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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

sin 2 θ + cos 2 θ = 1 1 + tan 2 θ = sec 2 θ 1 + cot 2 θ = csc 2 θ sin( −θ ) = − sin θ cos(−θ ) = cosθ tan(−θ ) = − tan θ sin( A + B ) = sin A cos B + sin B cos A sin( A − B ) = sin A cos B − sin B cos A

Trigonometric Formulas 12.

cos( A + B ) = cos A cos B − sin A sin B

10.

cos( A − B) = cos A cos B + sin A sin B 11. sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ

cos 2θ = cos 2 θ − sin 2 θ = 2 cos 2 θ − 1 = 1 − 2 sin 2 θ sin θ 1 13. tan θ = = cosθ cot θ cosθ 1 14. cot θ = = sin θ tan θ 1 15. secθ = cosθ 1 16. cscθ = sin θ π 17. cos( − θ ) = sin θ 2 π 18. sin( − θ ) = cos θ 2

Differentiation Formulas 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

d n ( x ) = nx n −1 dx d ( fg ) = fg ′ + gf ′ dx d f gf ′ − fg ′ ( )= dx g g2 d f ( g ( x)) = f ′( g ( x )) g ′( x) dx d (sin x) = cos x dx d (cos x) = − sin x dx d (tan x ) = sec 2 x dx d (cot x ) = − csc 2 x dx d (sec x ) = sec x tan x dx

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

d (csc x ) = − csc x cot x dx d x (e ) = e x dx d x (a ) = a x ln a dx d 1 (ln x) = dx x d 1 ( Arc sin x ) = dx 1− x2 d 1 ( Arc tan x) = dx 1+ x2 d 1 ( Arc sec x) = dx | x | x2 −1 dy dy du = × Chain Rule dx dx dx

Integration Formulas

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

∫ a dx = ax + C

n ∫ x dx =

∫ x dx = ln x + C ∫ e dx = e + C

x x

1

x n +1 + C , n ≠ −1 n +1

ax +C ln a ∫ ln x dx = x ln x − x + C

x ∫ a dx =

∫ sin x dx = − cos x + C ∫ cos x dx = sin x + C ∫ tan x dx = ln sec x + C or − ln cos x + C ∫ cot x dx = ln sin x + C ∫ sec x dx = ln sec x + tan x + C ∫ csc x dx = ln csc x − cot x + C ∫ sec x d x = tan x + C ∫ sec x tan x dx = sec x + C ∫ csc x dx = − cot x + C ∫ csc x cot x dx = − csc x + C ∫ tan x dx = tan x − x + C

2 2 2

∫a ∫ ∫x

2

dx 1 x = Arc tan + C 2 a +x a dx x = Arc sin + C a a2 − x2 dx x2 − a2 =

20.

x 1 1 a Arc sec + C = Arc cos + C a a a x

1a.

**lim f ( x) = L means that for each ε > 0 there x→a exists a δ > 0 such that f ( x) − L < ε whenever 0 < x − c < δ . 1b. A function y = f (x) is continuous at x = a if
**

possibly at c ) and let L be a real number. Then i). ii). iii). 2. f(a) exists

Formulas and Theorems Definition of Limit: Let f be a function defined on an open interval containing c (except

3.

Even and Odd Functions 1. A function y = f (x) is even if f ( − x) = f ( x) for every x in the function’s domain. Every even function is symmetric about the y-axis. 2. A function y = f (x) is odd if f ( − x) = − f ( x) for every x in the function’s domain. Every odd function is symmetric about the origin. Periodicity A function f (x) is periodic with period p ( p > 0) if f ( x + p ) = f ( x) for every value of x . Note: The period of the function The amplitude is

lim f ( x) exists x→a lim = f (a) x→a

y = A sin( Bx + C ) or y = A cos( Bx + C ) is

2π . B

A . The period of y = tan x is π .

4.

Intermediate-Value Theorem A function y = f (x) that is continuous on a closed interval

[ a, b]

takes on every value between

5.

f ( a) and f (b) . Note: If f is continuous on [ a, b ] and f (a ) and f (b) differ in sign, then the equation f ( x) = 0 has at least one solution in the open interval (a, b) . Limits of Rational Functions as x → ±∞ f ( x) lim = 0 if the degree of f ( x) < the degree of g ( x) i). x → ±∞ g ( x ) x 2 − 2x Example: lim =0 x → ∞ x3 + 3 f ( x) lim ii). is infinite if the degrees of f ( x ) > the degree of g ( x) x → ±∞ g ( x ) x3 + 2x Example: lim =∞ x → ∞ x2 − 8 f ( x) lim iii). is finite if the degree of f ( x) = the degree of g ( x) x → ±∞ g ( x )

Example:

2 x 2 − 3x + 2 2 lim =− 5 x → ∞ 10 x − 5 x 2

6.

Horizontal and Vertical Asymptotes 1. A line y = b is a horizontal asymptote of the graph

y = f (x) if either

2.

lim f ( x) = b or lim f ( x) = b . x→∞ x → −∞ A line x = a is a vertical asymptote of the graph y = f (x) if either lim f ( x) = ±∞ or lim = ±∞ . x → a+ x → aAverage Rate of Change: If

7.

Average and Instantaneous Rate of Change i).

8. 9.

10.

y = f (x) , then the average rate of change of y with respect to x over the interval f ( x1 ) − f ( x 0 ) y1 − y 0 ∆y = = [ x0 , x1 ] is . x1 − x 0 x1 − x0 ∆x ii). Instantaneous Rate of Change: If ( x 0 , y 0 ) is a point on the graph of y = f (x) , then the instantaneous rate of change of y with respect to x at x 0 is f ′( x 0 ) . f ( x + h) − f ( x ) f ′( x) = lim h h→0 The Number e as a limit n 1 i). lim 1 + = e n → +∞ n 1 nn ii). lim 1 + = e n → 0 1

Rolle’s Theorem If f is continuous on Mean Value Theorem If f is continuous on in

( x0 , y0 ) and ( x1, y1 ) are points on the graph of

**f (a) = f (b) , then there is at least one number c in the open interval ( a, b ) such that f ′(c) = 0 .
**

and differentiable on such that

[ a, b] [ a, b]

( a, b )

11.

and differentiable on

( a, b )

such that

12.

Extreme-Value Theorem If f is continuous on a closed interval on

f (b) − f (a ) = f ′(c) . b−a

( a, b ) , then there is at least one number

c

13.

y = f (x) , locate 1. the points where f ′(x) is zero or where f ′(x ) fails to exist. 2. the end points, if any, on the domain of f (x) . Note: These are the only candidates for the value of x where f (x) may have a maximum or a

To find the maximum and minimum values of a function Let 1. 2.

[ a, b] .

[ a, b] ,

then

f (x) has both a maximum and minimum

14.

f be differentiable for a < x < b and continuous for a a ≤ x ≤ b , If f ′( x) > 0 for every x in ( a, b ) , then f is increasing on [ a, b ] . If f ′( x) < 0 for every x in ( a, b ) , then f is decreasing on [ a, b ] .

minimum.

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