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**Semester 1, 2014-2015
**

IIT Gandhinagar

**Pradeep Diwakar (Group G)
**

Roll no. 12110063

CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

CHARACTERISTICS OF CENTRIFUGAL PUMP

Objective:

**The objective of this experiment is to study the characteristics of a
**

centrifugal pump with respect to the head developed, flow rate and power

provided.

Theory:

**Centrifugal pump is a machine that converts electrical power to mechanical
**

power and this mechanical power is used to increase potential energy of the

fluid. As the potential energy increases the pressure drops with increasing

flow rate and this flow rate is changed by using a regulator that varies flow

rate while keeping the RPM constant.

Head of pump is expressed by using Bernoulli’s equation:

2

p 2− p 1 v

h= +

ρg 2g

Where:

h = total head developed (m)

p1 = pressure of the inlet (N/m2)

**p2 = pressure of the outlet
**

ρ = density of fluid (kg/m3)

v = velocity of the outlet flow

**The efficiency of pump is measured as the ratio of water power to the motor
**

power.

Efficiency of a pump, Ef = PW / Ps

Where:

Ef = efficiency

Pw = water power

Ps = shaft power

Procedure:

**We were provided with a tube with longitudinal fins, a bare tube without fins
**

and a steam generator to generate steam at constant pressure. Initially the

water reservoir is filled up till 90% of its capacity and all the valves are

opened. The RPM is set to 5000 and a rotameter is used for this. Also RPM

was maintained constant at 5000 throughout the experiment. Flow was kept

at maximum initially and then decreased for different readings. For taking

the readings we noted the manometer readings, the power applied by the

motor was also displayed and was noted. The flow rate is measured. And this

whole process was repeated for taking twelve different sets of readings at

different flow rates.

Results:

Table1. Observed height and power input:

Actual

Obs. Volume Time Power

∆h (m) power

No. (ml) (s) (W)

(W)

1 500 17.40 0.59 60 28

2 500 8.43 0.41 62 30

3 500 6.92 0.28 66 34

4 500 5.83 0.23 70 38

5 500 5.56 0.16 72 40

6 500 5.36 0.13 73 41

7 500 5.23 0.08 70 38

8 500 5.17 0.08 70 38

9 500 5.01 0.06 64 32

10 500 4.90 0.05 60 28

11 500 5.07 0.05 68 36

12 500 5.19 0.05 66 34

Table2: Water power and pump power comparison:

Mass flow

Obs. Head Theoretical Efficiency

rate

No. (m2/s2) Power (W) (η)

(g/ccs)

1 28.74 72.80 20.81 69.36

2 59.31 50.59 29.84 99.48

3 72.25 34.55 24.83 82.76

4 85.76 27.76 23.68 78.94

5 89.93 19.12 17.11 57.02

6 93.28 15.42 14.31 47.70

7 95.60 10.12 9.62 32.07

8 96.71 9.25 8.90 29.67

9 99.80 7.40 7.35 24.50

10 102.04 6.54 6.64 22.12

11 98.62 6.17 6.05 20.17

12 96.34 6.05 5.79 19.31

80.00

70.00

60.00

50.00

40.00

30.00

20.00

10.00

0.00

20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00 90.00 100.00110.00

**Graph 1. Head vs mass flow rate
**

120.00

100.00

80.00

60.00

40.00

20.00

0.00

20.00 40.00 60.00 80.00 100.00 120.00

Graph 2. Efficiency vs mass flow rate

**Discussion and Conclusion:
**

The results shows that the efficiency of the pump continuously increases up

to certain flow rate then it starts decreasing. The efficiency first increases

with increase in flow rate but it then started decreasing after reaching its

maximum level at flow rate 0.059 g/ccs and efficiency of 73.03%. The head

was continuously decreasing with the increase in flow rate. The reason is that

efficiency was increasing because the water power was more drastically

increasing than the shaft power but when efficiency value hits the maxima it

started decreasing because now the velocity vibration of motor has

increased and it causes more frictional and mechanical losses. There is

always decrease in head with the increase in velocity because at low velocity

pipe was offering more friction but as velocity was increased the resistance

offered by pipe wall decreases thus head decreases. Now to attain maximum

efficiency pumps should be designed in such a way that the flow attains

maximum velocity. There were a few errors and to minimise them care

should be taken while keeping the RPM constant at 5000 throughout

experiment and while measuring the pressure and flow rate.

Appendix:

Sample Calculations for reading. 3:

Volume accumulated: 500 ml

Time taken: 6.92 sec

Thus,

Volume flow rate, m = V/t = 500/6.92 = 72.50 g/cc*s

Height difference: 28 cm

Pump power input: 66 W

1. Actual power input = 66-32

= 34 W

2. Head value, H = ∆h*(ρm – ρf )*g/ ρf = 0.28*12.59*9.8/1

= 34.55 m2/s2

3. B.H.P = 34 W

4. F.H.P = m*H*746/(75*1000) = 72.5*34.55*746/(75*1000)

= 24.83 W

5. Efficiency = F.H.P/B.H.P *100 = 24.83/34 *100 = 73.03

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