# ﻿CHAPTER 7

LAPLACE TRANSFORM METHODS

SECTION 7.1

LAPLACE TRANSFORMS AND INVERSE TRANSFORMS

The objectives of this section are especially clearcut. They include familiarity with the definition of the Laplace transform .e{f{t)} = F(s) that is given in Equation (1) in the textbook, the direct application of this definition to calculate Laplace transforms of simple functions (as in Examples 1-3), and the use of known transforms (those listed in Figure 7.1.2) to find Laplace transforms and inverse transforms (as in Examples 4-6). Perhaps students need to be told explicitly to memorize the transforms that are listed in the short table that appears in Figure 7.1.2.

1.

(u=-st, du=-sdt)

= f-oo[_1 ] ue" du = _!_[(u -1)eu]-'" = _1

S2 S2 0 S2

o

2. We substitute u = -st in the tabulated integral

f u'e" du = eU (u2 - 2u + 2) + C (or, alternatively, integrate by parts) and get

3.

.e{e31+1} = r e-.I'le31+1 dt = e r e-(.I'-3)1 dt = .E: s-3

4.

With a = -s and b = 1 the tabulated integral

f au b d au [acosbu + bSinbU] C

e cos u u = e 2 2 +

a «b

yields

.e{ } r -.1'1 d. [e-.I'I (-scost + sint)]'"

cos t = e cos t t = 2 =

S + 1 1=0

S

S2 + 1 .

Section 7.1

379

5. .e{sinht} = t.e{el _e-t} = t r e-sl(et -e-I)dt = t r (e-(S-I)1 _e-(s+l)t)dt

= ~ [ s ~ 1 - S: 1] = S2 ~ 1

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

12.

13.

14.

15.

1 1 e-s

= ---+-

S S2 S2

.e{Ji +3t} = r(~:22) +3.~ = ~2 +~

S S 2s s

.e{t-2e31} = l_ __ 2_

S2 s-3

.e{t3/2+e-lOt} = r(5/2) +_1_ = 3J; +_1_

S512 s + 10 4S5/2 S + 10

.e{l +cosh5t} = !..+ 2 S

S S -25

380

Chapter 7

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

{ . } 2 s s+2

£. sm2t + cos2t = --+-- = --

S2 + 4 i + 4 S2 + 4

£.{cos22t} = ..!..£.{I+cos4t} = ..!..(..!..+ 2 s )

2 2 s s + 16

£.{sin3t cos 3t} = ..!..£.{sin6t} =..!... 2 6 = 3

2 2 s + 36 S2 + 36

{ 3} { 2 3} 1 l' 2' 3' 1 3 6 6

£. (l+t) = E 1+3t+3t +t = -+3·-' +3·-' +-' = -+-+-+-

S S2 S3 S4 S i S3 S4

Integrating by parts with u = t, dv = e-(s-l)t dt, we get

£.{tel} = [ e-.I'I tel dt = r te-(.I'-I)I dt

[ -te -(,,-1)1 ]00 1 . 1 1

= +-[ e-·1lel dt - -£.{t} - -__,-

s-1 0 s-I - s-1 - (s-I)2'

21. Integration by parts with u = t and dv = e -stcos 2t dt yields

22.

23.

24.

£.{tcos2t} = [te-.I'lcos2t dt = __ 2_1_[ e-.I'I(-scos2t+2sin2t) dt s +4

= --2-1_[ -s£'{cos2t}+2£.{sin2t}] s +4

£. {sinh 2 3t} = ..!.. £. {cosh 6t - I} = ..!.. ( 2 S - 1.)

2 2 s -36 s

25.

£. -I {1. _ _2_} = £. -I {1._ 2 . r(S/2)} = 1- 2 . t3/2 = 1- 8t3/2

S S5/2 s r(S/2) S5/2 t·tJ; 3J;

Section 7.1

381

26.

27.

28.

29.

30.

31.

32.

.e-1{_3 } = 3 . .e-1{_1 } = 3e41

s-4 s-4

-I { 3s + 1 } -I { S } 1 -I { 2 } 1 .

.e -- = 3·.e -- +- . .e -- = 3cos2t+-sm2t

S2 + 4 S2 + 4 2 S2 + 4 2

-I {5 - 3S} 5 -I { 3} -I { S} 5 .

.e -- = - . .e -- -3·.e -- = -sm3t-3cos3t

i + 9 3 S2 + 9 S2 + 9 3

-I { 9 + S } 9 -I { 2} -I { S} 9 .

.e --2 = -- . .e -2-- =E -2-- = --smh2t-cosh2t

4-s 2 S -4 S -4 2

.e-1{10S-;} = -10 . .e-1{ 2 S }+~ . .e-I{ 2 5 } = -10cosh5t+~sinh5t

25 - s s - 25 5 s - 25 5

{ -3S}

.e -I 2· ": = 2 u(t - 3) = 2 u3 (t)

[See Example 8 in the textbook.]

{ eikl _ e-ikl } 1 (1 1)

33. .e{sinkt} = .e . = -:- --. ---.

21 2z S - ik s + ik

1 2ik k

= = (because i2 = -1)

2i (s - ik)(s - ik) S2 + k2

34.

.e { sinh kt} = .e {ekl - e -kl} = _!_ (_1 1_) = _!_ . 2k

2 2 s - k s + k 2 S2 - e

35. Using the given tabulated integral with a = -s and b = k, we find that

.e{coskt} = foo e-S1cosktdt = [ 2e-SI 2 (-scoskt+ kSinkt)]oo

o s + k 1=0

= lim( 2e-SI 2 (-SCoskt+ksinkt)]- 2 eO 2 (-s.l+k.O) = s

1->00 S + k s + k S2 + k2 •

382

Chapter 7

36. Evidently the function f(t) = sine e12) is of exponential order because it is bounded; we can simply take c = 0 and M= 1 in Eq. (23) of this section in the text. However,

its derivative J' (t) = 2t el2 cos( e12) is not bounded by any exponential function eCI, because et2 I eel = e12-CI ~ 00 as t ~ 00.

37. J(t) = 1 - ua(t) = 1 - u(t - a) so

For the graph of f, note that f(a) = 1- u(a) = 1-1 = O.

38. J(t) = u(t -a) - u(t - b),so

+as =hs

.e{f(t)} = .e{ua(t)}-.e{ub(t)} = _e e _ = S-I(e-as _e-hS).

S S

For the graph off, notethat f(a)=u(0)-u(a-b)=1-0=1 because a c b, but J(b)=u(b-a)-u(O)=I-I=O.

39. Use of the geometric series gives

00 co -11.\' 1

.e{J(t)} = 'L.e{u(t-n)} = 'L_e - = -(I+e-s +e-2s +e-3s + '" )

11=0 11=0 S S

40. Use of the geometric series gives

.e{J(t)} = I(-ly.e{u(t-n)} = f(-IYe-lls

11=0 11=0 S

1 (1 -s -2s -3... )

= - -e +e -e + ...

S

1 (1 ( -s) ( -s)2 ( -S)3 ) 1 1 1

= - + -e + -e + -e + ... = -. -s = _ \' .

S S 1 - ( -e) S ( 1 + e ' )

41. By checking values at sample points, you can verify that get) = 2f(t) -1 in terms of the square wave function f(t) of Problem 40. Hence

2 1 1 (2 ) 1 1 - «:

.e{g(t)} = .e{2f(t)-1} = ( _,) -- = - -s -1 = -. _,

sl+e" s sl+e sl+e"

Section 7.1

383

1 sinh(s 12) 1 s

= = -tanh-.

s cosh(s 12) s 2

42. Let's refer to (n -1, n] as an odd interval if the integer n is odd, and even interval if n is even. Then our function h(t) has the value a on odd intervals, the value b on even intervals. Now the unit step function J(t) of Problem 40 has the value 1 on odd intervals, the value 0 on even intervals. Hence the function (a - b)J(t) has the value (a - b) on odd intervals, the value 0 on even intervals. Finally, the function

(a - b) f (t) + b has the value (a - b) + b = a on odd intervals, the value b on even intervals, and hence (a -b)f(t) + b = h(t). Therefore

a-b b a+be-.I'

L{h(t)} = L{(a-b)f(t)}+L{b} = _. +- = --

s(1 + e .1) s s(1 + e -'\')

SECTION 7.2

TRANSFORMATION OF INITIAL VALUE PROBLEMS

The focus of this section is on the use of transforms of derivatives (Theorem 1) to solve initial value problems (as in Examples 1 and 2). Transforms of integrals (Theorem 2) appear less frequently in practice, and the extension of Theorem 1 at the end of Section 7.2 may be considered entirely optional (except perhaps for electrical engineering students).

In Problems 1-10 we give first the transformed differential equation, then the transform Xes) of the solution, and finally the inverse transform x(t) of Xes).

1. [ix(s) - 5s] + 4{X(s)} = 0

5s s

Xes) = -- = 5·--

S2 +4 S2 +4

x(t) = £-1 {Xes)} = 5 cos 2t

2. [ix(s) - 3s - 4] + 9[X(s)] = 0

3s+4 s 4 3

X (s) = i + 9 = 3· i + 9 +"3' S2 + 9

x(t) = £-1 {X(s)} = 3 cos 3t + (4/3)sin 3t

3. [i Xes) - 2] - [sX(s)] - 2[X(s)] = 0

384 Chapter 7

2 2 2( 1 1)

Xes) = 2 = ----

s -s-2 (s-2)(s+1) -"3 -s---2 --s+-l

x(t) = (2/3)(e2t - e-t)

4. [ix(s) - 2s + 3] + 8[s Xes) - 2] + 15[X(s)] = 0

Xes) = 2s+13 = ?_._1 __ ~._1_

S2 + 8s + 15 2 s + 3 2 s + 5

x(t) = .e-1{X(s)} = (7/2)e-3t - (3/2)e-5t

5. [ix(s)] + [Xes)] = 2/(i + 4)

2 2 1 1 2

Xes) = (S2 + 1)(s2 +4) = "3. i + 1 -"3. S2 +4

x(t) = (2 sin t - sin 2t)/3

6. [iX(s)] + 4[X(s)] = .e{cos t} = s/(i + 1)

2 1 sIs

Xes) = (s2+1)(s2+4) = 3·s2+1-3·i+4

x(t) = e:' {Xes)} = (cos t - cos 2t)/3

7. [ix(s) - s] + [Xes)] = sli + 9)

(i + 1)X(s) = s + s/(i + 9) = (S3 + 10s)/(i + 9)

X (s) = S2 + lOs 9 sIs

(S2 +1)(s2 +9) = "9. s2+1-S· s2+9

x(t) = (9 cos t - cos 3t)/8

8. [i Xes)] + 9[X(s)] = £{1} = lis

1 1 lIs

Xes) = s(s2+9) = "9·-:;-"9·i+9

x(t) = e:' {X(s)} = (1 - cos 3t)/9

9.

ix(s) + 4sX(s) + 3X(s) = lis

1 1 111111

Xes) = = = _._-_._+_._

s( S2 + 4s + 3) s( s + 1)( s + 3) 3 s 2 s + 1 6 s + 3

x(t) = (2 - 3e-t + e-3t)/6

Section 7.2

385

10. [i Xes) - 2] + 3 [sX(s)] + 2[X(s)] = £{t} = 11 i (i + 3s + 2)X(s) = 2 + 1Ii = (2i + 1)/s2

2S2 + 1 2i + 1 3 1 1 1 1 9 1

Xes) = = = -_·-+-·-+3·---·-

S2(S2+3s+2) sZCs+l)(s+2) 4 s 2 S2 s+l 4 s+2

x(t) = £-1 {Xes)} = (-3 + 2t + 12e-t - ge-2t)/4

11. The transformed equations are

sX(s) - 1 = 2X(s) + Yes) sY(s) + 2 = 6X(s) + 3Y(s).

We solve for the Laplace transforms

Xes) = s-5 = 1

s(s-5) s

Yes) = Xes) = -2s+10 s(s - 5)

2

= -_

s

Hence the solution is given by

x(t) = 1,

yet) = -2.

12. The transformed equations are

s Xes) = Xes) + 2Y(s)

s Yes) = X(s) + l/(s+ 1),

which we solve for

Hence the solution is

x(t) = (2/9)(e2t - e-t - 3t e-t) yet) = (1/9)(it - e-t + 6t e-t).

386

Chapter 7

13. The transformed equations are

sX(s) + 2[sY(s) - 1] + Xes) = 0 sX(s) - [sY(s) - 1] + Yes) = 0,

which we solve for the transforms

2 2 1 2 1I.J3

Xes) = - 3s2 -1 = -3· S2 -113 = - .J3. i -(II.J3f

X (s) = 3s + 1 s + 1 I 3 s 1 1I.J3

3s2 -1 = S2 -1/3 = S2 -(II.J3r + .J3. S2 -(II.J3r .

Hence the solution is

x(t) = - ( 2 I .J3) sinh (t/.J3)

yet) = cosh(t/.J3) + (1I.J3) sinh(t/.J3).

14. The transformed equations are

ix(s) + 1 + 2X(s) + 4Y(s) = 0 i Yes) + 1 + Xes) + 2Y(s) = 0,

which we solve for

Hence the solution is

x(t) = (114 )(2t - 3 sin 2t) yet) = (-1/8)(2t + 3 sin 2t).

15. The transformed equations are

[ix - s] + [sX - 1] + [sY - 1] + 2X - Y = 0 [iY - s] + [sX - 1] + [sY - 1] + 4X - 2Y = 0,

which we solve for

Section 7.2

387

Yes) = -s3-2s2+2s+4 = _1 (28 __ 9_+ 2s+15 )

S3 + 3s2 + 3s 21 s s - 1 S2 + 3s + 3

1 (28 9 2s + 15 )

= 2I -;- s-1 + (s+3/2)2 +3/4

= _1 (28 __ 9_+2. s+3/2 +8Jj. Jj /2 )

21 s s-1 (s+3/2)2+(Jj/2)2 (s+3/2)2+(Jj/2)2 .

Here we've used some fairly heavy-duty partial fractions (Section 7.3). The transforms

.e{ at k} s-a

e cos t = 2 2 '

(s-a) +k

.e{eat sinkt} = \ 2

(s-a) +k

from the inside-front-cover table (with a = -3/2, k = Jj /2) finally yield

x(t) = ~{2 + e-3t12 [cos( Jjt /2) + Jj sin( Jjt /2)]}

yet) = ;1 {28 - ge' + e-3112 [2COS( Jjt /2) + 8Jj sin( Jjt /2) ]}.

16. The transformed equations are

s Xes) - 1 = Xes) + Z(s)

s Yes) Xes) + Yes)

s Z(s) = -2X(s) - Z(s),

which we solve for

Xes) = S2 -1

(s _1)(S2 + 1)

=

Yes) = s + 1 1 s

(s-1)(s2+1) = s-l- s2+1

Z(s) = -2s+2

(s _1)(S2 + 1)

2

388

Chapter 7

Hence the solution is

x(t) = cos t + sin t yet) = i-cos t z(t) = -2 sin t.

18. J(t) = ! 3e-5r dt = [_~e-5r]1 = ~(I-e-51)

5 r=O 5

[ 1 ] 1 1

19. J(t) = ! tsin2rdr = --cos2r = -(1-cos2t)

4 r=O 4

20. J(t) = £ (2cos3r+tsin3r)dr = [~sin3r-_!_cos3r]' = _!_(6sin3t-cos3t+1)

3 9 ,=0 9

21. J(t) = ! [r sintdtJdr = ! (l-cosr)dr = [r-sinr(o = t-sint

[1 ]1 1

22. J(t) = ! tsinh3rdr = -cosh3r = -(cosh3t-1)

9 ,=0 9

23. J(t) = ! [r SinhtdtJdr = ! (coshr-l)dr = [sinhr-rto = sinht-t

25. With fit) = cos kt and F(s) = sl(i + lC), Theorem 1 in this section yields

£{-ksinkt} = £{f'(t)} = sF(s)-1 = s- s -1 = _ e ,

i+e i+e

so division by -k yields £{sinkt} = kl(i+lC).

Section 7.2

389

26. With j(t) = sinh kt and F(s) = k/(i - f(-), Theorem 1 yields

.e{f'(t)} = .e{k cosh kt} = ks/(i - k-) = sF(s) ,

so it follows upon division by k that .e{ cosh kt} = s / (i - f(-).

27.

(a)

With fit) = feat and /'(t) = nf-Ieat + at'e", Theorem 1 yields

so

and hence

(b)

n =1:

.e{ at}_ 1 .e{at}_ 1 1_

te - -- e - -_._- - --7"

s-a s-a s-a (s-a)2

1

n = 2: .e{t2 eat} = _2_.e{teat} = _2_. 1 = 2!

s-a s-a (s-a)2 (s-a)3

n--3' . .e{ 3 at} 3.e{ 2 at} 3 2! 3!

t e = -- t e = --. = ---

s-a s-a (s-a)3 (s-a)4

And so forth.

28. Problems 28 and 30 are the trigonometric and hyperbolic versions of essentially the same computation. For Problem 30 we let fit) = t cosh kt, so f(0) = O. Then

f'(t) = cosh kt + kt sinh kt f"(t) = 2k sinh kt + f(-t cosh kt,

and thus f'(O) = 1, so Formula (5) in this section yields

.e{2k sinh kt + f(-t cosh kt} = i .e{t cosh kt} - 1,

k 12 2

2k· 2 2 + K F(s) = s F(s) - 1.

s -k

We readily solve this last equation for

29. Let fit) = t sinh kt, so f(0) = O. Then

390 Chapter 7

f'(t) = sinh kt + kt cosh kt f"(t) = 2k cosh kt + it sinh kt,

and thus f'(O) = 0, so Formula (5) in this section yields

.e{2k cosh kt + it sinh kt} = i .e{sinh kt}, Zk- 2 s 2 + iF(s) = iF(s).

s -k

We readily solve this last equation for

30. See Problem 28.

31. Using the known transform of sin kt and the Problem 28 transform of t cos kt, we obtain

32. If j(t) = u(t - a), then the only jump in j(t) is ji = 1 at ti = a. Since j(0) = 0 and f'(t) = 0, Formula (21) in this section yields

o = s F(s) - 0 - easel).

Hence .e{u(t - a)} = F(s) = S-I e",

33. f(t) = Ua(t)-ub(t) = u(t-a)-u(t-b),so the result of Problem 32 gives

e-as e-bs e-as _ «':

.e{f(t)} = .e{u(t-a)}-.e{u(t-b)} = --- = --

s s s

34. The square wave function of Figure 7.2.9 has a sequence {tn} of jumps with tn = n and jn = 2( -lr for n = 1,2,3, .... Hence Formula (21) yields

00

o = s F(s) - 1 - Le-"s ·2(-1)".

11=1

It follows that

Section 7.2

391

ao

S F(s) = 1 + 2 ~)-l)"e-II.1'

11=1

-1 +2(1_e-s+e-2s_e-3s+ ... )

-1 + 21(1 + e -S)

= (1 - e-S)/(l + e-S)

= (es/2 _ e-s/2)/(es/2 + e-s/2)

s F(s) = tanh(s 12),

because 2 cosh(s/2) = es/2 + e-s12 and 2 sinh(s/2) = es12 - e-s12.

35. Let's write get) for the on-off function of this problem to distinguish it from the square wave function of Problem 34. Then comparison of Figures 7.2.9 and 7.2.10 makes it clear that get) = +(1 + f(t)), so (using the result of Problem 34) we obtain

1 1 1 1 s 1 ( e.l'/2 - e-.I'/2 «:" J

G(s) = -+-F(s) = -+-tanh- = - 1+. . '-.-

2s 2 2s 2s 2 2s esl2 + e-,,12 e-·,/2

= _1 (1 + 1- e -.I' J = _1. 2 = 1 .

2s l+e-s 2s l+e-.I' s(l+e-'\')

36. If get) is the triangular wave function of Figure 7.2.11 and fit) is the square wave function of Problem 34, then g'(t) = f(t). Hence Theorem 1 and the result of Problem 34 yield

£ {g'(t)} = s £{g(t)} - g(O),

F(s) = s G(s), (because g(O) = 0)

£{g(t)} = S-l F(s) = s-2tanh(s/2).

37. We observe that f(O) = 0 and that the sawtooth function has jump -1 at each of the points til = n = 1, 2,3,···. Also, f'(t) == 1 wherever the derivative is defined. Hence Eq. (21) in this section gives

1 ao ao 1

- = sF ( s ) + Ie-lis = sF ( s ) - 1 + Ie -11.1' = s F ( s ) - 1 + -liS '

S 11=1 11=0 1- e

ao

using the geometric series Ix" = 1/(1- x) with x = «: Solution for F(s) gives

11=0

392

Chapter 7

SECTION 7.3

TRANSLATION AND PARTIAL FRACTIONS

This section is devoted to the computational nuts and bolts of the staple technique for the inversion of Laplace transforms - partial fraction decompositions. If time does not permit going further in this chapter, Sections 7.1-7.3 provide a self-contained introduction to Laplace transforms that suffices for the most common elementary applications.

1.

2.

so .e{ ?12 e -4t} = 3..[; .

4(s + 4)5/2

3.

so .e{e-2tsin3nt}

3 3 1 f 3 21

5. F(s) = -- = _._-, so (t) = -e

2s-4 2 s-2 2

6.

F(s) = (s+1)-2 = _1~

(s+1)3 (s+1)2

7. F(s) = 1 2' so fit) = t «"

(s+2)

8. F(s) = s+; ,so j(t) = e-2tcost

(s+2) +1

Section 7.2

393

9.

10.

s-3 7 4

F(s) = 3· +-. so fit) = e3t[3 cos4t+(7/2)sin4t]

(S_3)2 +16 2 (S_3)2 +16'

F(s)

2s -3 1 2s -3

= (3s-2)2 +16 = "9. (s-2/3)2 +1619

2 s-2/3 S 4/3

= "9. (s-2/3l +(413)2 36' (s-2/3)2 +(413)2

1 ( 4t . 4t)

f(t) = _e21/3 8cos- - Ssm-

36 3 3

11. F(s) = _!_. _1_ - _!_. _1_, so f(t) = 41 (e21 - e-21) = 21 sinh2t

4 s-2 4 s+2

12.

13.

14.

15.

16.

17.

1 1

F(s) = 2·-+3·-, so f(t) = 2+3e31

s s-3

1 1

F(s) = 3·---S·-, so f(t) = 3e-21 -Se-SI

s+2 s+S

1 1 1

F(s) = 2·--3·-+-, so f(t) = 2-3e-1 +e21

s s r I s-2

F(s) = _1 (_I.!_S._!_+_I_), so f(t) = 21S(-I-St+e51)

2S s S2 s-S

F(s) = (S+3/(S-2)' = 1~5( S~3 + (S:3)' S=2 + (S~2)' J f(t) = _1 [e-31 (2 + St) + e21 (-2 + St)]

12S

1( 1 1) 1 (2 2)

F(s) - - ----- - - -----

- 8 S2 - 4 S2 + 4 - 16 S2 - 4 S2 + 4

f(t) = _1 (sinh2t-sin2t)

16

18.

1 1 48 64

F(s) = - + 2 + 3 + 4

s-4 (s-4) (s-4) (s-4)

394

Chapter 7

19.

S2 - 2s 1 (- 2s - 1 2s + 4)

F(s) = = - +--

( S2 + 1) ( S2 + 4) 3 S2 + 1 S2 + 4

J(t) = !(-2cost-sint+2cos2t+2sin2t)

3

20.

21. First we need to find A, B, C, D so that

i +3 As+B Cs+D

-----;:- = 2 + 2 •

( Sl + 2s + 2 r s + 2s + 2 ( S2 + 2s + 2 )

When we multiply both sides by the quadratic factor S2 + 2s + 2 and collect coefficients, we get the linear equations

-2B-D+3 = 0

-2A-2B-C = 0

-2A-B+1 = 0

-A = 0

which we solve for A = 0, B = 1, C = -2, D = 1. Thus

F( ) = 1 -2s + 1 = 1 _ 2. s + 1 3. 1

s 2 + 2 2 2+ 2'

(s + 1) + 1 [( s + 1)2 + 1] (s + 1) + 1 [ (s + 1)2 + 1] [( s + 1)2 + 1]

We now use the inverse Laplace transforms given in Eq. (16) and (17) of Section 7.3- supplying the factor e-I corresponding to the translation s ~ s + 1 - and get

J(t) = e~t[sint-2' ~ tsint+3· ~ (sint-tcost)] = ~ e-t (5sint-2tsint-3tcost).

22. First we need to find A, B, C, D so that

Section 7.3

395

As+B Cs+D

2 + 2'

4s - 4s + 5 ( 4s2 - 4s + 5)

When we multiply each side by the quadratic factor (squared) 5 we get the identity

2s3 - i = (As + B)(4i - 4s + 5) + Cs + D.

When we substitute the root s = 1/2 + i of the quadratic into this identity, we find that C = -3/2 and D = - 5/4. When we first differentiate each side of the identity and then substitute the root, we find that A = 1/2 and B = 114. Writing

4i - 4s + 5 = 4[(s - 1I2i + 1],

it follows that

1 (s-t)+1 1 3(s-t)+4

F(s) = -. 2 -_. 2'

8 (s - t) + 1 32 [( s - t)2 + 1 ]

Finally the results

.e-1 {2s/(i + Ii} = t sin t

.e-1 {2/(i + Ii} = sin t - t cos t

ofEqs. (16) and (17) in Section 7.3, together with the translation theorem, yield

I( ) 1/2 [I ( inr] 3 1. 4 1 ( . )]

t = e _. cost+smt --·-tsmt--·- smt-tcost

8 32 2 32 2

= _1 eI/2[(8+4t)cost+(4-3t)sintJ.

64

23.

and i ± 2as + 2a2 = (s ± ai + a2, so it follows that

J!:l{ 4 S3 4} = _!_(eal +e-al)cosat = coshatcosat.

s +4a 2

24.

and i ± 2as + 2a2 = (s ± a)2 + a2, so it follows that

396

Chapter 7

0-1 { S3} 1 (at -at). l.nh.

,4, 4 4 = -2 e -e smat = -·2 Sl at sm at.

s +4a 4a 2a

25.

s

1 (s s)

= 4a S2 - 2as + 2a2 - S2 + 2as + 2a2

1 (s-a a

= 4a S2 - 2as + 2a2 + S2 - 2as + 2a2

s+a a)

S2 + 2as + 2a2 + S2 + 2as + 2a2 '

and i ± 2as + 2a2 = (s ± a)2 + a2, so it follows that

J!:I{ 4 S 4} = _1_[eat(cosat+sinat)-e-at(cosat-sinat)]

s +4a 4a

= 21a[~ (eat + e-at) sin at + ~ (eat -e-at)cosatJ

= _1_ ( cosh at sin at + sinh at cos at).

2a

26.

1 1 (-s+2a s+2a)

S4 + 4a4 = 8a3 S2 - 2as + 2a2 + S2 + 2as + 2a2

1 (s-a a s+a a)

= - - + ry 2+ + ,

8a3 S2 -2as+2a2 s: -2as+2a S2 +2as+2a2 S2 +2as+2a2

and i ± 2as + 2a2 = (s ± ai + a2, so it follows that

J!:I{ 4 S 4} = --4[eat(-cosat+sinat)+e-at(cosat+sinat)]

s +4a 8a

= 4~3 [~ (eat +e-at)sinat- ~ (eat -e-at)cosatJ

= ~(coshatsinat - sinhatcosat). 4a

In Problems 27-40 we give first the transformed equation, then the Laplace transform Xes) of the solution, and finally the desired solution x(t).

27. [iX(s) - 2s - 3] + 6[sX(s) - 2] + 25X(s) = 0

X (s) = 2s + 15 = 2. s + 3 + 2. . 4

S2 +6s+25 (S+3)2 +16 4 (S+3)2 +16

x(t) = e-3t[2 cos 4t + (9/4)sin 4t]

Section 7.3

397

28.

2 S2 Xes) - 6sX(s) + 8X(s) = -

s

Xes) = 2 = .!..(.!..+_1 2_)

s( S2 - 6s + 8) 4 s s - 4 s - 2

x(t) = :(1+e41-2e21)

29.

3 s2X(s)-4X(s) = 2 s

x(t) = lSinh2t_1t = 1(sinh2t-2t)

848 .

30.

1 s2X(s)+4sX(s)+8X(s) = -

s+l

x(t) = 1~[2e-1 -e-21(2cos2t+sin2t)]

S3 1 (s s)

Xes) = -- = - --+--

S4 -1 2 S2 + 1 S2 -1

1

x(t) = -(cost + cosht) 2

398

Chapter 7

33. [S4X(s) - 1] + Xes) = 0

1

Xes) = S4 +1

It therefore follows from Problem 26 with a =W4 = 1/ J2 that

34. [s4X(s) - 2i + 13] + 13[iX(s) - 2] + 36X(s) = 0

X (s) = 2S2 + 13 = _1 _ + _1_

S4 + 13s2 + 36 S2 + 4 S2 + 9

x(t) = lsin2t + !sin3t

2 3

1

Xes) = S4 +8s2 +16 =

1

x(t) = _1 (sin2t - 2tcos2t) 16

(by Eq. (17) in Section 7.3)

36.

s4X(s)+2s2X(S)+X(S) = _1_ s-2

Xes) = 1 = _1 [_1 __ s+2 - 5(s+2) J

( s - 2)( S4 + 2i + 1) 25 s - 2 S2 + 1 ( S2 + 1 r

x(t) = _1 (e-21 -cost-2sint-5.ltsint-l0.l(sint-tcost))

25 2 2

= 510 [2e21 + (10t- 2)cost - (5t + 14)sint]

37. [s2X(s)-2]+4sX(s)+13X(s) = 1 2

(s + 1)

2+1I(s+I)2 Xes) = S2 +4s+13 =

2S2 +4s + 13

Section 7.3

399

1 [1 5 s+98 1

= 50 -s+I+(s+I)2+(s+2)2+9

= _1 [ __ 1_+ 5 + s+2 +32. 3 ]

50 s+1 (s+li (S+2)2+9 (S+2)2+9

x(t) = _1 [(-1+5t)e-1 + e-21(cos3t+ 32 sin 3t)]

50

38.

[S2 Xes) - s + 1] + 6 [sX(s) - 1]+ 18X(s) = -/-s +4

Xes) = s + 5 + s

i + 6s + 18 ( S2 + 4) (S2 + 6s + 18 )

s+5 1 (7S+12 7S+54)

= S2 + 6s + 18 + 170 S2 + 4 - i + 6s + 18

1 (7S+12 163S+796)

= 170 S2 + 4 + S2 + 6s + 18

X( ) = _1_[7S+12 163(s+3) 307 J

s 2 + 2 + 2

170 s +4 (s+3) +9 (s+3) +9

x(t) = _1_(7 cos2t + 6sin2t) + _1_e-31 (489cos3t + 307 sin3t)

170 510

39. x"+9x = 6cos3t, x(O)= x'(O)=0

2 6s

s Xes) + 9X(s) = -2-

s +9

Xes) _ 6s

- (2 )2

s +9

x(t) = 6._I_tsin3t = tsin3t 2·3

(by Eq. (16) in Section 7.3)

The graph of this resonance is shown in the figure at the top of the next page.

400

Chapter 7

20

t

40.

x" + O.4x' + 9.04x = x" + ~x' + 226 = 6e-t15 cos3t

5 25

(S2 + 2 s+ 226)X(S) = 6(s+1I5)

5 25 (s + 1I5i + 9

X (s) = 6( s + 1/ 5)

[(s+1/5)2+9J

x(t) = ie:" sin3t

(by Eq. (16) in Section 7.3)

SECTION 7.4

DERIVATIVES, INTEGRALS, AND PRODUCTS OF TRANSFORMS

This section completes the presentation of the standard "operational properties" of Laplace transforms, the most important one here being the convolution property £{f*g} = £{f}.£{g}, where the convolution f' g is defined by

f * g(t) = f f(x)g(t - x) dx.

Here we use x rather than r as the variable of integration; compare with Eq. (3) in Section 7.4 of the textbook.

Section 7.3

401

1. With J(t) = t and g(t) = 1 we calculate

[1 I

t*l = {x.ldx = _x2

2 x=o

1 2 = -t.

2

2. With J(t) = t and get) = eat we calculate

f-( ) ( d) at

at Uu U e u

= e _ - a e - -;; = 7 [ue du

(with u = -ax)

eat

= -[(u-1)e"J-

a' -

(integral formula #46 inside back cover)

• m

= ~[( -ax _1)e-·axJx=t . = ~[( -at _1)e-at + 1J

a2 x=o a2

t * eat = -\- ( eat - at - 1).

a

3. Tocompute (sint)*(sint) = lsinxsin(t-x)dx, we first apply the identity sin A sin B = [cos(A - B) - cos(A + B)]/2. This gives

(sint)*(sint) = f sinxsin(t-x)dx 1 rt

= 21 [cos(2x-t)-cost]dx

1 [1 . ]x=t

= - -sm(2x-t)-xcost

2 2 x~

(sint)*(sint) = _!_(sint-tcost).

2

4. To compute t2 * cost = l' x2 cos(t - x)dx, we first substitute

cos(t - x) = cos t cos x + sin t sin x,

and then use the integral formulas

fx2 cosx dx = x2 sinx + 2xcosx - 2sinx+ C

fx2 sinx dx = - x2 cosx + 2xsinx + 2cosx+ C.

402

Chapter 7

from #40 and #41 inside the back cover of the textbook. This gives

t2 * cost = f X2(costCOSX + sintsinx)dx

= (cost) f X2 cosxdx + (sint) f X2 sinxdx = (cos t) [ X2 sinx + 2xcosx - 2sinx I:~

+ (sint) [ _X2 cosx + 2xsinx + 2cosx I:~ t2 *cost = 2(t-sint).

= ebl [e(a-b)X ]X=I = ebl ( e(a-b)1 -1) = s: e_bl

a-b a-b a+b

x=o

8. J(t) = 1*!sin2t = fl !sin2xdx = !(1-cos2t)

2 02 4

9. J(t) = !sin3t*sin3t = ! r sin3xsin3(t-x)dx

9 9JJ

= if sin3x[sin3tcos3x-cos3tsin3x]dx

= iSin3t fSin3xcos3Xdx-icoS3t fsin23xdx

= !sin3t[!sin23x]x=1 _ !cos3t[!(X _ !sin 6X)]X=1

9 6 x=o 9 2 6 x=o

J(t) = __!__(sin3t-3tcos3t)

54

10. J(t) = t*(sinkt)lk = ~ Isinkx.(t-x)dx

Section 7.4

403

t it . kxdx 1 it . kx dx kt - sinkt

= - SIn - - x SIn = ----,--

k k k3

11. J(t) = cos2t*cos2t = fCOS2xCOS2(t-x)dx

= r cos2x( cos2tcos2x + sin2tsin2x)dx

= (cos 2t) f cos' 2x dx + (sin 2t) r cos 2x sin 2x dx

[ 1 (1 )]X;t [ 1 ]X;I

= (cos2t) 2 x+"4sin4x X;O + (sin2t) 4 sin22x X;O

J(t) = .!.(sin2t+2tcos2t)

4

12. fit) = (e-2tsint)*(1) = r e-2xsinxdx = .!.[1-e-2\cost+2sint)]

5

13. J(t) = e3t * cost = r (cosx )e3(t-X)dx

= e31 f e-3x cosxdx

[ 3 ]X;I

= e31 e- x (-3cosx + sinx)

10 X;O

J(t) = /0 (3e31 - 3cost + sinr]

(by integral formula #50)

14. J(t) = cos2t*sint = fcos2xsin(t-x)dx

= f cos2x(sintcosx - costsinx)dx

= (sint) f cos2xcosxdx - (cost) f cos2xsinxdx

= ~ (sint) r (cos3x + cosx)dx - ±( cost) f (sin3x -sinx)dx 1

J(t) = -(cost-cos2t) 3

15. .e{tsint} = -~(.e{sint}) = _~(_2_3_) = 6s 2

ds ds s + 9 (S2 + 9 )

404 Chapter 7

16.

17.

18.

19.

20.

.e{t2 cos2t} = d22 (.e{cos2t}) = d22 (+-) = 2S(S2 -12)

ds ds s + 4 (S2 + 4 r

.e{e2tcos 3t} = (s - 2)/(i - 4s + 13)

.e{titcos 3t} = -(d/ds)[(s - 2)/(i - 4s + 13)] = (i - 4s - 5)/(i - 4s + 13i

.e{sin2t} = .e{(1 - cos 2t)/2} = 2/s(i + 4) .e{e-tsin2t} = 2/[(s + l)(i + 2s + 5)] .e{te-tsin2t} = -(d/ds)[2/((s + 1)(s2 + 2s + 5))]

= 2(3i + 6s + 7)/[(s + li(i + 2s + 5i]

.e{sint} = foo___!!!_ = [tan-1 sJoo = 1C2 =tan " s = tan-1(-Sl)

t s S2 + 1 .I"

{Is

.e l-cos2t} = ---- so s i +4'

.e {3t} 1 1

21. e -1 = ----, so

s-3 s

22. .e{et -e-I} = _1 1_ = -i-, so

s-l s+l s-l

.e{et -e-I} = fOO(_1 __ 1 )dS = [In(~)]OO = In(~)

t .I" s-l s+l s+1 s s-l

23.

J(t) = -!.e-1{F'(s)} = _!.e-1{_1 1_} = _!(e21_e-21) = _ 2sinh2t

t t s-2 s+2 t t

24.

1 I { '} 1 I {2S 2S} 2 ( )

J(t) = --.e- F (s) = --.e- ----- = - cos2t-cost

t t S2 + 1 S2 + 4 t

Section 7.4

405

25.

f(t) = -!.e-'{F'(s)} = _!.e-1{~ __ 1 1_} = !(e-2t +e3t -2cost)

t t S2 + 1 s + 2 s - 3 t

26.

f(t) = -!.e-'{F'(s)} = -!.e-I{ 32} = e-2tsin3t

t t (s+2) +9 t

27.

f(t) = -!.e-'{F'(S)} = _!.e-1{ -2/s3 }

t t 1 + 11 S2

= ~.e-I {_1 _} = 2:...e-1 {! - _s_} = ~ (1- cos t)

t S3 + s t s S2 + 1 t

28. An empirical approach works best with this one. We can construct transforms with powers of (i + 1) in their denominators by differentiating the transforms of sin t and cos t. Thus,

From the first and last of these formulas it follows readily that

Alternatively, one could work out the repeated convolution

.e-I{ s 3} = (cost) * (sint*sint). (S2 + 1)

29. -[iX(s) - x'(O)]' - [s Xes)]' - 2[s Xes)] + Xes) = 0

s(s + l)X'(s) + 4s Xes) = 0

(separable)

406

Chapter 7

A

Xes) = with A :f:. 0

(s + 1)4

x(t) = c? «' with C:f:. 0

30. -[i Xes) - x'(O)], - 3[s Xes)]' - [s Xes)] + 3X(s) = 0

-(i + 3s)X'(s) - 3s Xes) = 0 Xes) = A 3 with A :f:. 0 (s+3)

x(t) = cre-3t with C :f:. 0

(separable)

31. -[ix(s) - x'(O)]' + 4[s Xes)]' - [s Xes)] -4[X(s)]' + 2X(s) = 0 (i - 4s + 4)X'(s)+(3s - 6)X(s) = 0 (separable)

(s - 2)X'(s)+ 3X(s) = 0

Xes) = A 3 with A :f:. 0

(s-2)

x(t) = cr e" with C:f:. 0

32. -[i Xes) - x'(O)], - 2[s Xes)]' - 2[s Xes)] - 2X(s) = 0 -(i + 2s)X' (s) - (4s + 4)X(s) = 0 (separable)

A [1 1 1 1]

Xes) = s2(s+2)2 = C -;---;z- s+2 - (S+2)2

x(t) = C(l - t - «" - te-2t) with C = -A14 :f:. 0

33. -[ix(s) - x(O)]' - 2[s Xes)] - [Xes)]' = 0 (i + l)X'(s)+ 4s Xes) = 0 (separable)

Xes) = 2 A 2 with A :f:. 0

(s + 1)

x(t) = C(sin t - t cos t) with C :f:. 0

34. -(i + 4s + 13)X'(s) - (4s + 8)X(s) = 0

C C

Xes) = = -----;;-

(S2 + 4s + 13)2 [(s + 2)2 + 9 J

Section 7.4

407

It now follows from Problem 31 in Section 7.2 that

x(t) = Ae-2t(sin 3t - 3t cos 3t) with A :I; 0.

35.

36. iX(s) + 4X(s) = F(s)

1 2

Xes) = 2F(s)' S2 +4

x(t) = l J(t) * sin2t = l ~ J(t - T) ~in2T de (112)

2 21

37. S2 Xes) + 2sX(s) + Xes) = F(s)

1

Xes) = F(s)· 2

(s + 1)

x(t) = te-1 * J(t) = 1 -«: J(t-T)dT

38. s2 Xes) + 4sX(s) + 13X(s) = F(s)

Xes) = F(s) = IF(s)' 3

S2 +4s+13 3 (S+2)2 +9

x(t) = l J(t) * e-21 sin3t = l ~ «" J (t - T )sin3T dr 331

SECTION 7.5

PERIODIC AND PIECEWISE CONTINUOUS FORCING FUNCTIONS

In Problems 1 through 10, we first derive the inverse Laplace transform J(t) of F(s) and then show the graph of J(t).

408

Chapter 7

1. F(s) = e-3s .e{t} so Eq. (3b) in Theorem 1 gives

{ 0 if t < 3,

J(t) = u(t - 3)· (t - 3) = .

t - 3 If t e 3.

f (t)

----~--------~---------- t

3

{ 0 if t < 1,

2. J(t) = (t-1)u(t-l)-(t-3)u(t-3) = t-l if 1~t<3,

2 if t;::: 3.

f (t)

2

----+---~------~------- t

1 3

3.

{ 0 if t < 1, F(s) = e-S.e{e-21} so J(t) = u(t-l)·e-2(H)

- e-2(t-l) if t e 1.

f(t)

1

Section 7.5

409

f (t)

1

t

-5

-10

5. F(s) = e-7l"S .e{sint} so

{ 0 if t < x,

J(t) = u(t-7r)·sin(t-7r) = -u(t-7r)sint = . .

-smt if t ~ s:

f (t)

6. F(s) = e-·\·.e{cosm} so

{ 0 if t < 1,

J(t) = u(t-1),cos7r(t-1) = -u(t-1)cos7rt = .

-cos7rt if t ~ 1.

7. F(s) = .e{sint} - e-27l"s.e{sint} so

{Sint if t < 27r,

J(t) = sint - u(t - 27r)sin(t - 27r) = [1- u(t - 27r) ]sint = . >

o if t _ 27r.

410 Cha~er7

The left-hand figure below is the graph for Problem 6 on the preceding page, and the right-hand figure is the graph for Problem 7.

f (t)

f (t)

8. F(s) = .e{cosJrt}-e-2s.e{cosJrt} so

{COS xt if t < 2, I(t) = cosJrt - u(t - 2)cosJr(t - 2) = [1- u(t - 2) ]cosJrt =

o if t '2 2.

f (t)

t

9. F(s) = .e{cosJrt} + e-3s .e{cosJrt} so

{COS nt if t < 3,

l(t) = cos zr + u(t - 3)cosJr(t - 3) = [1- u(t - 3) ]cosJrt = . >

o If t _ 3.

f (t)

Section 7.5

t

411

10. F(s) = e-n"s.e{2cos2t} + e-2n"s.e{2cos2t} so

I(t) = 2u(t -;r)cos2(t -7l') - 2u(t - 27r)cos2(t - 27r)

{ 0 if t < 7r or t e 27r,

= 2[u(t-7r)-u(t-27r)]cos2t = .

2cos2t If 7r ~ t < 27r.

f (t)

11. J(t) = 2-u(t-3)·2 so F(s) = ~_e-3S~ = ~(1_e-3s).

s s s

12.

J(t) = u(t-1)-u(t-4)

«: e-3s 1

F( ) ( -s -3.1')

so S = - - - = - e - e .

s s s

13. I(t) = [1-u(t-2;r)]sint = sint-u(t-2;r)sin(t-27r) so

F( ) _ 1 -2n"5 1 _ 1- e-2n"s

s - ---e .-- - ---:--

S2 + 1 S2 + 1 S2 + 1 .

14. I(t) = [1-u(t-2)]cos1l"t = COS7rt-u(t-2)cos7r(t-2) so

s(1_e-2s)

F(s) = s _ e-2s . s = ---'--:_~

i + 7r2 S2 + 7r2 S2 + 7r2 •

15. I(t) = [1-u(t-37r)]sint = sint+u(t-37r)]sin(t-37r) so

1 e -3Jrs 1 + e -3n"s

F(s) = S2 + 1 + S2 + 1 = i + 1 .

16. I(t) = [u(t-7r)-u(t-27r)]sin2t = u(t-7r)sin2(t-7r)-u(t-27r)sin2(t-27r)so

2 (e =n» e -2n"5)

F(s) = (e-n"s _e-2n"s)._2_ = - .

S2 +4 S2 +4

412

Chapter 7

17. J(t) = [u(t-2)-u(t-3)]sin7l"t = u(t-2)sin7l"(t-2)+u(t-3)sin7l"(t-3) so

F( ) = (-2,,' -3S) . 7l" = 7l" ( e -2s + e -3s )

S e +e 2 2 2 2 •

S +7l" S +7l"

18. J(t) = [u(t-3)-u(t-5)]cos7l"f = u(t-3)sin7l" (t-3)+u(t-5)sin7l" (t-5) so

2 2 2

12 27l" (e-3S + e-5S)

F() ( -3s -5S) 7l"

s = e + e . --::----:- = --'-----'-

S2 + 7l"2 14 4s2 + 7l"2 .

19. If get) = t + 1 then f(t) = u(t -1)· t = u(t -1)· g(t -1) so

F( ) -sG( ) -SL{ I} -s (1 1) e-S(s+l)

s = e s = e t+ = e . -+- = .

S2 S S2

20. If g(t)=t+lthen f(t) = [1-u(t-1)]t+u(t-1) = t-u(t-1)g(t-1)+u(t-1) so

1 -s e -s 1 -s (1 1 ) e -s 1 - «:

F(s) = --e ·G(s)+- = --e . -+- +- = 2.

S2 S i S2 S S S

21. If get) = t + 1 and h(t) = t + 2 then

J(t) = t[I-u(t-1)]+(2-t)[u(t-1)-u(t-2]

= t - 2tu(t -1) + 2u(t -1) - 2u(t- 2) + tu(t - 2)

= t - 2u(t -1)g(t -1) + 2u(t -1) - 2u(t - 2) + u(t - 2)h(t - 2)

so

) I 2 -,I' (1 I ) 2e -,I' 2e -2s -2s (1 2) ( 1 - e -s f

F(s = -- e -+- +----+e -+- = --'-------::---'--

S2 S2 S S S S2 S S2

22. fCt) = [Ul(t) - U2(t)] P = Ul(t)g(t - 1) - u2(t)h(t - 2) where

get) = (t + 1)3 = P + 3P + 3t + 1,

h(t) = (t + 2)3 = P + 6P + I2t + 8.

It follows that

F(s) = e-sG(s) - e-2s H(s)

= [(S3 + 3i + 6s + 6)e-S - (8s3 + 12i + 12s + 6)e-2S]ls4.

23. With J(t) = 1 and p = 1, Formula (12) in the text gives

1 I -It 1 [e-.I'I ]'=1 1

£{1} = _ f'e' ·ldt = _ -- =

1-e,1 I-e" s s

1=0

Section 7.5

413

24. With j(t) = cos kt and p = 27dk, Formula (12) the integral formula

f at b d. at [acosbt + bSinbt] C

e cos t t = e 2 2 +

a +b

grve

1 I"

£{coskt} = -2 'Ik e" ·coskt dt

l-e 1r,\

1 [e-sl (-SCOSkt + kSinkt)]1=21rlk

1- e-21rslk S2 + e 1=0

1 [-21rSlk ( -s ) -O()] S

= ----:-~ e - e -s = ---

I- e-21rslk S2 + e S2 + e .

=

25. With p = 2a and j(t) = 1 if 0 :s; t:S; a, j(t) = 0 if a < t:S; 2a, Formula (12) gives

£{f(t)}

1 r -slId 1 [e -.I'I ]I=a

= e . t = --

l-e~~ l-e~~ s

1=0

1- «= 1

= = ---;-----,-

S ( 1 - e -as) ( 1 + e -as) S ( 1 + e -as) .

26. With P = a and j(t) = tla, Formula (12) and the integral formula fuell du = (u -1)e" (with u = -st) give

£{f(t)}

1 r =s! d. 1 I -as II ( u) ( dU)

= a ( 1 - e -as) 1 e . t t = a ( 1- e -as) 0 e . - --; --;

= 1 rase"udu = 1 [(u_l)e"]-as

ai ( 1 - e -as) 1 as2 ( 1 _ e +as ) 0

1 [ -as ] 1 e -as

= as2 ( 1 _ e -as) (-as - 1) e + 1 = as2 - s (1- e -as) .

27. G(s) = £{tla-f(t)} = (lIai)-F(s). Now substitution of the result of Problem 26 in place of F(s) immediately gives the desired transform.

28. This computation is very similar to the one in Problem 26, except that p = 2a:

1 r -,I d 1 I-a" u ( u)( dU)

£{f(t)} = _ ' e'· t t = _ ' e· -- --

I - e 20.\ 1 - e 2a,\ 0 S S

1 Ias 1 [ ]-as

= e''u du = u-l e"

S2 ( 1 _ e -2 as ) S2 ( 1 _ e -2 as ) ( ) 0

414

Chapter 7

1 [( 1) -as 1J 1-e-as(1+as)

:::: S2 ( 1 _ e -2 as ) =as - e + :::: S2 ( 1 _ e -2 as ) .

29. With P = 2JT!k and j(t) :::: sin kt for 0 S t s JT!k while j(t) = 0 for rdk S t S 2JT!k, Formula (12) the integral formula

J at . b d at [aSinbt -bCOSbt] C

e sin t t :::: e 2 2 +

a +b

give

::::

.e{f(t)} ::::

::::

30. h(t):::: f(t)+g(t):::: f(t)+u(t-:rrlk)f(t-:rrlk),so Problem 29 gives

H(s) :::: F(s)+e-11:slkF(s) :::: (l+e-11:Slk)F(s)

k k 1 + e-11:slk e 11:.1'/ 2k

(1 -11:Slk)

:::: +e '-:"(s-2-+-k-2--:-)--:-(I-_-e---11:.-''ik-:-) = S2 +k2 'l_e-11:Slk' e11:sl2k

k cosh(:rrs 12k)

S2 + k2 sinh(:rrs 12k)

k :rrs

= 2 2 coth-.

s +k 2k

In Problems 31-42, we first write and transform the appropriate differential equation. Then we solve for the transform of the solution, and finally inverse transform to find the desired solution.

31. x" + 4x :::: 1 - u(t-:rr)

1- e-11:S

iX(s) + 4X(s) =

s

x(t) = (1/4)[1 - u(t - :rr)] [1 - cos 2(t - :rr)] = (1/2)[1 - u(t - :rr)]sin2t

The graph of the position function x(t) is shown at the top of the next page.

Section 7.5

415

x (t)

1 2

n

32. x" + 5x' + 4x = 1 - u(t - 2)

1 -2s

2 -e

s XeS) + 5s Xes) + 4X(s) = --

s

Xes) = 1_e-2s = (1 _ e-2s)G(s)

S(S2 + 5s +4)

where

1 (3 4 1) ) 1 ( f 41 )

G(s) = - ---+-- , SO g(t = - 3-4e- +e- .

12 s s+l s+4 12

It follows that

{ get) if i-a,

x(t) = get) - u(t - 2)g(t - 2) = .

get) - get - 2) If t "2:. 2.

x (t)

33. x" + 9x = [1 - u(t - 2/r)] sin t

416 Chapter 7

x(t) = ~[I-U(t-27r)](sint-~sin3t)

The left-hand figure below show the graph of this position function.

x (t)

x(t)

34. x"+x = [I - u(t-I)] t = l-u(t-I)J(t-I), where J(t) = t+1 iX(s)+X(s) = _!_-e-sG(s) = _!__e-s(!+_!_)

S2 i s S2

It follows that

1 e-"'(s+l)

X (s) = --:--:---

S2(S2 + 1) S2(S2 + 1)

( -S) ( 1 1) -s ( 1 s) (1 -s )G() -SH)

= l-e ---- -e ---- = -e s -e (s

S2 S2 + 1 S S2 + 1

where get) = t - sin t, h(t) = 1 - cos t. Hence

and so

x(t) = get) - u(t - 1 )g(t - 1) - u(t - 1 )h(t - 1)

x(t) = t - sin t if t < 1,

x(t) = -sin t + sin(t - 1) + cos(t - 1) if t> 1.

The right-hand figure above shows the graph of this position function.

35. x" + 4x' + 4x = [I - u(t - 2)] t = t - u(t - 2)g(t - 2) where get) = t + 2 (s + 2i Xes) = _!_ - e-2s (~+ _!_)

i S S2

Section 7.5

417

x (t)

36. 1001 (s) + 1000 1 (s) = 100 (_!_ - e -,I' J

s s s

1(s) = ~~~~ = (l_e-s)£{e-10/}

i(t) = e-10t - u(t _ 1)e-10(t-l)

37. i'(t) + 104 fi(t) dt = 100[1 - u(t - 2n)]

s 1(s) + 104 1(s) = 100 1- e-2lTs

s s

100(1- e-2ITS)

1(s) = = (1- e-2ITs)£{sinI00t}

S2 + 104

i(t) = sin lOOt - u(t - 2n)sin 100(t - 2n) = [1 - u(t - 2n)] sin lOOt

38. i'(t) + 10000 fi(t) dt = [1 - u(t- n)](lOO sin lOt) s 1(s) + 10000 1(s)/s = 1000(1 - e-11S)/(i + 100)

418

Chapter 7

I() (1 -tr.l') 1000s (1 -trs) 10 (s s)

s = - e . (S2 + 100)( i + 10000) = - e . 99 S2 + 102 - S2 + 1002

= ~~ (1- e-trs) £{cos I Ot - cos lOOt}

. 10 10

let) = 99 (cosIOt-cosIOOt)- 99 u(t-7£)[cosIO(t-7£)-cosIOO(t-7£)]

10

= 99 [1- u(t -7£) J( cosl0t - coslOOt)

{~( coslOt - coslOOt) if t~7£, i(t) = 99

o if t z-s:

39. i'(t) + ISO i(t) + SOOO fi(t) dt = 100t[1 - u(t-l)]

I ( S ) 100 _ ' ( 1 I )

sI(s)+IS0I(s)+SOOO- = -2 -IOOe' -+-2

s s s s

I (s) = 100 _ e -.I' • 1 OO( s + 1)

s(s+SO)(s+IOO) s(s+SO)(s+100)

I (1 2 1) 1 _,I' ( 1 98 99)

= SO --; - s + SO + s + 100 - SO e --; + s + SO - s + 100

i(t) = (1/S0)[1 - 2e-50t + e-100t] - (lIS0)u(t - 1)[1 + 98e-50(t-l) _ 9ge-100(t-I)]

40. i'(t) + 100 i(t) + 2S00 fi(t) dt = SOt[1 - u(t - 1)] sI(s)+100I(s)+2S00I(s) = S~ -soe-"'(_!_+~)

s s s s

I(s) = SO _ e-,I'. SO(s + 1)

s(s + 50)2 s(s + SO)2

1 (1 1 SO J 1 -.\' ( 1 SO 24S0 J

= S.O --;-s+SO-(s+50i -SOe --;-s+SO+(S+SO)2

i(t) = sI0(I-e-SOI -SOte-SOI)- SlOU(t-l)(l-e-SO(t-!) + 24S0te-SO(t-,»)

Section 7.5

419

41. x" + 4x = j(t), x(O) = x'(O) = 0

(S2 + 4)X(s) = 4(1- e-;rs) s( 1 + e-;r~)

4 8 00

(S2 +4 )X(s) = -+- I( -1)" e?"

s S n=1

(by Example 6 of Section 7.5)

(as in Eq. (16) of Section 7.5)

Now let

g(t) = .{;1 { 24 } = 1- cos2t = 2sin2 t.

s(s +4)

Then it follows that

00 00

x(t) = get) + 2I( -1)" Un;r (t)g(t - mr) = 2sin2 t +4I( -1)"un;r(t)sin2 t.

n=1

11=1

Hence

x(t) = {2sin2t if 2mZ'st«2n+l)7£, -2sin2 t if (2n -1)7£ s t < 2n7£.

Consequently the complete solution

x(t) = 21sintlsint

is periodic, so the transient solution is zero. The graph of x(t):

x (t)

2

t

r:

420

Chapter 7

42. x" + 2x' + lOx = j(t), x(O) = x'(O) = 0

As in the solution of Example 8 we find first that

so

lOco 1 O( -1)" e-mrs

Xes) = +2L .

S(S2 +2s+10) 11=1 S(S2 +2s+10)

If

get) = £1{ [ 10, J} = 1-!e-I(3cos3t+sin3t),

s (s+l) +9 3

then it follows that

co

x(t) = g(t)+2L(-1)"umr(t)g(t-mr).

The graph of x(t):

x (t)

2

-2

SECTION 7.6

11=1

2

IMPULSES AND DELTA FUNCTIONS

4

6

t

Among the several ways of introducing delta functions, we consider the physical approach of the first two pages of this section to be the most tangible one for elementary students. Whatever the

Section 7.5

421

approach, however, the practical consequences are the same - as described in the discussion associated with equations (11 )-(19) in the text. That is, in order to solve a differential equation of the form

a x"(t) + b x'(t) + c x(t) = J(t)

where fit) involves delta functions, we transform the equation using the operational principle .e{ oa(t)} = e =. then solve for Xes), and finally invert as usual to find the formal solution x(t). Then we show the graph of the inverse transform x(t).

1. iX(s) + 4X(s) = 1 X
1 1
Xes) = -2-
s +4
1 . 2 1
x(t) = -sm t 2
2
t
If
1
2
-1 2. iX(s) + 4X(s) = 1 + e-7lS

l+e-1rS Xes) = -s-2-+-4-

x(t) = _!_[1+u(t-7i)]sin2t = 2

{~ sin2t if

sin2t if t i-st,

x

1
2
t
If
1
-"2 422

Chapter 7

3. iX(s) + 4sX(s) + 4X(s) = ! + e-2s

s

1 e -2s 1 (1 1 2) e -2s

Xes) = S(S+2)2 + (S+2)2 = 4 -_;- s+2 - (S+2)2 + (S+2)2

x(t) = ±[I_e-2t -2te-2t]+u(t-2)(t-2)e-2(t-2)

x

0.5

~----~1-------2~----~3------~4 t

0.25

4.

1 [iX(s) - 1] + 2sX(s) + Xes) = 1 + -2 S

Xes) = 2S2 +1 = _3.+_1 + __ 2_+ 3

s\s+l/ S S2 s+1 (s+1)2

x(t) = -2 + t + ze:' + u«:

x

1

~------~1--------~2--------~3 t

1.5

0.5

Section 7.6

423

5. (i + 2s + 2)X(s) = 2e-JZ:Y

X(s) = 2e-1I"s

(s+li+l

(I ) {O if O:::;t:::;Jr,

x(t) = 2u(t - Jr) e - -11" sin(t - Jr) =

-2e-(1-1I") sint if t~ Jr.

x

0.5

t

If

3lf

6. iX(s) + 9X(s) = e-3JZ:Y + -:--

s +9

s e -311"8

X(s) = 2 +-2--

(S2 + 9) s +9

x(t) = .!_ t sin 3t + .!. u(t - 3Jr) sin 3(t - 3Jr) = .!_ t sin 3t - .!. u(t - 3Jr) sin 3t

6 3 6 3

x

2

__ _ -

__

-2

~<;

............

424

Chapter 7

7. [iX(s) - 2] + 4sX(s) + 5X(s) = e:" + e-27fS

2 + e-tr.l' + s=

X (s) = ------::---(s + 2)2 + 1

x(t) = 2e-2tsin t + u;/t)e-2(t-7r)sin(t - :r) + u2;/t)e-2(t-27Z)sin(t - 2:r) = [2 - e2;ru(t - :r) + e47ru(t - 2:r)] e-2tsin t

x

7T

27T

37T

8. [iX(s) - 2s - 2] + 2[sX(s) - 2] + Xes) = 1 - e-2s

Xes) = 2s+7-e-2s = _2_+ 5

(s+1)2 s+l (s+1)2

x(t) = (2 + 5t)e -t - u(t - 2)(t - 2)e -(t-2)

e-2.1'

X 3

6

Section 7.6

t

425

9. iX(s) + 4X(s) = F(s)

1

Xes) = -_. F(s) S2 +4

x(t) = t 1 (sin2u)f(t-u)du

10. ix(s) + 6s Xes) + 9X(s) = F(s)

X( s) - 1 . F(s)

\ - (s + 3)2

x(t) = ! ue-311f(t - u)du

11. (i + 6s + 8)X(s) = F(s)

X( s) - 1 . F(s)

\ - (s+3)2-1

x(t) = ! e-311(sinhu)f(t-u)du

12. iX(s) + 4sX(s) + 8X(s) = F(s)

1

Xes) = (S+2)2+4·F(s)

x(t) = t! e-2U(sin2u)f(t-u)du

13. (a) mxs"(t) = (PI s)[uo(t) - uit)]
miXl..s) = (Pls)[l/s - e-~/s]
mXl..s) = (P!&)[(1-e-~)/s3]
mxlJ) ., (p12s)[r - uIJ)(t - S)2]
(b) If t_> e then
mxit) = (p12s)[r - (r - 2st + ;)] = (P12s)(2st - ;).
Hence mxit) --) pt as e --) o.
(c) mv = (mx)' = (pt)' = p.
426 Chapter 7 14. sX(s) = e-as; Xes) = e"!«; x(t) = u(t - a)

15. Each of the two given initial value problems transforms to

(mi + k)X(s) = mvo = pe:

16. Each of the two given initial value problems transforms to

(ai + bs + c)X(s) = F(s) + avo

17.

(b)

i' + 100i = Ol(t) - 5z(t) , i(O) = 0

e" _ e-2s

J(s) = J(s)

s+100

i(t) = uI(t)e-IOO(t-l) - u2(t)e-IOO(t-2)

18. (b)

i"(t) + 100 i(t) = 10 ~t) - 10 ~t - n) (i + 100) J(s) = 10 - 10 e-JIS

J(s) _ 10

- S2 + 100

i(t) = sin lOt - un<_t)sin 10(t - 1£)

. {sin 1 Ot if t ~ 1£,

= [1 - u(t-1£)]sm lOt = .

o If t?:.1£

00

19. (s2+100)I(s) = 10~)_1)"e-lI1rs/lo

11=0

co

1 0 I (-1)" e-lI1rsllO

J(s) = n=O 2 = f(_l)"e-lI1rSIIO. 2 10 )

s + 100 11=0 S + 100

00 co

i(t) = I( -1)"ull7rllo(t)sin10(t - nst 110) = Iu(t - nst 110)sin10t

11=0

11=0

because sin(10t - n1£) = (-1 t sin lOt. Hence

i(t) = (n + l)sin lOt

if n1£110<t«n+ 1)1£/10.

Section 7.6

427

<>J

20. (s2+l00)J(s) = 10~::C-l)"e-mt.l'/S

,,=0

J(s) =

<>J

10 L (-1)" e-mrsls

,,=0 = i:((-l)"e-mr.l'/s. 2 10 )

s2+l00 ,,=0 s +100

<>J <>J

i(t) = L( -1)" U,,7tIS (t) sin 10(t - nn 15) = L( -l)"u(t - nn 15)sinlOt

,,=0

11=0

Hence

i(t) = sin lOt + (-l)lsin lOt + ... + (-lrsin lOt

if nst I S < t < (n+l)nIS, n~O. Thus i(t)=sinlOt in this interval if n is even, but is zero in this interval if n is odd.

00

21. (s2+60s+l000)J(s) = lOL(-l)"e-mr.l'/lo

11=0

J(s) =

<:f)

10 L (-1)" e-n7t.l'/10

n=O = i:((_l)"e-II7tSllO. 10 1

S2 + 60s + 1000 n=O (s + 30)2 + 100

i(t) = L: (-1 r Unm'IO(t) get - mdlO)

where get) = e-30tsin lOt, and so

get - nnllO) = exp[-30(t - nnIlO)] sin 10(t - mrllO) = e3n7l"e-30t.( -l)"sin lOt

Therefore

<:f)

i(t) = Lu(t-nnIl0)e3117te-301 sint.

,,=0

If nn/l0 < t < (n + 1 )n/l 0 then it follows that

e(311+1)7t -1

i(t) = (1 + e3Jr + ... + e3nje-30tsin lOt = 3 e-301 sin IOz.

e 7t -I

The graph of i(t) is shown at the top of the next page.

428

Chapter 7

i (t)

0.1

t

7T

-0.1

co

22. (S2 + l)X(s) = L:e-2mrs

11=0

eo e -2111C8

Xes) = L-2-

11=0 S + 1

<Xl <Xl

x(t) = Lu2111r(t)sin(t-2n7c) = Lu(t-2mr)sint

11=0

11=0

Hence x(t) = (n+ l)sint if 2mr<t<2(n+ 1)7l". The graph of x(t).

x (t)

5

t

Section 7.6

429