2nd International Workshop in “Geoenvironment and 85

Geotechnics”, September 2008, Milos island, Greece

Extraction of Th4+ from industrial effluents by liquid emulsion membrane

J.Z. Cheng
Resources and Safety Engineering College, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing and
Baogang Research Institute of Ming, Inner Mongolia, Baotou Iron & Steel (Group) Co., LTD., China

Y.B. Hou
Resources and Safety Engineering College, China University of Mining and Technology, Beijing,
China

L.P. Che
Baogang Research Institute of Ming, Inner Mongolia, Baotou Iron & Steel (Group) Co., LTD., China,
Email: liping_che@yahoo.com.cn

ABSTRACT nology (LMET) with lower cost, higher effi-
ciency and good selectivity was used to recover
The extraction of thorium from industrial radi- and treat Thorium from one certain deposit; this
oactive wastewaters discharged from Rare Earth approach achieved the goal of both comprehen-
(RE) plants was studied by the liquid membrane sive exploitation and rational use of Th re-
emulsion technique using P507- sources, as well as the protection of the Th re-
Span80-sulphonating kerosene-HCl. The emul- sources and the environment from radioactivity
sion conditions, the technological factors such as pollution.
ratios of oil to the internal aqueous phase and
water to emulsion, and the extraction time etc.
were investigated. 1. THE CONDITION TESTS
The test sample is industrial radioactive
INTRODUCTION wastewater discharged from RE plants contain-
ing 21.83 mg/L ThO2.
The total prospective reserves of ThO2 in one The extraction of thorium from this RE in-
certain deposit of China, are very large and could dustrial wastewater was studied by the liquid
meet the needs of China's nuclear energy pro- membrane emulsion technique using
duction for many years. However, exploitation of P507-Span80-sulphonating kerosene-HCl. The
the deposit, has created radioactive contamina- conditions of making emulsion as well as the five
tion. factors such as fluid carrier P507, Surfactant
The Liquid Membrane Emulsion (LME) sys- Span80, internal aqueous phase HCl, the ratios of
tem is an extremely dispersive system which is oil to internal aqueous phase Roi and water to
characterized by the provision of large specific emulsion Rwe etc. were investigated.
surface area and large area of phase interface,
flux of Th4+, high speed for transfer, directional Table 1: The test designs of the L16 (45)
transference for Th4+; it is not restricted by ex-
factors
traction balance and coefficient of distribution, levels
including extraction and reverse-extraction into A B C D E
one step, and has very efficient, highly selective 1 4 1 2 0.5 5
and good applicability etc. 2 8 3 4 1.0 10
In this paper, in accordance with the charac-
teristics of the Liquid Membrane Emulsion 3 12 5 6 1.5 15
Technique (LMET) and Thorium, a new tech- 4 16 7 8 2.0 20

the time of making emulsion is agent in the peripheral oil layer of the emul- 15min.02 The transfer mechanism is shown in Fig 1 and fixed so that increasing strength of membrane includes: always corresponds to the volume fraction φA of liquid paraffin 1%. Table 1 illustrates that factor A is the volume fraction φA of P507 %. Milos island. The test results are seen in Table 2.00 Ε2 93. factor B is the volume fraction φB of Span80%.94 8 2 4 3 2 2 98. the temperature of tests is 26℃~28℃.57 Ε3 99. factor E is the ratio of oil to inner Roi and factor E is the ratio of water to emulsion Rwe. . The other test conditions were .82 90.Diffusion of the complex and the chelating Table 2 illustrates that E1.66 98. factor C is HCl mol/L.5.46 12.01 7 2 3 4 1 1 87.82 4 1 4 4 4 4 88.87 12 3 4 2 2 3 99. Greece Table 2: The results of the L16(45) Extraction Number A B C D E Rate of Th4+ 1 1 1 1 1 1 71.86 2nd International Workshop in “Geoenvironment and Geotechnics”.67 98.52 99.05 93.19 96.75 5 2 1 2 3 4 89.81 93. E2.95 93.15 8.02 Ε4 94.04 16 4 4 1 3 2 90.60 Ε1 89. The factors studied and the levels used are seen in Table 1). the four levels were selected based on test results of simulated solutions containing different concen. Figure 1 The mechanism of P507 transfer Th4+ ) trations of Th.Diffusion of the complex and the chelating wastewater is 2.68 94.28 87.63 6.89 Ri 9. September 2008.73 2 1 2 2 2 2 98.19 14 4 2 3 1 4 98.74 96.05 89.36 6 2 2 1 4 3 99.99 10 3 2 4 3 1 99.37 3 1 3 3 3 3 98.35 96. sion drop.33 9 3 1 3 4 2 98.56 15 4 3 2 4 1 89.28 11 3 3 1 1 4 98.29 93. the pH value of industrial . E3 and E4 are agent through the interstitial oil membrane phase The orthogonal tests of four levels and five factors are designed and studied.95 98.06 13 4 1 4 2 3 99.63 9.42 89.

3% Span80.120 434. 4mol/L HCl.. 1% liquid paraffin. In: Leon Lorenzen and Dee extraction rate from industrial radioactive Bradshaw.K. 2000.24 99.58 99. 75(7). Mahajani. while the obtained inter. September 2008. K. E Rwe 15:1. Che L. time of time for recovery of Th4+ was 15min. 3% Span80. making emulsion.31 2 0. internal Membrane stability and enrichment of nickel in the Remaining extraction serial num.157 433. it is ThO2 using P507-Span80-sulphonating kero- difficult to separate the emulsion and the HCl sene-HCl. Greece mean values 1. THE SYNTHESIS TESTS The test conditions for the recovery of Th4+ from the RE industrial radioactive wastewater Based on the previously mentioned test condi.5.151 433. It is seen that the optimal conditions for the recovery of Th4+ from Rare Earth (RE) industrial 3.V. tions as well the optimum conditions for the re. Milos island. inner water phase is covery of Th4+ from the RE industrial waste. 28 Sep-3 Oct.P and Y.S.20 99. respectively. while the remaining liquid Rwe was 10:1 and the time for Th4+ recovery was contains Th4+ < 0. are 12% P507. the ratio of water to emulsion 435. The synthesis tests included five batches un- der the same conditions.83 mg/L with pH 2. 3 and 4.46 ~ pH value was 2. inner water phase ratio of water to emulsion Rwe was 10:1 and the 4mol/LHCl. (as shown in rows In this paper.43g/L. mg/L % mg/L 1 0.F Yu.096 434. Congress. water. XXII International Mineral Processing wastewater is 99. D Roi 1:1. 2003. imum value of the same factor. CONCLUSIONS wastewaters are A3B2C3D2E3.5.45 5 0. tained ThO2 > 0. the time of 4 mol/L HCl. ratio of oil to inner Roi is 1:1.118 mg/L. Synthetically Utilization of It is obvious from Table 3 that the mean ThO2 Radioactive Waste Dregs. the synthesis tests were carried out in the the time of making emulsion 20 min. 553- ber of tests phase 560.28%. 84% sulphonating kerosene.68 99.068 435. The industrial from the tests that extraction rate is 99%. The synthesis tests conditions were ternal water (industrial radioactive wastewater) 12% P507. South Africa. the ratio of oil to inner Roi. 15min. Journal of Che- liquid rate of Th4+ mical Technology and Biotechnology. The ex- laboratory. pH value and the time of recovery Th4+. the ratio of water to emulsion Rwe. the sulphonating kerosene.118 434. pp. P. 2.83 mg/L while its internal aqueous phase contains 433. B 3% from industrial radioactive wastewaters dis- Span80 φB.28 4 0. charged from RE plants containing 21. It is seen making emulsion 20 min. A 12% P507 φA. 480-482.24 mg/L Th4+.46 . The South Afri- can Institute of Mining & Metallurgy. the ratio of oil to inner Roi is 1:1. 2. Tiwari and V. 84% contained ThO2 21. Kulkarni.83 mg/L If the internal aqueous phase is 6mol/L HCl. it is seen that Th can be recovered E1-E2 of Table 2) namely.46 99. C 6 mol/l HCl.56 average 0. The main factors in the tests carried solution due to the fact that the specific gravity out are the volume fraction φA of P507 and emulsion is heavier than the aqueous solution.69 3 0. and Ri is nal water phase after breakage of emulsion con- the difference between the maximum and min. the wastewater contained ThO2 21. The results of synthesis REFERENCES tests are seen in Table 3.24 99. 1% liquid paraffin.2nd International Workshop in “Geoenvironment and 87 Geotechnics”. Table 3: The results of the general test pp. Cape Town. aqueous liquid emulsion membrane process. So Span80. the density of the internal aqueous the internal aqueous water phase is fixed to phase.

September 2008. Milos island. Greece .88 2nd International Workshop in “Geoenvironment and Geotechnics”.