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HIGH

# Phone :065552364 Email: azhanrahman@utem.edu.my

## BEKP 3653 POWER SYSTEMS & HIGH VOLTAGE

RULES AND REGULATIONS

# • If don’t understand,please ASK!! – or yo can discuss later during tutorial or other times (open door policy).

LEARNING OUTCOMES
Upon completion of this subject, the student should be able to:
Analyze the problems on power system regarding to power
flow, fault and power system stability. (PO2)
Identify the theory of breakdown in gases, solid dielectrics, and
fluid. (PO1)
Design and analyze the generation and measurement of high
voltage ac, dc and impulse. (PO3)

# PRE-REQUISITE

• ## 4. E. Kuffel, W. S. Zaengl and J. Kuffel, High Voltage Engineering: Fundamentals, Newnes, 2000.

SUBJECT EVALUATION
Assessment*
Quizzes (PS)
Marks
10%
Test 1(PS)
Test 2(HV)
Assignments(HV)
Final Examination
10%
10%
10%
60%
(PS&HV)
Total
100%
PLANNING
Weeks
Contents
1
POWER FLOW ANALYSIS
2
POWER FLOW ANALYSIS
3
FAULT ANALYSIS
4
FAULT ANALYSIS
5
POWER SYSTEM STABILITY
6
POWER SYSTEM STABILITY
7
TEST 1
8
MIDTERM BREAK
9
CONDUCTION AND BREAKDOWN IN GASES
10
CONDUCTION AND BREAKDOWN IN GASES
11
BREAKDOWN IN SOLID DIELECTRICS AND LIQUIDS
12
BREAKDOWN IN SOLID DIELECTRICS AND LIQUIDS
13
GENERATION AND MEASUREMENT OF HIGH VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS
14
GENERATION AND MEASUREMENT OF HIGH VOLTAGES AND CURRENTS
15
TEST 2
16
STUDY WEEK
17
EXAMINATION WEEKS

# Revision Per unit system

Per Unit System
Definition : a per-unit system is the expression of
system quantities (power, voltage, current &
impedance) as fractions of a defined base unit
quantity (instead of VA, volt, ampere, ohms) by
the equation:
quantity in per unit
actual quantity
base value of quantity
Main advantage : Calculations are simplified
because all quantities expressed in per-unit are
the same regardless of the voltage levels.

# analysis of power systems easier.

BASE QUANTITIES SELECTION
Generally base values of power (Sbase) and voltage
(Vbase)are chosen. The base power (S base , P base , Q base ) may
be the rating of a single piece of apparatus such as a motor
or generator.
The base voltage (V base ) is chosen as the nominal rated
voltage of the system. All other base quantities (I base , Z base )
are derived from these two base quantities
Once the base power and the base voltage are chosen, the
base current and the base impedance are determined by
the natural laws of electrical circuits. (refer formulas in
chapter 2, Glover)
REMEMBER : BASE QUANTITIES HAVE NO ANGLE, ONLY HAVE
MAGNITUDE
quantity in per unit
actual quantity
base value of quantity
PER-UNIT SYSTEM
Normally, we just pick the rated voltage & power
as base value:
V
 V
b
rated
e.g. if S rated =10VA,
then, we can select
the base power to
be:
S
 S
 P
 Q
b
rated
rated
rated
S base = 10VA
P base = 10Watt
Q base = 10Var
Then compute base values for currents and
impedances:
2
S
V
V
b
b
b
 I
 Z
b
b
V
I
S
b
b
b

# SINGLE PHASE

PER-UNIT SYSTEM FOR 1-  CIRCUITS
One-phase circuits
S
 S
 V
I
Zone of
Zone of
b
1
φ
LN
φ
base 1
base 2
where
V
V
LN
line
 
to
neutral
I
 I
φ
line current
V
V
1
2
V
 V
V
 V
b 1
LN,1
b 2
LN,2
S
Note :
S
b
 I
b
 I
b 1
b 2
V
V
b 1
1= winding 1
2= winding 2
b 2
PER-UNIT SYSTEM FOR 1-  CIRCUITS
2
2
V
(V
)
V
(V
)
b 1
b 1
b 2
b 2
Z
Z
b 1
b 2
I
S
I
S
b 1
b
b 2
b
S
actual
*
 S
 V I
p u
p u p u
S
b
P
actual
 P 
 V I
cos 
p u
p u p u
S b
Q
actual
Q 
 V I
sin 
p u
p u p u
S b

# THREE PHASE

Three-phase circuits
S
 3
S
 3
V
I
b
,3
b
,1
b , LN b , L
where
V
 V
/
3
bLN
bLL
I
 I
 I
line current
L
S
3V
I
b ,3
LL L
 S
3
V
I
3
V
I
b
,3
bLL
,1
b L
,1
bLL
, 2
b L
, 2
For low voltage winding

• I b 1

bLL ,1
b ,3
S
3 V

b ,3

b 2

bLL , 2

# V

2
V
V
3
V
(
)
LN ,1
bLL
,1
bLL
,1
bLL ,1
Z 
b 1
I
3
S
S
L ,1
b ,3
b ,3
*
S
3 V I
2
3
*
( V
)
L
L
S
V
I
S
bLL , 2
3
,
p u
1
p u
p u
3
,
p u 2
Z 
S
3 V I
b ,3
b 2
b
b
S
b ,3
2
V
Z 
*
S
THE PER-UNIT SYSTEM
Change of Base

Example 1
21

Line 1
220kV
G
T 3
M
T 4
Line 2
110kV