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Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no.

Different approaches in modeling of RC


shear wall: A review
A. L. Mulla1, Satish Rathod2, Y. R. Suryawanshi3
Dept. of Civil Engineering, JSPMS Imperial College of Engineering and research, Wagholi, Pune.

to evaluate the expected response of an existing RC shear wall


Abstract RC shear walls are used in new structures as well under certain lateral load hazard, and to predict its expected
as in the rehabilitation of existing structures. Shear walls (SWs) mode of failure in order to be able to choose the most suitable
are vital to limit deformation demands under earthquake and effective retrofitting technique for that wall that would
excitations. So correct modeling of shear walls is most important meet a target performance.
issue in linear and nonlinear analyses of building for Predicting
The numerical modeling of RC elements started by Clough
the behavior of RC shear walls under lateral loads such as winds
and earthquake. This paper presents various modeling techniques et al. (1965) when they proposed the first nonlinear macro-
that have been used by researchers in modeling of RC shear model, and by Ngo and Scordelis (1967) who proposed the
walls. These range from macro-models, micro-models such as first application of the finite element method of analysis in RC
finite element models and fibre models. For the purpose of finite elements. Since then several advancements were done in the
elements modelling, different techniques utilizing either shell area of modeling of RC elements including shear walls. The
elements or combination of frame elements with mid pier frame
objective of this paper is to present the different numerical
can be used. The paper discusses the efficiency of each modelling
approach in representing both the global and local behavior of models proposed by researchers for the analysis of RC shear
RC shear walls. . The aim of this study is to investigate the walls
suitability, simplicity, accuracy; effectiveness of different
structural models II. LITERATURE REVIEW

A. Analysis of Shear Wall with Openings Using Solid65


Index TermsShear wall, Macro modelling, Micro modelling, Element [7]
Frame element, Shell element.
Previous researches on the behavior of shear walls with
openings assumed elastic analysis utilizing shell and brick
elements. The present work adopts nonlinear finite element
I. INTRODUCTION analysis using solid65 element. The analysis comprises both
Shear walls are part of the lateral force resisting system that material and geometric nonlinearities. Solid65 element models
carry vertical loads, bending moments about the wall strong the nonlinear response of concrete material based on a
axis, and shear forces parallel to the wall length. Shear wall constitutive model for the triaxial behavior of concrete after
system is one of the most common and effective lateral load Williams and Warnke. Five shear wall models with different
resisting systems that is widely used in medium- to high-rise opening sizes are analyzed. A sixth model of a solid shear wall
buildings. It can provide the adequate strength and stiffness is also presented to compare the analysis results. The paper
needed for the building to resist wind and earthquake studies the effect of the size of the openings on the behavior of
loadings, provided that a proper design is considered, that the reinforced concrete shear walls.
cares for both the wall strength and ductility. During the
recent years, an enormous effort has been done to provide Modeling of Shear Wall Using Solid65 Element
analytical models that are able to simulate the actual The solid65 element models the nonlinear response of
behaviour of RC elements including shear walls. The rapid reinforced concrete. Solid65 models the concrete material
increase in the computational efficiency of computers helped based on a constitutive model for the triaxial behavior of
the researchers to develop more sophisticated models that can concrete after Williams and Warnke. It is capable of plastic
account for several phenomena of RC shear walls that were deformation, cracking in three orthogonal directions at each
used to be ignored in the analysis due to their complexity. For integration point.
these models to be verified, experimental research is The cracking is modeled through an adjustment of the material
continuously conducted on RC shear walls tested under properties that is carried out by changing the element stiffness
monotonic, cyclic, or dynamic loading. The numerical matrices. If the concrete at an integration point fails in
modeling of RC walls is not involved only in the applications uniaxial, biaxial or triaxial compression, the concrete is
for new construction, but it is also extended to the assumed crushed at that point. Crushing is defined as the
applications of retrofitting of existing structures. In that case, complete deterioration of the structural integrity of the
it is important to construct a representative model that is able concrete.

Manuscript received April 13, 2015


Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no. 2

ANSYS allows entering three reinforcement bar materials in sections are located at the control points of the numerical
the concrete, each material corresponding to the x, y and z integration
directions of the smeared element (ANSYS, release 5.5).

Figure 18. MVLEM model

Figure 20: Solid65 element (ANSYS, release 5.5)

B. Numerical tools for modeling of RC shear walls [6]


Three different modeling techniques of RC shear walls into the
OpenSEES software were discussed. These models include
fiber section model, flexure-shear interaction model and cyclic
softened membrane model (CSMM). Numerical simulation of
cyclic loading test of a slender shear wall based on OpenSEES
in this paper shows that CSMM and fiber section model are
able to simulate characteristics of the cyclic wall responses.
Strength deterioration, stiffness degradation, hysteretic shape
and pinching behavior are clearly captured in the analysis Figure 19. Flexure-shear interaction model [9].
results, however because of fewer DOFs and less computing
time, the fiber section model is applicable to tall shear walls C. Nonlinear Analysis Methods for Reinforced Concrete
too. Comparison between analytical model responses and test Buildings with Shear walls [5]
results show that the flexure-shear interaction model provides Reinforced concrete (RC) shear walls are modeled utilizing
a reasonably accurate response prediction for a slender shear different techniques either using shell elements or combination
wall. of frame elements. In the nonlinear analyses, the nonlinear
a. Flexure- shear interaction model material model of mid-pier frame is generally based on plastic
In order to capture the experimentally observed shear- hinge concept located on the plastic zones at the end of the
flexure interaction in RC walls, Orakcal proposed an analytical structural elements or distributed along the member span
model that incorporates RC panel behavior described by a length. The nonlinear behavior of the shell elements is
rotation- angle approach into the multiple-vertical-line- generally modeled using multi-layer shell element with layered
element-model (MVLEM, Figure 18). The analytical model material model. In this approach, the concrete and the
was based on the methodology developed by Petrangeli to the reinforcement inside the structural elements are modeled
MVLEM element. Flexure-shear interaction model involves respectively with different layers.
modifying the MVLEM by assigning a shear spring for each
uniaxial element. Each uniaxial element is then treated as an a. Linear Models for Shearwalls
RC panel element, with membrane actions, with uniform
normal and shear stresses applied in the in-plane direction Application of the finite element method for the analysis of
(Figure 19). The interaction between flexure and shear was building structures with shear walls requires an understanding
incorporated at the uniaxial element level. This methodology of the approximations involved in the modeling assumptions to
involves the implementation of the finite element method build these elements. The two modeling procedure and
together with a constitutive RC membrane model. assumptions are explained below:
b. Fiber section model Frame Elements Based Model
In this model, there are a number of control cross-sections The shear walls are modeled using a set of frame elements.
along the element. Each cross-section is subdivided into The most common modeling technique is to use a composition
concrete and steel fibers where uniaxial stress-strain laws are of mid-pier frame to represent the shear wall stiffness and a
used to describe the response of the material in the horizontal frame (rigid arm) to allow proper connections with
longitudinal direction (parallel to the element axis). These intersecting beams and slab components. The most critical
Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no. 3

point for this model is the proper selection of rigidity and


Rebar
stiffness property for the horizontal frame. Infinite rigidity of 2
the upper frame can highly overestimate the bending moments
especially at the connecting beams. This model is used widely
in practice to model planar shear walls in building structures 3 1
for linear and nonlinear analyses. This model might have no
Concrete
reliable results for very long, interacting or complex shear laye
walls with openings. 2
Rebar
Shell Elements Based Model 1
Figure 17. Multi-layer shell elements
The shell element considered in most of the design software
has six degrees of freedom at each node and an in-plane D. Comparison of Practical Approaches for Modelling
rotational degree of freedom, which makes it compatible with Shear walls in Structural Analyses of Buildings [4]
three-dimensional beam type finite element models. It is worth Shell elements formulations generally consist of out-of-
to know that a bilinear shape functions are used to define the plane (plate) and in-plane (membrane) degrees of freedom.
displacement field of the quadrilateral elements, Wilson The membrane element with drilling degrees of freedom was a
(2002). Therefore, shear wall modeling requires a mesh challenge for the engineering community for many decades.
discretization in order to get realistic behavior. The advantage The membrane elements generally combined with plate
of using shell elements is the ability to model very long,
elements to form a shell element that has six degrees of
interacting and complex shear walls within the three
freedom at each node and an in-plane rotational degree of
dimensional model.
freedom, which makes it compatible with three-dimensional
b. Nonlinear Material Models Shear Walls beam-type finite element. This approach was successful and
The nonlinear element models of shear walls are ranged from many analysis software have adopted various formulations for
three dimensional nonlinear solid elements, two dimensional the shell elements. In practical engineering, although the shell
nonlinear shell elements to simplified models using frame element appears to have full compatibility with three-
elements. dimensional beam element, some limitations in the formulation
were identified. Although drilling rotations allow introducing
Continuum Finite Element Models external loads in the form of drilling moments, analytical
results show inconsistency and sensitivity to mesh sizes and
The shear wall is modeled with continuum elements using loading conditions.
nonlinear solid elements existed in many advanced finite
element analyses software as ANSYS, ABAQUS, etc. The a. Shell Elements Based Model
continuum elements offer superiority in accurately modeling The shell element can be used efficiently for the analysis of
the concrete and reinforcement details (Nicolae and building structures with shear walls. The shell element
Reynouard, 2000). Reinforcement can be defined in three considered in most of the design software has six degrees of
different directions. The plasticity model for concrete is based freedom at each node and an in-plane rotational degree of
on the flow theory of plasticity, Von Mises yield criterion, freedom, which makes it compatible with three-dimensional
isotropic hardening and associated flow rule. The continuum
beam-type finite element models. It is worth to know that a
elements also capture important behavioral responses such as
bilinear shape functions are used to define the displacement
axial-flexure interaction, inelastic shear deformation, steel
field of the quadrilateral elements, Wilson (2002). Therefore,
confining effect on concrete behavior, concrete compression
softening, and concrete tension stiffening (Spacone and El- shearwall modeling requires a mesh discretization in order to
Tawil, 2004). get realistic behavior. The advantage of using shell elements is
the ability to model very long, interacting and complex
Multi-Layer Shell Element shearwalls within the three dimensional model. The optimal
The shear wall is modeled using a fine mesh of smeared size of the mesh and the effects of mesh size on the results are
multi-layer shell elements. The multi-layer shell element is shown in the numerical examples below. Although the shell
based on the principles of composite material mechanics and it element formulations include the drilling degree of freedom,
can simulate the coupled in-plane/out-plane bending and the analytical results show inconsistency and sensitivity of the
coupled in-plane bending-shear nonlinear behaviors of RC drilling moment to mesh sizes and loading conditions. This
shear walls (Miao et al, 2006). The shell element is made up of shortcoming has significant effects on the bending moment of
many layers with different thickness. And different material the in-plane beams connected to the shearwall. To resolve this
properties are assigned to various layers (Figure 17) problem, in engineering practice, the beam connecting to shear
wall are generally modeled to some extend inside the shearwall
shell elements.
Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no. 4

In modeling shearwalls with shell elements, the drilling


moment of the shearwalls and the bending moment of the in-
Rigid Beam framing
Element into wall plane connected beams are changed dramatically with mesh
density. For finer meshes 10 times reduction of the drilling
moment can be estimated.
Introduction of top chord frame stabilise the results
considerably. Good estimation of the properties of the top
chord frame is very important not to affect the overall stiffness
of the structural system. Best results are obtained using a top
chord frame element to enhance the fixity of the beams
framing into the shearwall. Using one penetrating rigid
Figure 14: Rigid element defined along the top chord of the element along the top mesh give good results for coarse
wall meshes. For finer mesh (20x20) 15% differences are exist in
drilling moments for shearwalls and bending moments of the
beams along major direction.
Rigid Beam framing
E. Advancement in modeling of RC shear walls [3]
Element
This paper presents different modeling techniques that have
been used by researchers in modeling of RC shear walls. These
range from macro-models such as lumped plasticity, multi-
axial spring models, combined models, up to micro-models
such as finite element models and fibre models. The paper
discusses the efficiency of each model in representing both the
global and local behaviour of RC shear walls.

a. Micro-Modeling versus Macro-Modeling


Figure 15: Rigid element penetrating along one mesh length The two main approaches for modeling of RC members are
micro-modeling and macro modeling. Micro-modeling such as
a. Frame Elements Based Model the finite element analysis or fiber analysis is based on
The shearwalls are modeled using a set of frame elements. representing the behaviour of different materials that compose
The most common modeling technique is to use a composition the RC element and the interaction between them. The member
of mid-pier frame to represent the shearwall stiffness and a is discretized into small elements and principles of equilibrium
horizontal frame (rigid arm) to allow proper connections with are applied. This approach is complex and needs high
intersecting beams and slab components. The most critical numerical processing efforts, and hence it might not be
point for this model is the proper selection of rigidity and practical for large structures and it is limited to model
stiffness property for the horizontal frame. Infinite rigidity of individual structural components such as a column, a beam or
the upper frame can highly overestimate the bending moments a wall. On the other hand, macro-modeling is based on
especially at the connecting beams. This model is used widely representing the overall behaviour of the RC element, such as
in practice to model planar shearwalls in building structures the wall deformations, strength, and energy dissipation
for linear and nonlinear analyses. This model might have no capacity. The global behaviour of the RC element using a
reliable results for very long, interacting or complex macro-model should be calibrated using an experimental
shearwalls with openings. verification to adjust the parameters needed for the model.
This approach is simple and does not require high numerical
Rigid Arm Beam framing efforts, which makes it suitable to simulate the response of
into wall large structures.
b. Hysteretic Models
The cyclic behaviour of RC shear walls should be defined
using a hysteretic model that is able to simulate different
inelastic phenomena of reinforced concrete materials. The
MidPier Wall modeling of the hysteretic behaviour of the RC element can
Element affect the element response significantly (Anderson and
Townsend 1977). These models can be used to represent the
Figure 16: MidPier Model axial, flexure and shear behaviour of the element. The
hysteretic model consists of a primary curve (backbone curve)
Based on numerical results for different buildings models and that control the monotonic loading and some hysteresis rules
shearwalls configurations and the different analyses set results that control the loading and unloading element behaviour
of the example building, the following conclusions can be under cyclic loading. The control parameters of the hysteresis
made rules are adjusted to simulate the actual cyclic behaviour of the
tested wall.
Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no. 5

c. Micro-Modeling of RC Shear Walls behaviour). The nonlinearity of this model was represented
Finite element method of analysis uniformly along the entire member length. The main problem
The number of the finite elements is chosen according to the of this model was its inability to represent the element stiffness
level of accuracy required and the available analysis tool. The or strength degradation with cyclic loading.
FEM of analysis is capable of tracking the members global
behaviour (e.g. member forces and displacements) in addition
to its local behaviour (e.g. crack pattern, material stresses and
strains). The first FE model used for RC element was proposed
by Ngo and Scordelis (1967). The proposed two-dimensional
linear model used constant strain triangular (CST) finite
elements to model the concrete and steel elements, linkage
elements were used to represent the bond between steel and Figure 6 Two-component element model.
concrete elements, and the effect of cracking was included in
One-component beam-column element
the model.
This element which was developed by Giberson (1967)
Fibre (layer) model
consisted of one linear elastic member with two nonlinear
In this model, the member is divided longitudinally into
rotational springs at the two member ends as shown in Figure
several segments, and each segment consists of parallel layers.
7. The members nonlinear deformations were assumed to be
Some layers would represent the concrete material and other
lumped at the zero-length end springs (lumped plasticity). For
layers would represent the steel material. In other type of
this model, the deformed shape was assumed to have a double
models, each single layer was divided into a finite number of
curvature with a fixed point of contraflexure at the middle of
fibres as shown in Figure 5 (a). The constitutive laws for
the member, and the plain sections were assumed to remain
concrete and steel materials are defined, and hence the
plain. The one-component model and the general two-
moment-curvature relationship of the member can be
component model need an appropriate hysteretic load-
calculated at each load level. This model accounts for the
deformation (or moment-curvature) models to be defined. This
distribution of flexibility along the member length and the
requires definition of different properties of the members
axial-flexure interaction.
plastic hinges such as stiffness, strength, ductility, cyclic
behaviour, etc., which may be difficult to be defined unless
some assumptions were made. Multiple spring model

Multiple spring model


This model was proposed by Takayanagi and Schnobrich
(1976). The multiple spring model consisted of a number of
inelastic springs that are connected in series using rigid
members as shown in Figure 7. The inelastic properties of each
spring were varied according to the segment properties and the
level of axial load on that segment, however the segment
Figure 5 (a) Fibre beam element proposed properties were assumed to be constant along the segment
length. The model was used to represent the behaviour of
coupled shear walls, while the coupling beams were modeled
using one-component elements. This model was used by Emori
and Schnobrich (1981) to model the shears wall of a 10-storey
frame-wall building. Linear shear deformations were assumed
in the analysis. The models were found to satisfactorily
represent the nonlinear behaviour of the studied structure.

(b) Multi-layer finite element model

Figure 7 Multiple spring model


d. Macro-Modeling of RC Shear Walls
Two-component beam-column element Multi-axial spring model (MS model)
The model developed by Clough et al. (1965) consisted This model was proposed by Lai et al. (1984) to simulate
mainly of two parallel components; one was fully elastic and the axial-flexure interaction of RC columns. The proposed
the other was perfectly elasto-plastic as shown in Figure 6. The model consisted of an elastic linear member with two multi-
two components were able to represent the material yielding axial spring elements (MS elements) of zero dimensions
(elasto-plastic behaviour) and the strain hardening (elastic
Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no. 6

located at the two member ends as shown in Figure 8. The MS


element consisted of 5 concrete and 4 steel springs, each
spring was assumed to be uniaxially stressed and its behaviour
was governed by the hysteretic stress-strain characteristics of
the simulated material (concrete or steel). The main input for
this model was the material (concrete/steel) constitutive laws
rather than the load-deformation relationship of the whole
member. Multi-linear curves were used to represent the stress-
strain or (force-deformation) relationship for concrete and
steel springs. The spring deformations were conformed to the
plane section assumption.

Figure 9 (a) Truss model used by Oesterle et al. (1984),

Figure 8 Multi-axial spring model by Lai et al. (1984): a)


Member model, b) Inelastic element,

(b) Softened-Strut-and-Tie model


Combined models
Three Vertical Line Element (TVLE) model
The model consisted of three vertical line elements connected
to each other by rigid bars at the top and the bottom wall ends,
two edge links with axial springs representing the boundary
elements, and the central one-component element with three
springs to control the vertical, horizontal, and rotational
deformations of the wall as shown in Figure 10. The main
problems about this model were the lack of deformation
compatibility between the wall and the boundary elements, and
c) Effective concrete and steel springs. the difficulty in defining the properties of the springs.
Truss models
This model assumed that the wall will act as a statically
determinate truss. The model consists of diagonal concrete
compression struts, horizontal tension ties (representing the
shear reinforcement), and two boundary elements at the wall
ends to carry the moment acting. Figure 9(a) shows the truss
model used by Oesterle at al. (1984) for analysis of shear
response of RC shear walls. Other models based on the same
analogy were used to calculate the capacity of RC walls, such
as the Softened-Strut-and-Tie model shown in Figure 8(b). The
model was used by Yu and Hwang (2005) to predict the shear
capacity of RC squat walls. It is worth noting that, although
such models are able to predict the capacity of RC elements,
Figure 10 Three Vertical Line Element model
they cannot capture the cyclic or the hysteretic behaviour of
these elements.
Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no. 7

F. An analytical model to predict the inelastic seismic


behavior of shear-wall, reinforced concrete structures [2]
2001
A shear failure mode model based on experimental results
has been added to the computer program larz. And studied
most relevant problems and solutions devised during the
development of this model. Validation of the model was
carried out by comparing its results with the actual response of
two
b. Model for flexural failure mode
The SINA hysteresis model implemented in the larz
computer program (Fig. 3) was adopted in this study to model
Figure 11 Axial-element-in-series model the non-linear flexural behavior and the moment curvature
hysteretic relations for wall elements. As shown in Fig. 3,
Multiple Vertical Line Element (MVLE) model pinching effects and stiffness and strength reductions due to
The wall element was represented by a number of uniaxial repeated cycles at the same deformation level were not
elements connected in parallel using infinitely rigid bars implemented in the model for flexural behaviorreal buildings.
located at the top and bottom wall ends; two external elements In spite of the fact that the model is two-dimensional and,
simulates the wall boundary elements, while the other elements hence, it ignores the torsional response, the results obtained
simulates the combined axial-flexure behaviour of the central are satisfactory
panel. A horizontal spring was used to represent the inelastic
shear behaviour of the wall. The authors modified the axial-
element-in-series model (AESM) by having two-component
model for element 1, representing the cracked concrete and
steel reinforcement behaviour, instead of the one-component
element in the original model as shown in Figure 12. The
constitutive laws for concrete (cracked and uncracked) and
steel elements were defined to describe the hysteretic response
of the materials.

Fig. 3. Hysteretic model for flexural mode of failure (beams,


columns, shear walls).

Model for shear failure mode


Shear dominated behavior was also modeled using the
SINA hysteresis model as shown in Fig. 4. Pinching effects
and strength reduction due to repeated cycles at the same
deformation level were now implemented in the hysteresis
model. The model for the shear failure mode assumes
Figure 12 Multiple vertical line element model
independent of the shear strength of walls on both the bending
moment and the axial force present in the wall.

Figure 13 Modified axial-element-in-series


Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no. 8

Fig. 4. Hysteretic model for shear mode of failure (shear In order to improve the prediction of the overall (shear and
walls). flexural) behavior of RC structural walls, this study proposes a
This study has proposed and implemented a model to 4-node panel under biaxial loading to represent the wall effect
include the shear failure mode for walls in available computer (Figure 1(b)). The boundary column uses the same axial spring
programs. The model developed in this study is a macro-model proposed in TVLEM. Using just one panel to constitute the
validated with the experimental results of cyclic tests of shear wall, shear strain will be overestimated by the isoparametric
walls element (Figure 2(a)), satisfactory result cannot be obtained
for the flexural problem. Flexural deformation must be
G. Modeling of reinforced concrete shear wall for
considered in the element. In this study, incompatible
nonlinear analysis combining FEM panel model and
rectangular element is used, in which flexural deformation can
boundary elements. [1]
be introduced (Figure 2(b)).
A member model of reinforced concrete shear wall with
boundary columns and beams was proposed for nonlinear and
dynamic frame analysis. The reinforced concrete shear wall 2 1 2 1
was idealized as axial springs for columns and a panel under
plane stress states with rigid beams at top and bottom floor
levels. Two methods were compared, in which isoparametric
element and incompatible rectangular element with four nodes
for the panel element were used. The model was verified 3 4 3 4
through the analysis of T-shaped wall tests. The analytical
results obtained by the proposed model showed generally good (a) Isoparametric Element (b) Incompatible Element
correlation with the experimental results. Shear deformation Figure 2: Panel Element Isoparametric Element and
was overestimated by isoparametric panel element, whereas Incompatible Element
incompatible rectangular element, which incorporated flexural
deformation by using internal displacements, gave better A new model for reinforced concrete shear wall was
correlation with the experimental results of flexural yielding proposed, which combined a FEM panel element and
walls. For the walls in shear failure, the analytical results were boundary line elements. Two methods using isoparametric
basically same either by isoparametric element or incompatible element and incompatible element for a panel were compared
element. with the test results. The model with isoparametric element
a. Composition of RC Wall Member Model slightly overestimates shear deformation for flexural yield
shear walls. The model with incompatible rectangular element
Three-Vertical-Line-Element-Model (TVLEM) is better than the model isoparametric element for prediction
It was formulated [Kabeyasawa, 1983] to idealize a generic of shear and flexural displacement components. The model
wall member as three vertical line elements with infinitely gave a good correlation between analytical and experimental
rigid beams at top and bottom floor levels. Outside truss results.
elements were represented by the axial stiffness of boundary
columns, while the central element was a uniaxial model with III. CONCLUSION AND SUMMARY
vertical (axial), horizontal (shear) and rotational springs. This The study of all above researches, experiments, practical tests,
model has been verified by many test data resulting in a and findings it is concluded that
satisfactory correlation between calculated and measured 1. For modelling of shearwall there are two main
response of structures that use shear walls. However, it was approaches namely Macro modelling and Micro
reported [Colotti, 1993] that the response was not adequately modelling, each approach has its own advantage and
described for high shear stresses. disadvantages due to idealizations and assumptions
and choice of approach is mainly depend on response
parameters of interest either local or global behavior
of shear wall.
2. Choice of modelling of shear wall also depends on
types of shear wall its dimension, shape, material
used for wall, loading on wall etc.
3. Although the finite element method appeals for its
accuracy and for its ability to model different
(a) TVLEM Model (b) RC Panel Model phenomena and their interaction, it requires the
Figure 1: Macro-Element Model for RC Wall Member solution of a large system of equations, and the
integration of stress in two or three space directions.
This model is complex and needs high numerical
processing effort, and hence it might not be practical
for large structures

FEM Panel Model


Civil PG Conference, MIT, Pune. April 24th -25th 2015, Paper no. 9

4. There are mainly six models included in macro


scale model: one-component model, two-component
model, multi-axial spring model (MS model), truss
model, multi spring model and multi component
model. The macro scale model is based on
representing the overall behavior of the RC shear
wall, such as the wall deformations, strength, and
energy dissipation capacity.

REFERENCES
[1] Shaohua1, Toshimi2, (2000) Modeling of reinforced concrete
shear wall for nonlinear Analysis, World Conference on
Earthquake Engineering
[2] P.A. Hidalgo1 , R.M. Jordan2, M.P. Martinez3, (2002), An
analytical model to predict the inelastic seismic behavior of shear-
wall, reinforced concrete structures, Engineering Structures 24
(2002).pp 8598
[3] K. Galal1 and H. El-Sokkary2, Advancement in modeling of RC
shear walls, (The 14thWorld Conference on Earthquake
Engineering October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China)
[4] J. Kubin1, Y. M. Fahjan2 and M. T. Tan3, (2008), Comparison of
Practical Approaches For ModellingShearwalls in Structural
Analysis of Buildings, the 14thWorld Conference on Earthquake
Engineering October 12-17, 2008, Beijing, China
[5] Y.M. J. Kubin1 M.T. Tan2, (2010), Nonlinear Analysis Methods
for Reinforced Concrete Buildings with Shear walls, 14th
European Conference on Earthquake Engineering
[6] Ali Soltani1,.Farhad Behnamfar2,.Kiachehr Behfarnia3,.Farshad
Berahman4, (2011)Numerical tools for modeling of RC shear
walls,8th International Conference on Structural Dynamics
[7] Mazen A. Musmar, (2013), Analysis of Shear Wall with Openings
Using Solid65 Element, Jordan Journal of Civil Engineering,
Volume 7, No. 2,

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College Name: - JSPMS Imperial College of Engineering and Research,


Wagholi, Pune

Asst. Prof. Y.R.Suryawanshi Asst. Prof. Satish Rathod


PG-coordinator Guide
Structural Engineering

Prof. Dr. A. W. Dhawale

Head of Department
Civil Engineering
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