p-v diagrams

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p-v diagrams

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Natural convection occurs when a quiescent fluid is exposed to a hot or cold surface.

If the surface is hot, the fluid next to the surface will be heated, its temperature will

increase and its density will decrease. Due to the decreased density of the fluid next to

the surface, it will rise due to buoyancy. If the surface is cold, then the temperature of

the fluid will be colder than the bulk fluid, its density will decrease and will fall due to

buoyancy.

In forced convection, the fluid is forced to flow over a surface or in a tube by external

means such as a pump or a fan.

Convection is also classified as external or internal depending on whether the fluid is

forced to flow over a surface or inside a channel.

Forced Convection

Concept of boundary layer is central to understanding of forced convection heat transfer.

Velocity boundary layer:

Consider flow over a flat plate.When the fluid particles make contact with the

surface,they assume zero velocity.These particles then act to retard the motion of the

particles in the next layer,until at a distance y from he surface, the effect becomes

negligible.

Laminar region

u -free stream velocity, u -velocity at a distance y from plate surface

4.64

For laminar flow, boundary layer thickness is given by, where, Re , x is

x Re , x1/ 2

Reynolds number at distance x from leading edge.

ux

Reynolds number Re , x where -kinematic viscosity of fluid and x-distance from

leading edge.

In many cases laminar and turbulent flow conditions occur.In laminar boundary layer the

flow is highly ordered.the highly ordered behaviour continues until a transition zone is

reached.Conversion from laminar to turbulent condition occurs.Flow in fully turbulent

boundary layer is highly irregular and is characterized by random three dimensional

motion of large particles of fluid.The conversion from laminar to turbulent zone depends

on Reynolds number.The critical Reynolds number for flow over a plate is Re 5 105 .

Just as velocity boundary layer develops when there is fluid flow over a surface, a

thermal boundary layer develops if the fluid free stream and plate surface temperatures

differ.At the leading edge the temperature profile is uniform. The fluid particles that come

into contact with the plate achieve thermal equilibrium at the plates surface temperature.

In turn these particles exchange energy with those in the adjoining fluid layer and the

temperature gradients develop in the fluid. The region of the fluid in which the

temperature gradient exists is called thermal boundary layer and its thickness is T .It is

TS T

defined as the value of y for which the ratio 0.99 where TS -surface temperature

TS T

of plate. By Polhausen solution for energy equation, T 1/ 3 where

Pr

C

Prandtl number, Pr p

k

T -free stream temperature, T-velocity at a distance y from plate surface

At any distance x from the leading edge the local surface heat flux may be obtained by

applying Fouriers law to the fluid at y=o since at the surface there is fluid motion and

energy transfer occurs by conduction.

g T

q k

y

Above surface there is fluid motion and the energy transfer is by convection.

By Newtons law of cooling,

g

q h(TS T )

Combining the above two equations,

T

k

y

h

(TS T )

g

q and h decrease with increasing x.

g

Heat transfer rate, q qdAS h(TS T )dAS

If h is the average heat transfer coefficient for the entire surface,

q hAS (TS T )

1

AS

Or, h hdAS

Heat transfer to surface in a flowing fluid is dependent on:

1. Geometry of the body.

2. The position or orientation of the body (parallel, perpendicular to

flow).

3. Proximity of other bodies.

The heat transfer coefficient varies across the surface of the object.

But the average heat transfer coefficient can be determined from an equation of the form:

Nu C Re m Pr1/ 3 where C & m -constants, Nu -Nusselt number, Pr-Prandtl number

The constants are determined through experiments.

Laminar flow over a flat plate ( Recr 5 10 ):

5

1

hx 1

Nu x x 0.332 Re x 2 Pr 3

k

1 1

Average Nu 0.664 Re

L Pr

2 3

&

Heat transfer rate, Q hA(T TS ) where A -surface area of plate, Ts -surface

temperature, T -flowing medium temperature

Turbulent flow over a plate:

At a distance x from leading edge, heat transfer coefficient h is given by,

1

hx 4

Nu x x 0.0296 Re x 5 Pr 3

K

4 1

Average Nu 0.037 Re 5 Pr 3 ;

L

4 1

Average Nu (0.037 Re 5 871) Pr 3

L

Flow across a cylinder

V D

Reynolds number is given by, Re

4 AC

In case of other shapes, D is replaced by D

P

AC -cross section area, P -perimeter

Critical Reynolds number, Recritical 2300

Heat transfer rate, q hA(Ts T ) , A =surface area,

Cross-flow over cylinders

(Fluid properties at average temperature= (Ts T ) / 2 )

1 1 4

hD 0.62 Re 2 Pr 3 Re 85 5

Nucyl 0.3 1

1 ( )

K 2 4 28200 ---Churchill and Bernstein equation

1 (0.4 / Pr)

3

Flow over spheres

hD 1

2

1

Nusph 2 0.4 Re 2 0.06 Re 3 Pr 0.4 ( ) 4 ---Whitaker equation

K s

(Fluid properties at fluid temperature, T ; s alone at surface temperature, Ts )

hD

Nu e ; De D for circular crossection, De 4 Ac / P for others ; Ac =cross-sectional area

K

Flow though tubes

q mC p (Te Ti ) ;

Constant heat flux( q&)

q q& A ; A =surface area

&

qA

Te Ti

& p

mC

Constant surface temp

T T

LMTD e i

q h( LMTD ) ;

& T T

ln s e

Ts Ti

hA

hA /( mC )

Te Ts (Ts Ti )e ; Te Ti e

p

& p

mC

Nu 4.36 for constant heat flux, Nu 3.66 for constant surface temperature

Turbulent flow through tube

(for both constant heat flux and constant temperature) q& h(Ts T f )

Nu 0.023Re0.8 Pr n ; n=0.4 for heating & 0.3 for cooling---- Dittus-Boelter equation

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