FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL

ENGINEERING
DEPT.OF GEOTECHNICAL AND
TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING

GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING LABORATORY
REPORT
SUBJECT CODE

TEST CODE & TITLE MG001 - CONSOLIDATION TEST

COURSE CODE
TESTING DATE
STUDENT NAME
GROUP
1.

2.

GROUP MEMBER NAMES 3.

4.

5.

LECTURER/ INSTRUCTOR/ TUTOR
NAME

REPORT RECEIVED DATE
ATTENDANCE/ DISCIPLINE
/15%
MARKS & INVOLVEMENT
DATA ANALYSIS /20%

RESULT /20%

DISCUSSION /25%

CONCLUSION /20%

TOTAL /100%
EXAMINER COMMENT RECEIVED STAMP

hereby confess that I have prepared this report on my own effort. OF GEOTECHNICAL AND TRANSPOTATION ENGINEERING FACULTY OF CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING I. STUDENT CODE OF ETHIC (SCE) DEPT. : ………………………………………… Date : ………………………………………… . _________________ Student Signature Name : ………………………………………… Matric No. I also admit not to receive or give any help during the preparation of this report and pledge that everything mentioned in the report is true.

Cc and Pc) . PAGE NO.: 1/8 DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND EDITION: TRANSPORTATION REVIEW NO. mv. students are able to: • Conduct one dimensional consolidation test • Identify the factors causes soil consolidation • Determine the consolidation parameters (cv. FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.0 OBJECTIVE TO DETERMINE THE CONSOLIDATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SOILS OF LOW PERMEABILITY 2.0 LEARNING OUTCOME At the end of this experiment.: ENGINEERING EFFECTIVE 5/12/07 TEST TITLE : CONSOLIDATION TEST DATE: (MARINE CLAY AND PEAT SOIL) AMENDMENT 5/12/07 DATE: 1.

From this test some consolidation parameters such as coefficient of consolidation (cv). The consolidation test is use to estimate the amount of settlement and time of consolidation. considerable time may be required for excess water to be squeezed out to permeable boundaries. Tv H 2 cv = (3.: 2/8 DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND EDITION: TRANSPORTATION REVIEW NO. PAGE NO. due to low permeability.: ENGINEERING EFFECTIVE 5/12/07 TEST TITLE : CONSOLIDATION TEST DATE: (MARINE CLAY AND PEAT SOIL) AMENDMENT 5/12/07 DATE: . The decreasing of its volume is due to compression of the solid grains and escape of water from the voids. the movement of water occurs very much slowly and therefore.3. preconsolidation pressure (Pc) can be determined. cv = coefficient of consolidation (m2/year) Tv = Time factor H = Maximum length of drainage path (m) t = Time to achieve 50% or 90% consolidation (year or minute) FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.1) t Where. coefficient of volume compressibility (mv). There are two methods for determining the coefficient of consolidation: (i) Casagrande or log (time) or 50% consolidation (ii) Taylor or √ time or 90% consolidation The coefficient of consolidation can be determined by this equation. its volume tends to decrease. In a free drainage soil such as saturated sand the escape of water can take place rapidly.0 THEORY When a fully saturated soil is subjected to a compressive stress. Settlement is the direct result of the decrease in soil volume and consolidation is the rate of volume decrease with time. But in clay. compression index (Cc).

1 1 t50 10 100 1000 10000 0% consolidation line 0 20 δ δ 40 Settlement (mm) A 60 50% consolidation line 80 B = 4A 100 120 100% consolidation line 140 160 Figure 3.2: Settlement versus square root time FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. PAGE NO.1: Settlement versus log Time Time (minute) 0.: 3/8 DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND EDITION: TRANSPORTATION REVIEW NO.: ENGINEERING TEST TITLE : CONSOLIDATION TEST EFFECTIVE 5/12/07 DATE: . Square Root Time (minute) 0 5 √t90 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 Settlement (mm) 5 10 15 20 x 25 1.15x 2 1 30 Figure 3.

14. Observe the compression gauge readings and the clock. 16.5 kg) carefully to the load hanger 13.Dial Gauge . using internal vernier calipers. 15. and record the readings on a consolidation test form at the selected time intervals.Consolidation ring . Measure the internal diameter (D) and the height of the ring.Loading device 2. Plot the readings of the compression against time to a logarithmic scale and against square-root-time. Consolidation apparatus . Vernier caliper 4.1g 3. 10. Stop-clock readable to 1 s 5. Add weight (2. Lift the end of the beam to allow the loading yoke to be raised to the vertical position and adjust the loading stem by screwing it downwards until the end engages closely in the recess on the top of the loading cap 11. Fit the ring retainer and cell body and then place the upper porous disc centrally on top of the specimen. Determine the initial moisture content from trimming soil. Attach the compression dial gauge to the arm on the support post. 8. Determine the mass of bulk specimen (m) to the nearest 0. Balance readable to 0. 4.01g (mR). .Corrossion-resistant porous plate . Wind down the beam support and at the same time start the clock.0 PROCEDURES 1. 12. Add water at room temperature to the cell and make sure that the specimen and upper porous disc are completely submerged. 9. Cutting the specimen and trimming into ring.Consolidation cell . AMENDMENT (MARINE CLAY AND PEAT SOIL) 5/12/07 DATE: 4.01g using this equation m = m1 – mR 7. Determine the weight of ring and specimen (m1) 6. Place the consolidation cell centrally in position on the platform of the machine base. 3. 2.0 TEST EQUIPMENTS 1. Weight the ring to the nearest 0. 5. Place the consolidation ring and specimen (cutting edge uppermost) centrally on the porous disc.

91 35 35 x 0. ρ : 2.00 am 126 126 x 0.02 am 49 49 x 0.19 2 120 10. −1 = 0.00 pm 115 115 x 0.13 15 15 3.04 am 58 58 x 0.622 ρd SETTLEMENT READINGS Elapse time Cumulative Time Clock Gauge hr min sec √ time compression.1 Soil Type: Silty clay Cell No: 4 BEFORE TEST Moisture content from trimming: 22.57 (g) Density.: A1 .08 2 2 1.002 = 0.08 am 66 66 x 0.: ENGINEERING EFFECTIVE 5/12/07 TEST TITLE : CONSOLIDATION TEST DATE: (MARINE CLAY AND PEAT SOIL) AMENDMENT 5/12/07 DATE: 6.15 am 75 75 x 0.07 1 1 1. PAGE NO.002 = 0.67 0.9 (%) S.00 8.02 (Mg/m3) Initial moisture content: 23.002 = 0.64 (Mg/m3) Gs Initial void ratio.002 = 0.7 Weight of ring : 439.57 23 23 x 0.83 0.002 = 0.06 50 0.17 0.00 pm 124 124 x 0. ρ d : 1.00am 107 107 x 0.002 = 0.41 21 21 x 0.00 8.0 CALCULATION EXAMPLE Date started: 9/7/07 Sample No.: 4/8 DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND EDITION: TRANSPORTATION REVIEW NO.71 25 25 x 0.12 8 8 2. ∆ H (min) time reading (mm) 0 0 0 8.23 8 480 4.002 = 0.002 = 0.35 (g) Volume of ring : 88.1 (mm) Weight of dry sample: 145.: 5/8 .25 24 1440 8.82 29 29 x 0. FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.83 8.00 am 95 95 x 0.15 30 30 5.92 (g) Thickness of ring: 20.1 (%) Dry density.01 am 41 41 x 0.87 8.05 30 0.25 FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. PAGE NO.002 = 0.04 20 0.002 = 0.05 40 0.30 am 86 86 x 0.41 8.50 0.9 (mm) Weight of sample + ring: 260.002 = 0.21 4 240 12.002 = 0.10 4 4 2.48 8.002 = 0.002 = 0.00 am 0 0 10 0. (Assumed) : 2.33 0.43 (g) Area of ring: 4406 (mm2) Weight of sample : 178.35 (g) Diameter of ring : 74.17 1 60 9.002 = 0.G.56 (mm3) Weight of initial moisture: 33.002 = 0.

−1 = ____________ ρd SETTLEMENT READINGS Elapse time Cumulative Time Clock Gauge hr min sec √ time compression (min) time reading .0 RESULTS CONSOLIDATION TEST – CALCULATION SHEET Date started:_________________ Sample No.: ENGINEERING EFFECTIVE 5/12/07 TEST TITLE : CONSOLIDATION TEST DATE: (MARINE CLAY AND PEAT SOIL) AMENDMENT 5/12/07 DATE: 7. (Assumed) : 2. DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND EDITION: TRANSPORTATION REVIEW NO.: 6/8 . ∆ H (mm) 0 10 20 30 40 50 1 2 4 8 15 30 1 2 4 8 24 FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG. ρ : _____________________(Mg/m3) Initial moisture content: ______________(%) Dry density.: _______________ Soil Type: __________________ Cell No: ________________ BEFORE TEST Moisture content from trimming: _______(%) S. ρ d : _________________ (Mg/m3) Gs Initial void ratio.7 Weight of ring : ___________________ (g) Diameter of ring : _______________(mm) Weight of sample + ring: ____________ (g) Area of ring: ___________________(mm2) Weight of sample : _______________ (g) Thickness of ring: _______________(mm) Weight of dry sample: _______________(g) Volume of ring : _________________(mm3) Weight of initial moisture: ____________(g) Density.G. PAGE NO.

0 CALCULATIONS FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.: ENGINEERING EFFECTIVE 5/12/07 TEST TITLE : CONSOLIDATION TEST DATE: (MARINE CLAY AND PEAT SOIL) AMENDMENT 5/12/07 DATE: 8. PAGE NO.: 7/8 . DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND EDITION: TRANSPORTATION REVIEW NO.

0 CONCLUSIONS FACULTY: CIVIL & ENVIRONMENTAL ENG.0 DISCUSSIONS 10.: .: ENGINEERING EFFECTIVE 5/12/07 TEST TITLE : CONSOLIDATION TEST DATE: (MARINE CLAY AND PEAT SOIL) AMENDMENT 5/12/07 DATE: 9. DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND EDITION: TRANSPORTATION REVIEW NO. PAGE NO.

Please comment your answer. Effective Stress (kN/m2) 25 50 100 200 400 800 200 50 Void ratio (e) 0.95 0. (ii) Define whether the soil is normally consolidated or over consolidated.3 0.43 0. Preconsolidation pressure (Pc) and coefficient of volume compressibility (mv). cv (m2/year) using Taylor Method. .71 0. determine the coefficient of consolidation.4 0. DEPARTMENT: GEOTECHNICAL AND EDITION: TRANSPORTATION REVIEW NO.53 0.82 0. The following data were recorded during an oedometer test.85 0. QUESTIONS 2 1. From your experimental data.67 0. The following data were recorded during an oedometer test.4 0.5 (i) Plot the graph of void ratio against effective stress on semi-log graph and determine the compression index (Cc). (ii) Define whether the soil is normally consolidated or over consolidated.92 0. determine the coefficient of consolidation.: ENGINEERING EFFECTIVE TEST TITLE : CONSOLIDATION TEST DATE: AMENDMENT DATE: 11. cv (m2/year) using Casagrande Method. Effective Stress (kN/m2) 50 100 200 400 800 1600 400 100 Void ratio (e) 0.57 0. Please comment your answer.81 0.6 (i) Plot the graph of void ratio against effective stress on semi-log graph and determine the compression index (Cc). 2. 2. Clay samples collected from 10 metres deep in Parit Raja has a unit weight (γ ) of 20 kN/m3. Preconsolidation pressure (Pc) and coefficient of volume compressibility (mv). Clay samples collected from 5 metres deep in Batu Pahat has a unit weight (γ ) of 18 kN/m3.5 0. From the experimental data .0 OPEN ENDED QUESTIONS QUESTIONS 1 1.