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University of California Press

Art, Society, and the Bouguer Principle
Author(s): Michael Baxandall
Source: Representations, No. 12 (Autumn, 1985), pp. 32-43
Published by: University of California Press
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Psychoanalytic in Feminist ed. Jean Marchand historica de Beuther.. book 2. On. chap. see Ricard. E. CenturyFrance. 1:122. "Ghosts. Reaume and E de Caussade. 1873-92). "Recitde la Maizon et originedes des Gouttes. ed.. and Madelon Sprengnether. 1. "Beyond the Market: Books as Giftsin Sixteenth5th ser. whichI shallnotdiscuss.Essais."100-103. 8. On the law forthe revocationof donationsbecause of 2 (Paris.whowere an Aristotelian the city'schiefmagistrates. de mariage. 1948). Le Livrede Raison de Montaignesur l'Ephemeris (Paris. 19'. "MontaigneUnder theSign ofFama. 1. 9) makes it impossible for the author to reclaimhis textbeforehe dies.. 6 vols."Transactions Steven Rendell shows how Montaigne'suse of the metaphorof "mortgaging"his text in his essay "De la vanite" (book 2. part 3.252. 1985). chap. in action. of creativityinto motheringa textwould harm the child. Montaigne.Kin Discoursdu saintsacrement and Progeny. chap. 352 -77.Claire Kahane. On these matters. Theodore Agrippa d'Aubigne. On incestas a sin againstcharity. 21. (Paris. Oeuvrescompletes.Essais.372. 382. Garner. Davis. 8.and secondly allegoryofGood Government thisbeingtoo a ruinedfrescoof theallegoryand actionof Bad Government. Ibid. 4:15-27. fol.20. Emond Auger.. On the othertwowallsare firstly inprinciple.see AugustineTheCityofGod 15.painted1338-40 [figs. chap. 1572).33 (1983): 69-88.77 on Sat. 6. (The frescoof Good Government coversone of threeavailablewallsin theCouncilRoomof theNine. and broadly damaged to make very much of."in ShirleyN.see the excellentessay by Susan Rubin Suleiman.1 and 2].38r. Montaigne. MICHAEL BAXANDALL Art. 24. 25.eds. and the BouguerPrinciple THIS PAPER IS REALLY THE ACCOUNT of a failure. TheM(other)Tongue:Essays Interpretation (Ithaca.) Partlybecausein waysI do not have timeto describetherewas in Siena a of painting. 35."YaleFrenchStudies 66 (1984): 156-58. except iconographically compositionally. chap..16.but mainlybecausehere of socialand politicalutilization tradition 32 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 143. 10 Oct 2015 04:55:45 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . Montaigne'sconsideringrepentingof his imaginarydonation to his imaginary sons.Y. oftheRoyalHistoricalSociety. I discuss the general question of books as giftsin Natalie Zemon inabilityto finishsome yearsago an articleI wantedto writeon AmbrogioLorenzetti's pictureof "Good Government"-thetitleis modern-in thetownhallat Siena.107. 221. Compagnon.vol. Nous Michelde Montaigne. 26."Archivesd'Etat de Geneve. N.Donations. "Writingand Motherhood.Society. 27. 22. fol. see 2. 23.

is its role in the structuraltotalityof the picture? A thirdstrikingthing is the extraordinaryand precocious maturityof the famous landscape on the right. For instance. one mightbe able to get a betterfoundation for one's view of mediated social meaning in early Renaissance paintinggenerally. I 1) First. a conspicuous piece of virtuosoforeshortening.a list of some pictorial peculiarities. but theyworkas a resonantpair.was a case of art directlyand explicitlyaddressing seemed to me. One peculiarityis the girlsdancing in the citysquare.if one takes the houses of the city and the hillsof the countrynot fortheirrepresentationalcharacterin depth but fortheircharacterin the patternon the pictureplane. A second peculiarityis the citywall in the center-as has oftenbeen pointed out. so to speak. A fourththingis a component of the landscape-the hills.again famous. They are sometimes taken to be ordinary lightheartedlate-medievalpeople. The firstlistsbrieflyand crudely a handful of observationsabout pictorialpeculiaritiesof the painting that seem to me to demand explanation. They seem precociouslymodern representationsof a kind of hill one sees oftenenough in Tuscany.specificallythe success with which such a vast affairis articulatedinto one whole.the desire to explain whichis the startingpoint. theyare one of a number of half rhymesbetweencityand country. There is a subtle shiftin theircolor seemed to me that thepictureofferedan opportunityto studythedirectpictorialization.tone.By pictorializationI mean the deploymentof the resourcesof the medium-the ordering of color. edge. Girls of a class to wear this kind of dress did not behave like thisin Sienese public squares in 1340. 10 Oct 2015 04:55:45 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 33 . on the same level of realityas thecraftsmenand so on around. Each half is an independent compositionin depth.But what. This willnotdo.107. and figure-not just the bare registrationof a the background.252. Artor Society:MustWeChoose? This content downloaded from 143.From this. The other people take no notice of them. These seem to have broken rightaway from the more usual spikymountain formulasof the time. What I am going to say now falls into two parts. They are anomalously big in scale. of social facts. A fifthand general thingis the assertivenessand emphasis withwhich the twohalves of the pictureare balanced-the foreshortenedwall actingratherlike the pivoton a pair of scales. and then summarizesthe artisticand social factswithwhichI hoped to explain them.quite.The second is a commenton the general problem thatmost discouraged me fromfinishingthe articlein which I would have done so.77 on Sat.

withtheirsemi-rounddance and theirbringingin. stillexhibitionsof skill.It is from pictorialpeculiarityone starts.(But is it as simpleas that?Could theyalso be at the heart of a centrifugalorder?) Secondly.the foreshortenedcitywall belongs in a traditionof displays of foreshorteningas a token of skill. but these willdo representatively formypresentpurpose.Initially.forJusticetheyact to unifythe centralvisual effectof the city.4~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ There were a number of other peculiaritiesI wanted to has to place them in an art-historicalway.of differentparts of the cityby theirdifferentdirectionsof movementand address. Seen historicallyit is a prodigyof large-scalearticulation.252.itseemsone cannotgo straight to the social facts.this became the highlymathematicaland thereforeintellectuallyprestigioussystematicperspectiveconstructionsof painterslike Uccello. They representtypes.107. Later.77 on Sat.This does not say what its role is here: thatpends.There are dancing figuresbeneath Giotto's grisaille figure of Justice in the Scrovegni Chapel at Padua-not quite a symbolbut a sort of attribute. 2) But whenone thinksabout explainingthem.have been set in a ratherfragmentarytraditionof dancing figuresassociated withJustice. There is a view thatits components-the workingpeasants and so on34 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 143. They are a structurallyinternalizedattribute.first. 10 Oct 2015 04:55:45 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The dancing girls. Thirdly.the landscape.i:Ii i~fi 0.In Lorenzetti'scitythey representJusticewith structuraleffect. in the next century. as it were.particularlyin foreshortenedviews-but fromclassicalantiquityempiricalforeshortenings had been signs of skill.

3 and 4). as one deceptivelysees it in slides and reproductions.GoodGovernment in theCityand GoodGovernment in theCountry1338-40.I would have argued thattheycome. 159. Ambrogio Lorenzetti. Siena. And I wonder what such retrospectionindicates.77 on sees part of the frescoratherend on and ratherfrombelow. Ambrogio Lorenzetti. 5). theyare not "modern" for 1340-it was preciselythe spikycrags that were that-but. rather. 2 (Princeton. I think. Palazzo del Comune. From George that the assertivenessof the balance is partlyexplicable by formatand site. 10 Oct 2015 04:55:45 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 35 .the hills. seen historically. They are awkward to deal with: the picturewas heavily restoredin 1880. So the Artor Society:MustWeChoose? This content downloaded from 143.the emphasis on balance between town and country. and I suspectthattheydid not originallylook quite as likeearly Corot landscapes as they do now. are drawnfromnorthernbook illumination.107.out of a nativeTuscan traditionof whatcan be called municipalimageryillustrationsfound in citystatutesor chartersand in personal records of merchants and such ( FIGURES 1 (opposite) and 2. I mean that in the room in Siena one is never farenough awayfromthe pictureto see the whole simultaneouslystraight on. Fifthlyand lastly.1958).any stance. But what I would argue here is that.retrospective. plates 157.In myview theylook back to and develop the hill typesof such thirteenth-century Sienese paintersas Guido da Siena (fig. Fourthly. This class of imageryaccounts for the components.252.At any moment.but not for theirorganization-which again pends. vol.An obvious point to make here. rather.

Unrest disrupted trade and commerce. in addition to strifebetweensocial classes verticallyconsidered.and I shall not drag things the way. Then therewas anotherproblem.and the banking operations associated withit. by the way.Rural unrestadded to other. There was one kind of problem with subject towns-an aspect of the territoryto which the fresco referslittle.these: the administrationthatcommissionedthe picturefromLorenzetti was a high-burgessmercantileoligarchy. In the whichdifferentclans tended to concentrate.6)-strife betweenquartersor terzi.when one goes afterthe social factsto matchwiththesefivepictorial peculiarities.titularqueen of the city. threatenedthe trade on which mercantileSiena depended.external.and offersitselffor explanation. as in many Italian cities.There were threatsfrom the smallcraftsmanclass below and also from noble magnates above. Another factorwas the violentlycentrifugaland fissileand factionalnature of the city'ssocial composition generally.77 on Sat. In caricature.when Siena was prosperous and united enough to go out and defeat -herival Florentineson the battlefield-carryingas a totem. who were restiveand resistant. Aftera respectable amount of reading in Sienese social historythe facts that seemed to me most to the point were.whichacted miraculouslyon events. 36 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 143.There was another kind of problem with the peasants. Sienese trade depended partlyon both commoditiesand goods fromthe north passing throughon the road to Rome and the south.a paintingof the Virgin Mary. 10 Oct 2015 04:55:45 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .The personal economic base of these men was long-distancetrade in manufacturesand commodities. also strifemore the fresco of Bad Government-is stillthere. But the conditionsin which theymightgovern to theiradvantage werecomplex. But the motifof balance-which is denied. So the cityhad problems. And Siena had a quite particularfactionalproblem related to the physicallayoutof the city(fig.It was notjust thatthe city'sfood supplies and tax revenues were endangered by the latter.Sienese history is verymuch a matterof difficulties withits rural territory. They did not have to pass thatway: therewereotherpossibleroutes.It would not be surprisingif therewas a tendency to referback nostalgicallyto the brave old days of the previous century.what one findsis certainlynot a set of positivecircumstancesto be seen as directlyregisteredin them. 3) Now. But. One factorwas dependence on theskillsand good will of the city'scraftsmen. 4) By now it willbe obvious what sort of line my account of the social facts related to the pictorialpeculiaritieswanted to follow.economic shiftsinvolvingthe whole characterof the European textiletrade.therewas.assertivenessis partlyexplicable as a device to counterthe conditionsof viewing. in outline.thirds.252.who processed commoditiesinto goods mercantile folktraded in.itwould have matchedthe unifyingfunctionofJustice'sdancing girlsin thetidilyround citywithcentrifugaland quartered (or thirded)Siena's urgentneed for social cohesion in the urban sectorof the state.

1va 4.m.. Arnc Trmpi Goodhret ~~~~~FIGURE our4 (aopposiete). .77 on Sat.Photo: or Soiety: Mus WelCv hoto:mseum.107. wit the C~~~~~ealofmmuniqur (10-1)doors orSocet:MsWeCoe?3 Photo: vmuseum." t. 39 (above.5iW11Xt2Xt~.Xt<. cT1260.EqbaLkba "flwwtk.'nCM4 FIGURE. . f Sain Fracis Francis. Wer *itr bllepatl-n?*f 8*swo:' bilttititlN f t }for alet'A 4I Con.fl ~~~~~~~~~~~~tigmtzto i1 ~ Specchio i mrmDom fro enico crbilatsrftamnders.C 0. dT~q.GuidadarSiena. o stigmati 5fBSaint. ~~~~~~~~-fcc .museum.Road * + s. brtet )'l. 10 Oct 2015 04:55:45 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . i V Stato.w'wfr. q. di ntato_ Flores. Af. FIGURE Pi*a*otecaPhotoa.%. This content downloaded from 143.Pisa. A di i l.3 A.left).fbok /~~~~~~~~~~~~~o reliquar doorswit the }& s 2 * * i~~~~~~~~~r V~ ~~~~~~~~. RoiadaSe. ~ ~~~~~~~ c 1260 Poteca.Z. e. (aovpsie). ~~~~~~~FIGURE 3 (abovelf). Qd'Inc VW0&. N Ir-wn SW twr r'WjendrsfromBree Psan 4.252. :*~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~r Siena. D CT ni wine GIComm nia f~~~j (13$-14).

The dominant motifof balance seems to point less to fact than to an urgentsocial aspirationfor polarize into very artificialand arid entitiesI did not want to work with-namely a desocietized art and a de-art-edsociety.The to speak." it begins.The legend on the scroll of the flyingfigureof Securitas above nearly says this: "Withoutfear let everyonetravelfreely.the securityof cityfromcountryis perhaps a matterof illusion (like thisforeshortening).77 on Sat. the upkeep of roads and bridgeshad been transferredfromthecivilto the militaryauthorityin Siena. But I did not writeit.There were no pictorialtags or markerssayingplus or minus. documentedupwas what I had in mind. Then the landscape is articulatedby a sense of territorybeing something thatproduces food-in the yearthe picturewas startedtherewas a serious grain shortage-but more particularlysomethingthatboth food supplies for the city and commerceshould be able to traversein tranquilfashion.000.I share Stephen Greenblatt'slack of interestin these.107. II 1) There were a number of problems. One was the lack of any pictorial indication of whether a depicted social conditionwas factor aspiration.but I came to feel theypointed to a general conceptual awkwardnesslyingbeneath.but not very unfair. the city'strue protectionlies in craftskill (here exemplified). How far I would have pressed the matterof the retrospectivehill formula being resonant with a general nostalgia I am not sure.representationor compensation. "There is what belongs to peace and how the merchandisegoes secure withthe greatestsecurityand how men leave it in the woods and how theyreturnforit": thatis the picturefor the fifteenth-century criticLorenzo Ghiberti. 38 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 143. To know whethera depicted conditionwas positiveor negative (or.and I now want to go on to why. They appeared initiallyas verbal problems. On the other hand. in what proportions. it would not have been enough to presentthe balanced relationof townand countryas the matterof demographic fact it was-each side having populations of the order of 50..but again I shall listjust five.Sienese art and Sienese society.both) one had to appeal outside the pictureto writtenrecords of social history."Ten years before the picturewas painted.Something like this-hedged and qualified and augmentedwithotherthingsabout the pictureand. 10 Oct 2015 04:55:45 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .lent itselfto expositionas something multivalent-the attentionis drawn to the centerof balance.252. Another problem was a tendencyfor mytwo terms.. . secondly.and then goes on: "and let each workand sow the fields. of course.and so on-an enjoyable sectionto write. I am being a littleunfair on myselfby caricaturingthe intended article in this way.

. There was somethingwrong about anything approaching a one-to-onerelationbetweenpictorialthingand socialthing........A ..... Map of Siena.these four particularly-which one was not in a position to or uphold.. For instance. A third problem was that each time I tried to match a piece of the picture and a social fact I felt uneasy. ..... ... ..These are verydifferentreferencesof the word balance..l- 6.... From Langton Douglas......... -....... .. A HistoryofSiena (London..... . *.-- .Ad ...shiftingbetweendifferentpossible denotations of a word..107...... represent At other times I found myself-fifthproblem-equivocating. ....... . F.."... . 1902).. _...~~- A..You havejust heard me using them....l SIENA. . B.. FIGURE I heard me use the word balance both of the compositionof the pictureand of a desired social relationbetween town and country..F .... .There seemed somethingmeretriciousabout the way I linkedthem withterms.-. ..... . The equivocation took the formof uncontrolledword play.......... . I je.....252. ...77 on Sat.. . 10 Oct 2015 04:55:45 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 39 .. Sometimeswiththese linkingtermsI found myself-fourthproblem-prevaricating.. Examples of these four classes of prevaricatingwords were reflect or followor comeoutof.......and what underlies what they have in common is very abstractand not very interArtor Society:MustWeChoose? This content downloaded from 143.-.. \ hi TI $1 ....The prevaricationtook the formof using termsof relationthatmade a weak half-claimto some stricterrelation-of causalityor signification or analogy or participation. ^.

Each is a constructand refersto a system. Similarlya tree acts withand on carbon."but most refer to a class of physicalobjects and the mental statesassociated with them. It is not the relation of two analogous systems.measured 40 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 143. It is much more like the relationof.esting-unless one pursues it into usage of the term contemporarywith the picture.So he took one candle. was the eighteenth-century scientistwho firstdeveloped a reasonable means of measuring light.partlythe same things." Bouguer's elegantlysimple solutionwas to observe the relation of flowerto tree.77 on Sat."candle A is 27 percentstrongerthan candle B.107.and so on. The relationof a workof art to a societyis not the relationof part to wholelike the relation of apple to apple tree. moved it closer or furtherawayuntilit matchedthe other. But each term takes its meaning frombelonging to a differentset of categorizationsof systems-one being chemical.a chemical entitylike carbon to the tree."art" and "society"are unhomologous systematicconstructionsput upon interpenetrating subject matters. Pierre Bouguer. part of the fabric.before the development of photoelectricor other physicalmeans of measuring light. Now obviouslyif one discusses Art and Society-or Tree and Carbon-in general terms one can cope betterwith this kind of conceptual awkwardness. as part of the input. withoutfallinginto typeor categoryconfusions. sized candles.while the mind could not do that. 10 Oct 2015 04:55:45 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . given two unequal lights. His problem was that.everythinghad to be done by eye and mind-like art history.252. the other being biological or botanical.and he seems to me a paladin of the art of relatingto each other thingsdifficultto relate. In short.These are not so much differentthingsas systematically differentregisters of thinkingabout things.What I am sayingis thatwhen we are dealing withtherelationof complex particulars-a pictureand a societythe underlyingconceptual awkwardnessis liable to lead one into the kinds of problem I listed fiveofjust now.It is that art and societyare analyticalconceptsfromtwo differentkindsof categorization of human experience. afterwhom I call it.which puts one into another game.and the systems or scienceis withart. Clearlycarbon is deeply involvedin a tree. 3) So what do we do? We follow what I shall call the Bouguer principle.say two differently not come to a precise conclusion about the quantitativerelation of one to the other: itcould not say. but most come down to describingit as the complex of institutionsthroughwhich an individualfindsa relationto a collective.economy There are many differentdefinitionsof "work of art. Carbon takes its meaning out of a differencefromand relationto other chemical concepts-hydrogen and oxygen and so on. There are various definitionsof "society"too. it could decide verypreciselyjust when two lightsmatcheach other. the mind could And. say. is withsociety are not as compatibleas. say. "Tree" is one of a set of classes of a biological system. 2) Lyingbeneath these problemsseems to me a terriblysimplefact.

the Bouguer principleis: in the event of difficultyin establishinga relationbetweentwo terms. though the relationbetweeninstitutionsand workof art is debatable. So have artisticgenres.but keeping note of what modificationhas been necessary.can be considered eitheras an element in a culture or as a functionof social institutions. but not all.77 on Sat.forinstance.and means of expression of a society. But we look at the same thingsin differentways. Again.moving a candle. So.the differencebetween the distances from the eye of the two now matching candles. 5) Finally. I think. and we would differin our viewsabout it. The relation of a culture to a work of art is relativelystraightforwardto handle because the relation is participative: a whole of which a picture is a part is a culture.Some of what I wanted to sayabout Lorenzetti's picture could be reworked throughone or another of the indirectmoods. But I should make it clear that I am using Culture not in the anthropologist'ssense (which seems to come near to embracing Society) but in the sociologist'ssense: thatis.An artist'straininghas both culturaland institutionalfaces.We extractfromthe complex of institutionsthatconstitutes a societythose thatseem relevantto art. classically.And thatwe have a kind of double vision. I shall call Culture.Manyof the same subjectmattersare treatable in eithermood. We close in on those aspects of art thatcan be considered in the lightof the functioningof institutionsor on art as institutional.the modulationfromsocietyto cultureis problematicand debatable. In one mood we manipulate Societyinto what.252. 10 Oct 2015 04:55:45 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 41 . now the other. to get a match. I had betteremphasize thatwhat this is all about is not subject mattersbut our own intellectualconstructions. for lack of a betterterm. but at least one can have a view and take a position.modifyone of the termstillit matches the other.we can have and take a position.knowledge. very generallyspeaking. 4) This is what we do. We can state relations decentlyhere. beliefs.And moreoverwe may move now one candle.the skills. Visual skills.As we all know. In the other mood we move the other candle.107.values. since thisis a necessarypart of one's information.And besides it is undeniable that a societycoincides with a culture. and fromthisdifferenceworked out (withthe law of inversesquaresthough thatis no part of the analogy) the relativestrengths. because for instance we may disagree in how far we see the artistas actingon institutionsas well as being acted on by them.but-and that is whyI am puttingthe point in thisform-we are not alwaysaware thatwe are manipulatinga term. the relationbetweensocietyand those institutionsseeming to bear on art is participativeand relativelystraightforward.perhaps I should spell out the bearing of what I have been saying Artor Society:MustWeChoose? This content downloaded from 143. What neither mood accommodates is a direct matchingof the form of a pictureand the formof a society.

Afterword Some people tookthispaper as an argumentagainstreferenceto social matterin art history(or to works of art in social history).77 on Sat. since we cannot give an account of both. What I understood myselfto be arguingwas: 1) "art" and "society"are analytical constructionsput upon human behavior.And.anecdotal.What the art historiancan deploy extractingout-of-system are materialsplucked out of the materialsof social history-"certain materials from the social realm." But no more can I give an account of Lorenzetti'spictureexcept byfollowing the promptingof the picture' I apprehend it. 10 Oct 2015 04:55:45 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . must also be a concept analyticalof a structureand 5) what we do to get neat matches(Bouguer principle)is to work throughderived middles between "art" and "society.Withoutthe structure-the complex interrelationsof. political.causes confusion at the level of explication of complex particulars. "Art" and "society. I could not give an account of Sienese societyexcept by respectingand followingthe pattern the societalstructureoffered.Obviouslywe willcontinueto make pointsabout worksof art by referring to extra-artistic circumstances.on the question in our rubric: "Art or society:mustwe choose?" My position is clearlythatyes. I do not-pace Tom Crow-find thisa A student of societywould just snigger if we told him we were talkingabout society."ifit is to have any effectivemeaning at all.we must-in thatwe mustchoose at least which of the two. so far as the studentof societyis concerned. thisor thatfragment.The issue is what we are doing when we do this. are unhomologous systematic constructionsput upon interpenetratingsubject matters."I claimed."Society.and each constructiondepends foritscogencyon positinga structure in the object of study.252. forinstance.while fairlyclear and manageable at a high level of generality.107.religious.the systemof interactive institutions-class."as Natalie Davis put it-not society.economic. kinship. If I respect the structureof one.I cannot thinkwhy."namelya) "culture"and b) thatelement in 42 REPRESENTATIONS This content downloaded from 143.educational institutions-thatexisted in pre-Black Death Siena."Art" points to a class of objectsthattake theirmeaning fromtheirstructureand organization. 2) the behaviorsdenoted byeach interpenetrate. vice versa.astructural.we are going to give an account of.the pictureor the society.nor optimistic either.but 3) the structuresand so the constructionsare not treat Lorenzetti'spictureforan unstructuredcollectionof representedobjects would be to ignore the kinds of organizationthat make it art and the special kinds of informationart carries.economic and class and politicalinstitutions-"society"isjust a sort of mush of thingsthatare not "art. 4) this. my address to the other is desultory.

when our account of the one is an adequate expositoryacknowledgmentof the structurethatgivesit meaning.or as a functionof institutions. as a matterof explanatoryloyalty." whichis powerfully and specifically constructive.252.77 on Sat. fragmenting. I hope. seriously. That would be absurd.our referenceto the other willbe sporadic. 7) a quite practical corollaryis that when we set out to give an account of a particularwe have to choose. it was. 10 Oct 2015 04:55:45 UTC All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions 43 . But perhaps misunderstandingarose out of my taking the conceptof "society. betweena work of art and a society-since. It was certainlynot that we ought not to referout froma picture(or a society)to thisor thatothermatter. Artor Society:MustWeChoose? This content downloaded from 143.and functionallyantistructural. thatwe mightdo whatwe do rather betterif we were clearer about what it is we are doing.If thebalance of myemphasisand tone constitutedsomethinglikea subtext (as I have been told theydid).107. "art"thatcan be seen as institutional 6) itis helpful to know this.

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