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9. Solved Problems

9.1 Subjective

where x is in metre & t in second. Find the (a) initial velocity and

acceleration of the particle (b) velocity & acceleration of the particle

when its displacement is zero (c) displacement & acceleration of the

particle when its velocity is zero.

x = t3 3t2 + 2t

dx

v = dt = 3t2 6t + 2 . . . (ii)

At time t = 0, v = 2 m/sec. &

dv

a = dt = 6t 6 = 6(t 1) . . . (iii)

at time t = 0, a = -6m/sec .

2

x = t (t 1) (t-2) = 0 t = 0, t = 1 & t = 2

putting the values of t in eq. (ii) & (iii) we obtain,

velocity v = +2, -1 & +2 m/sec. respectively.

Acceleration a = -6, 0 & +6 m/sec2 respectively.

1 1

t=1+ 3 &t=1- 3

By putting these values of t in eq. (i) we obtain,

2 2

&

x = 3 3 3 3 m respectively & the corresponding acceleration

can be obtained by putting the values of t in equation (iii) given by

a = 23 m/sec2 & - 23 m/s2 respectively

T T T

, &

magnitude aV, bV and cV for interval of times a b c respectively

for the total path. Find the speed of the car averaged over the time of

its motion from P to Q.

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U1t1 U2 t 2 U3 t 3 U1 - aV

t2 = T/b

U3 = cV

U

t1 t 2 t 3

t1 = T/a U2 = bV

Putting the values of t3 = T/c

T T T

U1 = aV, U2 = bV, U3 = cV, t1 = a , t2 = b & t3 = c we obtain

T T T

aV. bV. cV.

a b c

U

T T T

a b c

3V

`U

1 1 1

a b c . . . (a)

Since T = Total time of motion and t1 + t2 + t3 = T

T T T 1 1 1

T 1

a b c a b c . . . (b)

Using (a) and (b) we obtain U 3V .

t a coin is dropped from the top of the elevator. When will the coin

strike the bottom of the elevator?

Solution: Let after a time t from the instant of release, the coin strikes the floor

of the elevator.

The coin was moving with the elevator with a velocity, say v. Just after

losing contact it begins to ascend with same velocity v (obeying the

law of inertia of motion).

Since the net displacement S1 of the coin during time t is downward

(w.r.t the initial position or point of release)

S1 = gt2 vt (i)

The net displacement S2 of the ascending elevator during time t is

upwards (w.r.t. the initial position)

S2 = vt + at2 (ii)

Now, S1 + S2 = h (iii)

Putting S1 and S2 from (i) & (ii) respectively in (iii) we obtain

1 2 1

gt vt vt at 2 h

2 2

1

(g a) t 2 h

2

2h

t

(g a)

.

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Problem 4: Shown in the figure is a ring sliding freely along an inextensible string

that passes through the smooth pegs (1) & (2) at the same level. One

end of the string is fixed. The other end P is pulled with a constant

velocity v, find the velocity of the ring.

Solution: Pythagoras theorem yields v p

x

2

x2 + y2 = , Differentiating both 1 y 2

sides w.r.t. t, we obtain

dx dy d

2x 2y 2

dt dt dt

Since the ring slides smoothly, it always lie at the mid position

maintaining equal distance from the pegs; Therefore, x remains

constant

dy d

dt = vring , setting dt = rate of pulling of the string = v, we find

dy

v ring v

dt y

Putting y = sec , we obtain v = v sec . ring

inclination with velocity v0. If it returns to the point of projection after

an elastic impact with the plane, find the total time of motion of the

particle.

Solution: To return to the point of projection after one elastic collision the

particle must meet the plane at right angle of the particle along x axis.

vx vx0 = (g sin )t0

0 v0 cos = (g sin )t0

v 0 cos

t = g sin

0 (i)

x

y plane

v0

g sin vx = 0

g cos

t = t0

vy0 = v0sin vy = v0sin

vx0 = v0cos

t=0

Motion

of the particle along y axis

v y v yo (g cos

t0 vy + vy0 = ( gcos ) t0

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2v 0 sin

v0 sin + (+v0 sin ) = g cos to t0 = g cos (ii)

v 0 cos 2v 0 sin

Equating (i) & (ii) g sin = g cos

cot = 2 tan (iii)

2 tan 1

2 2

&

Time of flight for to & fro motion of the particle

2v 0 cos

T = 2t = g sin

0 (from (i))

(2 tan )

2v 0

1 4 tan 2

T = 2t0 = g sin

4v 0

= g 1 3 sin .

2

Problem 6: A particle when fired at an angle = 600 along the direction of the

breadth of a rectangular building of dimension 9m 8m 4m so as to

sweep the edges. Find the range of the projectile.

v0

touches A & B, both of (x, h) {(x + 2h), h }

these points lie on the v0 A B

C D

After putting the x 2h x

coordinate of A in the R

trajectory equation of

projectile we obtain,

gx 2

y = h = x tan 2v 0 cos

2 2

. . . .(i)

v 02 sin 2

As we know R = x + x + 2h = g

v 02 sin 2

R = 2 (x + h) = g . . . . (ii)

g(R / 2 h)2

R 2gR

h cos2

Using (i) & (ii) h = 2 tan sin 2

2

R 1 R

h tan h tan

h= 2 R 2

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4h cot 16h2 cot 2 16h2

R= 2

1 cos

R = 2h (cot + cosec ) = 2h sin = 2h cot (/2)

putting = 600 & h = 4m

R = 2 4 cot 300 = 8 3 m.

Problem 7: Find the radius of a rotating wheel if the linear velocity v 1 of a point on the

rim is 2.5 times greater than the linear velocity v 2 of a point 5 cm closer to

wheel axle.

v 2 (r 5)

v1

v1 r v2

(r-5)

v1 is 2.5 times greater than v 2. 5

v2 r 5 r

2.5 v 2 r

r = 2.5 r 12.5

1.5 r = 12.5

12.5

r = 1.5 = 8.33 cm.

paper discs rotating co-axially with angular speed separated by a

distance . If the hole made by the bullet on 2 nd disc is shifted through

an angle with respect to that in the first disc, find the velocity of the

bullet. (change of velocity in the bullet is neglected.).

Solution: Let the bullet take a time t to travel from one disc to the other with a

velocity v.

The distance between the discs = v.t.

= vt t=t

P t=0 Q t

v

t

v . . . (a)

When the bullet is about to hit

the second disc at Q, the hole

made by the bullet on the first

disc at P will rotate through an

t

angle during the time v

= t . . . (b)

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t

Using (a) & (b) v = /

v

.

circular path of radius r. Find the time when the centripetal acceleration

will be numerically equal to the tangential acceleration.

Solution : Let the speed of the particle after v

at

t=t

time t from starting be v The

ar

centripetal acceleration

2 w v

v

ar r 2 r t=0

r & the corresponding

angular speed = t

ar = r(t)2 = r 2 t2 (i)

We know that, the tangential acceleration at = r (ii)

Since, ar = at (given)

r 2 t2 = r

1

t

.

surface on equational line. Find the period of revolution of the satellite.

Solution: Let the period of revolution of the satellite = T s and the period of

rotation of earth TE

The angular speed of earth and the satellite are

2 2

E & s

T

TE s respectively

The angular velocity of the satellite w.r.t. earth

SE = s E

2 2 2

TSE Ts TE

1 1 1

T Ts TE

TTE

Ts

TE T , put T = 10 hrs & T = 24 hrs.

E

10 24 10 24

Ts

we obtain 10 24 hrs & 24 10 hrs.

Ts = 7.05 hrs & 17.14 hrs.

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9.2 Objective

Problem 1: A car is moving eastwards with velocity 10 m/s. In 20 sec, the velocity

changes to 10 m/s northwards. The average acceleration in this time:

(C) 1/2 m s-2 towards N-W (D) 1/2 ms-2 towards N

y

Solution : The

change

in velocity

v v 2 v1 v 10 j 10i

N

v has a magnitude 102

450 v2

and directed due N W v

x

v 10 2 1 W E

| a | m / s2 v1

t 20 2 and

S

directed due N W.

(A)

Problem 2: A driver applies the brakes on seeing traffic signal 400 m ahead. At the

time of applying the brakes vehicle was moving with 15 ms -1 and

retarding with 0.3 ms-2. The distance of vehicle after 1 min from the

traffic light:

(A) 25 m (B) 375 m

(C) 360 m (D) 40 m

Solution : The maximum distance covered by the vehicle before coming to rest

v2 (15 )2

375 m

= 2a 2( 0 . 3 )

v 15

50 s

The corresponding time = t = a 0.3 . Therefore after 50

seconds, the distance covered by the vehicle = 375 m from the instant

of beginning of braking.

The distance of the vehicle from the traffic after one minute =

(400 375) m = 25 m.

(A)

Problem 3: A particle is moving along a circular path of radius 5m and with uniform

speed 5 m/s. What will be the average acceleration when the particle

completes half revolution?

(A) zero (B) 10 m/s2

(C) 10 m/s 2

(D) 10/ m/s2

Solution : The change in velocity when the particle completes half revolution is

given by

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Time taken to complete half revolution

r 5

t= v 5

v 10 m / s 10

m / s2

Average acceleration = t s .

(D)

relationship for a particle released from rest to fall freely under gravity?

(A) (B)

v v

t t

(C) (D)

v v

t

t

Solution: Releasing of the particle from rest means that v0 =0 at t = 0 and v =gt

at any time t.

the slope of v/t graph is a constant.

v/t graph is a straight line passing through the origin.

(A)

Problem 5 : Which statements can be possible cases in one/two dimensional

motion:

(A) A body has zero velocity and still be accelerating

(B) The velocity of an object reverses direction when acceleration is

constant

(C) An object be increasing in speed as its acceleration decreases

(D) None of these

Solution : (a) When the body is projected vertically up, at the highest point its

speed becomes zero whereas it is accelerating downwards with

g = 9.8 m/s2.

(b) When a body is projected up, the velocity during ascent reverses

its direction during its descent, whereas the acceleration of the

g

body remains constant, that is .

(c) Acceleration means, increasing speed (magnitude of velocity).

Therefore, the speed of a particle increases with an acceleration.

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on decreasing till the acceleration reduces to zero.

(A) and (B)

Problem 6:

Solution:

Problem 7: A motor boat is to reach at a point 300 upstream on other side of a river

flowing with velocity 5 m/s. Velocity of motor boat with respect to water

(A) 300 w.r.t. the line of destination from starting point

(B) 600 w.r.t.. normal to the bank

(C) 1200 w.r.t. stream direction

(D) None of these

Solution : The y

velocity

of motor boat is given as

v m v mw v w

v m (5 3 cos 30 )i (5 3 sin 30 ) j 5i

vmw

vm

300

5 3 x

v m 7.5 i j 5i v

2

5 3

v m 2.5 i j

2

5 3

1 2 2.5

= tan = tan1(-3) = 1200.

(C)

(A) Zero velocity of a particle does not necessarily mean that its

acceleration is zero.

(B) Zero acceleration of a particle does not necessarily mean that its

velocity is zero.

(C) If speed of a particle is constant, its acceleration must be zero.

(D) none of these

Solution : If speed, that is the magnitude of velocity is constant, where as the

direction of velocity changes, we cannot say that velocity is constant.

Therefore the particle has non-zero acceleration

(C)

Problem 9: A ball is dropped vertically from a height d above the ground. It hits

the ground and bounces up vertically to a height d/2. Neglecting

subsequent motion & air resistance, its velocity V varies with the

height h above the ground, as

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(A) (B)

v v

d

h d h

(C) (D)

V

V

d

d h

h

2gh

while falling down v = - ,

2gd

Just before impact, v1 = - ,

2g(d / 2)

Just after impact, v2 =

v 22 2gh

Afterwards, v =

(A).

Problem 10: The angular acceleration of a particle moving along a circular path with

uniform speed is

(A) uniform but non-zero (B) zero

(C) variable (D) such as cannot be predicted

from the given information.

Solution : As angular speed of the particle is constant and hence angular

acceleration is zero.

(B)

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