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Vol.*,aNo. *,a****

DOI:10.3901/CJME.****.**.***,availableonlineatwww.springerlink.comwww.cjmenet.comwww.cjmenet.com.cn

FlowDynamicsofaSpiralgrooveDrygasSeal

WANGBing1,2,ZHANGHuiqiang1,2,*,and CAOHongjun1,2

1SchoolofAerospace,TsinghuaUniversity,Beijing100084, China

2Beijing3EEnergyKeyLaboratory, TsinghuaUniversity,Beijing100084, China

Received February23,2011revised September6,2011 accepted August,2012

inthegasfilmbetweenthestatorandrotorsealfaces.Forthemicroscaleflowinthegasfilmandgrooves,turbulencecanchangethe

pressure distribution of the gas film. Hence, the seal performance is influenced. However, turbulence effects and methods for their

evaluationarenotconsideredintheexistingindustrialdesignsofdrygasseal.Thepresentpapernumerically obtains the turbulentflow

fields of aspiralgroove drygas seal to analyze turbulence effects on seal performance. The direct numerical simulation (DNS) and

ReynoldsaveragedNavierStokes(RANS)methodsareutilizedtopredictthevelocityfieldpropertiesinthegroovesandgasfilm.The

key performanceparameter,openforce,isobtainedby integrating thepressuredistribution,andtheobtained resultisingoodagreement

with the experimental data of other researchers. Very large velocity gradients are found in the sealing gas film because of the

geometricaleffectsofthegrooves.Considering turbulenceeffects,thecalculationresultsshowthatboththegasfilmpressureandopen

forcedecrease. The RANSmethodunderestimatestheperformance,comparedwiththeDNS. The solutionoftheconventionalReynolds

lubrication equation without turbulence effects suffers fromsignificant calculation errors and a small application scope. The present

study helps elucidate thephysicalmechanismof thehydrodynamiceffectsof groovesforimproving andoptimizing theindustrialdesign

orsealfacepatternofa drygasseal.

Keywords: flowdynamics, spiralgroovedrygasseal, turbulenceeffects,directnumerical simulation (DNS),

ReynoldsaveragedNavierStokes(RANS)method, Reynoldslubricationequation

1 Introduction*

Asaformofnoncontactingmechanicalsealtechnology,

the drygas seal has found extensive applications in

different industrial departments. A drygas seal performs

well interms ofless frictionand wear, longer service life,

as well asreliability[15]. However, knowledge on theflow

dynamicspropertiesofasealinggasfilmislimited.Asthe

spin speed of a rotator shaft increases, turbulence arises

fromtheflowsystemand affectsthe sealperformance.

Spiral grooves are functional configurations in arotator

face with the purpose of improving performance[67]. The

performances of drygas seals are mostly calculated using

the narrow spiralgroove theory proposed by

MUIJDERMAN[1]. The pressure distributions of the ring

face are also approximated using this method. The

performance parameters, such as open force and leakage

quantity, are estimated based on an integration of the

surface pressure[814]. Analyses of gasfilm properties are

usually simplified by solutions of the twodimensional

Reynoldslubricationequation[79].Thephysicalvariablesin

* Correspondingauthor.Email:zhanghq@tsinghua.edu.cn

This project is supported by the Scientific Research Foundation for

ReturnedScholars,MinistryofEducationofChina

ChineseMechanicalEngineeringSociety andSpringerVerlagBerlinHeidelberg 2012

configuration factor h. The definition of h is discussed in

thesucceedingsections.

However,thesolutionsofboththenarrowspiralgroove

theory and the Reynolds equation supply only

twodimensional results. These results are useful for

performance estimations and preliminary designs, but are

not accurate in elucidating the flow dynamics in the gap

betweentwosealfaces.Consequently,anaccuratestudyof

flow fields is needed for performance designs and

optimizationstoenablethequantitative applications of the

drygasseal technologyindifferentindustries.

Todate,nodirectnumericalsimulation(DNS)studyhas

been conducted on a drygas seal. RUAN[11] studied the

effects of a velocityslip condition on seal performance

using a finite element numerical solution of the Reynolds

equation. FUKUI, et al[14], derived a Reynolds equation

usingaPoiseuilleflowratecorrection,andbuiltadatabase

for the theoretic analysis of drygas seals. PENG, et al[15],

proposed corrected lubrication equations applicable to

nanoscaleflows.Theyanalyzedthetribologyproblemsof

hard disk magnetic head surfaces. WANG, et al[16],

performedanumericalsolutionoftheReynoldsequationto

study microscale effects on the flow properties and seal

performance in a drygas seal system. Nevertheless, all

these aforementioned investigations have never reported

YWANGBing,etal:AnalysisofSpiralgrooveDrygasSealbyDirectNumericalSimulation

T

importance of turbulence effects on the sealing

F(V ) = 0, t xx , t xy , t xz ,

performance has alsonotbeendescribed.

T

G(V ) = 0, t yx , t yy , t yz , ,

The present paper numerically mimics a

T

threedimensional flow in a spiralgroove drygas seal

H(V ) = 0, t zx , t zy , t zz ,,

system at a steadystate mechanical equilibrium. Both the

DNS and Reynoldsaveraged NavierStokes (RANS)

simulation with a twoequation turbulence model are wheret xx , t xy , t xz , t yx , t yy , t yz , t zx , t zy ,tzz are the viscosity

employed to study the flow dynamics. Comparisons stressesand

between the DNS results and solutions of the classical

t xx = l (u x + v y + wz ) + 2 m ux,

Reynoldslubricationequationarealsopresented.

t xy = t yx = m (u y + vx),

2.1 Physical model

Fig. 1 shows the schematic diagram of the physical

modeloftherotatorringinadrygasseal.Theringfaceis

grooved and rotates on its shaft. In a mechanical

equilibriumcondition,thefluidfillsthegroovestoadepth

h, as well as the gap between the rotator land and stator

facetoadepth .Theangular velocity oftherotator is.

The radii of the shaft and rotator ring are ro and r2,

respectively. The radius of the groove root is r1. The area

ratio of land to groove is b =b1 / b, and the clearance

ratio is g = (d +h) / d .The ratio of the seal pressure is

e = po / pi.

t xz = t zx = m (u z + wx),

t yy = l (u x + v y + wz ) + 2 m vy,

t yz = t zy = m ( vz + wy),

t zz = l (u x + v y + wz ) + 2m wz

wherel = -2 / 3m. Thepresentstudyadoptstheisothermal

gas model, wherein the fluid agrees with the relationship

below:

p

=RgTref.

(2)

calculation process, whose relationship with the Cartesian

coordinatesisasfollows:

x = x ( x, y, z),

h = h ( x, y, z),

z = z ( x, y, z ).

(3)

becomes

x = r cos q , y = r sin q , z = z.

TheconservativegoverningequationsintheCartesian

coordinatesreadas:

Wt + Fx(E) + G y(E) + H z(E) = Fx(V ) + G y(V ) +Hz(V).

(4)

2.3 Turbulencemodel

A twoequationkturbulencemodelisusedtoclose

the RANSequations.This modelassumesthattheturbulent

dynamicviscosityislinkedtotheturbulencekineticenergy

andturbulentviscosityviatheratio:

(1)

m T =

rk

.

w

(5)

whereW =( r , r u , r v, r w) aretheconservativevariables,

is the fluid density, and u, v, as well as w are the

The turbulent kinetic energy k and turbulent frequency

velocities. The inviscid fluxesare asfollows:

equations, respectively,are

T

F(E) = r u , r u 2 + p, r uv, r uw ,

T

G(E) = r v, r uv, r v 2 + p , r vw ,

T

H(E) = r w, r uw, r vw, r w 2 + p .

The inviscidfluxesreadas:

T

( r k ) ( rV jk)

+

=

t

x j

x j

m + m T k + P - b r kw , (6)

k

s k x j

CHINESEJOURNALOFMECHANICALENGINEERING

( rw ) ( rVjw )

+

=

t

x j

x j

m + m T w + a w P - brw 2,

k

s w x j

k

(7)

where Pk istheproductionrateofturbulence,

V V V

Pk = m T i + k i .

xk

xk

xi

(8)

Themodelconstantsaregivenby s k = 2, s w = 2, a =

5/9, b =0.075,and b = 0.09.

2.4 Discrete methodsandcomputationgrids

The governing equations are discretized by the finite

volume method. The convective terms (inviscid flux) are

discretizedbyasecondorderupwindscheme.Theviscous

terms are approximated by a secondorder central scheme.

Fig. 2 shows the computational domain and the grid

system.

Table 1. Calculationparameters

Geometryparameter

Parameter

Innerradius ro/ mm

Outerradius r2/ mm

Groove root radius r1/ mm

Spiralangel a/ ()

Ratioofgroovetoland

Groovenumber n

Groovedepth h/ m

Value

58.42

77.78

69.0

15

1

12

5.0

Operationparameter

Parameter

Value

2.05

3.05

5.03

4.585 2

0.101 3

10 380

Filmdepth / m

Sealedmedium pressure po/ MPa

Environmentalmedium pressure pi/ MPa

Spinspeed nr/ (r min1)

Mediumproperty

Parameter

Value

Air

300

Medium

Temperature T/ K

Dynamicsviscosity / (kg m s1)

1.8 105

theflowmicroeffect,isdefinedas:

Kn=

m 2RT0

ph

(9)

referencetemperature(300K), and pisthesealingpressure.

Knislessthan0.001.Therefore,thecontinuumassumption

of fluid mechanics still prevails. The nonslipvelocity

conditionsareemployedatthewalls:

(a) Computation domain andboundaryconditions

V( r , q , z) z=0 = 0(atthestatorface),

V( r , q , z ) z = h or z =d + h = 0(attherotatorface).

(10)

radialdirection,

p ( r , q , z ) r = r = pi , p ( r , q , z ) r = r = po.

o

(b) Computationgrids(scaled1000:1intheaxialdirection)

Orthogonalgridsareusedinthesimulation.Therearea

total of 1800000 grid cells.

(11)

Inthecircumferentialdirection,thecomputationdomain

is periodic, and the periodic boundary conditions are

specifiedas:

V ( r , q , z ) q =q =V( r , q , z ) q =q

0

0+ 2 /n

2.5 Boundaryconditions

k ( r , q , z ) q =q = k ( r , q , z) q =q + 2 / n ,

0

0

ThecalculationparametersareshowninTable1.The

w ( r , q , z ) q =q = w ( r , q , z ) q =q + 2 /n .

0

0

5

1

viscosity is 1.810 kg m s . The inner pressure is

0.101MPa(1atm), andtheouteris4.5852MPa.Theshaft TheboundaryconditionsarealsoshowninFig. 2.

spinspeedis10 380 r/min.Thegroovespiralangle is15.

(12a)

(12b)

YWANGBing,etal:AnalysisofSpiralgrooveDrygasSealbyDirectNumericalSimulation

designof adrygassealbasedona solutionoftheReynolds

lubricationequation.Theresultalsoindicatesthatsolutions

of the Reynolds lubrication equation are not sufficiently

3

3

accuratetoinvestigatetheflowdynamicsinadrygasseal.

rph p 1 ph p

( ph)

+

= 6w r

.

(13)

r m r r q m q

q

theperformanceof adrygassealsystem.

The velocity field distributions obtained via DNS are

The angle velocity of the rotator is w =2p nr,nr is the

showninFig.4.Verylargevelocitygradientsarefoundin

shaftspinspeed,isthefluiddynamicsviscosity,andhis

the gas film. There exist large radial and circumferential

afunctionof the filmdepth.

velocity componentsinthe groovesbecauseofthepumping

The Reynolds equation uses a simplified

effects of thegrooves. As therotatorring spins,the fluids

twodimensional model, in which the rotator ring face

are pumped into the grooves. When the pumpedin fluids

geometry is represented by a gasfilm depth distribution

meet the walls of the grooves, they decelerate. Their

functiondefined as

dynamicpressurehead(kineticenergy)isalsotransformed

into the hydrostatic head. The pressure of the fluid in the

d + h, groove,

h( r , q )=

(14) groovesisthenenhanced.

d , land.

2.6 SolutionoftheReynoldslubricationequation

The steady governing equation of the drygas seal in

cylindricalcoordinatesiswrittenas

TheaboveReynoldslubricationequationis numerically

solvedby thefinite differencemethod[12].

3 ResultsandDiscussions

3.1 Flowdynamics analysis

Fig. 3 shows the pressure distribution in the gas film.

Thegasfilmis3.05 mmindepth.Theresultsarecompared

with those obtained by solving the Reynolds lubrication

equation.Ahigher pressureis obtainedattherootregions

of the grooves, which is about 34% higher than the outer

environmental pressure po.

(a) Inthegasfilm

(b) Inthegrooves

(a) DNS result

Fig.5showsthestaticpressurecontoursinthegrooves.

The static pressurereaches thehighestlevel at theroot of

thegrooves.

bytheReynoldsequationthaninthatbyDNS.Thisisthe

obtainedviaDNS (MPa)

CHINESEJOURNALOFMECHANICALENGINEERING

The flow Reynolds number in the drygas seal flow is

definedas

Re =

rVdd rw ( r2 + ro) / 2d

=

,

m

m

(15)

Fig.9showstheturbulencekineticenergyinthegasfilm.

Thereareverylargegradientsinthegasfilm,bothforthe

distributionsof viscosityandturbulencekineticenergy.

whereVd isthelinevelocityofthesealface.Ifthegasfilm

is3.05 mm,theReynoldsnumberis940.

Fig.6showsthestaticpressureandvelocitycontoursin

the gas film from the RANS simulation. Considering the

turbulence effects, the maximum pressure of the gas film

decreases, which implies that the fluid hydrodynamics

effectgeneratedbythegroovesisdecreased.

Fig.8. Eddyviscosity distribution inthegas filmsimulated

by theRANSmethod(mPa s)

(a) Pressurefield(MPa)

simulatedby the RANSmethod (m2/s2)

inthegasfilmsimulatedby the RANSmethod

gasfilm, evenwhentheflow isregardedas a turbulentone.

Fig. 7 shows that thevelocitydecreases in the grooves,

compared with those shown in Fig. 4(b). This result

indicates that the pumping effects are reduced by the

turbulence.

Expermentaldata

DNS

RANS

Reynoldsequation

6.0

5.5

5.0

4.5

4.0

Pressurep/MPa

(b)Velocity field(m/s)

Thepressurealong theradialdirection is plotted in Fig.

10. The DNS results agree well with experimental data

from literature, whereas the solutions of the Reynolds

equation are less accurate. The RANS method predicts a

lowerpeakvalueof thegasfilm pressure.

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

58

60

62

64

66

68

70

72

74

76

78

80

Radiusr/mm

(filmdepth is 3.05 m)

by theRANSmethod(m/s)

be calculatedas

YWANGBing,etal:AnalysisofSpiralgrooveDrygasSealbyDirectNumericalSimulation

Fo =

2

0

r2

ro

prdrdq .

(16)

designandperformanceanalysisofdrygasseal.

References

experimental results in Table 2. The DNS results are in

good agreement with the measurements. The result via a

solution of the Reynolds equation is lower than both the

experimentaldataand DNSresults.

[1]

[2]

[3]

intermsoftheopen force

Film

depth

/m

Experime

ntaldata

2.05

3.05

5.03

40 711.8

33 168.7

29 569.2

Openforce Fo/N

Resultswith Resultviathe

Results via

turbulence

Reynolds

DNS

model

equation

35 172.2

34 222.3

29 230.1

31 503.9

30 525.8

30 941.3

29 366.0

27 198.1

31 688.7

show that the open force increases with the film depth.

However,theReynoldsequationsolutionshowsaninverse

variation.

Due to oversimplification, the conventional Reynolds

lubrication equation suffers from significant calculation

errors and a smallapplicationscope.Therefore,the solution

oftheReynoldsequationisrestrictedtoacertainextentin

guiding the design and analysis of the performance of a

drygasseal.

According to Eq. (15), the flow Reynolds number

increaseswiththefilmdepth.Theeffectsofturbulenceon

sealperformancearestrengthenedastheReynoldsnumber

increases, as shown in Table 2. Given that viscosity

increases in largeReynoldsnumber turbulent flows, the

pumpingeffectsofthegroovesareweakened.Thepressure

ofthegasfilmislowered,andconsequently,the openforce

isdecreased.

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

[8]

[9]

[10]

[11]

[12]

4 Conclusions

[13]

numerically investigated by DNS and the RANS method.

In the RANS simulation, thetwoequation k turbulence

modelisconsidered.The calculatedperformanceparameter

of the open force is in good agreement with the

experimentaldata.

(2) The velocity and pressure, obtained in the grooves

and in the gas film, demonstrate the dynamic pressure or

pumpingeffectsbythegroovesinthedrygassealsystem.

(3) Very large gradients of velocity, turbulent viscosity,

and turbulencekineticenergy arefoundinthegasfilm. The

effects of turbulence on drygas seal performance are

strengthenedwithincreasedReynoldsnumber,becausethe

viscosity increases in large Reynolds number turbulent

flows.

(4) The solution of the Reynolds lubrication equation

under predicts the gas film pressure, and hence, the

performanceparameters,soitsapplicationislimitedinthe

[14]

[15]

[16]

MUIJDERMANEA.Spiralgroovebearings[M].TheNetherlands:

PhilipsTechnicalLibrary,1964.

ZHOU Jianfeng, GU Boqin. Characteristics of fluid film in

optimized spiral groove mechanical seal[J]. Chinese Journal of

MechanicalEngineering,2007,20(6):5461.

XU Wanfu, LIU Yuchuan, LI Guangyu, et al.Theoretical analysis

and experimental investigation of spiral groove dry running

noncontacting gas seals[J]. Chinese Journal of Mechanical

Engineering,2003,39(4):124127. (inChinese)

LIUYuchuan, XU Wanfu, WANG Zhili, etal. Stability ofangular

wobble selfexcited vibration for gas film face seal[J]. Chinese

JournalofMechanicalEngineering,2002,38(4):16.(inChinese)

XU Wanfu, LIU Yuchuan, WANG Zhili, et al. Reason of angular

wobble selfexcited vibration and half frequency characteristic for

gas film face seal[J]. ChineseJournalof MechanicalEngineering,

2002,38(9):4346.(inChinese)

CHENG H S, CASTELLI V. Performance characteristics of

spiralgroove and shrouded Reyleigh step profiles for highspeed

noncontacting gas seals[J]. Transactions of the ASME J. Lubri.

Technol., 1969, 91(1): 6088.

YIN Xiaoni, PENG Xudong. Finite element analysis of a drygas

sealunderslipflowconditions[J].LubricationEngineering,2006,4:

5559. (inChinese)

PENG Xudong, SHENG Songen, YIN Xiaoni, et al. Effects of

surface roughness and slip flow on the performance of a spiral

groove gas face seal[C/CD]//Proceedings of Integration and

Commercialization of Micro and Nanosystems, Sanya, China,

January1013,2007.

PENG Xudong, LIJiyun,SHENG Songen, etal. Effect of surface

roughnessonperformancepredictionandgeometricoptimizationof

a spiralgroove face seal[J]. Tribology, 2007, 27(6): 567572. (in

Chinese)

GABRIELR P. Fundamentals of spiralgroove noncontacting face

seals[J].LubricationEngineering,1994, 50(3): 215224.

RUANB.FiniteelementanalysisofthespiralgroovegasFaceseal

at the slow speed and the low pressure conditions slip flow

consideration[J].TribologyTransactions,2000, 43(3): 411418.

BRADAM,ITZHAK G.Numericaltechniquesforcomputingrotor

dynamicpropertiesofmechanicalgasfaceseals[J].Transactionsof

theASMEJ.Tribol., 2002,124(10):755761.

MARCO TCF.Anefficientfiniteelementprocedureforanalysisof

highspeed spiral groove gas face seals[J]. Transactions of the

ASMEJ.Tribol., 2001,123(1):205210.

FUKUI S, KANEKO R. A database for interpolation of Poiseuille

flow rates for high Knudsen Number lubrication problems[J].

TransactionsoftheASME,J.Tribol.,1990, 112(1): 7883.

PENG Yongqing, LU Xinchun, LUO Jianbin. Ultrathin gas film

lubrication theory at nanoscale[J]. Tribology, 2004, 24(1): 5660.

(inChinese)

WANG Bing, ZHANG Huiqiang. Numerical analysis of

spiralgroove drygas seal considering microscale effects[J].

ChineseJournalofMechanicalEngineering,2011,24(1):146153.

Biographicalnotes

WANGBing,bornin1977,iscurrentlyanassociateprofessorat

SchoolofAerospace,TsinghuaUniversity,China.Hereceivedhis

PhD degree from the same university in 2005. His research

interests include fluid dynamics, power and propulsion

technologies, aswellas CFD.

Tel:+861062772112Email: wbing@tsinghua.edu.cn

ZHANG Huiqiang, born in 1966, is currently an associate

CHINESEJOURNALOFMECHANICALENGINEERING

professor at Tsinghua University, China. He received his PhD

degree from the same university in 1997. His research interests

includepowerandpropulsiontechnologies, aswellascombustion

andnumericalheattransfers.

Tel:+861062772112Email: zhanghq@tsinghua.edu.cn

School of Aerospace, Tsinghua University, China. His research

interests include power and propulsion technology, as well as

combustionandnumericalheattransfers.

Tel:+861062781621Email:chj06@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn

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