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Review and comparison of shear wall modelling techniques

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shear wall: A review

A. L. Mulla1, Satish Rathod2, Y. R. Suryawanshi3

Dept. of Civil Engineering, JSPMS Imperial College of Engineering and research, Wagholi, Pune.

Abstract RC shear walls are used in new structures as well under certain lateral load hazard, and to predict its expected

as in the rehabilitation of existing structures. Shear walls (SWs) mode of failure in order to be able to choose the most suitable

are vital to limit deformation demands under earthquake and effective retrofitting technique for that wall that would

excitations. So correct modeling of shear walls is most important meet a target performance.

issue in linear and nonlinear analyses of building for Predicting

The numerical modeling of RC elements started by Clough

the behavior of RC shear walls under lateral loads such as winds

and earthquake. This paper presents various modeling techniques et al. (1965) when they proposed the first nonlinear macro-

that have been used by researchers in modeling of RC shear model, and by Ngo and Scordelis (1967) who proposed the

walls. These range from macro-models, micro-models such as first application of the finite element method of analysis in RC

finite element models and fibre models. For the purpose of finite elements. Since then several advancements were done in the

elements modelling, different techniques utilizing either shell area of modeling of RC elements including shear walls. The

elements or combination of frame elements with mid pier frame

objective of this paper is to present the different numerical

can be used. The paper discusses the efficiency of each modelling

approach in representing both the global and local behavior of models proposed by researchers for the analysis of RC shear

RC shear walls. . The aim of this study is to investigate the walls

suitability, simplicity, accuracy; effectiveness of different

structural models II. LITERATURE REVIEW

Index TermsShear wall, Macro modelling, Micro modelling, Element [7]

Frame element, Shell element.

Previous researches on the behavior of shear walls with

openings assumed elastic analysis utilizing shell and brick

elements. The present work adopts nonlinear finite element

I. INTRODUCTION analysis using solid65 element. The analysis comprises both

Shear walls are part of the lateral force resisting system that material and geometric nonlinearities. Solid65 element models

carry vertical loads, bending moments about the wall strong the nonlinear response of concrete material based on a

axis, and shear forces parallel to the wall length. Shear wall constitutive model for the triaxial behavior of concrete after

system is one of the most common and effective lateral load Williams and Warnke. Five shear wall models with different

resisting systems that is widely used in medium- to high-rise opening sizes are analyzed. A sixth model of a solid shear wall

buildings. It can provide the adequate strength and stiffness is also presented to compare the analysis results. The paper

needed for the building to resist wind and earthquake studies the effect of the size of the openings on the behavior of

loadings, provided that a proper design is considered, that the reinforced concrete shear walls.

cares for both the wall strength and ductility. During the

recent years, an enormous effort has been done to provide Modeling of Shear Wall Using Solid65 Element

analytical models that are able to simulate the actual The solid65 element models the nonlinear response of

behaviour of RC elements including shear walls. The rapid reinforced concrete. Solid65 models the concrete material

increase in the computational efficiency of computers helped based on a constitutive model for the triaxial behavior of

the researchers to develop more sophisticated models that can concrete after Williams and Warnke. It is capable of plastic

account for several phenomena of RC shear walls that were deformation, cracking in three orthogonal directions at each

used to be ignored in the analysis due to their complexity. For integration point.

these models to be verified, experimental research is The cracking is modeled through an adjustment of the material

continuously conducted on RC shear walls tested under properties that is carried out by changing the element stiffness

monotonic, cyclic, or dynamic loading. The numerical matrices. If the concrete at an integration point fails in

modeling of RC walls is not involved only in the applications uniaxial, biaxial or triaxial compression, the concrete is

for new construction, but it is also extended to the assumed crushed at that point. Crushing is defined as the

applications of retrofitting of existing structures. In that case, complete deterioration of the structural integrity of the

it is important to construct a representative model that is able concrete.

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no. 2

ANSYS allows entering three reinforcement bar materials in sections are located at the control points of the numerical

the concrete, each material corresponding to the x, y and z integration

directions of the smeared element (ANSYS, release 5.5).

Three different modeling techniques of RC shear walls into the

OpenSEES software were discussed. These models include

fiber section model, flexure-shear interaction model and cyclic

softened membrane model (CSMM). Numerical simulation of

cyclic loading test of a slender shear wall based on OpenSEES

in this paper shows that CSMM and fiber section model are

able to simulate characteristics of the cyclic wall responses.

Strength deterioration, stiffness degradation, hysteretic shape

and pinching behavior are clearly captured in the analysis Figure 19. Flexure-shear interaction model [9].

results, however because of fewer DOFs and less computing

time, the fiber section model is applicable to tall shear walls C. Nonlinear Analysis Methods for Reinforced Concrete

too. Comparison between analytical model responses and test Buildings with Shear walls [5]

results show that the flexure-shear interaction model provides Reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls are modeled utilizing

a reasonably accurate response prediction for a slender shear different techniques either using shell elements or combination

wall. of frame elements. In the nonlinear analyses, the nonlinear

a. Flexure- shear interaction model material model of mid-pier frame is generally based on plastic

In order to capture the experimentally observed shear- hinge concept located on the plastic zones at the end of the

flexure interaction in RC walls, Orakcal proposed an analytical structural elements or distributed along the member span

model that incorporates RC panel behavior described by a length. The nonlinear behavior of the shell elements is

rotation- angle approach into the multiple-vertical-line- generally modeled using multi-layer shell element with layered

element-model (MVLEM, Figure 18). The analytical model material model. In this approach, the concrete and the

was based on the methodology developed by Petrangeli to the reinforcement inside the structural elements are modeled

MVLEM element. Flexure-shear interaction model involves respectively with different layers.

modifying the MVLEM by assigning a shear spring for each

uniaxial element. Each uniaxial element is then treated as an a. Linear Models for Shearwalls

RC panel element, with membrane actions, with uniform

normal and shear stresses applied in the in-plane direction Application of the finite element method for the analysis of

(Figure 19). The interaction between flexure and shear was building structures with shear walls requires an understanding

incorporated at the uniaxial element level. This methodology of the approximations involved in the modeling assumptions to

involves the implementation of the finite element method build these elements. The two modeling procedure and

together with a constitutive RC membrane model. assumptions are explained below:

b. Fiber section model Frame Elements Based Model

In this model, there are a number of control cross-sections The shear walls are modeled using a set of frame elements.

along the element. Each cross-section is subdivided into The most common modeling technique is to use a composition

concrete and steel fibers where uniaxial stress-strain laws are of mid-pier frame to represent the shear wall stiffness and a

used to describe the response of the material in the horizontal frame (rigid arm) to allow proper connections with

longitudinal direction (parallel to the element axis). These intersecting beams and slab components. The most critical

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no. 3

Rebar

stiffness property for the horizontal frame. Infinite rigidity of 2

the upper frame can highly overestimate the bending moments

especially at the connecting beams. This model is used widely

in practice to model planar shear walls in building structures 3 1

for linear and nonlinear analyses. This model might have no

Concrete

reliable results for very long, interacting or complex shear laye

walls with openings. 2

Rebar

Shell Elements Based Model 1

Figure 17. Multi-layer shell elements

The shell element considered in most of the design software

has six degrees of freedom at each node and an in-plane D. Comparison of Practical Approaches for Modelling

rotational degree of freedom, which makes it compatible with Shear walls in Structural Analyses of Buildings [4]

three-dimensional beam type finite element models. It is worth Shell elements formulations generally consist of out-of-

to know that a bilinear shape functions are used to define the plane (plate) and in-plane (membrane) degrees of freedom.

displacement field of the quadrilateral elements, Wilson The membrane element with drilling degrees of freedom was a

(2002). Therefore, shear wall modeling requires a mesh challenge for the engineering community for many decades.

discretization in order to get realistic behavior. The advantage The membrane elements generally combined with plate

of using shell elements is the ability to model very long,

elements to form a shell element that has six degrees of

interacting and complex shear walls within the three

freedom at each node and an in-plane rotational degree of

dimensional model.

freedom, which makes it compatible with three-dimensional

b. Nonlinear Material Models Shear Walls beam-type finite element. This approach was successful and

The nonlinear element models of shear walls are ranged from many analysis software have adopted various formulations for

three dimensional nonlinear solid elements, two dimensional the shell elements. In practical engineering, although the shell

nonlinear shell elements to simplified models using frame element appears to have full compatibility with three-

elements. dimensional beam element, some limitations in the formulation

were identified. Although drilling rotations allow introducing

Continuum Finite Element Models external loads in the form of drilling moments, analytical

results show inconsistency and sensitivity to mesh sizes and

The shear wall is modeled with continuum elements using loading conditions.

nonlinear solid elements existed in many advanced finite

element analyses software as ANSYS, ABAQUS, etc. The a. Shell Elements Based Model

continuum elements offer superiority in accurately modeling The shell element can be used efficiently for the analysis of

the concrete and reinforcement details (Nicolae and building structures with shear walls. The shell element

Reynouard, 2000). Reinforcement can be defined in three considered in most of the design software has six degrees of

different directions. The plasticity model for concrete is based freedom at each node and an in-plane rotational degree of

on the flow theory of plasticity, Von Mises yield criterion, freedom, which makes it compatible with three-dimensional

isotropic hardening and associated flow rule. The continuum

beam-type finite element models. It is worth to know that a

elements also capture important behavioral responses such as

bilinear shape functions are used to define the displacement

axial-flexure interaction, inelastic shear deformation, steel

field of the quadrilateral elements, Wilson (2002). Therefore,

confining effect on concrete behavior, concrete compression

softening, and concrete tension stiffening (Spacone and El- shearwall modeling requires a mesh discretization in order to

Tawil, 2004). get realistic behavior. The advantage of using shell elements is

the ability to model very long, interacting and complex

Multi-Layer Shell Element shearwalls within the three dimensional model. The optimal

The shear wall is modeled using a fine mesh of smeared size of the mesh and the effects of mesh size on the results are

multi-layer shell elements. The multi-layer shell element is shown in the numerical examples below. Although the shell

based on the principles of composite material mechanics and it element formulations include the drilling degree of freedom,

can simulate the coupled in-plane/out-plane bending and the analytical results show inconsistency and sensitivity of the

coupled in-plane bending-shear nonlinear behaviors of RC drilling moment to mesh sizes and loading conditions. This

shear walls (Miao et al, 2006). The shell element is made up of shortcoming has significant effects on the bending moment of

many layers with different thickness. And different material the in-plane beams connected to the shearwall. To resolve this

properties are assigned to various layers (Figure 17) problem, in engineering practice, the beam connecting to shear

wall are generally modeled to some extend inside the shearwall

shell elements.

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no. 4

moment of the shearwalls and the bending moment of the in-

Rigid Beam framing

Element into wall plane connected beams are changed dramatically with mesh

density. For finer meshes 10 times reduction of the drilling

moment can be estimated.

Introduction of top chord frame stabilise the results

considerably. Good estimation of the properties of the top

chord frame is very important not to affect the overall stiffness

of the structural system. Best results are obtained using a top

chord frame element to enhance the fixity of the beams

framing into the shearwall. Using one penetrating rigid

Figure 14: Rigid element defined along the top chord of the element along the top mesh give good results for coarse

wall meshes. For finer mesh (20x20) 15% differences are exist in

drilling moments for shearwalls and bending moments of the

beams along major direction.

Rigid Beam framing

E. Advancement in modeling of RC shear walls [3]

Element

This paper presents different modeling techniques that have

been used by researchers in modeling of RC shear walls. These

range from macro-models such as lumped plasticity, multi-

axial spring models, combined models, up to micro-models

such as finite element models and fibre models. The paper

discusses the efficiency of each model in representing both the

global and local behaviour of RC shear walls.

Figure 15: Rigid element penetrating along one mesh length The two main approaches for modeling of RC members are

micro-modeling and macro modeling. Micro-modeling such as

a. Frame Elements Based Model the finite element analysis or fiber analysis is based on

The shearwalls are modeled using a set of frame elements. representing the behaviour of different materials that compose

The most common modeling technique is to use a composition the RC element and the interaction between them. The member

of mid-pier frame to represent the shearwall stiffness and a is discretized into small elements and principles of equilibrium

horizontal frame (rigid arm) to allow proper connections with are applied. This approach is complex and needs high

intersecting beams and slab components. The most critical numerical processing efforts, and hence it might not be

point for this model is the proper selection of rigidity and practical for large structures and it is limited to model

stiffness property for the horizontal frame. Infinite rigidity of individual structural components such as a column, a beam or

the upper frame can highly overestimate the bending moments a wall. On the other hand, macro-modeling is based on

especially at the connecting beams. This model is used widely representing the overall behaviour of the RC element, such as

in practice to model planar shearwalls in building structures the wall deformations, strength, and energy dissipation

for linear and nonlinear analyses. This model might have no capacity. The global behaviour of the RC element using a

reliable results for very long, interacting or complex macro-model should be calibrated using an experimental

shearwalls with openings. verification to adjust the parameters needed for the model.

This approach is simple and does not require high numerical

Rigid Arm Beam framing efforts, which makes it suitable to simulate the response of

into wall large structures.

b. Hysteretic Models

The cyclic behaviour of RC shear walls should be defined

using a hysteretic model that is able to simulate different

inelastic phenomena of reinforced concrete materials. The

MidPier Wall modeling of the hysteretic behaviour of the RC element can

Element affect the element response significantly (Anderson and

Townsend 1977). These models can be used to represent the

Figure 16: MidPier Model axial, flexure and shear behaviour of the element. The

hysteretic model consists of a primary curve (backbone curve)

Based on numerical results for different buildings models and that control the monotonic loading and some hysteresis rules

shearwalls configurations and the different analyses set results that control the loading and unloading element behaviour

of the example building, the following conclusions can be under cyclic loading. The control parameters of the hysteresis

made rules are adjusted to simulate the actual cyclic behaviour of the

tested wall.

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no. 5

c. Micro-Modeling of RC Shear Walls behaviour). The nonlinearity of this model was represented

Finite element method of analysis uniformly along the entire member length. The main problem

The number of the finite elements is chosen according to the of this model was its inability to represent the element stiffness

level of accuracy required and the available analysis tool. The or strength degradation with cyclic loading.

FEM of analysis is capable of tracking the members global

behaviour (e.g. member forces and displacements) in addition

to its local behaviour (e.g. crack pattern, material stresses and

strains). The first FE model used for RC element was proposed

by Ngo and Scordelis (1967). The proposed two-dimensional

linear model used constant strain triangular (CST) finite

elements to model the concrete and steel elements, linkage

elements were used to represent the bond between steel and Figure 6 Two-component element model.

concrete elements, and the effect of cracking was included in

One-component beam-column element

the model.

This element which was developed by Giberson (1967)

Fibre (layer) model

consisted of one linear elastic member with two nonlinear

In this model, the member is divided longitudinally into

rotational springs at the two member ends as shown in Figure

several segments, and each segment consists of parallel layers.

7. The members nonlinear deformations were assumed to be

Some layers would represent the concrete material and other

lumped at the zero-length end springs (lumped plasticity). For

layers would represent the steel material. In other type of

this model, the deformed shape was assumed to have a double

models, each single layer was divided into a finite number of

curvature with a fixed point of contraflexure at the middle of

fibres as shown in Figure 5 (a). The constitutive laws for

the member, and the plain sections were assumed to remain

concrete and steel materials are defined, and hence the

plain. The one-component model and the general two-

moment-curvature relationship of the member can be

component model need an appropriate hysteretic load-

calculated at each load level. This model accounts for the

deformation (or moment-curvature) models to be defined. This

distribution of flexibility along the member length and the

requires definition of different properties of the members

axial-flexure interaction.

plastic hinges such as stiffness, strength, ductility, cyclic

behaviour, etc., which may be difficult to be defined unless

some assumptions were made. Multiple spring model

This model was proposed by Takayanagi and Schnobrich

(1976). The multiple spring model consisted of a number of

inelastic springs that are connected in series using rigid

members as shown in Figure 7. The inelastic properties of each

spring were varied according to the segment properties and the

level of axial load on that segment, however the segment

Figure 5 (a) Fibre beam element proposed properties were assumed to be constant along the segment

length. The model was used to represent the behaviour of

coupled shear walls, while the coupling beams were modeled

using one-component elements. This model was used by Emori

and Schnobrich (1981) to model the shears wall of a 10-storey

frame-wall building. Linear shear deformations were assumed

in the analysis. The models were found to satisfactorily

represent the nonlinear behaviour of the studied structure.

d. Macro-Modeling of RC Shear Walls

Two-component beam-column element Multi-axial spring model (MS model)

The model developed by Clough et al. (1965) consisted This model was proposed by Lai et al. (1984) to simulate

mainly of two parallel components; one was fully elastic and the axial-flexure interaction of RC columns. The proposed

the other was perfectly elasto-plastic as shown in Figure 6. The model consisted of an elastic linear member with two multi-

two components were able to represent the material yielding axial spring elements (MS elements) of zero dimensions

(elasto-plastic behaviour) and the strain hardening (elastic

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no. 6

element consisted of 5 concrete and 4 steel springs, each

spring was assumed to be uniaxially stressed and its behaviour

was governed by the hysteretic stress-strain characteristics of

the simulated material (concrete or steel). The main input for

this model was the material (concrete/steel) constitutive laws

rather than the load-deformation relationship of the whole

member. Multi-linear curves were used to represent the stress-

strain or (force-deformation) relationship for concrete and

steel springs. The spring deformations were conformed to the

plane section assumption.

Member model, b) Inelastic element,

Combined models

Three Vertical Line Element (TVLE) model

The model consisted of three vertical line elements connected

to each other by rigid bars at the top and the bottom wall ends,

two edge links with axial springs representing the boundary

elements, and the central one-component element with three

springs to control the vertical, horizontal, and rotational

deformations of the wall as shown in Figure 10. The main

problems about this model were the lack of deformation

compatibility between the wall and the boundary elements, and

c) Effective concrete and steel springs. the difficulty in defining the properties of the springs.

Truss models

This model assumed that the wall will act as a statically

determinate truss. The model consists of diagonal concrete

compression struts, horizontal tension ties (representing the

shear reinforcement), and two boundary elements at the wall

ends to carry the moment acting. Figure 9(a) shows the truss

model used by Oesterle at al. (1984) for analysis of shear

response of RC shear walls. Other models based on the same

analogy were used to calculate the capacity of RC walls, such

as the Softened-Strut-and-Tie model shown in Figure 8(b). The

model was used by Yu and Hwang (2005) to predict the shear

capacity of RC squat walls. It is worth noting that, although

such models are able to predict the capacity of RC elements,

Figure 10 Three Vertical Line Element model

they cannot capture the cyclic or the hysteretic behaviour of

these elements.

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no. 7

behavior of shear-wall, reinforced concrete structures [2]

2001

A shear failure mode model based on experimental results

has been added to the computer program larz. And studied

most relevant problems and solutions devised during the

development of this model. Validation of the model was

carried out by comparing its results with the actual response of

two

b. Model for flexural failure mode

The SINA hysteresis model implemented in the larz

computer program (Fig. 3) was adopted in this study to model

Figure 11 Axial-element-in-series model the non-linear flexural behavior and the moment curvature

hysteretic relations for wall elements. As shown in Fig. 3,

Multiple Vertical Line Element (MVLE) model pinching effects and stiffness and strength reductions due to

The wall element was represented by a number of uniaxial repeated cycles at the same deformation level were not

elements connected in parallel using infinitely rigid bars implemented in the model for flexural behaviorreal buildings.

located at the top and bottom wall ends; two external elements In spite of the fact that the model is two-dimensional and,

simulates the wall boundary elements, while the other elements hence, it ignores the torsional response, the results obtained

simulates the combined axial-flexure behaviour of the central are satisfactory

panel. A horizontal spring was used to represent the inelastic

shear behaviour of the wall. The authors modified the axial-

element-in-series model (AESM) by having two-component

model for element 1, representing the cracked concrete and

steel reinforcement behaviour, instead of the one-component

element in the original model as shown in Figure 12. The

constitutive laws for concrete (cracked and uncracked) and

steel elements were defined to describe the hysteretic response

of the materials.

columns, shear walls).

Shear dominated behavior was also modeled using the

SINA hysteresis model as shown in Fig. 4. Pinching effects

and strength reduction due to repeated cycles at the same

deformation level were now implemented in the hysteresis

model. The model for the shear failure mode assumes

Figure 12 Multiple vertical line element model

independent of the shear strength of walls on both the bending

moment and the axial force present in the wall.

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no. 8

Fig. 4. Hysteretic model for shear mode of failure (shear In order to improve the prediction of the overall (shear and

walls). flexural) behavior of RC structural walls, this study proposes a

This study has proposed and implemented a model to 4-node panel under biaxial loading to represent the wall effect

include the shear failure mode for walls in available computer (Figure 1(b)). The boundary column uses the same axial spring

programs. The model developed in this study is a macro-model proposed in TVLEM. Using just one panel to constitute the

validated with the experimental results of cyclic tests of shear wall, shear strain will be overestimated by the isoparametric

walls element (Figure 2(a)), satisfactory result cannot be obtained

for the flexural problem. Flexural deformation must be

G. Modeling of reinforced concrete shear wall for

considered in the element. In this study, incompatible

nonlinear analysis combining FEM panel model and

rectangular element is used, in which flexural deformation can

boundary elements. [1]

be introduced (Figure 2(b)).

A member model of reinforced concrete shear wall with

boundary columns and beams was proposed for nonlinear and

dynamic frame analysis. The reinforced concrete shear wall 2 1 2 1

was idealized as axial springs for columns and a panel under

plane stress states with rigid beams at top and bottom floor

levels. Two methods were compared, in which isoparametric

element and incompatible rectangular element with four nodes

for the panel element were used. The model was verified 3 4 3 4

through the analysis of T-shaped wall tests. The analytical

results obtained by the proposed model showed generally good (a) Isoparametric Element (b) Incompatible Element

correlation with the experimental results. Shear deformation Figure 2: Panel Element Isoparametric Element and

was overestimated by isoparametric panel element, whereas Incompatible Element

incompatible rectangular element, which incorporated flexural

deformation by using internal displacements, gave better A new model for reinforced concrete shear wall was

correlation with the experimental results of flexural yielding proposed, which combined a FEM panel element and

walls. For the walls in shear failure, the analytical results were boundary line elements. Two methods using isoparametric

basically same either by isoparametric element or incompatible element and incompatible element for a panel were compared

element. with the test results. The model with isoparametric element

a. Composition of RC Wall Member Model slightly overestimates shear deformation for flexural yield

shear walls. The model with incompatible rectangular element

Three-Vertical-Line-Element-Model (TVLEM) is better than the model isoparametric element for prediction

It was formulated [Kabeyasawa, 1983] to idealize a generic of shear and flexural displacement components. The model

wall member as three vertical line elements with infinitely gave a good correlation between analytical and experimental

rigid beams at top and bottom floor levels. Outside truss results.

elements were represented by the axial stiffness of boundary

columns, while the central element was a uniaxial model with III. CONCLUSION AND SUMMARY

vertical (axial), horizontal (shear) and rotational springs. This The study of all above researches, experiments, practical tests,

model has been verified by many test data resulting in a and findings it is concluded that

satisfactory correlation between calculated and measured 1. For modelling of shearwall there are two main

response of structures that use shear walls. However, it was approaches namely Macro modelling and Micro

reported [Colotti, 1993] that the response was not adequately modelling, each approach has its own advantage and

described for high shear stresses. disadvantages due to idealizations and assumptions

and choice of approach is mainly depend on response

parameters of interest either local or global behavior

of shear wall.

2. Choice of modelling of shear wall also depends on

types of shear wall its dimension, shape, material

used for wall, loading on wall etc.

3. Although the finite element method appeals for its

accuracy and for its ability to model different

(a) TVLEM Model (b) RC Panel Model phenomena and their interaction, it requires the

Figure 1: Macro-Element Model for RC Wall Member solution of a large system of equations, and the

integration of stress in two or three space directions.

This model is complex and needs high numerical

processing effort, and hence it might not be practical

for large structures

Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no. 9

scale model: one-component model, two-component

model, multi-axial spring model (MS model), truss

model, multi spring model and multi component

model. The macro scale model is based on

representing the overall behavior of the RC shear

wall, such as the wall deformations, strength, and

energy dissipation capacity.

REFERENCES

[1] Shaohua1, Toshimi2, (2000) Modeling of reinforced concrete

shear wall for nonlinear Analysis, World Conference on

Earthquake Engineering

[2] P.A. Hidalgo1 , R.M. Jordan2, M.P. Martinez3, (2002), An

analytical model to predict the inelastic seismic behavior of shear-

wall, reinforced concrete structures, Engineering Structures 24

(2002).pp 8598

[3] K. Galal1 and H. El-Sokkary2, Advancement in modeling of RC

shear walls, (The 14thWorld Conference on Earthquake

Engineering October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China)

[4] J. Kubin1, Y. M. Fahjan2 and M. T. Tan3, (2008), Comparison of

Practical Approaches For ModellingShearwalls in Structural

Analysis of Buildings, the 14thWorld Conference on Earthquake

Engineering October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China

[5] Y.M. J. Kubin1 M.T. Tan2, (2010), Nonlinear Analysis Methods

for Reinforced Concrete Buildings with Shear walls, 14th

European Conference on Earthquake Engineering

[6] Ali Soltani1,.Farhad Behnamfar2,.Kiachehr Behfarnia3,.Farshad

Berahman4, (2011)Numerical tools for modeling of RC shear

walls,8th International Conference on Structural Dynamics

[7] Mazen A. Musmar, (2013), Analysis of Shear Wall with Openings

Using Solid65 Element, Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering,

Volume 7, No. 2,

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Wagholi, Pune

PG-coordinator Guide

Structural Engineering

Head of Department

Civil Engineering

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