CSSS 505
Calculus Summary Formulas
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Differentiation Formulas
17.
^{d}^{y} _{=}
dx
dy
_{×}
du
dx
dx
Chain Rule
Trigonometric Formulas
1. sin
2
θ +
cos
2
θ =
1
2.
3.
1 + tan
cot
1 +
2
2
θ
θ
= sec
= csc
2
2
θ
θ
4. sin(−θ ) = − sinθ
5. cos(−θ ) = cosθ
6. tan(−θ ) = − tanθ
7. sin( A + B) = sin Acos B + sin B cos A
8. sin( A − B) = sin Acos B − sin B cos A
9. cos(A + B) = cos Acos B − sin Asin B
13. tan 
θ = 
sin 
θ 
= 
1 

cos 
θ 
cot 
θ 

14. cot 
θ = 
cos 
θ 
= 
1 

sin 
θ 
tan 
θ 

15. sec 
θ = 
1 

cos 
θ 

16. csc 
θ = 
1 
17.
cos(
π
2
sin
)
θ
−
θ
=
sin
θ
10. cos(A − B) = cos Acos B + sin Asin B
18.
11. sin 2θ = 2sinθ cosθ
12.
θ
cos 2
= cos
2
θ
− sin
2
θ
= 2 cos
2
θ
−1 = 1 − 2sin
2
sin(
θ
π
2
−
)
θ
=
cos
θ
Integration Formulas
Definition of a Improper Integral
b
∫
a
_{f} _{(}_{x}_{)} _{d}_{x} is an improper integral if
1. f
2. one or both of the limits of integration is infinite, or
3. both (1) and (2) hold.
becomes infinite at one or more points of the interval of integration, or
∫
1. a dx = ax + C
n ≠ − 1
6. _{∫} ln x dx = x ln x − x + C
7. _{∫} sin x dx = − cos x + C
8. _{∫} cos x dx = sin x + C
9. _{∫} 
tan 
x 
dx = 
ln 
10. _{∫} 
cot 
x 
dx = 
ln 
11. _{∫} 
sec 
x 
dx = 
ln 
+ C
12. ln
csc
x dx =
2
x dx =
_{∫}
_{∫}
_{∫}
_{∫}
_{∫}
csc
x
− cot
x
x + C
+ C
13. tan
sec
14. sec x tan x dx = sec x + C
15. csc
2 x dx = − cot x + C
16. csc x cot x dx = − csc x + C
+ C
1a.
Formulas and Theorems Definition of Limit: Let f be a function defined on an open interval containing c (except
possibly at c ) and let L be a real number. Then 
lim 
f 
( 
x 
) 
= 
L 
means that for each 
ε 
> 0 there 

x 
→ 
a 
exists a δ > 0
1b.
such that
<
ε whenever
0 <
x = a if
A function y = f (x) is continuous at
i). 
f(a) exists 

ii). 
lim x → a 
f (x) exists 

iii). 
lim 
= 
f (a) 

x 
→ a 
< δ
.
4. IntermediateValue Theorem
A function
y = f (x)
that is continuous on a closed interval [
a,b]
takes on every value
between 
f 
(a) and 
f 
(b) 
. 

Note: If 
f is continuous on [a,b] and 
f (a) and 
f (b) differ in sign, then the equation 
f (x) = 0 has at least one solution in the open interval (a,b) .
5. Limits of Rational Functions as _{x} _{→} _{±}_{∞}
i).
lim
f
(
x
)
x → ±∞ g
(
x
)
=
0
if the degree of
f (x) < the degree of g(x)
ii).
iii).
lim
x→±∞
lim
x→±∞
Example:
x
lim
→ ∞
x
2
−
2
x
_{x}
3
+
3
= 0
f
(
x
)
g
(
x
)
is infinite if the degrees of
f (x) > the degree of g(x)
Example:
x
lim
→
∞
x
3
+
2
x
x
2
−
8
= ∞
f
(
x
)
g
(
x
)
is finite if the degree of
f (x) = the degree of g(x)
Example:
x
lim
→
∞
2 x
2
−
3
x
+
2
2
= −
10
x
−
5
x
2 5
6. Average and Instantaneous Rate of Change
i).
Average Rate of Change: If
(
x
0
, y
0 )
and
(
x
1
, y
1 )
are points on the graph of
y = f (x) , then the average rate of change of
y with respect to x over the interval
ii).
f 
( 
x 
1 
) 
− ( f x 
0 
) 
= 
y 
1 
− 
y 
0 
= 
∆ y 

x 
1 
− x x 0 x 1 − 
0 
∆ x . 

( x 0 
, y 0 
) 
[
x
0
, x
1
] is
Instantaneous Rate of Change: If
is a point on the graph of
y = f (x)
the instantaneous rate of change of
y
with respect to
x
at
x
0
is
f ′ x
(
0
)
.
, then
7.
f 
′ 
( 
x 
) 
= 
lim 

h → 
0 
f
(
x
+
h
)
−
f
(
x
)
h
8. The Number e as a limit
i).
n
1 +
lim
→ +∞
1
n
n
= e
ii).
n
1
= e
9. Rolle’s Theorem
If
f
is continuous on
[
a,b]
and differentiable on
is at least one number
10. Mean Value Theorem
c in the open interval
(a,b
)
If
in
f
(a
is continuous on [
,b
)
such that
f
(
a,b
b
]
and differentiable on
f
(
a
)
= f
′
(
c
)
.
) −
b − a
(
a,b
)
such that
f (a) = f (b)
such that
_{f} ′(c) _{=} _{0}
.
, then there
(
a,b
)
, then there is at least one number
c
11. ExtremeValue Theorem
If
on
f
is continuous on a closed interval [
[
a
,b
].
a,b]
, then
f (x)
has both a maximum and minimum
12. To find the maximum and minimum values of a function
y = f (x) , locate
1. the points where
f ′(x) is zero or where
f ′(x) fails to exist.
2. the end points, if any, on the domain of
Note: These are the only candidates for the value of minimum.
_{f} _{(}_{x}_{)} .
x where
f (x) may have a maximum or a
13. f be differentiable for Let a < x < b and continuous for a a ≤ x ≤ b , 

1. 
If f ′(x) 
> 0 for every 
x 
in (a,b), then 
f 
is increasing on [a,b]. 
2. 
If f ′(x) < 0 for every 
x 
in (a,b), then 
f 
is decreasing on [a,b]. 
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