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Differentiation Formulas

d n dy dy du

1. ( x ) = nx n −1 17. = × Chain Rule

dx dx dx dx

d

2. ( fg ) = fg ′ + gf ′

dx

d f gf ′ − fg ′

3. ( )=

dx g g2

d

4. f ( g ( x)) = f ′( g ( x)) g ′( x)

dx

d

5. (sin x) = cos x

dx

d

6. (cos x) = − sin x

dx

d

7. (tan x) = sec 2 x

dx

d

8. (cot x) = − csc 2 x

dx

d

9. (sec x) = sec x tan x

dx

d

10. (csc x) = − csc x cot x

dx

d x

11. (e ) = e x

dx

d x

12. (a ) = a x ln a

dx

d 1

13. (ln x) =

dx x

d 1

14. ( Arc sin x) =

dx 1− x2

d 1

15. ( Arc tan x) =

dx 1+ x2

d 1

16. ( Arc sec x) =

dx | x | x2 −1

Trigonometric Formulas

13. tan θ = =

2. 1 + tan 2 θ = sec 2 θ cosθ cot θ

3. 1 + cot 2 θ = csc 2 θ cosθ 1

14. cot θ = =

4. sin(−θ ) = − sin θ sin θ tan θ

5. cos(−θ ) = cosθ 1

15. secθ =

6. tan(−θ ) = − tan θ cosθ

7. sin( A + B ) = sin A cos B + sin B cos A 1

16. cscθ =

8. sin( A − B) = sin A cos B − sin B cos A sin θ

9. cos( A + B) = cos A cos B − sin A sin B π

17. cos( − θ ) = sin θ

2

10. cos( A − B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B π

18. sin( − θ ) = cosθ

2

11. sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ

12. cos 2θ = cos θ − sin 2 θ = 2 cos 2 θ − 1 = 1 − 2 sin 2 θ

2

Integration Formulas

b

∫ f ( x) dx is an improper integral if

a

1. f becomes infinite at one or more points of the interval of integration, or

2. one or both of the limits of integration is infinite, or

3. both (1) and (2) hold.

x n +1 ∫ sec x d x = tan x + C

2

13.

∫ x dx =

n

2. + C , n ≠ −1

n +1

1

14. ∫ sec x tan x dx = sec x + C

3. ∫ x dx = ln x + C 15. ∫ csc x dx = − cot x + C

2

x x

4. 16.

ax

∫ tan x dx = tan x − x + C

2

17.

∫ a dx =

x

5. +C

ln a

dx 1 x

6. ∫ ln x dx = x ln x − x + C 18. ∫a 2

+x 2

= Arc tan + C

a a

7. ∫ sin x dx = − cos x + C 19. ∫

dx x

= Arc sin + C

a

8. ∫ cos x dx = sin x + C a2 − x2

dx 1 x 1 a

9. ∫ tan x dx = ln sec x + C or − ln cos x + C 20. ∫x =

a

Arc sec + C = Arc cos + C

a a x

x2 − a2

10. ∫ cot x dx = ln sin x + C

11. ∫ sec x dx = ln sec x + tan x + C

Formulas and Theorems

1a. Definition of Limit: Let f be a function defined on an open interval containing c (except

possibly at c ) and let L be a real number. Then lim f ( x ) = L means that for each ε > 0 there

x→a

exists a δ > 0 such that f ( x ) − L < ε whenever 0 < x − c < δ .

1b. A function y = f (x ) is continuous at x = a if

i). f(a) exists

ii). lim f ( x) exists

x→a

iii). lim = f (a)

x→a

4. Intermediate-Value Theorem

[ ]

A function y = f (x ) that is continuous on a closed interval a, b takes on every value

between f ( a ) and f (b) .

[ ]

Note: If f is continuous on a, b and f (a ) and f (b) differ in sign, then the equation

f ( x) = 0 has at least one solution in the open interval (a,b) .

5. Limits of Rational Functions as x → ±∞

f ( x)

i). lim = 0 if the degree of f ( x) < the degree of g ( x)

x → ±∞ g ( x)

x 2 − 2x

Example: lim =0

x → ∞ x3 + 3

f ( x)

ii). lim is infinite if the degrees of f ( x ) > the degree of g ( x )

x → ±∞ g ( x )

x3 + 2x

Example: lim =∞

x → ∞ x2 − 8

f ( x)

iii). lim is finite if the degree of f ( x ) = the degree of g ( x )

x → ±∞ g ( x )

2 x 2 − 3x + 2 2

Example: lim =−

x → ∞ 10 x − 5 x 2 5

i). Average Rate of Change: If x , y ( 0 0 ) and (x1, y1 ) are points on the graph of

y = f ( x) , then the average rate of change of y with respect to x over the interval

[x0 , x1 ] is f ( x1 ) − f ( x0 ) = y1 − y 0 = ∆y .

x1 − x0 x1 − x0 ∆x

ii). Instantaneous Rate of Change: If ( x 0 , y 0 ) is a point on the graph of y = f ( x ) , then

the instantaneous rate of change of y with respect to x at x 0 is f ′( x 0 ) .

f ( x + h) − f ( x )

7. f ′( x) = lim

h→0 h

8. The Number e as a limit

n

1

i). lim 1 + = e

n → +∞ n

1

n

ii). lim 1 + n = e

n → 0 1

9. Rolle’s Theorem

[ ]

If f is continuous on a, b and differentiable on (a, b ) such that

f (a) = f (b) , then there

is at least one number c in the open interval (a, b ) such that f ′(c) = 0 .

10. Mean Value Theorem

[ ]

If f is continuous on a, b and differentiable on (a, b ) , then there is at least one number c

f (b) − f (a)

in (a, b ) such that = f ′(c) .

b−a

11. Extreme-Value Theorem

[ ]

If f is continuous on a closed interval a, b , then f (x ) has both a maximum and minimum

[ ]

on a, b .

12. To find the maximum and minimum values of a function y = f (x ) , locate

1. the points where f ′(x ) is zero or where f ′(x ) fails to exist.

2. the end points, if any, on the domain of f (x ) .

Note: These are the only candidates for the value of x where f (x ) may have a maximum or a

minimum.

13. Let f be differentiable for a < x < b and continuous for a a ≤ x ≤ b ,

1. If f ′( x ) > 0 for every x in (a, b ) , [ ]

then f is increasing on a, b .

2. If f ′( x ) < 0 for every x in (a, b ) , then f is decreasing on [a, b ] .

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