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When the value of a limit is obtained by substitution and it assumes any of the following forms, another method for

finding the limit must be used:

There are many methods of evaluating indeterminate forms. Two methods of evaluating indeterminate forms are (1)

factoring and (2) division of the numerator and denominator by powers of the variable.

which is an indeterminate form and is therefore excluded as a possible limit. We must now search for a method to find the

limit. Factoring is attempted, which results in

so that

Another indeterminate form is often met when we try to find the limit of a function as the independent variable

approaches infinity.

SOLUTION: If we let x approach infinity -in the original expression, the result will be

which must be excluded as an indeterminate form. However, if we divide both numerator and denominator by

x 4 , we obtain

and we have a determinate limit of .

PRACTICE PROBLEMS:

ANSWERS:

Example 1.

Find the limit limx1x201x101.

Solution.

Direct substitution of x=1 yields the indeterminate form 00 at the point x=1. Therefore, we factor the

numerator to get

limx1x201x101=[00]=limx1(x10)21x101=limx1(x101)

(x10+1)x101=limx1(x10+1)=110+1=2.

Example 2.

Calculate limy2y3+3y2+2yy2y6.

Solution.

This is of the form at y=2. We factor the numerator and the denominator:

y3+3y2+2y=y(y2+3y+2)=y(y+1)(y+2).(Here we used the formula: ax2+bx+c= a(xx1)

(xx2), where x1, x2 are the solutions of the quadratic equation.)

Similarly,

y2y6=(y3)(y+2).Thus, the limit is

limy2y3+3y2+2yy2y6=[00]=limy2y(y+1)(y+2)(y3)

(y+2)=limy2y(y+1)y3=limy2ylimy2(y+1)limy2(y3)=2(1)5=25.(by the

quotient and product rules for limits).

Example 4.

Solution.

x1=(3x)313and factor it as difference of cubes:

x1=(3x)313=(3x1)(3x2+3x+1).As a result we have

limx13x1x1=[00]=limx13x1(3x1)

(3x2+3x+1)=limx113x2+3x+1=1312+31+1=13.

Example 5.

Solution.

L=limxcosx2x=[00]=limt0cost+2t.Transform the last expression using the reduction

formula cos(z+2)=sinz. As a result we find the limit of the function:

L=limt0cost+2t=limt0cost2t=limt20sint22t2=12limt20sint2t2=121=12.

Example 7.

Solution.

To calculate this limit we rationalize the numerator and denominator multiplying them by the corresponding

conjugate expressions:

limx41+6x5x2=[00]=limx4(1+6x25)(x+2)(1+6x+5)(x4)=limx46(x4)(x+2)

(1+6x+5)(x4)=6limx4x+21+6x+5=64+225+5=6410=125.

Example 9.

Solution.

limxelnx1xe=[00]=limt0ln(t+e)1t=limt0ln(t+e)

lnet=limt0(1tlnt+ee)=limt0ln(t+ee)1t=[1]=limt0ln(1+te)et1e=limt0[1eln(1+te)et

]=1eln[limte0(1+te)et]=1elne=1e.

INDETERMINATE FORMS

Although indeterminate forms usually show up when you are learning about L'Hpital's Rule, you do not

need to understand L'Hpital's Rule to learn about indeterminate forms here. Just skip the sentences about

L'Hpital's Rule if you have not studied it yet.

The word 'indeterminate' means unable to determine. When you have an indeterminate form the value cannot

be determinated. For example, 0/00/0 can mean 11 or 12271227 or or almost any number. There is

no way to tell without changing the form (fascinating, isn't it?). That's where L'Hpital's Rule comes in.

L'Hpital's Rule allows us to change the form into something else so that we CAN determine the value we are

looking for when it comes to limits. Here is a table of most of the indeterminate forms you will run across.

0/00/0 +=+=

// ==

0=00=0

0()0() 0=0=

0000 ()()=()()=

11

00

From the discussion so far, it looks like we have a lot going on and there are a lot of cases in

the indeterminate forms table. However, there are really only four cases and only two

techniques you need to cover all the cases. Let's look at the cases.

Case 1 - - Indeterminate Quotients

In a perfect world, all your problems would be in this form because you can just

apply L'Hpital's Rule directly. These are problems where you already have a

limit in the form

limxan(x)d(x)limxan(x)d(x)

And, when you plug in x=ax=a, you get either 0/00/0 or //. In the

last indeterminate form with , the signs can be anything, so you have 4

possible cases. In any case, your problem is all set up to use L'Hpital's Rule and

you just directly apply the rule.

Case 2 - - Indeterminate Products

In this case, you have an determinate form that looks

like 0()0() or 0()0(), in which case you just need to do a little bit of

algebra to convert one of the pieces of the product into a denominator and you

end up with case 1. This sometimes takes some thinking. For example, if you

have

limx0+xln(x)limx0+xln(x), you can rewrite xx as 1/x11/x1 and the limit

now is

limx0+ln(x)/x1limx0+ln(x)/x1 where n(x)=ln(x)n(x)=ln(x) and d(x)=x1d(

x)=x1 and you have the indeterminate form // and you can use

L'Hpital's Rule.

Case 3 - - Indeterminate Differences

In this case, you have the indeterminate form that looks like and we

need a fraction to be able to apply L'Hpital's Rule. To get the right form, just

find a common a denominator and combine the terms to get an indeterminate

form that looks like case 1.

Case 4 - - Indeterminate Powers

In the previous three cases, you either started with a fraction in the right form

(case 1) or did some algebra to get your function into the right form (cases 2 and

3). In this case, you need another technique. The idea is that you have an

indeterminate form that looks like 0000, 11 or 00 and you need to get

some kind of fraction in order to apply L'Hpital's Rule. To do this we use the

natural logarithm. Let's go through a general example. We have the

limitlimxa[f(x)]g(x)limxa[f(x)]g(x) and [f(a)]g(a)[f(a)]g(a) is an indeterminate

power.

Set y=[f(x)]g(x)y=[f(x)]g(x) and take the natural log of both sides.

So that ln(y)=ln([f(x)]g(x))ln(y)=ln([f(x)]g(x)) and using the power rule

for logarithms, we have ln(y)=g(x)ln[f(x)]ln(y)=g(x)ln[f(x)].

We take the limit of ln(y)ln(y) using one cases 1-3 above to get a value LL, which

may be finite or infinite.

To get the final answer, we 'undo' the natural log by putting LL in the exponent

of ee giving eLeL.

This discussion in the cases above may be a bit confusing, especially case 4, but, if you look

at the second example coming up, we will use this idea to show that 11 is indeterminate.

The indeterminate forms table above shows most of the indeterminate forms that you will run

across. However, you do not need to memorize these forms to determine if you need to use

L'Hpital's Rule. There is an easier way. All you need to remember is that indeterminate form

is 0/00/0 and determinate form is c/0=c/0= where c0c0. Then use the ideas in

one of the above cases to get the fraction 0/00/0. Let's do some examples.

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