INTRODUCTION

What is iron ore?

Iron, Fe, is known as rock-forming elements which it is one of the most abundant
where it make up 5% of the Earth’s crust. Iron ore can be described as rocks and
minerals where metallic iron can be extracted and are usually rich with iron oxides. It
can in many different colors such as dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple or rusty red.
Furthermore, ores have very high qualities of hematite or magnetite which are
different forms of iron ores where they have more than 60% iron content in them.
Figure below shows an example of hematite. Since hematite or magnetite are called
natural ore, this means that they can be directly fed into an equipment which is the
iron-making blast furnaces where the main use of the iron ore is to make pig iron
which is the main raw materials for the manufacturing of steel.( Wikipedia, 2016)

the coke is produced from selected grades of coal where the different grades of coal kept separately and will be blended before being transfer into coke ovens for the process of being carbonized in the ovens to become cokes. engines. steel-making processes are divided into two types which are primary and secondary steel-making where primary steel-making involves the chemical reduction of iron ore or conversion of liquid iron from a basic oxygen furnace (BOF) and steel scrap into steel through basic oxygen steel-making or direct reduced iron in an electric arc furnace (EAF) while a secondary steel-making involves refining crude steel before casting which normally done in ladles. B Iron ore is mixed with coke and is heated to form an iron-rich clinker called ‘sinter’ where sintering is an important process in order to reduce the wastes and obtained efficient raw material for iron manufacturing. in buildings and etc. Iron and Steel Industry Modern Iron Making Processes In iron and steel industry. cars. ships. (Wikipedia. 2016) . This shows that iron ore is a part of everybody live and to the modern world since 98% of iron ore is used to make steel. (steelconstruction. steel will be used for making pipes. nails. Figure 1 : Hematite and iron ore What is the use of iron ore? Since iron ore is used to make pig iron which will be used in steel manufacture. Furthermore.info. 2016).

Blast fans the heat in the furnace into white-hot intensity so that iron in the iron ore and sinter will be melted out to form pools of molten metals at the bottom of the furnace. iron ore and sinter are fed into a blast furnace with the presence of limestone where hot air rich in oxygen is injected through nozzles called tuyeres at the base of furnace. benzole and sulfur are extracted to be further refined. coal gas are collected and reuse as fuel in the manufacturing process while the by-products produced which are tar. . Process in Blast Furnace Next. Figure 1 : Sinter Plant and Coke Oven The cokes from the coke ovens will be cooled and graded before they are being used in the blast furnace. coke. In addition.

The Process of Steel-making Primary Steel-Making . it will be tapped off into ladles for the steel-making process. The important part of iron making is the process is continuous and when the desired amount of molten iron has accumulated in the blast furnace. Figure 2 : Blast Furnace The impurities and metal rocks from the iron ore and sinter will combined with the limestone that will from a liquid slag that will floats at the top of the molten iron.

Basic oxygen steel-making is a process where carbon-rich molten pig iron is manufactured into steel. 2016) Figure 3 : Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) Figure 4 : Steps in BOF . Modern furnaces or basic oxygen furnace (BOF) will convert the molten pig iron into steel where water-cooled oxygen lance is lowered into the furnace and pure oxygen is blown into the the metals at high pressure.info. (steelconstruction. This process differ between basic oxygen furnace (BOF) and electric arc furnace (EAF).

for electric arc furnace (EAF). steel scrap will be charged into the furnace and a powerful electric current will pass through the charge where an arc will be created and thus heat that is generated will melt the scrap. Meanwhile. is the manufacture of steel from scrap or direct reduced iron melted electric arcs where the furnace consist of a circular bath with movable roof where 3 graphite electrodes can be raised or lowered. During the process. Figure 5 : Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) .

Figure 6 : Steps in EAF Secondary Steel-Making In this process. Emissions from Iron and Steel Industry Sinter Plant : . The purpose of the treatment is to adjust the steel composition by adding or removing some elements. removing harmful and unwanted gases such as hydrogen as well as manipulating the temperature and the environment of the production. it involves the treatment of the molten steel produced from basic oxygen furnace (BOF) and electric arc furnace (EAF) where all the molten metal is tapped into ladles.

cooler and cold screen. discharged end. calcium oxide is emitted from the slag. Steel-Making : In basic oxygen furnace (BOF). sulfure oxide. The emissions that are produced during the casting process are iron oxides. In electric arc furnace (EAF). . In sinter plants. Furthermore. the emissions produces are iron oxides and calcium oxides. processes that will produced during EAF steel-making process are melting and refining. emission of gases that can cause pollution are produced from handling raw material. tapping steel and dumping slag. aliphatic hydrocarbons and chlorides. carbonaceous compounds. windbox exhaust. the emission emitted during the process is iron oxide while in refining. iron and other metallic oxide from alloy in scrap metals are usually emitted during charging scrap while iron oxides is emitted during dumping of slag and tapping. magnesium oxide and carbonaceous compounds where they are emitted as particulate. sulfur oxides and other metallic oxides where it will depend on the grade of scrap metal used. In windbox exhaust. In melting. While in discharged end. Blast Furnace : Main source of blast furnace emissions is from the casting process where the emissions of particulates are produced from molten iron and slag contact will the air above their surface. Furthermore. In additions. the emissions occurs during the oxygen blow period where the compound emitted is iron oxides (usually heavy metals and fluorides are present). emissions from hot metal transfer will be iron oxides. the emissions produced include iron oxide. tapping emissions will include iron oxides. charging scrap.

. areas. collection.  Extremely high efficiencies for PM Not well suited for very high dust loads.  Modular design for convenient Large footprint requiring large floor assembly.  Can collect other pollutants with certain Potential for fire or explosion. corrosive chemicals.  Cost-effective when properly designed Requires a lot of maintenance. fabric coating additions. and maintained. Baghouse Filter Advantages Disadvantages Versatile and flexible for many Limited by high temperatures and applications.Justification Of Control Devices For The Production Emission Of Iron Ore The control devices chosen to control the emission of gases that are harmful to the environment are baghouse filter and scrubber. especially for small particles.

Steelconstruction..info. stream and lost to purge liquid and sludge removed from the scrubber system.Scrubber Advantages Disadvantages Many types of particulate wet scrubbers They require make-up water to replace can provide high efficiency control of the water that vaporized into the gas particulate matter.info/Steel_manufacture . N. 2016. They are compact and can often be retrofitted into existing plants with very limited space.steelconstruction. Reference  "Steel Manufacture". They are often able to simultaneously Generates a waste stream that must be collect particulate matter and gaseous treated properly pollutants.p. Can often be used on sources that have potentially explosive gases or particulate matter. 9 Dec. 2016. Retrieved from http://www. Web.

Web. 2016.wikipedia.S Environmental Protection Agency.org/wiki/Steelmaking  “Iron and Steel Production”. 2016.p. 9 Dec. 9 Dec. En.pdf  "Iron Ore". 2016.p.org. N. En.. "Steelmaking". U. Web.wikipedia. Retrieved from https://en. 2016. N. 2016. 2016. Retrieved from https://www3.org. 9 Dec. Retrieved from https://en. Web..epa.gov/ttnchie1/ap42/ch12/final/c12s05.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_ore .wikipedia.