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Effects of Column Creep
and Shrinkage in Tall Structures-
Prediction of Inelastic Column Shortening

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66-83

and Shrinkage in Tall StructuresPrediction of Inelastic Column Shortening

creep and shrinkage strains is outlined based on

the present state of the art. Consideration is given

to the loading history of columns in multistory

buildings which receive their load in as many increments as there are stories in the building, thus

considerably reducing the creep as compared to a

single load application. Also, volume-to-surface

ratio of sections and the effect of reinforcement

on the creep and shrinkage is considered.

Keywords: columns (supports); creep properties;

frames; high-rise buildings; loads (forces); multistory buildings; reinforced concrete; shrinkage;

strains; structural design.

(and shear walls) becomes more critical due to

the cumulative nature of such shortening. It is

known that columns with varying percentage of

reinforcement and varying volume-to-surface ratio will have different creep and shrinkage strains.

An increase in percentage of reinforcement and in

volume-to-surface ratio reduces strains due to

creep and shrinkage under similar stresses.

In a multistory building, adjacent columns may

have different percentage of reinforcement due to

different tributary areas or different wind loads.

As a result, the differential inelastic shortening of

connecting beams or slabs and will cause load

transfer to the element that shortens less. As the

number of stories increases, the cumulative differential shortening also increases and the related

effects become more severe. A common example

is the case of a large, heavily reinforced column

attracting additional loads from the adjacent shear

wall which has higher creep and shrinkage due to

lower percentage of reinforcement and lower

volume-to-surface ratio. Significant differential

shortening may occur due to a time gap between

a slipformed core and the slabs. In this case the

columns are subjected to the full amount of creep

and shrinkage while the core may have had the

bulk of its inelastic shortening occurring prior to

casting of the adjacent column.

Although a large amount of research information is available on shrinkage and creep strains,

it is not directly applicable to columns of highrise buildings. The available shrinkage data cannot be applied without modification since it is

obtained from small standard prisms or cylinders

stored in a controlled laboratory environment.

The available creep research is based on application of loads in one increment. Such creep in-

957

Standards Department, Portland Cement Association, Skokie,

ill. He has been with PCA since 1961. He received his Dip!.

lng. from the Munich Institute of Technology in 1950. Between

1950 and 1961 he worked on the design of reinforced concrete structures, mainly in the fields of multistory and speci~l

structures. He is head of the PCA earthquake investigation

team. Mr. Fintel is a registered structural engineer In Illinois.

Currently, he is chairman of ACI Committee 422, Response of

Buildings to lateral Forces, a member of ACI-ASCE Committee

421, Reinforced Concrete Slabs.

ACI member Fazlur R. Khan is associate partner, Skidmore,

Owings and Merrill, architects and engineers, Chicago, Ill. He

received his PhD from the University of Illinois in 1955. Dr.

Khan has been responsible for the design of many high-rise

buildings, among them the 714-ft high 52-story One Shell

Plaza Building in Houston. He is a registered structural engineer in Illinois. Currently, he is a member of ACI Committee

118, Use of Computers, and ACI Committee 442, Response of

Building to lateral Forces.

prestressed concrete. In the construction of a

high-rise building, columns are loaded in as many

increments as there are stories above the level

under consideration. The significance of incrementalloading became apparent during the design

of the 52-story Shell Oil Building in Houston.

Although creep and shrinkage in columns have

a similar effect in that they cause length shortening, they should be considered separately with

respect to time. The length of construction time

has a pronounced effect on the amount of creep,

while shrinkage proceeds independently of the

construction time. Only after the creep and shrinkage strains have been computed separately and

modified for the conditions of the designed structure, can their combined effect on the structure

be considered.

In view of the basic difference in loading history between high-rise and low-rise buildings and

the difference between the actual column size as

compared to laboratory specimens, two categories

of information are required to develop a rational

design method to incorporate the effects of creep

and shrinkage in columns. These are:

1. The amount of creep and shrinkage occurring

in columns and shear walls with consideration of

the loading history, size of the member, percentage of reinforcement, and environment.

2. Analytical procedures to consider the structural effects of a known amount of differential

elastic and inelastic shortenings of vertical loadcarrying members in a structure.

The authors present in this paper a procedure to predict the inelastic (creep and shrinkage) shortening as a function of the incremental

loading sequence, the volume-to-surface ratio, and

the effect of the percentage of reinforcement.

The method presented is based on the large body

958

of available research information on both shrinkage and the single loading type of creep. Results of a 6%-year observation of creep and

shrinkage shortening of a number of 36-story columns will be reported separately, together with

an &n&lyticql procedure to design for structural

effects of differential column shortening.

EFFECT OF INCREMENTAL LOADS

ON CREEP STRAINS

significant. The rate diminishes as time progresses

until it eventually approaches zero. Fig. la shows

a typical creep versus time curve drawn on a

standard scale. The same curve plotted on semilogarithmic graph paper is shown in Fig. lb with

time on the logarithmic abscissa.

Creep consists of two components:

1. Basic (or true) creep occurring under conditions of hygral equilibrium, which means that

no moisture movement occurs to or from the

ambient medium. In the laboratory basic creep

can be reproduced by sealing the specimen (e.g.,

in copper foil), or by keeping the specimen in a

fog room.

2. Drying creep resulting from exchange of

moisture between the stressed member and its

environment. Drying creep has its effect only during the initial period under load.

Creep of concrete is a linear function of stress

up to stresses which are about 40 percent of

the ultimate strength. This includes all practical

ranges of stresses in columns and walls. Beyond

that level, creep becomes a nonlinear function of

stress.

For structural engineering practice, it is convenient to consider specific creep, cc', which is

defined as the ultimate creep strain per unit of

sustained stress.

For a given mix of concrete the amount of

creep depends not only on the total stress but

also to a great extent on the loading history. It

is well established by experimental research that

a concrete specimen with its load applied at an

early age exhibits a much larger specific creep

than a specimen loaded at a later age (Fig. 2).

Since creep decreases with age of the concrete

at load application, each subsequent incremental

loading contributes a smaller specific creep to the

final average specific creep of the column.

The postulated 1 and confirmed2 - 5 principle of

superposition of creep states that:

Strains produced in concrete at any time by a

stress increment are independent of the effects of

any stress applied either earlier or later. The stress

increment may be either positive or negative, but

stresses which approach the ultimate strength are

excluded.

(without testing) from the elastic modulus of

elasticity has been recently proposed by Hickey6

based on long-time creep studies at the Bureau of

Reclamation in Denver. Results of the limited

tests on normal weight concrete indicate that

creep can be predicted from the initial modulus

at time of load application. Curves in Fig. 3 give

the creep magnitude as related to the initial modulus of elasticity for different load durations. For

design purposes, the 20-year creep can be regarded

as the ultimate creep. Thus, from the specified

28-day strength, the basic specific creep for loading at 28 days can be determined and then modified for construction time, member size, and

percentage of reinforcement as presented later

in this paper.

corresponding to the strength-to-stress ratio at

time of its application, as if it were the only

loading to which the column is subjected.

DETERMINATION OF SPECIFIC CREEP

ages at which incremental loadings are applied in

an intended multistory structure can be obtained

by extrapolation from a number of laboratory samples prepared in advance from the actual mix to

be used in the structure. It is obvious that sufficient time for such tests must be allowed prior

to the start of construction, since reliability of

the prediction improves with length of time over

which creep is actually measured.

0.20

0.20

0.15

"'

.!:'

::

"'c.

0.10

"'

u"'

0.05

......-

---

0.1 5

"'c:

~

-:n

.,.,c.

0.10

u

0.05

40days

80

120

160

200

v

lday

v

v

,-"

120

7

14

28

90

180

31r.

I yr.

2yr.

5yr.

0.35

IJ)

a.

'c

'c

10

I

0

IJ)

IJ)

0.30

.-.

a.

0.25

<I)

<I)

L.

IJ)

IJ)

::J

a.

cu

0.20

0.15

'r--. ... -

::J L.

<I)

--

Vcreep

Straiy

4.26

--

-I nitlal

Elastic

Strains

0.05

100

20

8 14 28 40

60

80 91

3.55

2.84

'c>

'E

u

'E

.Jt:

2.13

I

I

0.1.0

cL.

,..- -- --

c~

IJ)

a.<I)

u;

L.

<I)

--

4.97

10

I

1.42

.I

.71

1

I

I

120

140

160

180

200

Age, days

959

4 26

142

7 II

9 95

12 8

I I 1

- - Test results

~~

\\ ~'

\

'\ ~

\\

o.I

42.2

35.2

..._Ye0,.s

\....

o.3

~~

""

0.2

49.2

---Extrapolation

r----.

...........

18 5

15 63

......

28.1 '

IJflrt

eo,.i"-..!,.~od

1Yeo,.

- ...

--

~--... ...__

1'",.30 days

----

~Od

o.4

o.5

o:r

o.s

o.a.

o.9

1.0

1.1

1.2

r.3

14.1

7.0

r.4

6

2.0

age of 28 days. The 28-day creep is used as a basis

for comparison (with aage,2s = 1.0).

The total creep strain for an incrementally

loaded column N stories below the roof will be:

I'..

""'

1.5

"

"'

~ 1.0

(1)

t:l

" I':

""'

.........

.....

0.5

'

""""

increments fc~. Individual values for specific creep

E' c~, can be obtained either from Fig. 3 or from the

creep of a test specimen loaded at 28 days and

then modified for the various ages at loading using

the coefficients aaue from Fig. 4.

Where load increments are unequal, the

weighted average of the specific creep (weighted

corresponding to the stress magnitudes) will be

120

I day

14

28

90

(2)

180

lyr.

Age at loading,days

to a specific creep of E' c~:

~ E c1

1

The exponential expression for creep, represented graphically in Fig. lb, has a particular

advantage for the structural engineer. It allows

interpolation and extrapolation with as few as

two points, since beyond about 10 days it is represented as a straight line when time is plotted on a

logarithmic scale.

The curve in Fig. 4, giving the relationship between creep and age at loading, has been plotted

using available information from many tests.' The

coefficient aaue relates the creep for any age at

960

--r

(

c.ave=

(3)

(2) and (3), the total creep strain will be:

Ec

==

t' c.at:efc

(4)

from all incremental loadings.

The coefficient aave, plotted in Fig. 5, is used to

convert the 28-day creep into the average specific

creep for a column loaded with equal load increments at equal time intervals. The curve in this

1.3

1.2

C1i

>

'd

1.1

\

~

\

1\

o>

"'0

0

0

1.0

E

c

4>

E

~

c

...

0

0.9

"" "

~i

"E

4>

u

~

'\.

0.8

--f---- f--

4>

(.)

..........

i'-._

0..7

'-....

!'-.!'-...

1-o.....

..........

.......... ..........

r--

0.6

0

40

80

120

160

200

240

280

320

360

400

the total time of construction T, during which

N equal load increments have been applied. The

curve is a solution of Eq. (3) using the curve in

Fig. 4 for the values of creep for various ages at

loading. Thus, for example, if a column receives

56 load increments, and the progress of construction is three floors per 2 weeks, it takes:

5 we see that a coefficient of aave = 0.72 has to be

applied to the 28-day specific creep obtained either

in the laboratory on a 6 in. (15.24 em) sealed

cylinder or from Fig. 3. We can also see from the

curve that if the entire load were applied to the

column at 7 days, it would have twice the creep

(aave = 1.4) than in incremental loading over a

period of 262 days.

EFFECT OF MEMBER SIZE ON CREEP

shrinkage since only the drying creep component

of the total creep is affected by size and shape

of members, whereas basic creep is independent

investigation 8 that drying creep has its effect

only during the initial 3 months. Beyond 100 days,

the rate of creep is equal to the basic creep.

In Fig. 6 the relationship between creep and

volume-to-surface ratio has been plotted for Elgin

gravel aggregate concrete based on a laboratory

investigation. 8 Also plotted in Fig. 6 is the curve

based on European experience. 7 The curves are

almost identical. It is seen from the curves that

in members with a volume-to ..surface ratio of 10,

drying creep is negligible and only basic creep

occurs.*

SHRINKAGE STRAINS-ADJUSTED FOR

COLUMN SIZE

of moisture from the surface. Similar to creep,

the rate of shrinkage is high at early ages, decreasing with increase of age, until the curve becomes asymptotic to the final value of shrinkage.

Since evaporation occurs only from the surface

of members, the volume-to-surface ratio of a mem*The effect of the ambient relative humidity and the effects

of temper~ture and humidity variations on drying creep has not

been considered due to the lack of information. Preliminary results of a field investigation indicate that creep of members

subjected to varying temperature and humidity may be considerably higher than creep in a controlled environment.

961

shrinkage. The amount of shrinkage decreases as

the size of specimen increases. Much of the shrinkage data available in the literature is obtained

on 11 in. (27.9 em) long prisms of a 3 x 3-in.

(7.6 x 7.6 em) section (volume-to-surface ratio,

VIS= 0.75 in., or 1.91 em) or on 6 in. (15.24 em)

diameter cylinders (VIS= 1.5 in., or 3.81 em).

Obviously, such data cannot be applied to usual

size columns without considering the size effect.

The relationship between the magnitude of

shrinkage and the volume-to-surface ratio has

1.8

.....

U>

a:

....

1.6

1.5

....

.2

1.4

1.3

Q)

<.>

,._

a;

I. 2

<.>

Q)

1778

2286

1.2

1.7

l:j

<I>

<I>

em

em

1270

7.62

254

Also plotted in Fig. 7 is a curve from Reference 7

based on European iiwestigations. It is interesting

to note that the European curves both for shrinkage and creep and those for the Elgin gravel aggregate concrete are almost identical. The coefficient a"v;s shown in Fig. 7 is used to convert

shrinkage data obtained on 6-in. (15.24 em)

cylinders (VIS = 1.5 in., or 3.81 em) to any other

size columns. A similar curve can also be plotted

to convert laboratory data obtained from 3 x 3-in.

(7.6 x 7.6 em) prisms (VIS = 0.75 in., or 1.91 em).

1.1

.....

"'>

t1

<

''

-"'

;::

.c

1.0

0.8

0.7

'~

Q)

''

<.>

Elgin grovel

aggregate (8)

European.- [)---.

curve(?)

,._

,._

......_

Q)

Q)

Ui

~ 1--.

0.6

.......

<.>

European

curve (7l7

......~~

~,

0.5

Elgin grove I j

aggregate (8)

0.4

0.3

0

10

2286

"'

.E

1778

1270

r\

0.9

....

Ill

1.0

0'

Ui

0.9

1.1

762

2 54

...

10

1.0

_,. ~

0.8

<l>

0>

0.6

..,.;

.....

..c

(/)

0.4

0.2

0.0

100

v

90

80

70

60

/"'

50

40

30

20

Relative humidity, %

Fig. 8-Shrinkage versus relative humidity

962

'

forced column

is:

fs

creep or shrinkage at any time to the final value

at time t"' based on Reference 7.

It can be seen from the Fig. 9 that at 28 days

about 40 percent of the inelastic strains have

taken place. After 3 and 6 months, 60 and 70

percent, respectively, of all the creep and shrinkage have taken place.

of a nonrein(5)

(15.24 em) cylinder specimens made of the concrete mix to be used in the structure and stored

under job-site conditions and a",;s is the coefficient from Fig. 7 for the volume-to-surface ratio

of the column being designed.

This curve can be used to extrapolate the ultimate creep and shrinkage values from laboratory

testing of a certain duration of time. Conversely,

the curve can also be used to estimate the creep

or shrinkage at any time from the given ultimate

value.

ON SHRINKAGE

depend upon the relative humidity of the environment, the shrinkage specimen should be

stored under conditions similar to those for the

actual structure. If this is not possible, the shrinkage results of a specimen not stored under field

humidity conditions must then be modified to account for the humidity conditions of the structure

as in Fig. 8. This figure shows the effect of relative humidity of the environment on the amount

of shrinkage.

Alternating the ambient relative humidity within two limits results in higher shrinkage and creep

than that obtained at a constant humidity within

the given limits. Laboratory tests, therefore, may

underestimate creep and shrinkage under conditions of practical exposure.

EFFECTS OF REINFORCEMENT ON

CREEP AND SHRINKAGE

columns are subjected to sustained loads there

is a tendency for additional stress to be gradually

transferred to the steel with a simultaneous decrease in the concrete stress. Long-term tests by

Troxell et al. 9 showed that in columns with low

percentage of reinforcement the stress in the steel

increased until yielding; while in highly reinforced columns after the entire load had been

transferred to the steel, further shrinkage actually

caused some tensile stresses in the concrete. It

should, however, be noted that despite the redistribution of load between concrete and steel, the

ultimate load capacity of the column remains unchanged.

WITH TIME

Both creep and shrinkage have a similarity regarding the rate of progress with respect to time.

1.0

0.9

0.8

~

,_

()

,_

0.7

Q)

0

Q)

0>

0

0.6

0.5

..><:

,_

.I::.

0.4

(.{')

0.3

0.2

______..,. ~

v

lL

.,..v

t--

'/

0. I

120

0.0

3yr.

_j

3 days

14

28

90

180

I yr.

2yr.

5yr.

Time

963

in the steel, f).j., due to creep and shrinkage can

be calculated with the following formulas: oo,n)

Afc = ( fo +

f).j8

::, )( 1 -

e- (pnfl+Pn)ec'Ec)

peo'

(1 _e-

(6)

~c = fc +;a/Eo' (1 _ e- (pn/l+Pn)e,'Ec)

= (fc/ + Es)

Ec

(7)

(pnfl+pn)ec'Ec)

in which

initial elastic stress in the co,ncrete

total shrinkage strain of plain concrete

adjusted for VIS ratio

modulus of elasticity of concrete

reinforcement ratio of the section

modular ratio E8 /Eo

against several specimens of normal weight and

lightweight concrete with various ratios of reinforcement and have shown reasonably good agreement.12

The total creep and shrinkage strains of the

nonreinforced column are

(8)

The residual creep and shrinkage strains of a

reinforced concrete column are equal to the ad-

:::e

c:

Q)

Q)

....

c:

Q)

....

....

> 4

Q)

1~------L-------~----~------~------~~~~~~~

0.30

0.40

0.50

0.60

0.70

0.80

0.90

.

residual strain

R a t 10 =

total strain

Fig. 10-Ratio of residual creep and shrinkage of a reinforced column to the total creep and shrinkage of a plain

Concrete column

964

derived from the change in steel stress

1l. ( fs+

fc )

Ll.fs

= E8

(9)

of a reinforced column to the total creep and

shrinkage strain of the identical column without

reinforcement is presented on the bottom of Fig.

10 for various percentages of reinforcement, varying specific creep and modulus of elasticity of

concrete. It is evident from the curves that the

residual creep and shrinkage decreases with increased percentage of reinforcement.

The function (1- e-<pnfl+Pn)eo'Ec) has been

plotted in Fig. 11 to facilitate computation of the

residual strains.

SUMMARY

1. Based on the present state of the art, a practical design procedure is presented to predict the

creep and shrinkage strains in columns of multistory buildings, considering the effects of loading

history, member size and percentage of reinforcement.

2. Although the magnitude of creep and shrinkage of plain concrete specimens may vary considerably, the final inelastic strains in reinforced

concrete columns and walls have much less variation due to the restraining effect of the reinforcement.

3. Elements which receive a substantial loading

at early ages, such as prestressed elements and

columns in the upper stories of tall structures or

columns of low-rise structures, are prone to higher

shrinkage and creep strains.

4. Lower story columns of tall structures have

considerably smaller creep and shrinkage strains

than commonly assumed as a result of:

(a) Incremental loading over a longer period of

time which reduces creep.

(b) A substantial volume-to-surface ratio which

reduces shrinkage.

(c) A substantial percentage of reinforcement

which reduces both shrinkage and creep.

5. In a tall structure the relative vertical movement between columns and adjacent walls can

cause structural and architectural distress unless

proper design and details are provided.

0~

..:

c:

Q)

<>

-<>

Q)

(,)

....

1&1

"I~

c:

0.+

....

a;

Q)

........

.~

Q)

>

965

REFERENCES

1. McHenry, D., "A New Aspect of Creep in Concrete and its Application to Design," Proceedings,

ASTM, V. 43, p. 1069.

2. Ross, A. D., "Creep of Concrete Under Variable

Stress," ACI JouRNAL, Proceedings V. 54, No. 9, Mar.

1958, pp. 739-758.

3. Backstrom, S., "Creep and Creep Recovery of

Cement Mortar," Preliminary Publication, Fifth Congress of the International Association for Bridge and

Structural Engineering, Zurich, 1956, pp. 77-83.

4. Seed, H. B., "Creep and Shrinkage in Reinforced

Concrete Structures," Reinforced Concrete Review

(London), 1948, pp. 253-267.

5. Davies, R. D., Discussion of "Creep of Concrete

Under Variable Stress" by A. D. Ross, ACI JoURNAL,

Proceedings V. 54, 1958, pp. 1279-1280.

6. Hickey, K. B., "Creep of Concrete Predicted from

Elastic Modulus Tests," Report No. C-1242, Department

of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Jan.

1968, 27 pp.

7. Recommendations for an International Code of

Practice for Reinforced Concrete, Comite Europeen du

Beton, Paris, 1964. (English translation available from

the Cement and Concrete Association and American

Ooncrete Institute, 155 pp.)

8. Hansen, T. C., and Mattock, A. H., "Influence

of Size and Shape of Member on the Shrinkage and

Creep of Concrete," ACI JouRNAL, Proceedings V. 63,

No. 2, Feb. 1966, p. 267.

9. Troxell, G. E.; Raphael, J. M.; and Davis, R. E.,

"Long-Time Creep and Shrinkage Tests of Plain and

Reinforced Concrete," Proceedings, ASTM, V. 58, 1958,

pp. 1101-1120.

10. Dischinger, F., "Investigations on Resistance to

Buckling, Elastic Deformation and Creep of Con~rete

in Arch Bridges (Untersuchungen ueber die Knicksicherheit, die elastische Verformung und das Kriechen

des Betons bei Bogenbruecken) ," Der Bauingenieur

(Berlin), V. 18, No. 39/40, Oct. 1937, pp. 595-621.

11. Morsch, E., Static der Gewalbe und Rahmen,

Verlag von Konrad Wittwer, Stuttgart, 1947.

12. Pfeifer, D. W., "Reinforced Lightweight Concrete

Columns," Proceedings, ASCE, V. 95, ST1, Jan. 1969,

pp. 57-82.

calendar days. Planned total time for 36 floors (load

increments) is T 36 X 8 288 days.

The dead load of the typical floor is 37 kips (16,800

kg).

Since time did not permit long-time shrinkage and

creep test cylinders, 20-year specific basic creep for

loading at 28 days was estimated from Fig. 3 to be

Ec'

0.33 X 10-6 in. per in. per psi (4.7 X 10-6 em/em/

kg/cm2) for Ec = 4.05 X 106 psi (28.5 X 104 kg/cm2).

Shrinkage determined on the same mix of a previous

job was 630 X 10-6 in. per in. during the first 90

days. The 6-in. (15.24 em) cylinders were moist cured

for 7 days and then stored in the laboratory in 50

percent relative humidity and 70 F.

Required

Compute the ultimate residual creep and shrinkage

strains of the reinforced concrete column and the additional stress in reinforcing steel.

The following steps will be carried out:

1. Compute for the plain concrete column the total

ultimate creep strains, considering effects of incremental loading and of column size; and shrinkage

considering volume-to-surface ratio.

2. Compute the additional stress in the vertical

reinforcing steel due to creep and shrinkage.

3. Compute for the reinforced concrete column the

residual creep and shrinkage strains.

Solution

Creep strains

Conversion

to consider

T = 288 days

1

S. c,ave

of specific creep for loading at 28 days

incremental loading over a period of

using a.ave = 0.70 from Fig. 5:

E'.c~28Uave

0.231 X 10-G in. per in. per psi

Fig. 6.

Volume-to-surface ratio:

VIS

a.c, 18

= 1.06.

from which

APPENDIX

Ec'

DESIGN EXAMPLE

Given

Floor to floor height is 9.0 ft (2.74 m). The 20 x 49-in.

(50.80 x 124.5 em) column is reinforced with 26 #11

bars ( 40.6 sq. in., or 261.9 cm2) equals 4.15 percent of

A431; fy = 75,000 psi (5280 kg/cm2).

Concrete: fc'

Ec

normal weight

33w31ZV f<!

= 4.05 X 106

= Es!Ec = 7.2

At

Ag+ (n-1)As

20 X 49 + (7.2- 1) X 40.6

1232 sq in. (7950 cm2)

966

fc

=-

At

36

x 37,ooo

1232

= 1080 psi

Ec :.= Ec'

X fc

265 X 10-6 in. per in.

Conversion of 90-day measured shrinkage to ultimate

shrinkage (coefficient from Fig. 9 representing the

ratio of shrinkage at 90 days to ultimate shrinkage):

630 X 10- 6

0.61

1035 x 10-6 per in. per in.

cylinder to account for size of real column using Fig. 7:

from which

a"v;s = 0.57.

Es

= 590 x 10-6 in. per in.

column:

E

Ec

(265

acv/s

av;s

Ec

creep strain

Ec'

psi, i.e., creep per unit stress

'ct.

Es

= total shrinkage strain of plain concrete

Es

+ 590) 10-6 =

For specific creep Ec' = 0.245 X lO-G in. per in. per

psi and for Ec=4.05XlO-G psi, the function

0- e-(pnfl+pn)<'cEc) = 0.203 (from Fig. 11). The additional stress in steel from Eq. (7) are:

Llf

s

855 X lO-G

X 0.203

= 0.0415 X 0.245 X 10-6

17,050 psi

a reinforcing steel ratio of 4.15 percent using Eq. (9)

Ll(e:c+Es)

Llfs'

= Es

17 050 = 588

29 X 10-6

R t'10 Residual strains

a

Total strains

588 X 10-6

855 X 10-6

0.69

been reduced by the reinfoTcing by 31 percent. This

can be seen also in approximation from Fig. 10.

A similar design example carried out on a 14 in.

thick wall of the same concrete having 1.5 percent

vertical reinforcement and a dead load stress of 600

psi shows a residual creep and shrinkage stTain of

645 X lO-G as compared to 588 x 10-6 in. per in. for

the column.

For the height of the entire building of 324 ft (98.76

m), the differential shortening between the column

and the wall (assuming the same shortening for all

36 stories) will be 0.222 in. (0.563 em).

Sinopsis-Resume-Zusammenfassung

Efectos del Flujo Plcistico y Ia Contracci6n en

Columnas de Estructuras Altas-Predicci6n del

Acortamiento lnelcistico de Columna

Se detalla un procedimiento para predecir la

cantidad de deformaci6n por flujo plastico y

contracci6n con base en el estado actual del

conocimiento. Se toma en consideraci6n la historia de

carga de las columnas en edificios de varios niveles las

cuales reciben sus caTgas en incrementos a medida que

se construye el edificio, reduciendo considerablemente

el flujo plastico comparada con una sola aplicaci6n

de la carga. Tambien se consideran la relaci6n

volumen/superficie de las secciones y el efecto del

refuerzo en el flujo plastico y la contracci6n.

de Grands Immeubles-Prediction du

Retrait de Colonnes lnelastiques

Un precede pour prediction de !'amplitude des forces

de fluage et Tetrait est detaille sur la base des

realisations actuellement construites. Une

consideration est donnee a !'experience acquise dans la

construction d'immeubles a etages multiples dans

lesquels la repartition des charges intervient dans les

nombreux increments de construction d'un immeuble

a etages multiples, reduisant ainsi considerablement le

fluage par comparaison a une application avec chaTge

simple. Egalement le rapport volume-surface des

sections et l'effet d'armature sur le fluage et retrait

sont consideres

NOTATION

At

Ec

Es

fc

fci

fs

n

p

Uage

aave

modulus of elasticity of concrete at initial

loading

modulus of elasticity of steel

initial elastic stress in concrete

stress in concrete due to incremental load

stress in vertical column reinforcement

modular ratio Es!Ec

reinforcement ratio of section

= coefficient to conside-r the effect on creep of

age at loading

= coefficient to consider the effect on creep of

duration of load application (construction

time)

Saulen in hohen Gebauden--die Vorherbestimmung

der anelastischen Saulenverkiirzung

Eine Vorherbestimmungsmethode flir die Grosse von

Kriech- und Schwindverformungen wird gegeben, die

auf den derzeitigen Wissenstand auf diesem Gebiete

aufbaut. Dabei wird die Belastungsgeschichte der

Saulen in hohen Gebauden beriicksichtigt. Die Last

wird in ebenso vielen Stufen aufgebracht, wie das

Bauwerk Stockwerke enthalt. Damit wird die

Kriechverformung im Vergleich zu einer einmaligen

Beanspruchung mit de-r Gesamtlast wesentlich

reduziert. Auch das Verhaltnis von Volumen zu

Oberflache der Querschnitte und der Einfluss der

Bewehrung auf das Kriechen und Schwinden werden

beriicksichtigt.

967

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