripcion Subscribe free to our e-newsletter: More than 80. . Join our e-subscribers groups. .com/boletines/suscripcion Visit our Web sites: Spanish language www.energetica21. . .GUASCOR EGÉTICA . . 100 euros/year Rest Europe . energética INTERNATIONAL · Nº 120 · MAY12 . . 160 euros/year Rest world . http://www. . . . . .SUSCRIPTION BULLETIN & ADVERTISERS ADVERTISERS Subscribe to our magazine Spain .guia. .com ALDINET ATERSA BOSCH SOLAR ENERGY BUBBLESUN CANADIAN SOLAR CENER COOPER BUSSMANN DANFOSS SOLAR INVERTERS DRESSER RAND . . .com www. . .energetica21.energetica21. . 280 euros/year Use our on-line form: http://www. .energetica21. . .000 professionals are already receiving our e-newsletters.energetica-india.

000+ Visitors www.000 sqm Exhibition Space 80.June 13–15. 2012 The World’s Largest Exhibition for the Solar Industry New Munich Trade Fair Centre.200 Exhibitors 170.intersolar. Germany .