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Trigonometric Formulas

1. sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = 1 12.

2. 1 + tan 2 θ = sec 2 θ cos 2θ = cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ = 2 cos 2 θ − 1 = 1 − 2 sin 2 θ

sin θ 1

3. 1 + cot 2 θ = csc 2 θ 13. tan θ = =

4. sin( −θ ) = − sin θ cosθ cot θ

cos(−θ ) = cosθ cosθ 1

5. 14. cot θ = =

6. tan(−θ ) = − tan θ sin θ tan θ

1

7. sin( A + B ) = sin A cos B + sin B cos A 15. secθ =

8. sin( A − B ) = sin A cos B − sin B cos A cosθ

1

9. 16. cscθ =

cos( A + B ) = cos A cos B − sin A sin B sin θ

10. π

17. cos( − θ ) = sin θ

cos( A − B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B 2

11. sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ π

18. sin( − θ ) = cos θ

2

Differentiation Formulas

d n d

1. ( x ) = nx n −1 10. (csc x ) = − csc x cot x

dx dx

d d x

2. ( fg ) = fg ′ + gf ′ 11. (e ) = e x

dx dx

d f gf ′ − fg ′ d x

3. ( )= 12. (a ) = a x ln a

dx g g2 dx

d d 1

4. f ( g ( x)) = f ′( g ( x )) g ′( x) 13. (ln x) =

dx dx x

d d 1

5. (sin x) = cos x 14. ( Arc sin x ) =

dx dx 1− x2

d d 1

6. (cos x) = − sin x 15. ( Arc tan x) =

dx dx 1+ x2

d d 1

7. (tan x ) = sec 2 x 16. ( Arc sec x) =

dx dx | x | x2 −1

d

8. (cot x ) = − csc 2 x dy dy du

dx 17. = × Chain Rule

dx dx dx

d

9. (sec x ) = sec x tan x

dx

Integration Formulas

1. ∫ a dx = ax + C

x n +1

∫ x dx = + C , n ≠ −1

n

2.

n +1

1

3. ∫ x dx = ln x + C

∫ e dx = e + C

x x

4.

ax

∫ a dx = +C

x

5.

ln a

6. ∫ ln x dx = x ln x − x + C

7. ∫ sin x dx = − cos x + C

8. ∫ cos x dx = sin x + C

9. ∫ tan x dx = ln sec x + C or − ln cos x + C

10. ∫ cot x dx = ln sin x + C

11. ∫ sec x dx = ln sec x + tan x + C

12. ∫ csc x dx = ln csc x − cot x + C

∫ sec x d x = tan x + C

2

13.

∫ csc x dx = − cot x + C

2

15.

∫ tan x dx = tan x − x + C

2

17.

dx 1 x

18. ∫a 2

+x 2

= Arc tan + C

a a

dx x

19. ∫ a2 − x2

= Arc sin + C

a

dx 1 x 1 a

20. ∫x x2 − a2

=

a

Arc sec + C = Arc cos + C

a a x

Formulas and Theorems

1a. Definition of Limit: Let f be a function defined on an open interval containing c (except

possibly at c ) and let L be a real number. Then

lim f ( x) = L means that for each ε > 0 there

x→a

exists a δ > 0 such that f ( x) − L < ε whenever 0 < x − c < δ .

1b. A function y = f (x) is continuous at x = a if

i). f(a) exists

ii). lim f ( x) exists

x→a

iii). lim = f (a)

x→a

2. Even and Odd Functions

1. A function y = f (x) is even if f ( − x) = f ( x) for every x in the function’s domain.

Every even function is symmetric about the y-axis.

2. A function y = f (x) is odd if f ( − x) = − f ( x) for every x in the function’s domain.

Every odd function is symmetric about the origin.

3. Periodicity

A function f (x) is periodic with period p ( p > 0) if f ( x + p ) = f ( x) for every value of x

.

2π

Note: The period of the function y = A sin( Bx + C ) or y = A cos( Bx + C ) is .

B

The amplitude is A . The period of y = tan x is π .

4. Intermediate-Value Theorem

A function y = f (x) that is continuous on a closed interval [ a, b] takes on every value between

f ( a) and f (b) .

Note: If f is continuous on [ a, b ] and f (a ) and f (b) differ in sign, then the equation

f ( x) = 0 has at least one solution in the open interval (a, b) .

5. Limits of Rational Functions as x → ±∞

f ( x)

i). lim = 0 if the degree of f ( x) < the degree of g ( x)

x → ±∞ g ( x )

x 2 − 2x

Example: lim =0

x → ∞ x3 + 3

f ( x)

ii). lim is infinite if the degrees of f ( x ) > the degree of g ( x)

x → ±∞ g ( x )

x3 + 2x

Example: lim =∞

x → ∞ x2 − 8

f ( x)

iii). lim is finite if the degree of f ( x) = the degree of g ( x)

x → ±∞ g ( x )

2 x 2 − 3x + 2 2

Example: lim =−

x → ∞ 10 x − 5 x 2 5

6. Horizontal and Vertical Asymptotes

1. A line y = b is a horizontal asymptote of the graph y = f (x) if either

lim f ( x) = b or lim f ( x) = b .

x→∞ x → −∞

2. A line x = a is a vertical asymptote of the graph y = f (x) if either

lim f ( x) = ±∞ or lim = ±∞

.

x → a+ x → a-

7. Average and Instantaneous Rate of Change

i). Average Rate of Change: If

y = f (x) , then the average rate of change of y with respect to x over the interval

f ( x1 ) − f ( x 0 ) y1 − y 0 ∆y

[ x0 , x1 ] is = = .

x1 − x 0 x1 − x0 ∆x

ii). Instantaneous Rate of Change: If ( x 0 , y 0 ) is a point on the graph of y = f (x) , then

the instantaneous rate of change of y with respect to x at x 0 is f ′( x 0 ) .

f ( x + h) − f ( x )

8. f ′( x) = lim

h→0 h

9. The Number e as a limit

n

1

i). lim 1 + = e

n → +∞ n

1

n

ii).

lim 1 + n = e

n → 0 1

10. Rolle’s Theorem

If f is continuous on [ a, b] and differentiable on ( a, b ) f (a) = f (b) , then there

such that

is at least one number c in the open interval ( a, b ) such that f ′(c) = 0 .

11. Mean Value Theorem

If f is continuous on [ a, b] and differentiable on ( a, b ) , then there is at least one number c

f (b) − f (a )

in ( a, b ) such that = f ′(c) .

b−a

12. Extreme-Value Theorem

If f is continuous on a closed interval [ a, b] , then f (x) has both a maximum and minimum

on [ a, b] .

13. To find the maximum and minimum values of a function y = f (x) , locate

1. the points where f ′(x) is zero or where f ′(x ) fails to exist.

2. the end points, if any, on the domain of f (x) .

Note: These are the only candidates for the value of x where f (x) may have a maximum or a

minimum.

14. Let f be differentiable for a < x < b and continuous for a a ≤ x ≤ b ,

1. If f ′( x) > 0 for every x in ( a, b ) , then f is increasing on [ a, b ] .

2. If f ′( x) < 0 for every x in ( a, b ) , then f is decreasing on [ a, b ] .

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