Testing of a Three Phase Induction Motor with Squirrel-cage rotor Study of Binar y Boot rftg.development.

googlepages.com Creation date: April 28, 2004 Version: v1.00 - 3/MAI/2008 Author: Ricardo Filipe Teixeira Gomes DISCLAIMER This document was prepared by Ricardo Filipe Teixeira Gomes, who reserve all rig hts. © 2008 Ricardo Filipe Teixeira Gomes This document is available for consult ation and use if they are in compliance with all copyright and / or intellectual property. A copy of all or part, by any means, texts and images available in th is document is expressly prohibited unless the user respects the rights of autho rship and / or intellectual property, citing it properly to the document, includ ing imperterivelmente a clear reference to the author's website: "rftg.developme nt.googlepages.com. The material contained herein is only a general information based on personal experiences and is not intended in any way influence the reade r on any specific matter. The contents of this document are provided as a conven ience to readers and consist solely of non-binding information. The contents of this document are provided "as is" and does not offer any guarantee on it. The r eport's author disclaims any liability for losses that may occur because someone is based on information contained herein, since this information is for informa tional purposes only, not promised or guaranteed to be accurate, complete and up dated. The same applies to the contents of any reference made to it. Any dispute s arising out of or relating to use this document, or relating to copyright and / or intellectual property rights in materials that are part of this document sh all be governed by Portuguese law and subject to the jurisdiction of the courts of Portugal. Reading this document and its use implies the acceptance of these c onditions. © 2008 Ricardo Filipe Teixeira Gomes. rftg.development.googlepages.com Instituto Politecnico do Porto Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto Department of Electrical Engineering Course in Electrical Engineering - Electronics and Computers Discipline of Electrical Machines Tests of a Three Phase Induction Motor with Squirrel-cage rotor Study Torque Boo t 28/04/2004 Work done by: Ricardo Filipe Teixeira Gomes Study of Torque Boot 28/04/2004 Index Objective 2 --------------------------------------------- Introduction - ---------------------------------------- 2 ----- Mounting Scheme Material Used ----------------- 4 ----------------------------- Job Description 5 ----- 5 ------------------------- ------------ Securities Registered --------------------- -------------------------- 6 Calculations -------------------- --------------------------- 6 Results 8 Conclusion ---------------- -------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------- 8 Bibliography ------- 8

I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 1 Study of Torque Boot 28/04/2004 Objective - Study the starting torque of an engine - Compare the starting torque of a moto r connected in Y and Δ; Introduction Of the various types of induction motors, AC three phase existing in the rotor s hort-circuit is only possible to work directly connected to the network using si mple devices (switches, circuit breakers, etc. ...). However, the instant it is fed, the currents in its windings are far higher than the rated currents of the same operation (due to the fact that this type of engine to behave like a transf ormer with the secondary short-circuited when its speed is zero). These starting currents vary in standard from 5 to 8 times the rated operation, requiring that the installations are oversized in order to eliminate problems early shooting g uards, overheating of power conductors and even large voltage drops along the co nductors (which may even jeopardize the operation of appliances) (1). Large bina ries also give rise boot order problems related to mechanical support, chassis a nd engine mechanical couplings, since the engine tends to very quickly reach its nominal rotation speed. Since this type of engine has the characteristics of th e rotor fixed and predetermined by the manufacturer,€and only six terminals are available in card connectors (which allow us to have access only to the ends of the three windings inductors), the various types of boot are essentially (2) the change in voltage that are subject to the stator windings. This is because such variation will allow us to vary the current in the windings (as the current is directly proportional to voltage) and (1) The R.S.I.U.E.E. in art. Article 431 defines the start type in gines, which in the case of engine rotor short-circuit are the tarting and 11 KW for the star-delta starter. now, through the , you can also do it through the frequency variation of supply al Machines (2) I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. 2 Study of Torque Boot 28/04/2004 starting torque (since this is proportional to the square of voltage). The simpl est method to obtain different voltages in the stator windings is through their connection in delta or star (resulting in the star-delta starter). 220 V R1 terms of power en 4 kW for direct s power electronics current. Electric

380 V 380 V R1 × R2 R1 + R2 + R3 R1Δ R3Δ R1 × R3 R1 + R2 + R3 As I = U: R = 1 IY 3 IΔ R2 R3 Δ R2 R 2 × R 2 + R3 R1 + R3 R1Δ R3Δ = R2 = Δ = January 1 R1 = R March 3 This is because by linking the star we are applying the compound voltage to the wiring terminals but to submit each single winding tension, while in the delta c onnection we are applying a voltage to the terminals made of lead, which is equi valent to directly apply this voltage to the windings. As is also shown, we can observe that the resistance of the windings is higher in delta connection than t he connection on the star, which also limits the current in the windings in a po sition to boot. So, if you proceed to start the engine in star connection and th en turn the dial to the triangle, means we are in fact increased the value of st arting current at about 1.5 to 2.6 times the rated motor current. The starting t orque is also limited since, reaching its value in about 0.2 to 0.5 times the va lue of the nominal torque. The torque developed by the engine remains low while the engine is connected in a star until after reaching some speed stability (in I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Fig.1 - Typical power curve / speed in star-delta starter Fig.2 - Typical torque curve / speed in star-delta starter Electrical Machines 3 Study of Torque Boot 28/04/2004 order 75-85% of rated speed) we spent the delta connection and the engine reache s its nominal capacity. This type of switching can be timed by switches activate d by centrifugal springs (attached to the rotor) to an electronic device that mo nitors the rotational speed or current. Arrangement

U1 0-Υ-Δ V1 W 1 M U2 V W February 2 W Va RST Auto-Transformer 400/230 V 50 Hz ~ Fig.3 - Arrangement for the two tests I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 4 Study of Torque Boot 28/04/2004 Material Used Fluke 179 digital 111111Multímetro III (V); Clamp Test 11 (A); Meter Fluke 43B P ower (W) Auto-transformer MV1103, star-delta switch, three-phase asynchronous in duction motor with squirrel-cage rotor: 380 / 220V - 50 Hz - 1,5 kW; Δ / Y - 6.6 A / 3.8 A - 220V/380V; cos φ = 0.79, 1415 rpm, 1 - Lincoln, Connecting wires; P robes. Job description Initially this work was to per orm two tests rotor locked in an induction motor three-phase asynchronous rotor squirrel-cage, the irst was made with the same c onnected in star (part 1) and the second with the connection made with a triangl e (part 2): Part1: - He rode the circuit shown in ig. 3 - He set the cursor aut o-trans ormer in the position o 0 V - have been placed on the star-delta switch in the "star" - was blocked rotor o the motor with a brace - the Fed is circui t and was increasing tension between phases until it reaches approximately the v alue o rated motor current or star connection (Iny = 3.8 A) - There were the v alues , P, Ia, Ib and Ic , Part 2: - She kept riding the circuit shown in ig. 3 - He set the cursor auto-trans ormer in the position o 0 V - have been placed on the star-delta switch in the "triangle" - the locked-rotor motor with a brac e; I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 5 Study o Torque Boot 28/04/2004 - Fed up the circuit and was increasing tension between phases until it reaches approximately the value o motor rated current or delta connection (InΔ = 6.6 A ) - There was the U-values, P , Ia, Ib and Ic; After the tests described was tes ted starting YΔ and observed motor behavior in times of starting and switching f rom Y to Δ connection (3rd party) and the work was completed with measuring the resistance values of stator windings (Part 4).

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

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Values recorded Part 1: UCC (V) 91.0 Ia (A) 3.75 lb (A) Ic (A) 3.71 3.62 P (kW) 0.450 Part 2: UCC (V) 54.0 4th Part: Ia (A) 6.57 lb (A) Ic (A) 6.50 6.33 P (kW) 0.460 R1 (Ω) 5.2 R2 (Ω) 5.2 R3 (Ω) 5.2 Calculations Part 1: Ia + Ib + Ic 3, 75 +3, 71 +3, 62 = 3 69 A 3 3 pJ 1 = 3 × R1 × I1 2 I1 = p J 1 = 3 × 5.2 × 3.69 2 = 212.4 W I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 6 Study of Torque Boot 28/04/2004 In this case: P2 ≅ P - p J 1 = 450 to 212.4 237.6 WP = P2 = 2 = 2 × π × Ωs ns Tarrq. Y ns = 60 × 60 = 1.51 N. M f1 = 60 × 50 = 1500 r. p 2 p.m. Tarrq. Y = 237.6 2 × π × 1500 60 February 2 380 Part 2: 380 Tarrq. Y (n) = Tarrq. = Y × N 26.33. M = 1.51 × U 91.0

¢

J = 1 × 3 × RΔ I1

2 I1 =

Ia + Ib + Ic 6, 57 6 + 50 + 6 = 33 = 6, 47 A 3 3 p J 1 = 3 × 1.73 × 6.47 2 = 217.3 W RΔ = R1 R 2 × 5.2 × 5.2 = 1, 73 Ω R1 + R 2 + R 3 5.2 + 5.2 + 5.2 In this case: P2 ≅ P - p J 1 = 460 to 217.3 = 242.7 W Tarrq. Δ = P2 P2 = 2 × π × 60 = ns Ωs 2 242.7 2 × π × 1500 N = 1.55. M 60 Tarrq. Δ (n) 380 2 Tarrq.Y (n) Tarrq.Δ (n) = 26.33 = 0.34 ⇔ Tarrq. Y (n) = 34% Tarrq. Δ (n) 76.76 I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 7 Study of Torque Boot 28/04/2004 Results Tarrq. Y (n) = 34% Tarrq. Δ (n) Conclusion After a first analysis of the results can be noted at the outset that the work w as accomplished with complete success, because after it was possible to meet all objectives. As expected in starting values found in Y starting torque lower tha n the Δ-starting, with the value found for starting torque rated Y (Tarrq.Y (n)) was about 34% of the value obtained for starting torque rated at Δ (Tarrq.Δ (n) ), thus corroborating the theory presented. We could also observe, during the 3r d part of the work, that when there is switching of calls (from Y to Δ) is perfe ctly clear (without using any measuring device) the difference in operation of t he engine when it is connected Y for when you are connected in Δ, and it was als o clear (the small engine displacement on the bench) the peak torque occurring a t the time of switching. This observed performance occurred as described, the ty pical behavior shown in Fig. Introduction 2. Bibliography: the "Technology Year 11" - PINTO, Antonio; Alves, Vitor - Porto Editora, the Not es on Electrical Machines 2004 - NEVES, Betina Campos; 380 = Tarrq. × Δ = 76.76 N. M = 1.55 × U 54.0

I.P.P.-I.S.E.P. - D.E.E.-E.C. Electrical Machines 8