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Presentation 7.

1

Diagnostic of CT Failure – Same Location, different Phase
Anton Junaidi / Agus Latief, PT. PLN (Persero), Indonesia
Constant, PT. Citra Wahana Sekar Buana, Indonesia

Abstract
The Current Transformer (CT) is one of the most
important equipment in high voltage substations
and it is expected to operate maintenance-free for
over 25 years. The reliability of protection systems
and the accuracy of measurement instruments rely
on the performance of current transformers. A
failure of the current transformer can lead into a
catastrophic damage of the Current Transformer
itself and to the equipment placed nearby. So
almost happened to two CTs installed in
substations in Panakukang. The first failure
occurred on October 13, 2010 on phase T and the
second failure occurred on April 17, 2011 on phase
S. This paper will attempt to determine the possible
cause of the failure by analyzing the test results of
the third CT installed on phase R which has not
failed yet and which is the same type and
manufacturing year from the same brand.

Keywords
Current
Transformer,
Dielectric
Response
Analyzer, CT Analyzer, Dissipation Factor Test,
Partial Discharge Measurement

1. Introduction
PLN AP2B South Sulawesi (Indonesia) operates a
transmission line system with voltage level of
150kV, 70kV and 30kV. It consists of more than
2,200 kilometer transmission line circuits and 34
substations. The total transformer capacity is 1,350
MVA, with an average availability of the system up
to 99% on a annual basis.

Primary Current:
Secondary Current:
Rated Burden:
Class:
Frequency:

800 A
5A
30 VA
5P20
50 Hz

Table 1 Current Transformer Data

2. Failure Phenomenon on
Phases T and S
The first CT failure occurred on October the 13,
2011 on phase T and resulted in a black out in the
Panakukang area. This incident has caused the
total energy loss of 60 MVA. Visual inspection
showed normal temperature conditions at the top
of the current transformer (upper core), and field
investigation did not reveal the presence of any
open secondary circuit.
The second failure occurred on April 17, 2011 on
phase S. The substation operator has seen smoke
coming out from the top of the current transformer
and took immediate action to de-energize the
current transformer. Thanks to this reaction a
further damage and a possible black out could be
avoided. The temperature measurement using
thermal infrared camera was observed and
showed no hot spot on the top of the current
transformer. The wiring verification on the
secondary side of the current transformer could
exclude an open-circuit condition.

PLN AP2B South Sulawesi has comprehensive
testing standards. All high voltage equipment is
tested and the test results thoroughly analyzed to
help to determine possible cause of failures. The
total quantity of current transformers installed is
more than 600 units where most of them are oil
immersed type.
This paper describes the failure that occurred on
two identical current transformers and tries to
diagnose the cause of the failures by analyzing the
test results of a similar unit that has not failed yet.

Fig. 1 Water inside membrane on Phase S CT

© OMICRON electronics GmbH 2011 – Instrument Transformer Measurement Forum

2 3. © OMICRON electronics GmbH 2011 – Instrument Transformer Measurement Forum . tan delta. enables the team to design those failures out of the system with the minimum of effort and resource expenditure. Failure modes are any errors or defects in a process. Oil characteristic. It was found that both failed CTs had loose connectors at the inner cover of the CT (the top cover body with the cover secondary winding). After the failure of this two CTs (phase S and phase T). PLN has implemented the FMEA for CT failure consists of: Fig. 3 CT Phase S inner cover melting • Defining the system (equipment) and its function • Determining the sub-systems and functions of each subsystem • Determining the functional failure of each subsystem • Determining the failure modes of each subsystem • With FMEA we can design the proper operation and maintenance guideline according to PLN standard SE 114 for CT such as: • In service inspection (visual check) • In service measurement (Thermo vision) • Offline measurement (Insulation resistant. 2 Membrane Phase S CT (left) and membrane Phase T CT (right) Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a procedure in product development and operations management for analysis of potential failure modes within a system for classification by the severity and likelihood of the failures.Presentation 7. PT. Effects analysis refers to studying the consequences of those failures. or item. and can be potential or actual. 4. the management decided to remove the CT on phase R from the system as this CT is the same type and brand and from the same manufacturing year. excitation and grounding. oil characteristic. thereby reducing development time and costs. • Offline treatment. design. especially those that affect the customers. CT Testing on Phase R Fig. A successful FMEA activity helps a team to identify potential failure modes based on past experience with similar products or processes. Several tests had been done on this CT to analyze and check for a possible failure cause of the other two CTs. DGA. The phase S CT contained water in the membrane thus decrease the insulation level. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Fig. 4 CT Phase T inner cover melting The two current transformers which failed have been disassembled to observe the type of damage that occurred on the inside of the current transformers.

ratio. 6 Ratio Error Graph CT Phase R 4.Presentation 7. under various states of moisture content and oil / paper ageing. 5 Excitation Curve CT Phase R The DIRANA assessment software consists of a database containing data from measurements of real oil-paper-insulation systems. the measurement results are automatically analyzed and the moisture content then classified according to IEC 60422 between "dry" and "extremely wet. The Dielectric Response Analysis has been done to CT phase R. burden.1 CT Analyzer Several tests can be obtained using OMICRON’s CT Analyzer such as. New methods are developed for determining the water content by using the dielectric response measurements as Polarization Depolarization Current (PDC) or Frequency Domain Spectroscopy (FDS).3% (moderately wet) © OMICRON electronics GmbH 2011 – Instrument Transformer Measurement Forum .3 4.2 Dielectric Response Analysis One ageing indicator is the water content in the solid part of the insulation (paper. Through this basis. The DIRANA test result for Panakukang CT Phase R indicated: Oil Conductivity: 11pS/m (good) Cellulose Moisture: 3 . The test result using CT Analyzer of phase R: • Ratio: OK • Excitation curve: OK • ALF (Accuracy Limit Factor): OK the location of possible fault cause is the cellulose paper or the oil. Incremental of water content in oil may cause bubble formation and lead to an electrical breakdown. 7 CT Measurement Configuration Fig." Fig. polarity and winding resistance. The test results using OMICRON DIRANA with FDS and PDC method as shown below: Table 2 ALF CT Phase R Fig. pressboard). Method and tools are needed to detect and measure the water content in the cellulose paper. Furthermore with the right tool to diagnose the transformer it can be easily determined as where Fig. 8 CT Phase R DIRANA Assessment Graph The software compensates for conductive ageing by products in the oil and it is well suited for older Instrument transformers. The assessment according to IEC standard is also possible. Water is an ageing product and accelerates the further deterioration of cellulose through depolymerization. So transformer failures can be avoided and the preventive maintenance can be on schedule. saturation.

bushing. in time. The test was done using OMICRON CPC 100 + CP TD1. carbonization. liquid or solid insulating medium. Not only do partial discharge levels provide early warning of imminent equipment failure. a ground fault or a phase-to-phase fault is inevitable.Presentation 7. partial discharge (PD) is a localized dielectric breakdown of a small portion of a solid or fluid electrical insulation system under high voltage stress. This test uses AC and pursues to know loss angle of the tested element. such as capacitance. compromise the dielectric strength and mechanical integrity of the winding insulation. and power factor in addition to other less well known characteristic. It is important to take note of Instrument transformer temperature and environmental moisture (surface leakage).4 Partial Discharge In electrical engineering. Apparatus insulation system has measurable electrical parameters. failure hazards can be revealed. and liquid insulation in Instrument transformers and emulates (greater voltage) the behavior and voltage aggressions similar to service ones. 9 Graph correlation between DF and Frequency PD measurements can be taken continuously or intermittently and detected on-line or off-line. This measurement technique is off-line measurement and includes information of the moisture. First measurement with fixed frequency of 50 Hz and sweep voltage from 2 kV up to 12 kV.3 Dissipation Factor and Capacitance Test Another usual approach when performing dielectric evaluation is tan delta. The second measurement test with fixed voltage and frequency sweep from 15 Hz up to 400 Hz. Table 3 CT DF variable voltage fix frequency Fig. PD results are used to reliably predict which electrical equipment is in need of maintenance. which does not bridge the space between two conductors. While a corona discharge is usually revealed by a relatively steady glow or brush discharge in air. The test results are as follows: Table 5 Tan Delta Test Result (as function of Voltage) Table 6 Tan Delta Test Result (as function of Frequency) 4. The CT phase R was tested for the dissipation factor test using Hot Collar method since the measuring tap is not available. 10 Void and discharge Table 4 CT DF variable frequency fix voltage Fig. Once this happens. By detecting changes in these important electrical characteristics. It often starts within gas voids. The 120 kV coupling capacitor being used as PD sensor since the measuring tap is not available on CT. The HV- © OMICRON electronics GmbH 2011 – Instrument Transformer Measurement Forum . partial discharges within solid insulation system are not visible. thereby preventing loss of service by permitting orderly repair or reconditioning of defective insulation.4 4. but partial discharge also accelerates the breakdown process. dielectric loss. The excessive arcing between ground and conductor within the insulation will. such as voids in solid epoxy insulation or bubbles in transformer oil. The Partial Discharge test on phase R CT was done using OMICRON MPD 600. Protracted partial discharge can erode solid insulation and eventually lead to breakdown of insulation. The dissipation factor test was done in two different measurements. PD can occur in a gaseous. and other forms of contamination of winding.

J. High moisture content (3. with a constant voltage supply. Partial discharge test on phase R CT indicated high PD activities (over 10 nC). CIGRE.Presentation 7. 4. The aim of the polarization index test is to ensure the proper equipment to be operated or even transient overvoltage test. CPC 100 / CP TD1. It was observed by disassembling the failed CTs (phase T and S) that both CTs had loose connection on its body-ground cable connection in the CT. The figure 12 shows ORPD from HV source only. the corona activities also observed using DayCor corona camera.Failure Mode Analysis & Evaluation Leading to Corrective and Preventive Actions for Realibility Enhancment.5. Polarization Index is the ratio between the 10th minute result to the 1st minute result. Fig. The figure 11 shows that there are PD activities which are very high. 12 PD result for HV source only at 86kV [1] V. Common method provided the DC voltage and represents the condition of insulation to the units in mega ohm (M). It was observed that the corona discharge on the CT bushing is small. The figure 11 shows PRPD from phase R CT when injection voltage up to 86 kV is applied. No suspect on the bushing failure.6 kV as nominal voltage of 150 kV.ground or between two winding.3%) was measured on phase R CT.5 AC hipot test system up to 100kV being used as HV source to inject the HV to test object. 4. The PD test was done by increasing the voltage from 2 kV as starting point for voltage calibration for MPD 600 test set and voltage increased up to 86.Thakkar Power Grid India. It was suspected that this was caused by aging process or manufacture defect design.Prasher. Insulation Resistance Testing The purpose of this measurement is to detect the condition of insulation between winding . The tan delta test for bushing insulation indicated normal bushing. It was also found that a lot of water trapped inside the membrane of CT phase S. 11 PD result CT Phase R Test at 86kV 2. [2] OMICRON. EHV Current Transformers . It is also seen from the measurement of the polarization index. Table 7 Polarity Index Result CT Phase R 5. References Fig. During PD measurement. This might indicated the degradation of insulation material and/or contact problem inside the CT.K. P. 3. Conclusion 1. The PD measurement being repeated several times since the noise level from HV source and measurement test setup is very high. The MPD 600 test result shown PRPD as below. CT © OMICRON electronics GmbH 2011 – Instrument Transformer Measurement Forum Analyzer and . DIRANA. The moisture content may decrease the insulation of the material and lead to CT explosion.

Mishra and S. 1999 . SA . Singh. PLN (Persero) Wilayah Sulsel. About the Authors Anton Junaidi.6 [3] Michael Krüger.Presentation 7. then continued Bachelor Degree at ITATS Engineering Faculty Majoring Power Electrical. College graduated Diploma Degree of Shipbuilding Polytechnic ITS Surabaya Majoring in Electrical. PLN (Persero) Wilayah SulSelraBar AP2B Sistem Sulsel. and recent position as Manager Transmission and Substation Panakukang PT.K. graduated high school SMKN makassar majoring in industrial electrical construction. Datta. born in Surabaya 1978. [6] PLN SE 114: Guidence Maintenance for CT. Austria Alexander Dierks. Started working at PLN (2005/2006) first position as Transmission Line Protection PT. (8003044 F) © OMICRON electronics GmbH 2011 – Instrument Transformer Measurement Forum . Alectrix. began working at PLN (2002/2003) as a substation operator panakukang PT PLN (Persero) Tragi Panakukang and recent position as substation maintenance staff PT. Altalink Management Ltd. was born in Makassar in 1980. (7806046 Z) E-Mail: antonjunaidi@yahoo. #811282 John Stead. Suresh Power Grid Corporation of India Limited.2005 worked at PT.C. Agus Latif (F). Dissolved Gas Analysis (DGA) of Current Transformer (CT) oil – A reliable tool to identify manufacturing defects. Siam Maspion Polymers as Electrical & Planning Eng. [5] A. Sultra dan Sulbar AP2B Sistem Sulel. S. Alexander Kraetge. PLN (Persero) Wilayah SulSelraBar AP2B Sistem SulSel.Diagnostic Measurement on Power Transformer.K. [4] Root Cause Failure Analysis Current TransformerSer. S. Kay Rethmeier.com Agus Latief. Maik Koch. OMICRON electronics GmbH.