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smp’13, Launceston, Australia, May 2013

**An advanced Scaling Procedure for Marine Propellers
**

Heinrich Streckwall1 , Lars Greitsch2 , Martin Scharf3

1

Hamburg Ship Model Basin, Hamburg, Germany

2

Mecklenburger Metallguss GmbH (MMG), Waren (Müritz), Germany 3 Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany

**ABSTRACT depending on the advance coefficient J.
**

In times of increased fuel oil prices the focus within the In order to improve the predictions of these full scale condi-

ship design process is highly on efficiency. Especially the tions cavitation tunnel tests as well as viscous calculations

vessel’s propulsion is a key factor in optimising the fuel oil were introduced. Furthermore a stripe method was devel-

consumption. Therefore any amount of increase of the ef- oped for scaling calculations considering the whole blade

ficiency wants to be recognised and evaluated. Ship owner characteristic. The idea is to come to more sensitive scaling

more and more postpone their decision about the propeller procedures that may not disadvantage to modern or uncon-

supplier after comparative model tests with two or more ventional propeller designs.

different propeller designs. But as the performance of pro-

pulsion is affected by scale effects these comparisons al- 2 JUSTIFICATION OF OPEN WATER TESTS

ways offer room for discussions about the right way to ap- The first question may be: Why do we need an open water

ply such scaling calculations. Especially propeller designs test with all related scaling problems if there cannot be a

with blade shapes that differ from the ”conventional” type real validation with full scale, because there is no econom-

often enforce these discussions. Therefore the idea of the ical reasonable way of carrying out a full scale open water

European project ”PREFUL” was to investigate the possi- test.

bilities of improvements of the scaling calculation in order

But there are several reasons to keep the open water test

to consider the differences between blade shapes more pre-

within the process chain of the propulsion test. First of

cisely. As a result the differences between the several scal-

all there is a clear advantage of breaking down the propul-

ing procedures are shown, especially in comparison to the sion test into scalable and non-scalable terms. But this

results of the new ”stripe method”, which was developed also needs knowledge of the open water performance of

within the project. The project was funded by the German the tested propeller. And even the task of comparing to pro-

Ministry of Economics.

peller designs can be carried out very easy and without ad-

ditional influence by comparing the open water behaviour.

Keywords

But the main reason for carrying out open water tests is

Scale Effects, RANSE, ITTC’78, Lerbs/Meyne, Open Wa- the fact that we can separate the frictional effects from the

ter Efficiency propeller performance. In case of open water tests there

is no need to keep the Froude-similarity. Thus the tests

1 INTRODUCTION can be run at higher Reynolds numbers and therefore the

Model tests are still a very important instance within the differences between model scale and full scale, with other

ship design process. The advantages are that the tests were words the demand for corrections, can be reduced. In order

carried out by a neutral instance and ship designer or sup- to give an impression about the relations between model

plier and the prospective ship owner can discuss about the scale and full scale Figure 1 shows the achievable ranges

results based on agreed measurements. Besides the ques- of Reynolds numbers for open water tests in the tank as

tion of costs the most important disadvantage of model tests well as in the cavitation tunnel in comparison with typical

is the model scale itself. Especially for the propeller the Reynolds numbers in full scale.

achievable Reynolds numbers are far away from the ex- For a detailed discussion some definitions have to be clar-

pected once for full scale. Therefore correction procedures ified. The Reynolds number Rn0.7 indicating the x-axis is

for the scale effects were introduced in the model testing based on the chord c0.7 of blade section at radial position

procedure many years ago. But the methods are concen- r0.7 = 0.7R (with R as the radius of the propeller) and

trated on one (more or less) representative blade section. the related undisturbed flow at the same section (rotational

And as the open water test is still a basic element of the speed ω, the homogeneous inflow speed u and the dynamic

propulsion test procedure this paper is addresses to the cor- viscosity ν).

relation between the measurements of the behaviour in the

open water model test and the predictions of the propeller p

2 + u2

ω 2 r07

behaviour under full scale conditions. Behaviour in that Rn07 = c07 (1)

case means the relationship between given thrust TO and ν

required torque QO in the open water depending on the in- u·TO

The graph shows the efficiency ηO = (2πnQ of the pro-

O)

flow conditions. That means the efficiency of the propeller peller 2830 in the open water conditions for a give shaft

136

53 · 106 12Hz 1. comes with a model diameter of 260mm and is shown in Figure 3. tion (shorter curves). fore the tunnel tests need corrections.19 · 106 27Hz the tests in the conventional tunnel.30 · 106 18Hz 1. which considers the lower necessary 3 JUSTIFICATION OF OPEN WATER TESTS tunnel speed to achieve the same thrust and torque.79 · 106 18Hz 2. This result in the needed J 0 and a in consequence KT to η 0 = J 0 · (2πk Q) .Figure 1: Open water efficiency depending on the Reynolds number speed n based on measurements in the tank as well as the prediction of the efficiency for higher Reynolds numbers up to full scale. The tunnel thrust coefficient kT = T and the tunnel torque coefficient kQ = %nQ (%n2 D 4 ) 2 D 5 un- dergo a shift according to the difference between J and J 0 .g. the cross section area of the tunnel as an indication of the blockage. Based on the open water tests results we investigated the But as the model tests in the cavitation tunnels result in a influence of the various methods on the full scale values higher Reynolds number there is the disadvantage of possi- of thrust and torque. the mea- surements for each condition were carried out three times. The prediction is done by taking the ”in- viscid” propeller efficiency in considering the values Tin Figure 3: Geometry Propeller P2671 and Qin calculated with a panel method. The consideration of laminar flow ble blocking of the tunnel flow due to the propeller geome- phenomena can be excluded as all methods give the rec- try. as requested for an open water test.66 · 106 15Hz 1. The advance coeffi- uT Figure 4 shows results from the large tunnel for the larger cient J = (nD) . A well-known correction method was developed by Wood and Harris (1920). is violated. All compared Reynolds depending propeller efficiencies are related to the same thrust coefficient kT = (%nT2OD4 ) . Table 1: Table 1 Propeller 2671 Propeller 2004 Rn07R speed Rn07R speed Figure 2: Large cavitation tunnel of HSVA 6 0. So this In order to schieve higher Reynolds numbers for the open correction method gives the equivalent open water velocity water tests the large conventional cavitation tunnel in HSVA depending on the thrust loading of the propeller CT H = T with a cylindrical measuring section if 750mm in diameter ((%/2)u2 πR2 ) and the ratio between propeller disk area and was used (see Figure 2).53 · 106 12Hz at HSVA some older propeller geometries from former tests 0. In that case the assumption of undisturbed homogenous ommendation to scale only open water results showing a flow.92 · 106 15Hz as well as a more actual MMG geometry were chosen for 0. geometry for propeller 2004 after Wood & Harris correc- lent free field velocity u. related to the tunnel speed uT must be corrected to a J 0 = (nD)u based on the averaged or equiva. There- characteristic Rn07R -number higher than 5 · 105 .58 · 106 36Hz e. 4 TEST RESULTS The tunnel tests for the propellers P2004 and P2671 were carried out for several shaft speeds (see: Table 1).77 · 10 6Hz After an intensive review of the available stock propellers 0. A geometrical similar smaller pro- peller was tested in the Towing Tank (curves starting at 137 . The MMG propeller 1.

CT Hi and which is to be adjusted by iteration for a consistent transformation is 07 . In some sense the panel method is a sophisticated Meyne- fects. chord and cam- ber). ness. the blade sections in either scale. 5 LOW ORDER SCALING PROCEDURES We adjust our trailing vortex pitches tanβt (r) to the sum The correction of the measured open water values towards of incoming and induced velocity components (u + ∆u(r) the conditions at full scale is carried since many decades and ωr + ∆vT (r)). On the other hand. introducing a non-uniform but still circumferentially sym- ing thrust (KT. there is only one valid combination ηi .e. (KQ. a percentage of the ideal lift force acting as drag on the representative radius (0. This method is gener- ally not completely covering the presence of viscous ef. however. The panel method applied here (Streckwall. With a panel method a circulation Γ(r) is readily obtained for any open water setup.F S = KT. Thus the panel method builds the ’bridge’ between lifting line (deal- ing with the performance related to a prescribed circulation Γ(r)) and the actual geometry (hiding its lifting line char- acter behind geometrical data like pitch. CT H . for an ideal propeller with a efficiency ηi = ηin we set tanβt (r)tanβi (r) = tanβ(r)/ηi close behind the blade The ITTC’78 method (1978) for example deduces scale and double the difference between tanβi (r) and tanβ(r) effects from the prediction of tangential forces acting on for the pitch in the developed slipstream. when applying a full scale friction co- efficient c∗f = 0.7R).F S = KQ. The informa- tion entering from the model tests is the couple η. In addition to this constriction only the section at method taking into account also non-optimum open water 75% of the propeller radius is used as a representative for performance. Formally we get a ηi -equivalent from the panel method by evaluating and summing forces Figure 5: Open water result propeller 2671 and moments from each blade element. 1998) for the estimation of the full scale efficiency includes a lifting line based iteration leading to vortex wake alignment. CT Hi . CT Hi representing the friction-less and optimum propeller. We make use of the fact that the lifting line approach reads the ideal efficiency ηi from the constellation of incoming and in- duced velocity components. commonly used to define the ideal performance of in the tunnel. As a prospect. according to the Kramer dia- gram (1939). The parameter which controls the conversion from η. conventional propellers. The propeller 2004 was an ideal candidate for tunnel tests The Meyne-Method (1968) used at HSVA shows differ- because of its large dimensions. A dashed line for KT gives the uncorrected re. model scale data into their full scale equivalents by increas. lifting line principles may help to adjust the free vortex wake for the panel in s simple and reliable manner. one can obtain ηi from η as well as CT Hi from CT H .and tunnel results principles. In this view it is linked to the lifting line ap- for propeller 2671 for a speed of 17Hz in the tank and 27Hz proach. The essential outcome of the ITTC proce. Prescribing 07 . We obtain the effi- ciency ηin = uTin /(2πnQin ) (not ideal but inviscid) and use it for a global estimation of the vortex wake behavior. ences from the ITTC procedure as it starts with deriving a combination ηi . strictly operating according to the provided all other radii.J 0 = 0). CT H towards ηi .M S +∆KT ) and lessening torque metric inflow.M S + ∆KQ ) according to the blade rough- sults and demonstrates the shift imposed by the correction. not dure is an incremental friction coefficient ∆cf that converts necessarily equal to the ideal efficiency ηi ). the ideal propeller. Assuming the same constellation as by use of different more or less simple algorithms. i. the panel method may analyze the actual pro- 138 . 6 HIGH ORDER SCALING PROCEDURES Figure 4: Open water result propeller 2004 A propeller surface panel method can give the inviscid ef- ficiency ηin in a natural way as it is based on inviscid flow Figure 5 gives the comparison of tank. geometrical data (leading to an inviscid efficiency ηin . The essential outcome of the Meyne-Method is the ideal efficiency ηi which.006 (and typically small estimates for ad- ditional pressure drag). reduces to the full scale efficiency η∗ .

At the Panel method the genuine uncorrected result is to be found and the RANS can be used by excluding the tangential surface forces. The difference in surface friction ∆cf dure. Figure 6: Analysis of effect of Rn-number change propeller 2004 For each propeller we concentrate on just one point in the open water diagram. taking thrust and torque data from the propeller 2671 was then converted into equivalent increments ∆KT and related to an equivalent advance coefficient J 0 = 0. The method of Lerbs/Meyne derives the performance of interest directly from ηi . Excluding the low. Again strong reduction of the kinematic viscosity) could derive an the measured efficiencies related to the higher frequencies alternative result for the inviscid efficiency ηin is reflecting show a tendency to follow the trend given by the ITTC- the principles could establish a link to the panel method. The latter may be influenced however presenting the 36Hz results as the basis for the by centrifugal forces.7. 7 DERIVING TRENDS FROM THE MODEL TEST Figure 6 and Figure 7 give an evaluation of the test results 8 FULL SCALE EFFICIENCIES to identify a trend for the measured efficiency against the All of the used methods refer to the performance of an in- Reynolds-number. However the normal component will not be with Reynolds number. Formally a RANS calculation with ITTC scaling procedure and using every other frequency ”slip wall” condition on the blade surface (supported by a as the target for a (downwards) scaling process. The ITTC scaling procedure would of true inviscid nature. 2671 we set up a similar procedure. the measured efficiencies hardly changed component. It will include pressure drag due expect roughly a 0. However the Reynolds number dependence of the measured efficiencies is weaker.peller in a more favorable environment and function as an alternative source for the relative rotational efficiency la- beled as ηR and appearing in the decomposition of the over- all propulsion efficiency ηD . Using RANS we deter- mined the model scale and full scale efficiency of the tested propellers. al. For all methods the difference in KQ between this inviscid state to full scale respectively model scale can be evaluated. wheras the ITTC method uses the model scale friction line. viscid propeller.5% gain in efficiency from 6Hz to 18 to viscous effects. In FreSCo+ we have the possibility to separate forces act. est shaft frequency. For propeller 2004 we enforced matching at 15Hz (quasi presenting these results as measured results) and obtained Figure 8: 10dKQ towards full scale propeller 2671 ∆cf values to relate n=15 to every other frequency (char- acterized by a different Reynolds which then becomes a Figure 8 and Figure 9 gives the result from such a proce- target for scaling). a ∆KQ according to the ITTC-formulas. In our RANS calculations performed with the Figure 7: Analysis of effect of Rn-number change propeller FreSCo+ code (Schmode and Hafer-mann 2006. Hafermann 2007) the standard k- turbulence model of Wilcox was applied. Schmode 2671 et. method. the magnitude and the direction of the shear stresses at the For the propeller No. To have an idea for an expected ten- dency we used the ITTC’78 scaling method and relied on their friction line for model scale. 2006. Within a re- search project however RANS calculations provide useful insights and alternative results. The tangential component will express Hz. which clearly showed the largest scatter ing on the blade surface to into a tangential and a normal for repeated tests. Also the RANS approach can hardly be introduced as a fixed part of a standard scaling procedure. bottom of the boundary layer. A 139 . A panel method may however hardly operate as part of a ”recommended” propeller scal- ing procedure. value not far from the design condition of this propeller.

whereas the differences scale is shown. No significant difference for this quantity for the further step to model scale are lower. In Figure 11 and 12 the difference in surface pressure level Based on RANS results for several propellers an empiric 140 . Cp = (p − po )/(ρn2 D2 ) between model scale and full peller to full scale can be derived.large scatter in torque for the step from the inviscid pro. Figure 9: 10dKQ towards model scale propeller 2671 As KT is usually less sensitive to friction. the behavior of the efficiency follows this trend. Accordingly we corrected the RANS results as if they were tunnel mea- surements.and Meyne-method and is calculated other. This could lead to an underesti- mation of the inviscid efficiency. All RANS calculations were run in an unsteady mode us- ing time stepping to arrive at a settled performance. With ”VLM” a vortex lattice method ing a sectioning according to figure 13. which necessarily counts all forces strictly normal to the cambered but otherwise plate-like substitute of the real blade section.e. ficiency while the tops of the columns reach the predicted The realisation was carried out by a strip method consider- inviscid efficiency. The next level represents the predicted full scale ef. was included. For propeller 2671 one may notice the strong gra- dient from high pressures at the leading edge to low pres- sure on the remaining part of the blade occurring at the inner sections. which resembles the measured one in case The main target of the project ”PREFUL” was to develop of the ITTC. which is expressed in Fig- ure 10. i.79. but sensitive even for unconventional propeller geometries. an advanced scaling mehod with the aim to be robust. fast wise. In Figure 10 the scatter of predicted efficiencies reflects the scatter in torque correc- tion for propeller 2671 at 18Hz and J 0 = 0. Figure 11: suction side cp on model scale propeller 2671 Figure 10: different ηO levels of propeller 2671 Figure 12: suction side cp on full scale propeller 2671 Here we built up the efficiency stepwise from model scale 9 ADVANCED SCALING PROCEDURE level to full scale top. The lowest level is the model pro- peller efficiency. All RANS simulations were further done in a tube showing the same diameter as the test section of the tunnel. we derived a free field equivalent advance Figure 13: schematig diagram of strip method coefficient J 0 . This is typical for a wake adapted propeller becoming subject to homogeneous inflow. appears.

17 shows the corrected open water curves for full scale (FS) and for the relations during the propulsion test (ProT). R&M 662 bers resulting for the propulsion test notwithstanding this 141 . The efficiency of an inviscid propeller can be derived from all used calculation methods. curacy the results of the enhanced open water correction are to be evaluated with full scale observations (trial trips). This underlines the demand of a modernisa- tion of the scaling procedure. Meyne. Figure 16: friction lines for strip method Wood. Figure 14: difference of local friction coeffitions The figure shows the good coverage of the assumption based on the strip method and differences between full scale and model scale local friction coefficients based on RANS-calc. As a ”fitting” rectly derived from RANS calculations for several different a trend line can be captured and be used as a basis for the propeller geometries and setups. There was a larger deviation in the prediction of the full scale propeller open water efficiency due to the usage of different friction Figure 15: RANS based friction line lines (lower order procedures and panel method) and fric- tion concepts (RANS). The friction line was di- of one propeller in one specific model scale. 10 CONCLUSIONS Based on a review of existing scaling methods for propeller efficiency the differences between the single methods are significantly. Figure 15 shows the result of ditions to be found at the propulsion test a strip method was seven different propellers. (1920) ‘Some notes on the theory of an airscrew working in a wind channel’. on the tangential force and turbulent areas with higher in.model was derived in order to divide the surface of the pro. Figure 17: strip method results for propeller 2671 ulation considering the transition. The comparison was sup- ported by open water tests at high Reynolds numbers per- formed in a large cavitation tunnel. For a better prediction ac- strip method. R. Figure 16 shows both necessary friction lines. Figure a ”surface element method” (see: figure 14). In order to feed the strip method for more robust assump. K. & Harris. R. derived friction line a new more turbulent line was used peller in areas with laminar flow and therefore small effect for the calculation of the conditions behind the model ship. Aeronautical Research Council. USA. fluence on the tangential force. Every data point in the diagram developed based on two different friction lines representing represent the fristional resistance coefficient for one radius each on of the focused conditions. In order to enhance the correction procedure of open water tions a new specific friction line was derived from the RANS results towards the full scale conditions as well as the con- results of several propellers. For the determination of Based on these strip method a new prediction for the open these areas with different flow the strip method was used as water efficiency was carried out for propeller 2671. In order to consider the realistic ranges of Reynolds num. Propulsion and Vibration SNAME. Vol 15.Volume II Resistence. Based on the (high Reynolds) result of 3 pro- pellers examples all used scaling methods predict this vir- tual propeller with a very good agreement. (1968) ‘Experimentelle und theoretische Be- trachungen zum Maßstabseffekt bei Modellpropeller- Untersuchungen’ Schiffstechnik. REFERENCES ITTC (1988) Principles of Naval Architecture .

D. D. (1998) ‘Hydrodynamic analysis of three pro. Bulgaria Streckwall. Tunnel MEasurements and Computations with RANS NACA. H. On Hydrodynamics. efits’ 7th Int. T. Grenoble. (2006) pellers using a surface panel method for steady und un. Schmode... D. Vorhölter H. ‘RANS-based Flow Analysis for Propellers and its Ben- steady flow conditions’. & Hafermann. France 142 . (2006) ‘Comparison of Wind Propellers Having a Finite Number of Blades’. Ischia 22nd ITTC Propulsion Committee Propeller RANS / Panel Method Workshop. Varne. D. K.Kramer. TM 884 solver FreSCo’ NuTTS. Rung. Conf. (1939) ‘The Induced Efficiency of Optimum Schmode. N. & Hafermann.

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