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AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL RADAR - Military - Transportable

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL RADAR - Fixed Terminal Area


AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL RADAR - Civil Terminal Area
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL RADAR - Secondary Surveillance
SURFACE MOVEMENT RADAR - Linear Array
SURFACE MOVEMENT RADAR - Reflector
COASTAL SURVEILLANCE RADAR - 7.5 m Reflector
COASTAL SURVEILLANCE RADAR - 5.5 m Reflector
PORT SURVEILLANCE RADAR - EA7401 Linear Array
SPECIALIST MILITARY APPLICATIONS
ROTATING PEDESTALS
TURNKEY RADAR SYSTEMS AND PROJECT PARTNERSHIPS
CIVIL CONSTRUCTION AND SITE ENGINEERING
RADAR SITE SURVEY AND CONSULTANCY
DESIGN CAPABILITY
MANUFACTURING CAPABILITY
TESTING AND QUALITY
RADAR ANTENNA GUIDE - Systems Overview
RADAR PERFORMANCE - Sea Surface Surveillance
PERFORMANCE COMPARISON BY RADAR TYPE - Air Surveillance
RADAR PERFORMANCE - Airport Surface Surveillance
RF DATA
WAVEGUIDE DATA
RADAR DATA
EASAT CONTACTS
EASAT INSTALLATIONS WORLDWIDE

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Easat is a subsidiary of Goodwin Plc, and was incorporated into the Group in
1987. The Goodwin Coat of Arms was awarded in 1983 by the London College
of Arms.

This brochure illustrates radar sensors, antennas and site installations supplied by Easat to its
worldwide customers. Easat is a proven supplier of commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) and
bespoke equipment. The design and manufacturing facilities featured here introduce Easats
extensive capabilities.

Easat Antennas Ltd, based in Stoke-on-Trent


(UK), was founded in 1987 as a specialist
provider of radar antennas and sensors. Since
that time, Easat has established a reputation as
a world-leading supplier of advanced array and
reflector antennas for use in radar surveillance
of air, ground and sea targets for airport, port,
border security and military applications.
With over 120 installations worldwide, Easats
reputation for supplying cost-effective, high
performance antennas with proven reliability
has led to many end users and consultants
specifying Easat antennas on their projects.
With users and customers including FAA(USA),
NATS (UK), Transport Canada, Government of
Malaysia, UK MOD, Lockheed Martin and
Raytheon, configuring systems with Easat
products ensures the highest confidence of
achieving performance requirements, on time
and on budget.

Photograph: Easat Linear Array at Orlando Airport

Air Traffic Control Radar


Military - Transportable

Azimuth
Pattern dB

Angle (degrees)

S-Band Elevation
Pattern
dB

The palletised version (shown on opposite page in the deployed


mode) has 4-ISO corner locations on the pallet for
transportation by standard road transport or purpose-built
trailer. The Trailer version shown below in the transport mode
has a weight of 1954 kg.

S-Band Azimuth
Pattern
dB

Illustrated in the main picture opposite is Easats Tactical


Deployable Air Surveillance Antenna. This type of antenna can
be supplied either trailer-mounted or palletised. The antenna
system is self-contained and capable of being transported by
ship, aeroplane, helicopter or by being towed to site.
The design provides for rapid deployment in less than 30
minutes from arrival at the operating location.

Main Beam dB
Aux Beam dB

Angle (degrees)

L-Band Azimuth
Pattern
dB

Sun Beam dB
Diff Beam dB

Angle (degrees)

L-Band Elevation
Pattern

Sun Beam dB

Design weight of antenna/trailer system


Max section weight to lift during erection
Assembly by 2 persons (without ground anchors)

4300 lbs
72 lbs
30 mins

Operational Capacity
Max operational wind speed (including gust)
Operating temperature range

60 knots
-40C to +55C

The antenna is a dual frequency band, carbon fibre compositebased reflector which operates at S-band (2.7-2.9 GHz) and
L-band (1.0-1.1 GHz). Three states of polarisation (linear
horizontal, left-hand circular and right-hand circular) are
provided for S-band beam by use of polarisation-switching
capability. At L-band, the antenna operates in IFF/SSR by use
of three beams: sum, difference and omni. These features
combine to provide leading-edge RF performance from the
antenna system.

dB

Deployment Data

Angle (degrees)

Photograph Centre: Easat Trailer-mounted Tactical Antenna, in the


transport mode
Photograph Opposite: Easat Pallet-mounted Tactical Antenna, in the
deployed mode

Air Traffic Control Radar


Military and Civil - Fixed Terminal Area

dB

S-Band Main Beam


Azimuth Pattern at
2.8 GHz, CP

Angle (degrees)

S-Band Elevation
Pattern Main and
Auxiliary Beam
at 2.8 GHz, CP

Main Beam
Aux Beam

dB

The high-performance Easat EA5325 Primary Surveillance


shaped reflector radar antenna is designed to provide local
or terminal area coverage, using a modified cosec2
elevation pattern to in excess of 40 elevation angle.
The antenna is suitable for worldwide deployment and offers
extreme versatility, being capable of operating with a
co-mounted MSSR without the need for a radome, even in
harsh icing conditions. This antenna can be supplied with single
or dual motor drives, and a variety of encoder and rotary joint
options, including Inductosyn.

Angle (degrees)

Electrical
Main
Gain (at rotary joint)

General and Mechanical


Weight (including Pedestal)

3760 kg (PSR and MSSR)


Maximum Swept Radius

3.4 m

Rotation Rate

Typically 15 rpm

Design Life

20 years

Environmental
Operational Wind Speed
Survival Wind Speed

140 km/hr with 10 mm ice


240 km/hr with 40 mm ice

Humidity

100%

Operational Temperature

-30C to +70C including 18 solar


-50C to +70C (optional)

Protection

VSWR

3300 kg (PSR only)

Suitable for Coastal Environment

The antenna operates at S-band (2.7-2.9 GHz) and provides


a dual-beam receive capability to enhance high-angle
performance, whilst minimising short range ground returns.
The two beams point at different elevation angles, the main
beam being a high-power transmit and receive beam, with the
auxiliary beam used on receive only. Switchable polarisation is
provided as standard using a rotating polariser. In circular
polarisation mode, a weather channel (receive only) is provided
on both beams, which can be optionally selected via a fast
(40 ns) PIN diode switch, or alternatively provided with
separate rotating joint channels. The antenna offers 34 dB of
gain as standard, an industry-leading performance given the
high back-angle coverage provided.

Circular Polarisation
Azimuth Beamwidth
Azimuth Sidelobes

Elevation Beamwidth (-3 dB)


Vertical Beam Separation

Auxiliary

34 dBi

32 dBi
1.4:1

20 dB min ICR in principal


azimuth and elevation planes
1.5 0.1
-26.0 dB (0 to 10)
-32.5 dB (10 to 30)
-35.0 dB (30 to 180)
4.5 nominal

6.0 nominal

5.5 1 between
Aux and Main beam peak

Photograph Centre: Easat - EA5325 Antenna and MSSR Antenna on


the ASR-E Programme
Photograph Opposite: Harrier Jets in low-flight training exercise, UK

Air Traffic Control Radar


Civil Terminal Area

dB

S-Band Main Beam


Azimuth Pattern at
2.8 GHz, CP

Angle (degrees)

S-Band Elevation
Pattern Main and
Auxiliary Beam
at 2.8 GHz, CP

Main Beam
Aux Beam

dB

The high-performance carbon fibre composite Easat EA5025


shaped reflector Primary Surveillance Radar antenna design
provides airport local or terminal area air surveillance to a
nominal 60 mile range. Retaining many of the features of the
larger Easat EA5325, the Easat EA5025 is a more compact
design, offering a cost-effective alternative. High back-angle
coverage is retained to ensure system performance can be
provided at both short and long ranges. The antenna is
extremely versatile, being capable of being operated with a
co-mounted MSSR. It can be supplied with single or dual drive
motors, and a variety of encoder and rotary joint options,
including Inductosyn. The use of these options ensures
compliancy to the most stringent operating standards.

Angle (degrees)

Electrical

Gain (at rotary joint)

General and Mechanical


Weight (including Pedestal)

3846 kg (PSR only)


4300 kg (PSR and MSSR)

Maximum Swept Radius

2.72 m

Rotation Rate

Typically 15 rpm

Design Life

20 years

Environmental
Operational Wind Speed

157 km/hr with 10 mm ice

Survival Wind Speed

240 km/hr with 40 mm ice (on PSR)

Humidity

100%

Operational Temperature

-30C to +70C including 18 solar


-50C to +70C (optional)

Protection

VSWR

Suitable for Coastal Environment

The antenna operates at S-band (2.7-2.9 GHz) and provides a


dual-beam receive capability to enhance high-angle
performance (up to 40) whilst minimising short-range ground
returns. The two beams point at different elevation angles, the
main beam being a high-power transmit and receive beam with
the auxiliary beam used on receive only. Three states of
polarisation (linear horizontal, left-hand circular and right-hand
circular) can be provided for each beam by use of a standard
polarisation-switching capability. The antenna offers 33.5 dB of
gain as standard, and has excellent beam-shaping and sidelobe
control. A weather channel output can be made available in
circular polarisation state.

Circular Polarisation

Main

Auxiliary

33.5 dBi

30.5 dBi

Average 1.4:1
Peaks not exceeding 1.5:1
20 dB min ICR in principal
azimuth and elevation planes

Azimuth Beamwidth
Azimuth Sidelobes

Elevation Beamwidth (-3 dB)


Vertical Beam Separation

1.5 0.1
-25.0 dB (0 to 10)
-28.0 dB (10 to 30)
-30.0 dB (30 to 180)
5.0 nominal

7.0 nominal

3.0 1 between
Main and Aux beam peak

Photograph Centre: Easat EA5025 Composite PSR


Photograph Opposite: Busy airport approach

Air Traffic Control Radar


Secondary Surveillance

Azimuth Pattern
dB

Easats high-gain open planar SSR/IFF array meets the


worldwide LVA antenna requirements and is offered as a
stand-alone version (shown below) or co-mounted onto Easats
EA5325 or EA5025 Primary Surveillance antennas, as illustrated
opposite. Available in either Standard (single beam) or
Monopulse configurations, the antenna offers a shaped
elevation pattern, a sharp horizon rolloff and superior gain,
providing excellent system performance and reduced ground
illumination. This antenna is Mode S compatible (Level 2).
The antenna is operational worldwide.

Angle (degrees)

dB

Elevation Pattern

Angle (degrees)

Electrical

General and Mechanical


Weight (including Pedestal)

1370 kg (Single Drive)


1540 kg (Dual Drive)

1030 3.5 MHz

Receive Frequency

1090 3.5 MHz

450 kg

VSWR (all channels)

1.5:1

Maximum Swept Radius

4.09 m

Impedance

50 ohms

Rotation Rate

Typically 5 to15 rpm

Power Handling Capacity

10 kW peak, 100 W average

Azimuth Measurement

13- or 14-bit Optical Shaft Encoder(s)

Polarisation (all channels)

Vertical

Redundancy Options

Dual Motors; Dual Encoders

Design Life

20 years

Optional Stand

Cross Polarisation (all channels)

Inductosyn

Environmental

Transmit Frequency

Operational Wind Speed

160 km/hr with 12.7 mm radial ice

Survival Wind Speed

231 km/hr with 12.7 mm radial ice

Humidity

5% to 100%

Operational Temperature

-30C to +70C including 18 solar


-50C to +70C (optional)

Protection

Suitable for Coastal Environment

Mechanically, the unit offers an open-antenna structure for low


wind loadings, encapsulated dipole columns for superior
weather protection, and a turning unit capable of operations in
severe environments with temperatures as low as -50 C.
The EP0409 turning unit is available in single or dual drive
configurations, with highly accurate single or dual azimuth
encoders or Inductosyn. The azimuth accuracy offered by this
system meets or exceeds all current worldwide
recommendations for redundancy and azimuth accuracy from
this type of equipment.

Gain

30 dB below Sum peak


27 dBi min

Azimuth Patterns
Sum Pattern 3 dB Beamwidth
Sum or Diff Maximum Sidelobe Level
Sum/Diff Pattern Crossover Points
SLS Coverage of Sum Sidelobes

2.4 0.25
25 dB below peak
-3 0.5 dB
4 dB min

Photograph Centre: Portuguese Air Force MSSR, installed by Easat


Photograph Opposite: Easat EA5325 Antenna with co-mounted MSSR

Surface Movement Radar


Linear Array

Easat have designed a range of high-performance, low-cost


Linear Array antennas specifically for Ground Movement
Radar Control at airports.

Azimuth
Pattern

General and Mechanical


Weight (including Pedestal)

350 kg Single drive


470 kg Dual drive

Elevation
Pattern

Angle (degrees)

Electrical EA7401M

Optional Stand

100 kg

Maximum Swept Radius

3.625 m

Operating Frequency

Rotation Rate

Typically 60 rpm

VSWR

Elevation Beamshape

Inverse cosec2 to -40

Backlobes

13 or 14 bit Opt. Shaft Encoder(s)

Azimuth Sidelobes (peak)

Azimuth Measurement

Inductosyn

Elevation Beamshape

Redundancy Options

Dual Motors; Dual Encoders

Azimuth (-3 dB) Beamwidth

Design Life

20 years

Polarisation
Gain

Environmental
Operational Wind Speed

150 km/hr

ICR (principal azimuth and


elevation planes)

9.1 to 9.5 GHz


1.4:1 at 2 spot frequencies
-40 dB
-25 dB
Inverse cosec2 to -40
0.37
Circular
35 dBi min
> 15 dB min ICR

Survival Wind Speed

240 km/hr

Humidity

5% to 100%

Photograph Centre: Easat EA7401M Linear Array for SMR

Operational Temperature

-30C to +70C including 18 solar

Photograph Opposite: London Heathrow Airport, where Easat have


supplied complete SMR sensor systems

-50C to +70C (optional)

10

The Linear Array antenna design is based on cellular radio


technology and provides high performance at low cost.
The X-band Linear Array antenna offers Ku-band type
resolution with a sub 0.34 (demonstrated) beamwidth, and
gives excellent range and azimuth resolution superior to that
provided with slotted waveguides. The antenna provides
operation with 40 ns pulse width without pulse distortion, and
zero squint at multiple frequency, making it ideal for use with a
magnetron, solid-state, frequency-agile or FMCW system.

Angle (degrees)

dB

The EA6501 has been specified and used by the FAA at 24 of


the larger commercial airport sites within the USA. The
EA 7401M antenna has higher power-handling capacity, suitable
for use with magnetron-based transceivers. This antenna has
been specified and used by Navcanada exclusively for all 10 major
airports in Canada, and is also on many major European airports
such as Brussels, Zurich and London Heathrow.

dB

The Easat Linear Array antenna EA6501 is targeted at the SMR


markets in the USA. The model EA7401M is targeted at the
SMR markets in other parts of the world such as Canada,
Europe and the Pacific Basin.

Surface Movement Radar


Reflector Antenna

dB

Azimuth Beam
Pattern

Angle (degrees)

Figure 1
Elevation Beam
Pattern

dB

Targeted at the SMR, ASDE and A-SMGCS markets, Easats


EA3462 High Gain Reflector is designed to provide the highest
performance available, whilst minimising the weight and
loading penalties often associated with reflector antennas.
This product has been chosen by several recognised National
ATC authorities for reliable detection performance in poor
weather conditions, typically found in regions where monsoontype rainfall, snow, sleet and ice are prevalent. The antenna can
be operated with or without a radome. Offering effectively
zero squint with multiple frequency, the antenna is particularly
suitable for frequency-diverse, solid-state or agile systems.

Angle (degrees)

General and Mechanical


Weight (including Pedestal)

735 kg Single drive


855 kg Dual drive

Optional Stand

240 kg

Electrical

Maximum Swept Radius

6.2 m

Operating Frequency

Rotation Rate

Typically 60 rpm

Gain

Azimuth Measurement

13 or 14 bit Opt. Shaft Encoder(s)

Elevation (-3 dB) Beamwidth

Inductosyn

Elevation Beamshape

Polarisation

Circular or Switchable (option)

Azimuth (-3 dB) Beamwidth

Redundancy Options

Dual Motors; Dual Encoders

Design Life

20 years

Environmental
Operational Wind Speed

180 km/hr (external)

Survival Wind Speed

240 km/hr (external)

Humidity

5% to 100%

Operational Temperature

-30C to +70C including 18 solar


-50C to +70C (optional)

Protection

12

Suitable for Coastal Environment

The antenna provides circular polarisation as standard for


excellent weather penetration, and inverse cosec2 beam
shaping to enhance short-range detection, which minimises the
effects of rain clutter. Polarisation switching is available as an
option to provide horizontal or vertical polarisation.
Rotation up to 60 rpm is provided by the low-noise, lowvibration EP0711 turning unit (with radome) and EP0009
turning unit (without radome), available in single or dual drive
configurations, and with highly accurate single or dual azimuth
encoders or Inductosyn.

Azimuth Sidelobe Level (worst)


Backlobes
VSWR
ICR (principal azimuth
and elevation planes)

9.1 to 9.5 GHz


40 dBi
4.0 nominal
Inverse cosec2
< 0.45
within 15 -28 dB
within 90 -40 dB
-38 dB
< 1.30:1
17 dB min

Photograph Centre: Easat EA3462 High Gain Antenna


Photograph Opposite: Schiphol Amsterdam Airport, with Easat
EA3462 Reflector Antenna monitoring surface movement

Coastal Surveillance Radar


7.5 m Reflector

Typical Azimuth
Pattern at
9.17 GHz, HP
dB

The Easat EA2526 is a 7.5 m, shaped reflector antenna,


designed to meet the modern requirements of vessel traffic
management and coastal surveillance systems. The antenna is
illustrated below and in the opposite main picture.
Used by governments from Malaysia to Estonia, this design
offers industry-leading radio frequency performance far
superior to earlier parabolic reflectors or array designs.
The high gain of the Easat antenna provides the ultimate in
detection of small targets at very long ranges.

Angle (degrees)

dB

Typical Elevation
Pattern at
9.17 GHz, HP

Angle (degrees)

General and Mechanical


Type

Shaped reflector

Weight (including Pedestal)

3500 kg

Maximum Swept Radius


Rotation Rate
Design Life

4.1 m
5-20 rpm
20 years

Environmental
Operational Wind Speed

14

150 km/hr

Survival Wind Speed

240 km/hr

Humidity

100%

Operational Temperature

-30C to +70C including 18 solar


-50C to +70C (optional)

Protection

Suitable for salt-laden coastal


environment

Electrical
S-band

X-band

Frequency GHz

2.9-3.2

9.1-9.5

Gain (at rotary joint)

35 dBi

45 dBi

VSWR

1.3 : 1

1.3 : 1

The antennas narrow azimuth beamwidth improves the


resolution between adjacent targets. The narrow azimuth
beamwidth also reduces rain and sea clutter.

Polarisation

Circular

Switchable

Available in several variants, the EA2526 antenna utilises the


same main reflector with different feed structures to satisfy
various customers needs. The antenna variants are single
S-band, single X-band and dual S- and X-band, with various
combinations of polarisation switching.

The antenna also provides reliable performance in extended


periods of severe weather by means of antenna polarisation
switching, and the use of dual X and S-band frequencies.

Azimuth Beamwidth

1.1

0.33

Elevation Beamwidth

5.5 min

1.8 min

Vertical Beam Shape

Pencil beam

Pencil beam
or inverse cosec2

Photograph Centre: Easat EA2526 Antenna


Photograph Opposite: Easat EA2526 Antenna at Dover Coastguard

Coastal Surveillance Radar


5.5 m Reflector

The shaped elevation beam (inverse cosec2) is ideal for the


detection of small and large targets at both short and long
ranges, even when the antenna is mounted on a high tower,
building or hillside.

Typical Azimuth
Pattern at
9.41 GHz, CP
dB

The Easat EA3462 shaped reflector antenna is designed for


high-performance surface surveillance.

Angle (degrees)

dB

Typical Elevation
Pattern at
9.41 GHz, CP

Angle (degrees)

General and Mechanical


Type

Shaped reflector

Weight (including Pedestal)

1130 kg

Maximum Swept Radius

3.1 m

Rotation Rate
Design Life

Electrical

10-30 rpm
20 years

Environmental
Operational Wind Speed

16

150 km/hr

Survival Wind Speed

240 km/hr

Humidity

100%

Operational Temperature

-30C to +70C including 18 solar


-50C to +70C (optional)

Protection

Suitable for salt-laden coastal


environment

C-band

X-band

Frequency GHz

5.4-5.9

9.1-9.5

Gain (at rotary joint)

36.5 dBi

40 dBi

VSWR

< 1.3:1

< 1.3:1

Existing applications include vessel traffic management


systems, law enforcement, port security, border protection and
search and rescue.

Polarisation

Switchable

Switchable

Azimuth (-3 dB) Beamwidth

0.8 0.1

0.4 0.04

Elevation Beamwidth

7.5 nominal

4 nominal

Available in several variants, the EA3462 antenna utilises the


same main reflector with different feed structures to satisfy
various customers needs. The antenna variants are either C- or
X-band, fixed or switched polarisation.

Vertical Beam Shape

Inverse cosec2

Inverse cosec2

Photograph Centre: Easat EA3462 Coastal Surveillance Antenna


Photograph Opposite: Oil tanker in inlet, Valdez, Alaska

Port Surveillance Radar


EA7401 Linear Array

Typical Azimuth
Pattern at
9.17 GHz, CP
dB

Operating in the marine and port X-band frequency range, this


antenna uses techniques developed from cellular radio
technology to provide a unique cost-effective combination of
RF performance, compact size and low weight, at an attractive
price.

The Easat EA7401 antenna also offers exceptional inverse


cosec2 elevation beam shaping, thereby enabling both long and
short-range targets to be detected from the horizon to -40
below the horizon. This antenna provides unrivalled
performance for tracking targets close to the radar location.
The antenna is offered in either fixed circular or fixed horizontal
polarisation to meet varying customer needs.

Angle (degrees)

Typical Elevation
Pattern at
9.17 GHz, CP

dB

The Easat EA7401 linear array antenna is ideal for Vessel Traffic
Management Systems and other surveillance radars for coastal
and port applications.

Elevation Pattern

Angle (degrees)

The antenna provides an exceptional azimuth beamwidth of


0.32 degrees. This tight beam allows superior azimuth
resolution and helps to enhance accuracy. This is important in
crowded waterways, where high resolution enables the system
to differentiate between small and large vessels. An example is
in a security or border control scenario, where small vessels may
try to hide behind larger targets in busy traffic lanes. It is
equally important where a traffic lane is distant from the shore
and the system is providing essential safe-passage monitoring.
Uniquely for an antenna of this cost level, the design of the
array is dispersionless that is, the antenna is equally
capable of transmitting very short (< 40 ns) pulse and long
pulse without change in performance. The short-pulse
capability enables high resolution and clutter reduction on
short-range targets, a level of performance not possible with
conventional large-slotted waveguide antennas.
18

Electrical EA7401M
General and Mechanical
Type

Operating Frequency

9.0 to 9.5 GHz

Printed linear array

VSWR

Weight (including Pedestal)

350 kg

Backlobes

Maximum Swept Radius

3.7 m

Azimuth Sidelobes (peak)

Rotation Rate

30-60 rpm

Elevation Beamshape

Design Life

20 years

Azimuth (-3dB) Beamwidth

< 0.32 @ 9.5 GHz


< 0.35 @ 9.0 GHz

180 km/hr

Gain

36 dBi @ 9.4 GHz

240 km/hr

ICR (principal azimuth and


elevation planes)

> 15 dB min ICR

Environmental
Operational Wind Speed
Survival Wind Speed
Humidity

100%

Operational Temperature

-30C to +70C including 18 solar


-50C to +70C (optional)

Protection

Suitable for salt-laden coastal


environment

Polarisation

1.4:1 at 2 spot frequencies


-40 dB
-27 dB
Inverse cosec2 to -40

Fixed circular or horizontal

Photograph Centre: Easat EA7401 Linear Array


Photograph Opposite: Port of Gibraltar

Specialist Military Applications

Easats antenna expertise has been widely used on specialist


products for military application. We are experienced in both
array and reflector antennas for extreme environments.
The in-house radio frequency and mechanical engineering
designers work closely with our production engineering team
to maximise cost effectiveness. In addition to volume
production, we also provide one-off prototype products for
demanding specialist requirements. Where appropriate, we will
modify our high-end civilian products for the military
application. New designs are routinely undertaken for
customer-specific requirements. For sensitive and confidential
purposes, Easat has, and is capable of carrying out, contracts in
a secure environment. Employees are subject to various levels
of security clearance.

Easat also provide antennas for FMCW use. The requirements


for high isolation in these structures can best be met by two
separate, co-mounted, antennas (one for transmit, the other
receive). As a lower cost, lower performance alternative, we
have provided optimised single antennas, using a high isolation
circulator to separate the transmit and receive paths.
Easat can provide product from below 1 GHz to above 90 GHz,
and has a proven track record working with high-peak power
systems and other specialist applications.
Easat is a member of the UKs Defence Manufacturers
Association.

Some examples (pictured) include passive 2D phased array and


highly-shaped radar reflector designs to meet specific radar
surveillance requirements. We have also provided integrated
surveillance and IFF antennas, ship-borne surveillance radar,
and land-based, rapidly deployable structures.

Photograph Left: Easat Phased Array


Photograph Centre: Easat Airwatch Antenna UK MoD Range
Photograph Above: Easat Antennas at MoD test range
Photograph Opposite: Easat Antennas which incorporate three
antennas, operating at eight frequencies at MoD high power
test facility. Radiating at a peak power density in excess of 1MW/m2

20

Rotating Pedestals

Easats substantial skills and experience in microwave and


mechanical design enable us to offer a wide range of pedestals
suitable for rotating antennas. As acknowledged leaders in the
design and manufacture of pedestals renowned for their reliable
and robust performance in the most extreme conditions, with the
requirement of minimal maintenance Easat regularly supply
pedestals for other manufacturers antennas.

The Easat EP0711 single reduction, direct worm-drive pedestal


is a lightweight, low-noise, high-specification turning unit
designed to operate in severe environmental conditions with
minimum maintenance requirements.

Pedestals can be provided with rotation rates from 5 to 60 rpm.

The pedestal is designed to rotate antennas at 60 rpm for


ground movement surveillance at airports, without the need for
a radome and 5.5 m reflector within a radome. Variants are
available with rotation rates down to 5 rpm.

The design enables many variants to be provided. These


include single or twin-drive, mechanical or electrical clutches
and braked drives.

This direct-drive, single-reduction design ensures an extremely


low noise and vibration signature, to allow it to be used in
sensitive locations.

EP0409 Pedestal

A wide range of azimuth position encoders, rotary joints and


slip rings can be fitted to the pedestals.
The range of pedestals are designed to interface with other
suppliers antennas and tower interfaces. They are ideal for
either new installations or replacing pedestals that have been in
service and require renewal.
These pedestals are designed to operate in the most severe
environmental conditions and with minimal maintenance.
Most designs have been operational in excess of 10 years and
have a proven track record for continuous operation.

EP0711 Pedestal

POWER (kw)

0.55 to 5.5

Motor Drive

Single or Dual

Weight (kg)

Without Stand 300

ROTATION RATE (rpm)

60 (variants 5-60)

DESIGN PARAMETERS
Rotating Mass Operational (kg)

450 (In Radome)

Shear (Drag) Load Operational (kN)


Shear (Drag) Load Survival (kN)

1
29

Overturning Moment About Base Operational (kNm)


Overturning Moment About Base Survival (kNm)

0.6
1.7

OPTIONAL FEATURES
Clutch
Motors
Rotary Joint

Fan or Non-Fan
To Suit Application

ARP/ACP

Dual or Single Encoder

ARP/ACP

Inductosyn

Slip Ring

22

Electromagnetic on Dual Drive

To Suit Application

Operational Temparature

-30C to +70C including 18 solar


-50C to +70C (optional)

Control and Monitoring

Can Be Provided

The Easat EP0409 worm-drive pedestal is a lightweight,


low-noise, high-specification turning unit, designed to operate
in severe environmental conditions with minimal maintenance
requirements.
The pedestal is designed to rotate SSR, MSSR antennas and
reflector antennas for coastal or port and harbour surveillance
applications, without the need for radomes. In particular, its
lack of belts and reduction gears ensures low noise or vibration.
This gearbox is available in several sizes to meet a variety of
load requirements, and can be provided either as single or dual
drive.

Rotating Pedestals

EP1643 Pedestal

POWER (kw)

2.2 to 11.0

POWER (kw)

2.2 to 11.0

Motor Drive

Single or Dual

Motor Drive

Dual or Single

670 kg

Weight (kg)

Standard SG Iron 2000-2200


Low Weight Alum 1200-1400

Weight (kg) Without Stand


ROTATION RATE (rpm)

5-30

DESIGN PARAMETERS
Rotating Mass Operational (kg)

1,500

Shear (Drag) Load Operational (kN)


Shear (Drag) Load Survival (kN)

20
54

Overturning Moment About Base Operational (kNm)


Overturning Moment About Base Survival (kNm)

40
108

OPTIONAL FEATURES
Clutch

Electromagnetic on Dual Drive

Motors

Fan or Non-Fan

Rotary Joint

To Suit Application

ARP/ACP

Single or Dual Encoder

ARP/ACP

Inductosyn

Slip Ring

To Suit Application

Operational Temparature

-30C to +70C including 18 solar


-50C to +70C (optional)

Control and Monitoring

Can Be Provided

ROTATION RATE (rpm)


DESIGN PARAMETERS
Rotating Mass Operational (kg)

The Easat EP1643 dual or single-drive turntable pedestal is a


high-specification turning unit designed to operate in severe
environmental conditions, with minimal maintenance
requirements.
The pedestal is designed to rotate S-band Air Traffic Control or
air defence radar antennas, with co-mounted Large Vertical
Aperture (LVA) Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) antennas,
in high winds and icing. It is also used for Coastal Surveillance
Radar and large L-band en-route radar antennas when in a
radome.

4 to 20
6,000

Shear (Drag) Load Operational (kN)


Shear (Drag) Load Survival (kN)

50
150

Overturning Moment About Base Operational (kNm)


Overturning Moment About Base Survival (kNm)

144
470

OPTIONAL FEATURES
Clutch
Motors
Rotary Joint

Electromechanical and Mechanical


Fan or Non-Fan
To Suit Application

ARP/ACP

Single or Dual Encoder

ARP/ACP

Inductosyn

Slip Ring
Extreme Environmental
Operating Temperature Range
Control and Monitoring

To Suit Application
Oil Heaters Provided
Can Be Provided

23

Turnkey Radar Systems and Project Partnerships

Easat offer a wide, experienced and successful resource in


RF, mechanical and civil engineering, backed by our associated
engineering group. Easat serve both the defence and civil
markets, fulfilling turnkey projects and providing specialist
services.

Project Management

Support ranges in complexity from simple antenna installations


to full greenfield site capability to major contractors for airport,
port and coastal customers.

Civil Engineering

As an example, one contract was awarded this year by the UK


National Air Traffic Services for the installation of three
complete radar sensor systems: two at London Heathrow
Airport and one at Glasgow International Airport.
The work includes radar coverage planning to select suitable
sites for the radar, geo-technical survey to check ground
conditions, design of suitable foundations, design of structures,
and full system design of the sensor package. The installation
and commissioning of all equipment is to be carried out and
managed by Easat personnel, who have Air Side insurance,
training and CDM experience. Site Acceptance Testing is to be
carried out and the equipment completed and put into service.
Easats ability to provide turnkey radar systems utilising
in-house mechanical, civil, electrical and RF resources enables
us to respond rapidly to any requirement. These services have
been recognised by many system integrators and users
including Skyguide, Raytheon, Northrop Grumman, Sensis and
UK MoD. Easat planned and managed all aspects of these
contracts, utilising their project management team with many
years of experience in controlling installations to match client
requirements.
Long-term after-sales support is provided covering all aspects
of inspection, maintenance and calibration, both in the UK and
worldwide.

Radar Coverage Planning


Site Survey
Geo-Technical Survey
Site Planning
Structural and Foundation Design
Tower and Radome Design
Engineering
Radar System Design
Infrastructure Design
Equipment Supply
System Supply
Site Management Services
Building Services
Airside Insurance
Installation
Training
Testing
After-sales Support
Inspection
Maintenance
Calibration

Photograph Centre: Easat Surface Movement Radar installed at


Gardermoen, Norway
Photograph Opposite: Easat Surface Movement Radar installed at
Birmingham International Airport

24

23

Civil Construction and Site Engineering

Easat can address the complete radar installation requirement


and provide a solution.
All or part of the following services can be included:
Site Surveys including ground investigation reports.
Complete foundation design based on antenna/tower
loadings, ground conditions and service layouts.
Complete range of foundation and civil works, including site
roadwork preparation and security fencing.
CDM management for Health and Safety Regulations.
Complete project management.
Easat have considerable experience in the preparation of civil
works, and offer the above services as part of a package
available to supply complete turnkey solutions which
complement our range of radar antennas.

Photograph Left: Ground survey


Photograph Top Centre: Preparation of foundations
Photograph Bottom Centre: Foundations complete
Photograph Above: Erection of tower

26

Towers

Easat supply and install a range of tower designs and radomes


to complement the radar systems in the range.
Towers range from a tubular design with a vertical ladder, to a
tubular design with a spiral stairway, to more complex lattice
constructions with staircase access.
Towers, although from a standard base format, are configured
to suit the application. They are designed to combine rigidity
and torsional stiffness, to optimise radar performance and also
to minimise noise.
Radar services can be built into tubular towers with complete
transmitter/receivers and communication systems including
UPS, air conditioning and control systems, to avoid having a
separate radar cabin.
Radomes can be fitted onto the tower head and are purposeselected to match the operating frequency and performance
required from the radar.
The radome can be equipped with many features including
anti-icing and heating systems, dehumidification, internal and
external lighting, lightning protection and communication
devices.
External top platforms are built onto the tower for access to
tower lights, radome cleaning and maintenance.
Towers can be supplied up to 100 metres in height.

Photograph Left: Easat Linear Array antenna with Easat monotube


tower, installed at Zurich Airport
Photograph Right: Easat complete sensor system, including tower and
foundations, at Birmingham International Airport

27

Radar Site Survey and Consultancy

Easat specialise in land-based and naval radar, from fixed or


mobile sites. Every radar customer has a unique radar
requirement, taking into consideration the nature of the site,
the radar detection task, and the available budget.

Coverage Diagram EA2526-DF

By choosing the most appropriate antenna and transmitter


receiver, Easat can put forward the most suitable configuration
of radar sensors and associated equipment. Easat engineers
have considerable experience in modelling radar performance
for a variety of applications.

Easat will generally undertake, free of charge, the modelling of


radar detection from a proposed site having a known height, as
an aid to the correct specification of the radar sensor. Physical
site surveys, and the combining of radar detection performance
with digital terrain modelling, may be chargeable.
Site surveys are carried out to assess foundation and tower
design, equipment access, power supplies and other services,
data and voice communications, buildings and cabins, fire
protection, security protection and the like.

The applications include the following:


Ground-based primary and secondary surveillance radars for
civilian airports.
Fixed, transportable and mobile primary and secondary air
surveillance radars, for defence.
Radars for airport surface movement guidance and control;
airport surface detection equipment (ASDE).
Ground-fixed or ground-mobile, or naval, interrogators for
Identification Friend or Foe (IFF).
Long-range coastal radar for detection of sea surface targets or
for detection of both sea and air targets.
Surveillance radars for the perimeter protection of sensitive
installations or borders.
The radar modelling will usually commence as a desk exercise
involving a specified antenna height, and an assumed set of
radar, propagation and target parameters.
This modelling will typically result in a probability of detection
plot or radar coverage diagram, an example of which follows.

28

The probability of detection plot as shown above is modelled


without taking account of actual terrain features which may
affect the radar performance, such as large buildings, or hills.
These may cause radar shadows, which can seriously interfere
with the radar performance. To evaluate such problems, and to
select sites where such shadows are reduced or eliminated, site
surveying on the ground must always be undertaken.
However, digital terrain modelling may be employed to
minimise the time and cost, and sometimes the risks to
personnel, of undertaking extensive site surveys in distant and
sometimes hostile locations. The plot on the right shows the
digital map of a coastline; the solid red colour shows the sea
surface satisfactorily illuminated by the radar, whilst the
in-shore shadows from hills lying between the radar site and
the sea are clearly shown (lilac).

Photograph Opposite: Site survey to establish the effects of the hill


on radar coverage.

Design Capability

Technical excellence and superior service


Even though Easat Antennas have a large range of products,
we continue to improve and develop new antennas at the
leading edge of technological innovation. Numerous
developments have made Easat a world leader. For each new
technological change, Easat brings its experience and
innovation.

The provision of modern military or civil antennas requires


fusion of expertise in both RF design and mechanical design.
Easat's success has in part been founded on the fact that the RF
and mechanical designers work together in the same
department from the start of the project. This brings an
efficiency to the re-iterative design process. As many of the
design engineers have come from a manufacturing
background, the concurrent design process is naturally
optimised to produce world-leading, cost-effective, highperformance antennas.

A wide experience in system integration and design enables the


company to carry out contracts for turnkey projects. The design
skills enable projects to be carried out incorporating RF design,
mechanical design, electrical and civil.
Easat uses the most technically advanced research, design,
manufacturing and test facilities including:
Full three-dimensional electromagnetic antenna-modelling
software.
Full three-dimensional near-field antenna test chamber.
Finite element analysis software.
The design process is audited to BS EN ISO 9001-2000.

30

Mechanical Design

Mechanical design
This image is a typical finite element model. FE analysis is just
one of the tools used in the mechanical design process.
31

Manufacturing Capability

Manufacturing is carried out at our group engineering facility,


which is located within 10 km of Easats offices.
The engineering facility covers an area of 85,000 square metres
of machine shop, reflector-building department, pedestal
assembly and antenna assembly areas. A 3-shift system is
operated in the works, with a workforce of 200.
The machine shop is equipped with 24 modern CNC machine
tools, CNC lathes, CNC horizontal borers and CNC vertical
borers.
In the reflector-build department are aluminium-forming tools,
together with building and assembly jigs for the manufacture of
the Easat range of reflector antennas.
Pedestals and antennas are finally assembled, integrated with
ancillary equipment and tested in the assembly area.
The assembly area is serviced with a 20-tonne overhead crane.
The engineering facility is registered to ISO 9001(2000) and
the quality assurance department has both small and large
CMM measuring machines.

Photograph Left: S- and X-band coastal surveillance antenna with


polarisation switching
Photograph Opposite: Easat assembly area

32

Testing and Quality

Quality Assured
The Easat range of antennas, pedestals and ancillary equipment
is manufactured and tested in facilities audited to
BS EN ISO 9001-2000.

Production Tests
Inspection is carried out during all stages of production to
ensure compliance with the design quality procedures.
Together with general engineering test equipment, Easat has
also developed a range of specialised equipment utilised to
measure reflector surfaces.
Operational Testing
To ensure satisfactory operation in service, preliminary run tests
are carried out on all pedestals prior to factory acceptance
testing.
Mechanical Factory Acceptance Tests
Prior to despatch, antennas, pedestals and ancillary equipment
are tested to a factory acceptance procedure and are either
witnessed by the customer or Easat QA representative. When
complete, the equipment is prepared for despatch.
34

Photograph Top Left: Easat EA3462 being dimensionally checked in a


large CMM measuring machine
Photograph Bottom Left: Dimensionally checking components on a
CMM machine

RF Testing

RF Testing
Each major RF antenna component is checked to ensure
compliance with the requirements before it is assembled on the
antenna. The checks include critical parameters such as:
Input VSWR and insertion loss for reflector feeds sub-array
components.
Waveguide lengths and amplitude ratios for polarisation
switching networks.
Phase linearity for sub-array assemblies.
These tests are performed at Easats own laboratory, which is
equipped to carry out the measurement of small to mediumsized RF components.
Every antenna manufactured by Easat is normally subjected to
RF testing in an independent, ISO 9001-accredited antenna
test facility.

The antennas are tested in an anechoic environment to


minimise possible sources of spurious reflection. The reflectivity
of the test facility is better than -50 dB, which ensures
negligible effect on the antenna pattern caused by multipath
reflections.
The antenna is measured in the near-field and the results are
transformed to the far-field; this process gives more accurate
results than far-field measurement and is also capable of
providing pattern cuts at various points in space, should the
customer require this.
The basic principle of near-field testing is given below:

Antenna diagnostics
Antenna holography uses the near-field measured data to
correlate the aperture field distribution with the antenna
physical structure. This clearly identifies the areas where the
radiation is originating, and helps better understanding of the
physics of antenna radiation mechanisms.
This powerful diagnostic technique allows rapid optimisation
of new designs, and fault-finding when undertaking
refurbishment of existing equipment.
The technique also provides verification and validation of
Easats advanced radio frequency design tools.

Collect near-field data


Data is collected from a known surface, which can be a
cylinder, sphere or a plane.
Transform to far-field
The collected data is transformed to a sphere of infinite
radius. This gives the far-field pattern of the antenna.
Back-transform to aperture plane
This is required to check the phase/amplitude profile of the
antenna under test.
Diagnostics tools
These simulate the result of a change before re-measuring.
Each measurement fully characterises the radiation pattern at
one frequency. This includes polarisation details (linear, circular,
co-polar and cross-polar), axial ratio and ICR for circular
polarised antennas, and cross-polarisation level for linear
polarised antennas. The data can be presented as radiation
pattern plots, contour plots and also XY digital data.

Photograph Left: Easat EA2526 7.5 m antenna being tested in an


anechoic chamber
Above: Holographic images

35

Radar Antenna Guide


Systems Overview

Introduction

Radar Antenna Features

Radar operates by transmitting bursts of radio energy. These


bursts hit any object within the vicinity which reflect a small
part back towards the radar, which is then received. Provided
the returning signal is strong enough (or more strictly, the
return is sufficiently strong with respect to the general radio
noise level in the system) the return is seen by the radar.
By timing the difference between when any one pulse burst
is transmitted and received, the range to the reflecting object is
determined.

The radar antenna is one of the critical components. Some of


the key features of the antenna are:

range.

Antenna gain. The ability of the radar to see a target is


fundamentally linked to antenna gain. Ignoring weather and
earth curvature, antenna gain determines the size of the
target that can be seen. At a given range, the size of the
target is the square of the antenna gain.

Normally expressed in dBi, a measure of the


antenna to amplify the power of radiated and received signals,
compared to using an omni-directional antenna. Strictly, this
should be stated at a given angle with respect to the antenna
main beam; if not, the peak value is stated.

Azimuth beam width. In the horizontal (or azimuth) plane


the antenna beamwidth sets a number of important radar
parameters. The narrower the beam, the greater the ability
of the radar to distinguish between closely spaced targets.
Also, the narrower the beam, the less the radar is susceptible
to clutter (unwanted reflections).

The angular width of the antenna pattern,


expressed in degrees. Normally taken at -3 dB down with
respect to the peak of the pattern.

In the horizontal plane, the antenna pattern is a narrow pencil


beam. By noting the direction the beam is pointing when the
peak target return is received, the radar is able to determine the
bearing (or azimuth angle). This is known as twodimensional radar (2D). It is the fundamental method of
operation of most surveillance radars that is, systems forming
a radar map of a given area.
Where target height is required, as well as the azimuth angle,
this can be determined either by scanning the antenna beam in
elevation (3D-radar) or by interrogating a transponder fitted to
the target (Secondary Surveillance Radar).
Unfortunately, not all the reflections detected by the radar
represent wanted targets including reflections from the land,
sea and rain. These are known as clutter. Reducing
susceptibility to clutter is often the key to achieving good radar
performance in practical weather conditions.
In the following pages, emphasis is put on the surveillance
radar system for different applications, such as looking for
targets on the sea or in the air. Although at a fundamental level,
radar operates using common principles, different aspects are
of importance to different types of radar for example, coastal
radar is limited in range by the curvature of the earth, whereas
air coverage may not be.

Elevation beam shape. If the vertical beam is too narrow for


the application, insufficient power will be radiated at high or
low elevation angles. This is a particular issue in surveillance
radar. Hence, the elevation beam shape must be chosen to
match the application.
Sidelobes. Antenna sidelobes are unwanted subsidiary lobes
radiated away from the antenna main beam. Low sidelobes,
particularly backlobes, reduce unwanted returns from
close-by structures such as buildings or cliffs.
Polarisation. In general, targets tend to provide larger radar
return in linear polarisation. Aircraft tend to be more
sensitive to horizontal polarisation; sailing boats to vertical.
However, either linear state is highly susceptible to
reflections from rain. These are reduced using circular
polarisation.

The ability of the radar to locate a target in angle and

Unwanted echoes received by the radar. Particularly


applied to reflection from rain, sea or land.
A type of radar which continuously transmits and
receives. The transmitted waveform is varied in frequency to
form a sawtooth. On receive, the radar signal processing
transforms the frequency sawtooth into an equivalent pulse in
time. As the transmitter is continuously on, isolation between
transmit and receive paths is critical and may involve two
antennas.
The use of two or more radar frequencies
simultaneously by a radar.
Moving Target Indicator. A special radar signal processor
function which distinguishes moving targets from static returns.
A type of radar system which simulates a
short, high-power pulse by actually using a long, low-power
pulse. Useful in transmitters of low peak power such as solidstate or travelling-wave tube (TWT) transmitters.
The ability of the radar to distinguish between
closely spaced targets. Can be split into two components:
azimuth and range.
Secondary Surveillance Radar requires a transponder
on the radar target (that is a cooperative target). The SSR
interrogates the target transponder and receives information
normally including identity, height etc. Military form is called
IFF (Identify Friend or Foe).

36

Radar Performance
Sea Surface Surveillance

Introduction

Detection in Bad Weather

In sea surveillance applications such as coastal security, VTS and


environmental monitoring, it is frequently necessary to detect
ships and boats of all sizes often close together, also often at
long and short range. Detection and tracking of the targets
must occur during many types of environmental conditions
(rain, fog, high winds etc). Key considerations are:

Rain produces unwanted echoes which look like noise to the


antenna. Rain clutter can be greatly reduced by:

Radar Height

choice of frequency.

Range can clearly be limited by radar performance, so sufficient


antenna gain is important. However, due to the curvature of
the earths surface, range is necessarily ultimately limited by line
of sight considerations so long-range operation requires high
sites to see the target.

use of frequency diversity.

Resolution in Metres

a narrow transmitter pulse.


using circular polarisation.

The figure below shows maximum detection range as a


function of rainfall rate for X-band and S-band, for a typical
radar scenario. The X-band performs better up to medium
rainfall rates, but the S-band takes over for medium to
extremely high rainfall rates; the reason is that rain attenuation
and backscatter is much higher at X-band than at S-band.

X-Band
S-Band

Radar Target Size

Rainfall Rate (mm/hr)

X-Band

Range (km)

Antenna Height (m)

SNR (dB)

Range vs Rainfall rate for an antenna


height of 500m and a target height of 3m

Transition Range

S-Band

Azimuth Resolution 0.3 degree b/w


Azimuth Resolution 0.4 degree b/w

a narrow antenna beamwidth.

Range (km)

Radar range is more complicated, and a good guide to clear


weather performance is the transition range. This depends on
radar and target height, and operational frequency, and
represents the point where performance with range changes
from 1/R4 to 1/R8 due to the presence of the earths surface.
The figure below shows the transition range at X-band and
S-band as a function of antenna height for a 1 m target height.

Azimuth resolution at 40nm

Resolution and Accuracy


It is critical in many radars to distinguish between small and
large targets close together pirate detection is one example;
safety monitoring of crowded waterways is another. The
antenna contributes to the azimuth resolution, which is
important to distinguish between two targets. Likewise
accuracy, important for ship location, is dependant on the
antenna as well as other radar parameters. These factors
importantly depend not just on antenna beamwidth, but on
signal-to-noise ratio in the radar system, so they relate to
transmit power, receiver sensitivity and antenna gain.
The figure shows resolution assuming typical radar parameters.

The table below shows the radar cross-section of typical


marine targets used in radar calculation. There is considerable
discussion on the topic of radar cross section in circular
polarisation. In brief, this can be summarised by saying large
targets (100 m vessels and above) exhibit relatively little
change in RCS with polarisation. This is due to the complex
nature of the scattering surfaces for example, even flatsided ships are not flat at microwave frequencies! Small targets,
and particularly aircraft, are much more polarisation-sensitive.
In aircraft, a 2.5 dB cross section reduction is commonly
assumed in changing from linear to circular polarisation.
Target

RCS X-band

RCS S-Band

30 m pilot vessel

100

40

Assummed Height
5

trawler

1,000

400

100,000 ton

100,000

40,000

18

37

Performance Comparison by Radar Type


Air Surveillance

Introduction

The PSR detects any targets within the instrumented range,


regardless of whether they have working transponders fitted.
Air surveillance radars typically operate at L-band and S-band.
Operation has to be maintained under all weather conditions
such as rain, fog, snow, high winds etc. Key factors for PSR air
surveillance antennas are elevation pattern-shape to minimise
ground clutter and maximise coverage, polarisation switching
capability to counteract the effect of rain clutter, and azimuth
beamwidth for resolution and Doppler processing. For MSSR
systems, low sidelobes and backlobes are important to
minimise false reply, and also the alignment between the
transmit and monopulse beam for accurate target positioning.
Radar Antenna Features
Polarisation
MSSR systems operate at L-band, and by international
agreement, use linear vertical polarisation. PSR antennas work
at S-band, and normally include capability to switch
polarisations between circular and linear. Circular polarisation is
critical to ensure proper operation in heavy rain, whilst being
able to use linear polarisation maximises system performance in
dry weather.

The choice of linear polarisation type is not a straightforward


matter. Typically, helicopters give a better return when
horizontal polarisation is used, whilst vertical polarisation
generally gives better performance for systems installed near
the sea.

There are two main factors that decide the optimum azimuth
beamwidth for a PSR air surveillance antenna:

Elevation beam shape

Doppler processing. All air surveillance radars use Doppler


processing and as such, they require as many hits-pertarget as possible. In effect, this means that an antenna
with a broader azimuth beamwidth returns more hits per
target and results in better performance.

The antenna pattern in the vertical plane is key to providing


good air surveillance coverage, whilst minimising reflections
from the ground. The first is important to enable detection of
targets at high altitude, and the latter is particularly important
for low-flying targets.
The PSR system generally has two elevation beams: a main,
high-power transmit and receive beam, and an auxiliary
receive-only beam which points above the main beam.
Typically, the auxiliary beam is a lower-gain beam, but increases
the air coverage past the main transmit beam; the advantage is
an increase in the detection of targets at high altitudes.
By switching between the two beams, the system can also help
reduce the effect of reflections from the ground.
As the antenna elevation beam shape is broadened, the
antenna gain inevitably reduces. The antenna back-angle is the
angle from the horizon to the point where the antenna pattern
provides insufficient gain for detection to occur.
Gain reduction vs Coverage angle

Gain reduction (dB)

Air surveillance applications are normally performed by two


types of radar systems: secondary surveillance radar (SSR) and
primary surveillance radar (PSR). SSR requires a transponder to
be fitted to any aircraft of interest. The SSR interrogates this
transponder and generates a target plot if a reply is received. To
improve angular accuracy, many SSR systems use an additional
monopulse beam in azimuth (termed MSSR).

Azimuth Beamwidth

Antenna Back Angle (degrees)

38

Azimuth Resolution. This is the ability of the radar to


separate two targets close together; this inherently requires
an antenna with a narrow azimuth beamwidth.

Hence, choosing the optimum azimuth beamwidth is a


compromise between the desired accuracy and the number of
hits per target.
Radar Antenna Features - MSSR
The MSSR systems require an antenna with an accurate
alignment between the peak of the transmit beam and the null
of the monopulse beam. Critically, the null position must not
move in angle under extremes of weather, such as heavy
winds.
Both SSR and MSSR systems use a sidelobe blanking pattern
that, coupled with the main transmit beam, ensures a reduction
of false transponder replies. To further minimise such unwanted
replies, a transmit beam with low sidelobes and backlobes is
beneficial to the overall system performance.

Radar Performance
Airport Surface Surveillance

Introduction

Key factors

Surface movement radar (SMR) is an important safety system


at airports around the world, and such systems are used for
detecting and tracking aircraft and utility vehicles on airport
taxiways. The system must operate in all weather types,
particularly in rain or fog, when visibility is reduced and the
radar may be the operators only means of monitoring the
airport surface.

Radar height is a critical factor to ensure that no shadowing


occurs. The radar antenna has to be high enough to allow
line-of-sight between the antenna and the airport surface,
and also to ensure that large targets do not cause blockage
as shown below.
Radar
Sensor

No Shadowing
1 m2 X-band
1 m2 Ku-band

Range m

Unwanted reflections (clutter) dominate the radar


performance. The rain clutter scenario consists of direct rain
backscatter and also reflections from the wet ground onto a
rain cloud, which then reflect back to the antenna. Two types
of reflection clutter have been identified: single-bounce clutter
and double bounce. These are shown in the figure below.

Operating frequency is also important in determining the


azimuth resolution of the radar and the performance in rain.
The latest X-band systems offer the same or better azimuth
resolution as the Ku-band predecessors, but with a better
detection performance in rain. A typical detection curve is
shown below for the case of a 1 m2 target for an X-band and
a Ku-band radar, operating in dual frequency diversity
mode.

Radar
Sensor

Target 1

MMW
Radar
Sensor

Target 2

Shadowing
Target 2 is blocked by Target 1

Ground

The ground reflections are governed by the complex reflection


coefficient of the wet ground; according to the incidence angle,
the reflected wave is a mixture of co-polar and cross-polar
energy, which gives the complex nature of the clutter scenario
in a SMR system. We can see that calculation of SMR detection
is a complex process. However, ignoring the ground reflection
effects in a SMR system gives excessively optimistic results
inappropriate for a safety critical system.

Rainfall Rate (mm/hr)

Target 1

Target 2

Choice of site is very important in order to minimise


reflections from terminal or cargo buildings. In some cases,
buildings can have a high reflectivity which would cause
unwanted reflections on the radar screen; proper site
surveying is essential to minimise such reflections.

Positional accuracy is a safety-critical parameter for any


airport. There are a number of unexpected factors to be
considered. For example, when multiple frequencies are
used, the radar produces an azimuth beam for each
frequency and the beams must be well aligned to avoid
accuracy errors.
Nearfield focusing is a desired feature for such a system.
Most of the targets in a SMR environment are in the nearfield of the antenna, and near-field focusing of the antenna
improves the detection performance. Variable focusing, only
available on reflector type antennas, gives ultimate
performance improvement due to the capability of focusing
over an entire area of the airport.
39

Circular polarisation purity can be considered as a function of


the phase difference and amplitude ratio of two orthogonal
components. For simplicity, we consider the horizontal and
vertical polarised components. Ideally, a phase difference of
90 and the amplitude ratio of 1 (0 dB) between these gives
perfect circular polarisation. However, in practice this cannot be
achieved due to, for example, tolerances of micro-wave
components.
The axial ratio of a signal is a measurement of how circular the
polarisation is.

Input VSWR and Return Loss

Mismatch Loss

Mismatch Loss (dB)

Circular Polarisation Purity

Return Loss (dB)

RF Data

Figure 1 shows the axial ratio of the polarisation when the


phase difference and amplitude ratio of the individual H and V
components are known.
Input VSWR

Figure 2 Return Loss vs Input VSWR

Figure 3 Mismatch loss vs Input VSWR

= Voltage reflection coefficient = Er/Ei

Mismatch loss (dB) = 10 LOG10(1-2)

Er = reflected voltage

Electric constants

Ei = incident voltage
Axial Ratio (dB)

Input VSWR

VSWR =

1+
1

VSWR 1
VSWR + 1

= free space permittivity = 8.854185 x 10-12 F/m


= free space permeability = 1.256637 x 10-6 H/m

c = speed of light =

Zi = free space impedance =


Return loss (dB) = 20 LOG10()

= 2.997925 x 108 m/s

=377

k = Boltzmanns constant = 1.38066 x 10-23 J/K


Phase away from 90 degrees

Figure 1 Axial Ratio vs Phase and Amplitude Ratio


40

Waveguide Data

Standard Rectangular Waveguide

Wavelength
Free space wavelength o =

Coaxial line wavelength =

Frequency
Range

c
f

= dielectric constant of coaxial insulating core material

Rectangular waveguide wavelength g =

Figure 4 Rectangular waveguide cross-section

Cut-off
Frequency

Waveguide Designation

Dimensions
inner cross-section

GHz

GHz

British

U.S.

153 -IEC

Width a (mm)

Height b (mm)

1.12-1.70

0.908

WG6

WR650

R14

165.10

82.55

1.45-2.20

1.158

WG7

WR510

R18

129.54

64.77

1.70-2.60

1.375

WG8

WR430

R22

109.22

54.61

2.20-3.30

1.737

WG9A

WR340

R26

86.36

43.18

2.60-3.95

2.080

WG10

WR284

R32

72.14

30.04

3.30-4.90

2.579

WG11A

WR229

R40

58.17

29.08

3.95-5.85

3.155

WG12

WR187

R48

47.55

22.15

4.90-7.05

3.714

WG13

WR159

R58

40.39

20.19

5.85-8.20

4.285

WG14

WR137

R70

34.85

15.8

7.05-10.00

5.260

WG15

WR112

R84

28.50

12.62

7.00-11.00

5.790

WR102

25.90

12.95

8.20-12.40

6.560

WG16

WR90

R100

22.86

10.16

10.00-15.00

7.873

WG17

WR75

R120

19.05

9.53

12.40-18.00

9.490

WG18

WR62

R140

15.80

7.90

15.00-22.00

11.578

WG19

WR51

R180

12.95

6.48

18.00-26.50

14.080

WG20

WR42

R220

10.67

4.32

22.00-33.00

17.368

WG21

WR34

R260

8.64

4.32

26.50-40.00

21.100

WG22

WR28

R320

7.11

3.56

X-band (GHz)

g (mm)
(WR90 assumed)

S-band (GHz)

g (mm)
(WR284 assumed)

9.0

48.70

2.60

192.19

9.1

47.58

2.65

182.61

9.2

46.52

2.70

174.18

9.3

45.52

2.75

166.69

9.4

44.57

2.80

159.98

9.5

43.67

2.85

153.92

9.6

42.81

2.90

148.40

a
c =

= cut-off wavelength for TE10 mode

a = waveguide width (see figure 4)

41

Radar Targets: Swerling cases


Frequency (GHz)

2.0-3.0

3.0-4.0

4.0-6.0

6.0-8.0

8.0-10.0

X-Ku

10.0-20.0

Minimum pulse width for slotted waveguide arrays


Due to the dispersive nature of slotted waveguide antennas,
there is a limitation to the minimum pulse width that can be
used for a given aperture size. This is a very important consideration when considering slotted waveguide antennas in radar
systems which use very short pulses, such as surface movement
radars at airports.

Minimum pulse width (ns)

Figure 5 - Pulse width vs aperture size

Slotted waveguide aperture size (m)

Radar targets are classified according to their variation and


statistical properties into various Swerling type targets.
Swerling case 0 is a target that gives constant RCS and shows
no variation.
Swerling Case 1 and 2 are targets composed of several
scatterers, each with nearly equal RCS.
Case 1 varies scan-to-scan (constant pulse-to-pulse) and Case
2 varies pulse-to-pulse.

Number of de-correlated pulses integrated

Swerling Case 3 and 4 are targets composed of one large


scatterer, with several small ones.
Case 3 varies scan-to-scan (constant pulse-to-pulse) and Case
4 varies pulse-to-pulse.
Radar Detection and Frequency diversity
A radar system which operates with a given probability of
detection (Pd) and probability of false alarm (Pfa) will detect a
target, if a minimum signal-to-noise and clutter ratio is
achieved at the receiver.
Frequency diversity (use of two or more frequencies separated
by at least the inverse of pulsewidth) converts a Swerling 1
target into a Swerling 2 target, and also allows multiple-pulse
integration. This increases the detection performance because
the required signal-to-noise and clutter ratio is lower; this can
be seen in the graphs on the right, which give the detection
requirement for three common receiver operating cases.

Pd = 90%, Pfa = 10-4

Pd = 90%, Pfa = 10-6

Signal to noise and clutter ratio (dB)

NATO Band Designation Civilian Band Designation

Number of de-correlated pulses integrated

Signal to noise and clutter ratio (dB)

Frequency band designation

Signal to noise and clutter ratio (dB)

Radar Data

Pd = 95%, Pfa = 10-6

Number of de-correlated pulses integrated

42

Members of:
EEZING (Exclusive Economic Zone Industry Group)
DMA (Defence Manufacturers Association)
BAG (British Airports Group, a member of The Society of
British Aerospace Companies)

Acknowledgements
Inductosyn is a registered trademark
Picture Credits
Page
Page
Page
Page
Page

5: Getty Images/Stone
7: M. Wagner/aviation-images.com
11: www.baa.com/photolibrary
13: M. Wagner/aviation-images.com
17: Getty Images/Martin Rogers

43

Easat Contacts

ROAD
COBRIDGE

Chairman Professor Tony Brown


tbrown@easat.co.uk

POT
TER
IES

Etruria

Export Sales Manager, Air Traffic Mr Tony Wilson


twilson@easat.co.uk

Potteries
Shopping
Centre

D
ETRURIA ROA

BUCKNALL NEW
ROA

To Manchester Airport
1hour

To Liverpool Airport
1hour

office

AY
W

Managing Director Mr Jeff Dyer


jdyer@easat.co.uk

Manchester

Liverpool
D

34
10

Sheffield

21A
EA
RN
OU
HB

M1

52

Sales Engineer, Coastal and VTS Dr Vladimir Stoiljkovic


vstoiljkovic@easat.co.uk

rent

M6

Derby
Nottingham
East Midlands
Airport

A500

15
SH

32

AS

Hanley

Nottingham

EL

A50

24

11A
TOR
VIC

M6 toll

OAD
IA R

HART

SHILL
ROA
D

To Birmingham Airport
1hour

Town Hall

Leicester
M1

7A

Coventry M6

19

4A

ON
RO
AD
ND
LO

A50 to M

M42

Longton

CITY ROAD

1 motorw

M5

ay

To London
Heathrow Airport
2.5 hours

Stoke City FC

Easat Antennas Ltd


Goodwin House
Leek Road, Hanley
Stoke-on-Trent ST1 3NR
United Kingdom
Tel:
+44(0) 1782 208028
Fax: +44(0) 1782 208060
Email: antenna@easat.co.uk
Web: www.easat.co.uk
Easat is easily accessible from the M6 motorway at J15
or J16, and then along the A500.
From the M1 motorway, take J24a and then the A50
to Stoke-on-Trent.
44

A34

TRE
A34

to Manchester
A500

M6

A
NTH

5
503
MA

factory

Trentham Gardens

To London
Train 1.5 hours
Road 2.5 hours

A34 ST
AFFORD

J15
to Birmingham

This brochure is the property of Easat Antennas Ltd and must not be modified, reproduced or
copied without Easats permission.
While every effort has been made to ensure accuracy, no guarantees are given and it is the
responsibility of the user to verify all information prior to usage.
Given the need for continuous competitive improvement, we reserve the right to modify our
scope of supply as outlined in this brochure as is considered appropriate to each marketplace.

Easat Antennas Ltd


Goodwin House,
Leek Road, Hanley
Stoke-on-Trent, ST1 3NR, England
Tel:

+44 (0)1782 208028

Fax:

+44 (0)1782 208060

Email: antenna@easat.co.uk
Web: www.easat.co.uk