CCD.ppt P.

Denes
What t hey are
Why t hey are ubiquit ous
And who’s t he compet it ion
How t hey can be improved
P. Denes
Engineering Division
Lawrence Berkeley Nat ional Laborat ory
CCDs – j ust keep
goi ng and goi ng
and goi ng…
CCD.ppt P. Denes
St andar d Det ect or
St andar d Det ect or
Phosphor
F
i
b
e
r
C
o
u
p
l
i
n
g
CCD
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Sci ent i f i c CCDs
Sci ent i f i c CCDs
· CCD invent ed in 1969 by Boyle
and Smit h (Bell Labs) as
alt ernat ive t o magnet ic bubble
memory st orage
· LST (“ Large Space Telescope” –
lat er Hubble) 1965 – how t o
image?
· Film was obvious choice, but -
I t would “ cloud” due t o radiat ion
damage in space
Changing t he film in t he camera
not so t rivial
· 1972 CCD proposed
Dumbbell nebula - LBNL CCD
Blue: H-α at 656 nm
Green: SI I I at 955 nm
Red: 1.02 mm
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Convent i onal 3-Phase CCD
Convent i onal 3-Phase CCD
· Noiseless, ~ lossless charge t ransfer
· High gain charge-t o-volt age conversion ΔV = q/ C
FD
· Out put amplifier (source follower, or …) on-chip
ϕ
1
ϕ
2
ϕ
3
RST V
DD
V
DD
Out
FD
ΔV
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Many ways t o do t hi s
Many ways t o do t hi s
ϕ
1
ϕ
2
ϕ
3
Pixel 1 Pixel 2
Q
1
Q
2
Q
1
Q
2
Q
0
I mplant –
modifies pot ent ial
ϕ
1
ϕ
2
Pixel 1 Pixel 2 Pixel 1 Pixel 2
Q
1
Q
2
Q
1
Q
2
Q
1
Q
2
ϕ
3
ϕ
1
ϕ
2
ϕ
4
Q
1
Q
2
Q
1
Q
2
Q
1
Q
2
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Sever al ar chi t ect ur es
Sever al ar chi t ect ur es
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l

c
l
o
c
k
s
Horizont al clocks
Full frame
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l

c
l
o
c
k
s
Horizont al clocks
Frame t ransfer
Rapid shift from image
t o st orage
Slower readout of
st orage during int egrat ion
V
e
r
t
i
c
a
l

c
l
o
c
k
s
Horizont al clocks
I nt erline
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Sur f ace vs bur i ed channel CCD
Sur f ace vs bur i ed channel CCD
· MOS capacit or
· Pot ent ial
maximum at Si –
SiO
2
int erface
· CTE < 1 due t o
t rapping at
int erface
V
G
Pot ent i al
D
e
p
t
h
x
d
V
G
Pot ent i al
D
e
p
t
h
x
d
· Pot ent ial
maximum not at Si
– SiO
2
int erface
· CTE t ypically >
99.9999%
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Fr ont si de/ Backsi de I l l umi nat i on
Fr ont si de/ Backsi de I l l umi nat i on
( )
A EPI A POLY
T T
e e
λ λ
ε
/ /
1
− −
− ∝
T
E
P
I
( )
A EPI
T
e
λ
ε
/
1

− ∝
T
E
P
I
Fill fact or < 1 Fill fact or = 1
λ
A
0.2µm@400 nm
CCD.ppt P. Denes
I magi ng Det ect or s
I magi ng Det ect or s
2D segment ed Si
2D segment ed Si at t ached
t o 2D segment ed Si
2D segment ed Si at t ached
t o 1D segment ed Si
or ot her elect ronics
Monol i t hi c
sensor + r eadout
on same subst r at e
Hybr i d
Sensor
+
Readout
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Monol i t hi c I mage Sensor s
Monol i t hi c I mage Sensor s
· Passive Pixel Sensor
· Proposed 1968
· No Reset , no in-pixel
amplifier
SELECT
· Act ive Pixel Sensor
· Also proposed 1968
· Many ways t o make
t he phot odiode
RESET
SELECT
CCD.ppt P. Denes
CCD vs APS
CCD vs APS
· APS – t ransfers a volt age down t he column
· CCD – (noiselessly) t ransfers a charge down t he column
· APS – can be more sensit ive (source follower does not have t o drive
off-chip)
· APS – fill fact or < 1 in general
· Phot ogat e APS – like a mat rix of individual CCDs
· Backside illuminat ion – at t empt ed for APS, work-in-progress
PG X
like CCD
OTG
RESET
SELECT
FD
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Gl ossar y
Gl ossar y
Sensor
· “ Quant um efficiency”
· Probabilit y of det ect ion
· Energy spread
· Point spread funct ion (PSF)
· Conversion gain (may be in readout ) – Volt s / ___ (elect ron, eV, …)
· “ Well dept h” - Q
MAX
· Noise cont ribut ion, σ
SENSOR
Fr ont -end r eadout
· Noise cont ribut ion, σ
ELEC
Readout
· Full-scale - V
MAX
· Speed – MPix/ s (less ambiguous t han fps)
Syst em
· Frequency-dependent DQE or equivalent
· ⇒ Dynamic Range = min(Q
MAX
, V
MAX
) / σ
SENSOR
⊕ σ
ELEC
Sensor wit h
pixel pit ch P
“ dB” = 20 log
10
(DR)
“ bit s” = log
2
(DR)
CCD.ppt P. Denes
CMOS, CMOS “ opt o” and CCD pr ocesses
CMOS, CMOS “ opt o” and CCD pr ocesses
Gat e
n+ S n+ D
Channel Lengt h L →L / κ
t
OX
→ t
OX
/ κ
W
D
V→V / κ
CMOS driven by
const ant field scaling
p subst rat e
Dopi ng - N
A
→ κ N
A
CCD CMOS
t
OX
( Å)
500 -
1000
50
Wel l dept h
( µm)
2.5
0.5
deeper f or RF
I mpl ant ( µm)
~ 1
channel
st op
0.1
S/ D i mpl ant s
V ≥10
< 3.3
< 2.5
< 1.x …
Pol y l ayer s 3 ( 2)
1
2 f or anal og
Subst . qual i t y
Low
l eakage
Don’t car e
Except opt o
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Tr i pl e Pol y CCD Pr ocess
Tr i pl e Pol y CCD Pr ocess
Poly 1
Poly 2
Poly 3
Gat e oxide
I LD
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Why CCDs?
Why CCDs?
· Low noise (noiseless charge t ransfer, do everyt hing t o
make C
FD
small in order t o get large conversion gain)
· Fill-fact or = 1 ( for backside illuminat ion)
· Linear and easy t o calibrat e
· Long hi st or y of sci ent i f i c use
· Large area devices easier (cheaper) t o develop as CCDs
t han as st at e of t he art CMOS devices
· Readily wafer scale
· Commercially produced
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Ver y Lar ge For mat CCDs ( and CMOS i mager s)
Ver y Lar ge For mat CCDs ( and CMOS i mager s)
· Fairchild Wafer Scale Full Frame CCD
· 9216 x 9216 x 8.75 µm pixel
· 80.64 x 80.64 mm
2
size CCD
· Eight 3-st age out put amplifiers
· Readout noise < 30e- @ 2/ fps
· Cypress CYI HDS9000
· 3710 x 2434 x 6.4 µm pixel
· 23.3 x 15.5 mm
2
size APS
· 0.13 µm imaging CMOS process
· Canon 16.7 MPix
· 36 x 24 mm
2
4992 x 3328
· Kodak 39 MPix
· 36 x 48 mm
2
CCD.ppt P. Denes
El ect r on-Mul t i pl yi ng CCDs
El ect r on-Mul t i pl yi ng CCDs
· Long serial regist er wit h
avalanche mult iplicat ion
pixels
· Gain (1+ ε)
N
ε~ 1%
· Good for single-phot on
sensit ivit y
· Nonet heless, current
devices have limit ed (≤
12 bit ) dynamic range
· Excess noise fact or, F
CCD.ppt P. Denes
EM CCD
EM CCD
e2v-97 512x512
TI -TC285 1004x1002
~ 12 bit s
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Per sonal Pr ej udi ce
Per sonal Pr ej udi ce
· CMOS has overt aken CCD in t he consumer market
· short int egrat ion t ime – leakage is not t hat import ant
· very high speed not required
· Limit ed analog performance ok - < 10 bit s linear, ~ 16 bit s
logarit hmic
· Pixels! “ The t riumph of market ing over physics” – E. Fossum
· CCDs will cont inue t o dominat e size x dynamic range
· size x dynamic range x speed are what is needed by t he scient ific
communit y
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Di r ect x-r ay det ect i on
Di r ect x-r ay det ect i on
· Well est ablished use of CCDs in x-ray ast ronomy
· Excellent spect roscopic resolut ion possible
x-ray view of t he galact ic cent er
CCD.ppt P. Denes
☺ and ®
☺ and ®
· Excellent spect roscopic resolut ion
· But only if not piled-up – low rat e or fast readout
· N
γ,MAX
= Well Dept h / (E
γ
/ 3.6 eV)
· < 1000
· ⇒ 9-10 bit ADC OK
· Would really profit from high-speed readout as S/ N is so
high
25
30
35
40
45
50
400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
E
γ
[eV]
F
W
H
M

[
e
V
]
I nt rinsic resolut ion in Si
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Back-i l l umi nat i on pr ef er r ed
Back-i l l umi nat i on pr ef er r ed
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
10 100 1000 10000
E
γ
[eV]
T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n

[
S
i
O
2
]
1.5 nm
10 nm
100 nm
1,000 nm
10,000 nm

T
h
i
n

w
i
n
d
o
w

δ
-
d
o
p
e
d
F
r
o
n
t

i
l
l
u
m
i
n
a
t
i
o
n
CCD.ppt P. Denes
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000
E
γ
[eV]
T
r
a
n
s
m
i
s
s
i
o
n
200 um
300 um
600 um
20 um
Thi ck Si l i con
Thi ck Si l i con
t
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Radi at i on Damage
Radi at i on Damage
· I onizat ion damage
· Charge t rapping in gat e oxide
-Threshold shift
· Damage at t he SiO
2
– Si
int erface
-Surface dark current
-Surface mobilit y loss
· CCDs have t hick oxides








CCD.ppt P. Denes
Fl ux f or 1 Rad i n gat e oxi de
Fl ux f or 1 Rad i n gat e oxi de
1.E+08
1.E+09
1.E+10
1.E+11
1.E+12
1.E+13
1.E+14
1.E+15
1.E+16
1.E+17
1.E+18
1.E+19
1.E+20
100 1000 10000
E
γ
[eV]
γ
/
c
m
2

f
o
r

1

R
a
d
20 um
200 um
600 um
CCD.ppt P. Denes
LBNL CCD
LBNL CCD
· CCD on high-resist ivit y, fully
deplet ed silicon
· No t hinning needed
· Good red (and blue) response
· No field free regions for
diffusion ⇒ good PSF
· Bi as deplet es subst rat e
independent ly of clock volt ages
CCD.ppt P. Denes
PSF – measur ed wi t h pi nhol es at UCO Li ck
PSF – measur ed wi t h pi nhol es at UCO Li ck
CCD.ppt P. Denes
1
st
x-r ay i mages i n LBNL CCD
1
st
x-r ay i mages i n LBNL CCD
3,512 x 3,512 x 10.5µm pixel CCD
200 µm t hick
Cu anode, 140K, 70 kHz
5 µm slit in semi-t ransparent
st ainless st eel
Spect rum of Row 1200
CCD.ppt P. Denes
650 µm t hi ck CCD
650 µm t hi ck CCD
55
Fe K
α
and K
β
. Resolut ion ~ 126 eV at 5.6 keV
Be wi ndow
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Back-i l l umi nat ed CCDs f or l ow-ener gy e

Back-i l l umi nat ed CCDs f or l ow-ener gy e

· Window should be t hin enough
t o allow elect rons t o penet rat e
· Device should be t hick enough
t o avoid radiat ion damage
· Excellent S/ N (3.6 eV/ e-h pair)
· Well dept h
Thin ent rance windows also good for elect rons
CCD.ppt P. Denes
10 keV e

10 keV e

0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
E
Deposited
[keV]
10 nm
Backscat t ered
100Å (t yp.)
CCD.ppt P. Denes
δ-dopi ng ~ 15 Å
δ-dopi ng ~ 15 Å
Nikzad et al SPI E 97
CCD.ppt P. Denes
CCDs ar e wonder f ul
CCDs ar e wonder f ul
But t hey ar e sl ow
ADC
· Parallel exposure
· Serial readout
· Vert ical clock
· Horizont al clock
· Ext ernal, high resolut ion ADC
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Easy
Easy
Now it get s more difficult
CCD.ppt P. Denes
I ncr ease ADC speed
I ncr ease ADC speed
N
V
, N
H
= # H, V pixels
B
V
, B
H
= H, V binning
T
V
, T
H
= H, V shift t ime
N
port
= # port s
T
CONV
= t ot al conversion
t ime including reset ,
summing well, …
ADC ADC
ADC ADC
















+ + =
CONV
port H
H
H H
V
V
V
f
T
N B
N
T B
B
T
N
T
1
2
t op+ bot t om readout
CCD.ppt P. Denes
For exampl e
For exampl e
· Dalsa – FT50M
· 1024 x 1024 x 5.6 µm pixel
· Frame t ransfer / 2 port s
· 100 fps = 100 MPix/ s
· 11.1 bit s [ 67 dB] at 30/ 60 fps
· 10.1 bit s [ 61 dB] at 50/ 100 fps
I ncrease readout / ADC speed
S/ F Limit at ions
RST
V
DD
Out
V
DD
FD
C
L
g
m
~ W/ L ⇑
C
G
~ WL ⇓
τ~ C
L
/ g
m

RST
V
DD
Out
V
DD
FD
C
L
V
DD
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Li mi t at i ons
Li mi t at i ons
· Noise cont ribut ion from M
R
(reset swit ch) removed by CDS
(correlat ed double sampling – measure V
R
and V
R
+ V
S
)
· Noise cont ribut ions from M
S
(source follower)
· Thermal noise
· 1/ f noise
· Noise from current source

1

2

3
RST
V
DD
Out
FD
OSW OTG
V
DD
M
R
M
S
kTC

df f H g kT V
m n
) ( 4 ~
2
2
γ

df
f
f H
WL C
K
V
OX
n
1
) ( ~
2
2
↑ ~ √rat e
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Add mor e por t s
Add mor e por t s
· Reset and out put
t ransist ors need
room
· Want t o minimize C
FD
· Need space for t he
out put st age!

1

2

3
RST
V
DD
OSW OTG
V
DD
FD
RST
CCD.ppt P. Denes
One way t o gai n space
One way t o gai n space
MI T Lincoln Labs mult i-port CCD
CCD.ppt P. Denes
For exampl e
For exampl e
· Fairchild 456
· 512 x 512 x 8.7 µm pixel
· I nt erline t ransfer / 32 port s
· 1000 fps = 250 MPix/ s
· On-chip current sources for 3-st age
out put ⇒ 2.5 Wat t s
At some point , adding more ADC port s becomes a connect ion
night mare ¬ int egrat ed circuit solut ion needed.
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Ful l y col umn-par al l el
Ful l y col umn-par al l el
A
D
C
A
D
C
A
D
C
A
D
C
A
D
C
A
D
C
A
D
C
A
D
C
A
D
C
A
D
C
A
D
C
A
D
C
· 1 ADC/ column
· Bump bonding required
· No source-follower
· Example – development s for
I LC Vert ex Det ect or
· 50 MHz column readout
· 4-5 bit s dynamic range
RAL et al.
Cust om I C
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Pr ecedent
Pr ecedent
· 1996 - SLD Vert ex Det ect or
· 3 x 10
8
pixels
· 96 x 3.2 MPix x 20 µm CCD
Tomorrow – ATLAS Pixel
CCD.ppt P. Denes
( Al most ) Col umn Par al l el CCDs
( Al most ) Col umn Par al l el CCDs
· Speed increased by N
PORTS
· N
H
large enough t o
minimize t he number of
ADCs needed
· N
H
small enough t o ensure
fast readout
· Wire bonding st ill possible
Solut ion chosen
A
D
C
A
D
C
A
D
C
A
D
C
A
D
C
A
D
C
A
D
C
A
D
C
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Pr ot ot ype – 480 x 480 x 30 µm pi xel s
Pr ot ot ype – 480 x 480 x 30 µm pi xel s
· Const ant area t aper
· 10 pixels/ SR
· 300 µm out put
pit ch
CCD.ppt P. Denes
LBNL Fast CCD Camer a
LBNL Fast CCD Camer a
· Goals:
· 200 MPix / s
· ≥ 14 bit s (84 dB)
· Proof-of-concept
· LDRD (int ernal lab R&D)
· 30 µm pixels
· funding limit ed 480 x 480
device slipped ont o 4k
CCD run
· cust om readout I C
Pr ot ot ype devi ces wi t h
30 µm pi xel s
Met al st r apped and not
( a) CP and 4-por t
CCD.ppt P. Denes
CCD r eadout f or t he SNAP f ocal pl ane
CCD r eadout f or t he SNAP f ocal pl ane
· SNAP requirement s
· 16 bit dynamic range at 100 kHz
· 4 channels per chip
· low power
· space qualified
· Fast CCD (benefit from SNAP
development )
· 16 channels per chip
· ADC pit ch < 300 µm (t o mat ch 300
µm out put pit ch) – act ual: 235 µm
· 10 x speed ⇒ DR = 16/ √10 bit s
· St ruct ure of circuit lends it self t o
fut ure designs
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Fl oat i ng Poi nt Readout
Fl oat i ng Poi nt Readout
1.0E-04
1.0E-03
1.0E-02
1.0E-01
1.0E+00
1.0E+00 1.0E+01 1.0E+02 1.0E+03 1.0E+04 1.0E+05
Incident Photons
R
e
s
o
l
u
t
i
o
n
P
h
o
t
o
s
t
a
t
i
s
t
i
c
s

N
Q
u
a
n
t
i
z
a
t
i
o
n

E
r
r
o
r
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Di gi t i ze cycl e
Di gi t i ze cycl e
ϕ
1
ϕ
2
ϕ
3
RST V
DD
V
DD
Out
FD
RST
ϕ
3
Out
On
±
V
CDS/ ∫
V
On + / -
∫V
R
dt ∫( V
R
–V
S
) dt
CCD.ppt P. Denes
CCD Readout I C ( “ CRI C” )
CCD Readout I C ( “ CRI C” )
4 x 13 Bit
ADC
Volt age
Reference
Logic
I / O
4 x
Preamp
Mult islope
CDS
0.25 µm CMOS
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Ful l -scal e si gnal i n CRI C
Ful l -scal e si gnal i n CRI C
Measured Performance
· 3.6 µV/ ADU ~ 1 e

· Noise ~ 2.2 e

300
· Noise ~ 1.9 e

140K
· I NL < 2 bit s max
· DNL < < 1 bit
· Crosst alk < 1 ADU
(one channel at zero,
adj acent full scale)
· 15 mW/ channel
On spec
Reset l evel i nt egrat i on
Si gnal i nt egr at i on
Dat a di gi t i zed
here
Gain 2 indicator bit
Gain 1 indicator bit
CCD.ppt P. Denes
FCCD Pl an
FCCD Pl an
· Complet e
demonst rat or camera
· LBNL t hick CCD
· visible light + phosphor
· x-rays
· low energy elect rons
· Commercializeable
· Phosphor development
16xADC
CCD
16xADC 16xADC
16xADC 16xADC 16xADC
CCD.ppt P. Denes
I n gener al – what i s needed t o make CCDs f ast ?
I n gener al – what i s needed t o make CCDs f ast ?
· Poly gat es are resist ive
(1000 x met al)
· To 1
st
order, dist ribut ed
net work of R
POLY
xC
OVERALP
dominat es speed of
clock propagat ion
· Met al st rapping needed
for high speed
· opaque for front
illuminat ion
· t opological
considerat ions
C
l
o
c
k

l
i
n
e
s
Channels
Pixel
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
et c
et c
O O
O
O
O
O O
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Speed Li mi t
Speed Li mi t
Ult imat e limit at ion is CTI (1 – CTE) vs speed
ϕ
3
ϕ
1
ϕ
2
+


ϕ
3
ϕ
1
ϕ
2
+

ϕ
3
ϕ
1
ϕ
2
+


+










+





















=


2
2
x
n
q
kT
x
V
n
x x
n
n
x C
q
t
n
c
Si
μ
Charge t ransfer:
Sel f -i nduced
dr i f t ( concent r at i on
gr adi ent of char ge)
Dr i f t due t o
el ect r ode
f r i nge f i el d
Ther mal
di f f usi on
Time const ant s all ∝L
2
C
EFF
Typically ns or sub-ns, but
CTE
99.%
99.9%
99.99%
99.999%
99.9999%
Ti me Const ant s
4.6
6.9
9.2
11.5
13.8
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Concl usi ons ( 1)
Concl usi ons ( 1)
· Conflict ing process requirement s for CCD and CMOS imagers ⇒ bot h
will fill import ant roles
· Could combine t he t wo, but t here is no commercial driver
· Lab-foundry development s of CMOS on CCD, but …
· CCDs will cont inue t o be t he best for max(area, pixels, dynamic range,
speed)
· Our communit y can push t hat
· Development area # 1 – speed (combinat ion of micro-elect ronics and
CCD opt imizat ion)
· Development area # 2 – why j ust silicon?
· Ge CCD – spect roscopy, x-rays
· I mproving CCDs and t he ubiquit ous det ect or maximizes dBang/ d$
· Provided it is done in such a way as t o benefit t he whole communit y
CCD.ppt P. Denes
Concl usi ons ( 2)
Concl usi ons ( 2)
· A st raight forward sophist icat ed det ect or (a ‘simple’ cust om
sensor wit h a ‘simple’ cust om readout chip) ~ 8-10 FTEyr
and needs 2-3 years t o complet e
· Specific det ect or development s should be run as a proj ect
· R&D base support is needed at a relat ively modest level
· Proj ect s need t o address communit y access
· Commercialize if possible – oft en difficult
· I f labs build and support inst rument s t hen
-Need a way t o support t hat ($)
-Ot her labs need t o sign up early – 10 at once ≠ one 10 t imes
(not j ust for CCDs – more general)