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CSSS 505

Calculus Summary Formulas

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

16. d
n
n − 1
(
x
) =
nx
dx
d
(
fg
) =
fg
′+
gf
dx
d
f
gf
′−
fg
(
) =
2
dx
g
g
d
f (g(x))
=
f ′ (g(x))g ′ (x)
dx
d
(sin
x
) = cos
x
dx
d
(cos
x
) = − sin
x
dx
d
2
(tan
x
) = sec
x
dx
d
2
(cot
x
) = − csc
x
dx
d
(sec
x
) = sec
x
tan
x
dx
d
(csc
x
) = − csc
x
cot
x
dx
d
x
x
(
e
) =
e
dx
d
x
x
(
a
) =
a
ln
a
dx
d
1
(ln
x
) =
dx
x
d
1
(
Arc
sin
x
) =
dx
2
1 − x
d
1
(
Arc
tan
x
) =
2
dx
1 + x
d
1
(
Arc
sec
x
) =
dx
|
x
|
x 2 −
1

Differentiation Formulas

17.

dy =

dx

dy

×

du

dx

dx

Chain Rule

Trigonometric Formulas

1. sin

2

θ +

cos

2

θ =

1

2.

3.

1 + tan

cot

1 +

2

2

θ

θ

= sec

= csc

2

2

θ

θ

4. sin(θ ) = − sinθ

5. cos(θ ) = cosθ

6. tan(θ ) = − tanθ

7. sin( A + B) = sin Acos B + sin B cos A

8. sin( A B) = sin Acos B sin B cos A

9. cos(A + B) = cos Acos B sin Asin B

 13. tan θ = sin θ = 1 cos θ cot θ 14. cot θ = cos θ = 1 sin θ tan θ 15. sec θ = 1 cos θ 16. csc θ = 1

17.

cos(

π

2

sin

)

θ

θ

=

sin

θ

10. cos(A B) = cos Acos B + sin Asin B

18.

11. sin 2θ = 2sinθ cosθ

12.

θ

cos 2

= cos

2

θ

sin

2

θ

= 2 cos

2

θ

1 = 1 2sin

2

sin(

θ

π

2

)

θ

=

cos

θ

Integration Formulas

Definition of a Improper Integral

b

a

f (x) dx is an improper integral if

1. f

2. one or both of the limits of integration is infinite, or

3. both (1) and (2) hold.

becomes infinite at one or more points of the interval of integration, or

1. a dx = ax + C n +
1
x
n
2. ∫
x
dx =
+ C
,
n + 1
1
3. ∫
dx = ln
x
+ C
x
x
x
4. ∫ e
dx = e
+ C
x
a
5. ∫
a
x dx =
+ C
ln a

n ≠ − 1

6. ln x dx = x ln x x + C

7. sin x dx = − cos x + C

8. cos x dx = sin x + C

 9. ∫ tan x dx = ln 10. ∫ cot x dx = ln 11. ∫ sec x dx = ln sec x
+
C or
ln
cos x
sin x
+ C
sec
x
+ tan
x
+ C

+ C

12. ln

csc

x dx =

2

x dx =

csc

x

cot

x

x + C

+ C

13. tan

sec

14. sec x tan x dx = sec x + C

15. csc

2 x dx = − cot x + C

16. csc x cot x dx = − csc x + C 17. tan
2 x dx = tan x − x + C
dx
  
18. 2
=
1 Arc tan
x C
 +
2
a
+ x
a  
a
dx
 
x
19. ∫
=
Arc sin
 +
C
2
2
a
a
− x
 
dx
1
x 1
a
20. ∫
=
Arc sec
+
C
=
Arc cos
2
2
a
a a
x
x
x
− a

+ C

1a.

Formulas and Theorems Definition of Limit: Let f be a function defined on an open interval containing c (except

 possibly at c ) and let L be a real number. Then lim f ( x ) = L means that for each ε > 0 there x → a

exists a δ > 0

1b.

such that f
(
x
)
− L

<

ε whenever

0 <

x = a if

A function y = f (x) is continuous at

 i). f(a) exists ii). lim x → a f (x) exists iii). lim = f (a) x → a x
c

< δ

.

4. Intermediate-Value Theorem

A function

y = f (x)

that is continuous on a closed interval [

a,b]

takes on every value

 between f (a) and f (b) . Note: If f is continuous on [a,b] and f (a) and f (b) differ in sign, then the equation

f (x) = 0 has at least one solution in the open interval (a,b) .

5. Limits of Rational Functions as x ±

i).

lim

f

(

x

)

x ±∞ g

(

x

)

=

0

if the degree of

f (x) < the degree of g(x)

ii).

iii).

lim

x±∞

lim

x±∞

Example:

x

lim

→ ∞

x

2

2

x

x

3

+

3

= 0

f

(

x

)

g

(

x

)

is infinite if the degrees of

f (x) > the degree of g(x)

Example:

x

lim

x

3

+

2

x

x

2

8

= ∞

f

(

x

)

g

(

x

)

is finite if the degree of

f (x) = the degree of g(x)

Example:

x

lim

2 x

2

3

x

+

2

2

= −

10

x

5

x

2 5

6. Average and Instantaneous Rate of Change

i).

Average Rate of Change: If

(

x

0

, y

0 )

and

(

x

1

, y

1 )

are points on the graph of

y = f (x) , then the average rate of change of

y with respect to x over the interval

ii).

 f ( x 1 ) − ( f x 0 ) = y 1 − y 0 = ∆ y x 1 − x x 0 x 1 − 0 ∆ x . ( x 0 , y 0 )

[

x

0

, x

1

] is

Instantaneous Rate of Change: If

is a point on the graph of

y = f (x)

the instantaneous rate of change of

y

with respect to

x

at

x

0

is

f x

(

0

)

.

, then

7.

 f ′ ( x ) = lim h → 0

f

(

x

+

h

)

f

(

x

)

h

8. The Number e as a limit

i).

n

1 +

lim

+∞

1  

n

n

= e

ii).

n

1 n
lim
1
+
n  
1
→ 0 

= e

9. Rolle’s Theorem

If

f

is continuous on

[

a,b]

and differentiable on

is at least one number

10. Mean Value Theorem

c in the open interval

(a,b

)

If

in

f

(a

is continuous on [

,b

)

such that

f

(

a,b

b

]

and differentiable on

f

(

a

)

= f

(

c

)

.

)

b a

(

a,b

)

such that

f (a) = f (b)

such that

f (c) = 0

.

, then there

(

a,b

)

, then there is at least one number

c

11. Extreme-Value Theorem

If

on

f

is continuous on a closed interval [

[

a

,b

].

a,b]

, then

f (x)

has both a maximum and minimum

12. To find the maximum and minimum values of a function

y = f (x) , locate

1. the points where

f (x) is zero or where

f (x) fails to exist.

2. the end points, if any, on the domain of

Note: These are the only candidates for the value of minimum.

f (x) .

x where

f (x) may have a maximum or a

 13. f be differentiable for Let a < x < b and continuous for a a ≤ x ≤ b , 1. If f ′(x) > 0 for every x in (a,b), then f is increasing on [a,b]. 2. If f ′(x) < 0 for every x in (a,b), then f is decreasing on [a,b].