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History of Mental Illness Treatment

Philippe Pinel in France and Dorthea Dix

in America founded humane movements
to care for the mentally sick.
Point to
Biomedical /

Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) Dorthea Dix (1745-1826)

Client: Other
An interaction between a trained
therapist and someone suffering from
psychological difficulties.
Treatment of mental illness by
psychological rather than medical
Types of Psychotherapies
Insight Therapy
Types of Therapists
Psychiatrists - Medical doctor + PhD / prescribes meds
Clinical psychologists tend to work with more serious
conditions and patients (PH.D.)
Counseling psychologist tend to work with more
healthier, less pathological populations, and conduct
more career and vocational assessments. (M.A./PhD.)
Insight Therapies
Assumes that a person's behavior,
thoughts, and emotions become disordered
as a result of the individual's lack of
understanding as to what motivates him
or her, such as unresolved old conflicts
or beliefs.
Goal: Help individual discover
the reasons and motivation for
their behavior, feelings, and
thinking so that they may make
appropriate changes and thus
improve their mental health.
Psychoanalysis Freuds therapy
Couch sitting (lying down)
A set of Goal: Make the unconscious
techniques for
releasing the conscious
tension of
repression and How?
unconscious inner Dreams: talk about the
conflicts. Latent Content.
Resistance: When patient
seems reluctant to speak
about certain subjects
Freud initially used
hypnosis, but then believed
it was unnecessary.
Free association: the
Psychoanalysis patient speaks freely about
memories, dreams, feelings
In psychoanalysis, the patient projected
feelings upon the analyst based on
emotions linked with past relationships.
(primarily childhood relationships.)
Psychoanalysis: Points of interest
Patient attends treatment 4-5 x a week!!
Analysts looks for & records repetitions
of behavior (unconscious)
Therapist says little (then interprets at
the end of session)

Psychoanalysis: Criticisms
1. Psychoanalysis is hard to refute because
it cannot be proven or disproven.
2. Psychoanalysis takes a long time and is
very expensive and is not covered by ins.
Psychodynamic Interpersonal
Therapy Therapy
Less intensive, modern version A further extension of
of psychoanalysis psychoanalysis
Fewer sessions per week and The goal is less focused
fewer years on insight, and more on
Less theory about sex, id, and relational behavior
superego change and symptom
The goal of a psychodynamic relief.
therapist is to enable insight by The focus is less on the
past, and more on
looking for common, reoccurring current feelings and
themes, especially in relationships. relationships including
In addition to insight, therapists the interaction with the
suggest changes in patterns of therapist.
thinking and relating to others.
A 34-year-old married professional.
Five months after receiving a promotion, with
accompanying increased responsibilities and longer hours,
Anna experienced increased tensions with her husband
over his wish for a 2nd child. She began feeling
depressed, had trouble sleeping, became irritable and
gained weight.
Interpersonal Therapist
Psychodynamic approach Also wanted Anna to gain
would look to help these insights, but also
Anna gain insight into engaged her thinking on
her angry impulses and more immediate issues,
her defenses against such as how to balance
anger. work and home, resolve
the dispute with her
husband, and express her
Humanistic Therapy
General philosophy: At their core, people are good. If
people can learn to accept themselves as they are, then they
can grow into their full potential.

Focuses of peoples potential for self-

fulfillment (self-actualization).
Focus on the present and future (not the
Focus on conscious thoughts (not unconscious
Take responsibility for you actions- instead of
blaming childhood anxieties.
Most widely used Humanistic technique is:
Client (Person) Centered Therapy
Therapist should use genuineness,
acceptance and empathy to show
unconditional positive regard towards
their clients.
allows the
client to direct
the session
rather than
directing it
Carl Rogers Client Centered Therapy
Active Listening (Mirroring)

Central to Rogers
Empathetic listening
where the listener
echoes, restates and
Style of the Client- Showing Empathy Through
Active Listening
Centered Therapist Client-centered therapists
Being non-directive show that they are tuning in
Let insight and goals come from the to clients feelings and
client, rather than dictating meanings.
interpretations. 1. Summarize, paraphrase
Being genuine So your father wasnt
Be yourself and be truthful; dont put around much?
on a therapist faade. 2. Invite clarification and
Being accepting and showing When you say anxiety,
unconditional positive regard what does that feel like
Help the client learn to accept to you? What is going on
themselves despite any weaknesses. in your body and
Being empathetic
3. Reflect Feelings
Demonstrate careful attention to the
clients feelings, partly by reflecting It seems like you are
what you hear the client saying. disappointed; am I
Humanistic vs. Psychoanalytic Therapy
Humanistic Psychoanalytic
psychotherapy psychotherapy
Goal Promote growth Cure mental illness
How to Take responsibility for Bring unconscious conflicts
improve feelings and actions into conscious awareness

Role of Provide an environment Provide interpretations (e.g.

therapist in which growth can of dreams, resistance and
occur transference)
Content of Conscious feelings, Unconscious conflicts
therapy actual self and ideal self
Time focus The present and future The past
Carl Rogers and Gloria Active Listening