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Disusun Oleh :
Alfan Sasongko Gumilang
Imam Agus Fatoni
Masrur Mahfudhi
Mohammad Ekky Agmitio



A. Cams
Cams are based on the principle of the straight wedge; due to motion and a certain
angle a given point on the inclined plane moves in a different direction relative to the motion.
By the straight wedge (loose or sliding) for example the motion of the inclined plane might
be horizontal whereas the motion of the given point vertical if the point is stopped from
moving horizontal. Therefore, it is forced to change direction. The inclined plane slide along
the point (or surface) and, due to the wedge angle. Pushes it up or allows it to come down.
The cams are also working with motion and wedge angle. But the motion is circular
(rotating). The effect is very similar. The clamping action id created by a steady increase of
preasure by the cam surface or indirectly against the workpiece. Indirect clamping action
means, the clamping pressure might be exected via lever clamp. Cams are considered to be
quick clamping devices. They are not suitable to be ised on vibrating fixtures except if they
are secured against unwanted opening. Preferably cams are made out of case hardening steel.
The active surfaces should be polished (if for technical reasons grinding is not possible).
The group are mainly used :
1. Rotating wedges (cup-cams), working perpendicular to the plane of motion.
2. Eccentric cams.
3. Spiral cams (working in the plane of motion).
1. Rotating wedges (cup cams)
This cam is rotated and due to a sloped surface this rotation is transferred into a
perpendicular relative to the plane of rotary motion. It is very similar to a screw. The term
Cup cam describes well the type : it looks like a cup accept that the edge is sloped. The
slope (or cam-line) can be divided into several portions : i.e. a steep one for quick approach
and a shallow one for the actual clamping. Either single or double cams are used.
Double cams are limited ti a maximum active angle of 100 whereas single ones are
theoretically open for 360, practically in most cases less because of the operation. The
locking angle should not be more than 5. Double cams are used to transfer bigger forces. We
realise that on double cams the friction is increased because the active area is twice as big.
The clamping-levers for operation are usually kept longer then an ordinary screw clamping
devices. This is mainly for easier hand-ling of the steep portion of the cam. In drawing 04023 it is shown as how to determinethe necessary length L of the lever. L considers also the
friction whereas 1 is used to calculate the theoretical bending moment only. Q is the active
weight and P is the force applied to operate the cam. S is the stroke and X the wedge angle.
As bigger the cam dia as bigger is the friction moment. S : 1 are chaning direct proportional
assuming Q reamins. For example : Q 20 kg, 1 = 100, S = 5. Now S is changed to 10, Q
remains than 1 becomes 200 (100 : 5 = 200 : 10).
2. Eccentric cams
Whereas on the straight wedge clamping is done by straight and regular motion of the
inclined plane and the wedge angle, the eccentric cam is slightly different. The motion is
circular and the wedge angle varies. (See drawing 1-025). At point X for example it is zero
and at point W it is highest, than it is decreases again toward point U to zero. The wedge
angle can be constructed at any desired point on the eccentric travel line. The max. Wedge
angle should not be more than 5045. (tan = 0,1) to guarantee selflocking. According to our
drawing it is there fore, e : r = 0,1.
Despite the angle between X and us is 180 it is not fully usable. About 30 each side
(Y-Z and T-U) offers so little wedge effect that it is quite possible to overdrive that portion. It
is therefore discarded as active area. If the wedge angle is 545 then the angles at Y and Z

respectively are reduced to 252. In reality the eccentric cam offers about 120 of active
area only. If a cam is calculated it is based on following fact :
Pitch between Z and Y (S-s) = 0,19 r if e : r = 0,1
Example :
Eccentric can is wanted which gives piten of 5,7 mm between Z and Y. e : r = 0,1. How big
are r and e?
Solution : r = 5,7 : 0,19 = 30 mm e = r : 10 = 30 : 10 = 3 mm
3. Spiral cams
The spiral cams is more popular than the eccentric on because of a few advantages
over it. Unlike on the eccentric cam, the active angle can be up to 180, therefore there is no
risk to overdrive it. More over the wedge angle changes little only. It is highest at the shortest
distance from the pivoting point. See drawing 04-026. Selflocking is guaranteed in every
position if the max. wedge angle does not exceed 545 (tan 0,1). The cam-line increases
steady and regular. To calculated the nominal radius r we use following formula :
r = (S x 360) : (tan x 2 x)
S = Stroke
= Wedge angle
= Active slope angle (including security margin each side)
Example :
Given 5,
Wanted r

= 150 , S = 4
= (4 x 360) : (0,0875 x 6,28 x 150) = 17,5 mm

WEDGE ANGLE : this is angle which is formed between C and any given point on the
eccentric travel line and EC and the same point. The angle varies from 0 at point X to the
maximum at point W. Practical experiences have shown that if the wedge angle is tan 0,1
maximum or (5-45) we have a well working self locking device.

HANDLE DIRECTION : the ideal handle direction is at about 75 to the line C EC (picture
B) the most effective clamping area is between points Y and Z.


1. Cetermine the angle of wanted sloped area (throw) plus 10 each side as security margin
for inaccurate fitting
2. Draw two concentric circles one being the outer size and the other the inder size of the
sloped area (R-r).
3. Divide the angle (140 in the example) and the difference of the tro concentric circles (Rr) into the same number of equal spaces and mark the line (four equal spacings marked
1,2,3 in examle).
4. Mark the intersecting points of angular lines and the circular lines (angle dividing line 1
intersects circular line 1 at B etc).
5. Join the points A to E which is the shape of the actual cam-line.
WEDGE ANGLE : the wedge angles is biggest at the shortest distance to the pivoting point
(in the drawing point A) from there it decreases steadily. At point E it is smallest this decrease

does not hamper the clamping effect (if the angle is at point A not more than 5-45 (tan 0,1)
than self-locking is assured.

D. Toggle Clamp
This type of clamping device finder its main application in field of assembly, and welding
fixtures,especially in the assembly of car bodies,light aeroplanes etc. toggles are not very
popular for machining fixtures. The maximum clamping force can be exterted in one
position-just after the deadpoint. This means there is not much stroke margin left to account
for individual dimensional different of workpiece. Moreover, they are quite space-comsuming
of the other hand the clamp is easy and quick fully relieved from the workpiece thus allowing
unloading without problems.
Clamping is equally quick.
That the toggle is working it needs to be flexible to a certain point to allowmto go over the
dead point.