©2006 Society of Economic Geologists, Inc.

Economic Geology, v. 101, pp. 95–134

Prograde Evolution and Geothermal Affinities of a Major Porphyry Copper Deposit:
The Cerro Colorado Hypogene Protore, I Región, Northern Chile
Department of Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6

The middle Eocene (51.8 ± 0.6 Ma) hypogene protore underlying the supergene orebody of the Cerro Col-
orado porphyry Cu (-Mo) deposit, I Región, Chile, exhibits features not commonly documented in such hy-
drothermal systems. Early-stage alteration of Upper Cretaceous plagioclase-phyric andesite generated a sub-
horizontal blanket of pervasive, extremely fine grained but texture-preserving biotite (≤35 modal %)-albite
(≤40%)-magnetite (≥3%) alteration, 8 km2 in area but lacking sulfide minerals. At least seventy percent of the
chalcopyrite > pyrite stockwork mineralization was emplaced during the subsequent Main-stage alteration,
which comprises, with decreasing depth, quartz-albite, sericite-chlorite-clay (smectite), quartz-sericite-clay,
and andalusite-diaspore-pyrophyllite assemblages. The deposit is apparently unique among documented cen-
tral Andean porphyry systems in the association of the highest grade copper mineralization with intermediate
argillic alteration. The subsequent Transitional-stage phyllic (i.e., quartz-sericite-pyrite ± tourmaline) alteration
was associated with the emplacement of molybdenite-rich breccia bodies. The occurrence of undumortieri-
tized tourmaline veinlets cutting andalusite-diaspore assemblages confirms that much of the advanced argillic
alteration took place during the Main stage.
Early-stage alteration was the product of nonboiling, cool (trapping temperature ≤ca. 380°C), low-salinity
(≤8 wt % NaCl equiv) fluids which added substantial K, Na, Mg, Fe2+, Cl, F, and water to the host andesite.
The initial Main-stage fluids, boiling at a paleodepth of ca. 2.5 to 3.0 km, were up to 160°C hotter (≤544°C)
and highly saline (≤52 wt % NaCl equiv). As these fluids rose, they cooled to ≤320°C, were diluted (to ≤37 wt
% NaCl equiv), deposited sulfides, and leached K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe2+ ,and Cl from the host rocks, yielding di-
verse, broadly contemporaneous, intermediate and advanced argillic alteration facies. Pressure estimates re-
quire that low-density (≤0.3 g/cm3), and thus more acidic, fluids were primarily responsible for the formation
of the quartz-sericite-clay and shallow advanced argillic alteration. Subsequent phyllic alteration was similarly
caused by boiling fluids which were hot (≤486°C) and saline (≤47 wt %) at depth but cooler (≤334°C), dilute
(≤8 wt %), and vapor dominated at shallower levels. Even Terminal-stage pyrite veins formed at temperatures
as high as 450°C, albeit from low-salinity (≤8 wt %) fluids.
Following a major prograde thermal transition from the Early to the Main stage, each sulfide-depositing al-
teration episode at Cerro Colorado was generated by a pulse of high-temperature fluid which cooled and di-
luted as it rose. Such changes in fluid characteristics, temperature, and alteration relationships are well docu-
mented in numerous geothermal fields, where potassic alteration generally develops at ca. 270° to 350°C and
are likely to occur at an early stage in any hydrothermal system in which magmatic fluids, exsolving at relatively
high pressures, ascend into the near-surface environment. The initial alteration at Cerro Colorado plausibly de-
veloped under conditions similar to those in nonexplosive geothermal systems, in which hydrothermal fluids
cool and disperse laterally at shallow depths. Extensive zones of biotite-rich alteration, generally barren and
with a hornfelsic appearance, occur in many andesite-hosted porphyry copper deposits, but few data are avail-
able elsewhere for mineralogical, pressure, temperature, or metasomatic exchange relationships in such sys-
tems. Cerro Colorado may, however, be representative of a subclass of porphyry copper deposits exhibiting un-
usually close analogies with geothermal systems.

Introduction Nonetheless, most interpretations of porphyry mineralization
PORPHYRY COPPER deposits have long been considered the have been based on the assumption of a retrograde thermal
epitome of magmatic-hydrothermal mineralization, gener- evolution paralleling the cooling trajectory of the parental
ated fundamentally through the exsolution of metal-rich magma. In more detail, the overprinting of distinct alteration-
brines from bodies of felsic magma cooling and crystallizing mineralization facies in porphyry systems has provided a rig-
under essentially isobaric conditions in the shallow crust (e.g., orous basis for thermodynamic and experimental modeling of
Burnham and Ohomoto, 1980). However, the involvement of the sequential partitioning of the ore metals and the anions Cl
nonjuvenile waters in the later stages of hydrothermal activity and B from melt to aqueous fluid in the course of the second
has been widely recognized through stable isotope and fluid boiling process (Candela, 1989a, b; Cline and Bodnar, 1991).
inclusion studies, and analogies have been drawn repeatedly This ordered history of metal concentration is exemplified by
with meteoric water-dominated, albeit almost universally bar- the hypogene protore of the El Salvador deposit, Chile, com-
ren, geothermal systems (e.g., Hedenquist et al., 1998). prehensively documented by Gustafson and Hunt (1975),
which provides a remarkably pertinent guide to the evolution
† Correspondingauthor: e-mail, bouzari@khayam.ut.ac.ir
of porphyry systems globally (Clark, 1993).
*Current Address: School of Geology, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran, In the present contribution, however, we describe a large
P.O. Box 14155-6455. porphyry deposit, the protore for the supergene orebody of

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the Cerro Colorado copper deposit, northern Chile, which, comprised at least 900 Mt at ca. 0.45 percent Cu. The deposit
although superficially conforming to the El Salvador template comprises the Main zone, drilled out by Compañía Minera
in its alteration-mineralization patterns, differs in several key Riochilex Limitada, in 1982, and the West zone, delimited in
respects. In particular, the hydrothermal system incorporates 1987 to 1992. These are separated by a lower grade section
an extensive, barren, K silicate alteration blanket which de- underlying the Cerro Colorado summit (Fig. 2), but the open
veloped at relatively low temperature prior to a prograde pit incorporates both.
transition to the mineralized hydrolytic alteration. The latter, Cerro Colorado forms a link in the Paleocene to earliest-
moreover, exhibits a vertical zonation from intermediate to middle Eocene porphyry copper belt of the central Andes
advanced argillic assemblages, which, from petrographic and (Fig. 1a). Although less important in northern Chile than the
fluid inclusion relationships, are inferred to have developed upper Eocene-lower Oligocene, or Domeyko fault, belt to the
contemporaneously. Both features bear strong resemblance east (Sillitoe, 1988), this becomes the dominant copper-bear-
to those of numerous geothermal systems, and it is argued ing subprovince in southern Peru, where it is represented by
that Cerro Colorado represents a hybrid center with charac- an array of giant deposits from Toquepala to Cerro Verde
teristics of both mineralized porphyry deposits and unminer- (Fig. 1a; Clark et al., 1990; Clark, 2003).
alized geothermal fields. The Cerro Colorado deposit crops out at a mean elevation
of 2,600 m a.s.l. on an upper extension of the subplanar
Geologic Setting Pampa del Tamarugál, which constitutes the piedmont of the
The Cerro Colorado (“Red Hill”) porphyry copper (-molyb- Cordillera Occidental (Figs. 1b, 2). The host rocks are domi-
denum) deposit is located in Tarapacá Province, I Región, nated by the Cretaceous Cerro Empexa Formation, a succes-
Chile, at latitude 20° 2'41" S and longitude 69° 15'35" W, 120 sion of subaerial andesite, tuff, and agglomerate, which is
km east of Iquique (Fig. 1). The open-pit mine, initiated in gently folded and unconformably overlies marine to subaerial
1994 by Rio Algom Ltd. and now operated by BHP Billiton sediments and volcanic sedimentary strata of the Upper
Base Metals, exploits a complex supergene profile (Bouzari Jurassic Chacarilla Formation (Thomas, 1967; Galli, 1968).
and Clark, 2002) with reserves of 228 million metric tons (Mt) These were intruded by numerous granitoid stocks during the
at 1.0 percent Cu. The preserved hypogene protore, with Late Cretaceous to Paleogene interval (Thomas, 1967; Galli,
grades of 0.4 to 0.5 percent Cu and a resource approximately 1968). The Paleogene and older rocks, as well as the Cerro
double that of supergene ore (Bouzari, 2003), lies at depths Colorado deposit, are overlain unconformably by the Miocene
greater than 250 to 300 m below the premine surface. Unless Altos de Pica Formation, which locally comprises two piedmont
major gradients in original Cu grade occurred in the now gravel units separated by an ash-flow tuff member (Figs. 1b,
partially eroded and extensively weathered upper part of the 2), 19.2 Ma in age (Bouzari and Clark, 2002). Northwest-trend-
deposit, the hydrothermal center may be inferred to have ing faults (Fig. 1b) are the dominant structures, delimiting

FIG. 1. (a). Location of Cerro Colorado and other Cenozoic copper deposits and prospects in the two major porphyry
belts of northern Chile and southern Peru. (b). Simplified regional geologic map of the Cerro Colorado area, showing north-
west-striking faults bounding the Sierra Juan de Morales, Sierra de Tarapacá, and Sierra del Cerro Violeta horsts. The Pale-
ozoic and Mesozoic basement from Sagasca to Mocha has been uplifted between these faults and the main upper Eocene-
lower Oligocene Domeyko (West) fault system. Thick gravels, forming the Pampa del Tamarugál surface, cover the basement
rocks west, north, and south of this uplifted terrane (after Thomas, 1967; Galli, 1968; and SERNAGEOMIN, Chile, 1982).

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FIG. 2. Premine topographic and geologic map of the Cerro Colorado area, showing Upper Cretaceous andesite intruded
by unmineralized Upper Cretaceous (-Paleogene) monzogranitic rocks and lower Eocene mineralized breccia bodies, and
partially covered by Miocene gravels and ignimbrite. Early-stage alteration of the andesite generated a large barren biotite-
albite-magnetite zone, but copper deposition occurred subsequently in the areas affected by intense Main-stage intermedi-
ate to advanced argillic alteration (i.e., inside the 0.1% Cu grade contour). Main-stage pyrite, up to 10 vol percent, forms a
halo outside the central copper zone. The highest concentrations of molybdenite in the Main zone occur at the margins of
breccia bodies and in contiguous andesite. Rocks exposed on Cerro Negro and along the south wall of Quebrada Parca are
neither mineralized nor altered, except in the embayment north of Cerro Colorado summit. See Figure 3 for cross section
(after Thomas, 1967; Galli, 1968; A. Cepeda, G.M. Ditson, and D.G. Mato, unpub. report for Compañía Minera Riochilex
Ltda., Santiago, 1982; T.E. Warren, unpub. report for Rio Algom Exploration Inc., Toronto, 1992; and E.A. Campbell,
unpub. report for Compañía Minera Riochilex S.A., 1994).

horsts of the pre-Andean, upper Paleozoic basement and the sequence comprises at least four units (Figs. 3a, 4b), rel-
Mesozoic strata (Galli, 1968). Major uplift related to these atively unaltered portions of which crop out on the main
structures probably commenced during the late Eocene In- south wall of Quebrada Parca and, prior to mining, were ex-
caic orogeny and played a significant role in the exposure and posed in an embayment situated immediately north of the
weathering history of the Paleocene to middle Eocene copper Main zone (Fig. 2). A dacitic unit with flow banding, mapped
mineralization in this terrane (Bouzari and Clark, 2002). by A. Cepeda, G.M. Ditson, and D.G. Mato (unpub. report to
Compañía Minera Riochilex Ltda., Santiago, 1982), was the
Host Rocks lowest outcropping unit in the embayment. This is overlain by
The Cerro Colorado deposit is hosted by both volcanic ca. 100 m of coarse volcanic breccia (Fig. 4b) with a largely
units and intrusive bodies, but hypogene and supergene al- magmatic matrix dominated by plagioclase and hornblende;
teration has disguised or even obliterated the magmatic min- clasts are similar to the matrix but some contain more quartz.
eralogy. The main host rocks, volcanic strata assigned to the A succession of porphyritic andesite flows (Fig. 5a) overlies
Cerro Empexa Formation (Galli, 1968), are intruded by sev- the breccia (Fig. 4b) and comprises phenocrysts of plagio-
eral hydrothermal breccias and hypabyssal stocks and dikes, clase, hornblende, and rare quartz in a fine-grained matrix
delimited on the premine surface (Fig. 2) and open-pit with a similar mineral assemblage but commonly with mi-
benches (Figs. 3a, 4a), and in drill holes. crolitic texture. Titaniferous magnetite (ca. 1%) is dissemi-
nated in the matrix of the andesite and commonly forms mi-
Cerro Empexa Formation crophenocrysts. The contact of the volcanic breccia with the
These subaerial volcanic rocks host over 70 percent of the overlying porphyritic andesite lies at approximately 2,400 m
hypogene and supergene mineralization. In the mine area, a.s.l. on the south wall of Quebrada Parca (Fig. 4b). The

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FIG. 3. East-west cross section (see Fig. 2) through the Cerro Colorado deposit, showing (a) host rocks and (b) alteration
zones. Andesitic strata of the Cerro Empexa Formation are the main host of mineralization but are extensively altered, pre-
cluding the distinction of volcanic units (cf. Fig. 4b). The approximate boundaries of the andesitic breccia unit are, however,
inferred (dashed lines) on the basis of its strike and dip (N40°W, 15ºSW) on the south wall of Quebrada Parca. Early-stage
barren biotite-albite-magnetite alteration was intersected in all deep drill holes but its intensity and thickness decrease to-
ward the margins of the deposit. It is overprinted by Main-stage copper-bearing alteration-mineralization, which generated
a zoned array from deep intermediate (sericite-chlorite-clay) to shallow advanced (andalusite-diaspore) argillic alteration.
Quartz-albite veinlets (not shown) define the base of the sericite-chlorite-clay zone. Note the tabular shape of the orebody,
emphasized by the subhorizontal lower contact of the sericite-chlorite-clay subfacies. Transitional-stage phyllic alteration is
mainly confined to the breccia bodies, which cut the Main-stage assemblages. A postmineralization intrusion (see hole 83)
hosts veinlets with minor K-feldspar alteration.

uppermost part of the succession exposed on the valley wall is mineralized zone (Fig. 3a). On this basis, it is inferred that
dominated by lapilli tuff (Fig. 4b), distinguished by irregularly much of the West zone is hosted by porphyritic andesite
shaped but commonly lensoidal fragments (Fig. 5b). The flows, whereas both volcanic breccia and porphyritic andesite
abundance of quartz phenocrysts reveals a transition to a host the mineralization in the Main zone.
dacitic composition. All volcanic units within the deposit are
affected by pervasive biotite-albite-magnetite alteration, Intrusive breccia bodies
forming a black rock with remnant plagioclase phenocrysts. Several breccia bodies cut the volcanic rocks, exhibiting
Fluidal texture is preserved in some locations but distinction abrupt contacts and upward-flaring, crudely conical forms
between units is difficult. (Figs. 3a, 4a). Two major centers were distinguished by A.
These volcanic strata are gently folded on a regional scale Cepeda, G.M. Ditson, and D.G. Mato (1982). The larger,
(Thomas, 1967; Galli, 1968). Unpublished mapping by A. Western, Breccia crops out in the western area of the Main
Cepeda, G.M. Ditson, and D.G. Mato (1982) delimited the zone, including the summit of Cerro Colorado, and the
lower dacitic fluidal unit in the embayment (Fig. 2) as strik- smaller Eastern Breccia is located in the eastern portion of
ing N35°W and dipping 35°SW, but most strata exposed on the Main zone (Fig. 2). In addition, at least two considerably
both sides of Quebrada Parca strike ca. N40°W and dip ca. smaller, unnamed, breccia bodies are located to the west and
15°SW. Therefore, on an east-west cross section through the southwest of the Western Breccia (Fig. 2). All breccia bodies
deposit, the volcanic strata would have an apparent average are petrographically very similar, with variably sized clasts in
westerly dip of 10°, and the upper and lower contacts of the an originally igneous matrix, rich in remnant plagioclase phe-
volcanic breccia unit can be approximately delimited in the nocrysts and itself brecciated and altered to fine-grained

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5j).M. These are covered by veining have destroyed the original texture. 2. however. (c). and D.. sparse rounded clasts being restricted to the contacts with the coun- try rock (Fig. but similar. intensely frac- These units were later uplifted. al- of Cerro Colorado summit is visible at the top (ca.e. so that quartz grains and less altered areas resemble clasts. 2. cut the breccia bodies and andesite. 15° to the hedral to euhedral plagioclase and hornblende phenocrysts in southwest. The western margin of the tured.l. and biotite phenocrysts in a quartz-plagioclase matrix with accessory titaniferous mag- netite. chlorite. pit. looking east from the former summit of Cerro Colorado in July 1996. 5l). and the porphyry is generally fresh and barren. and clay minerals (Fig. Intense phyllic alteration and pyrite phyritic andesite (2). With in- creasing depth. showing andesites of the Cerro Empexa Formation intruded by the Eastern Hornblende-plagioclase porphyry dikes Breccia. pyrite. Fig. 4c). east wall of the pit. Oxidation of these permeable veins to contain sparse. Copper grades are slightly lower in the breccias than in the andesite. hornblende-plagioclase porphyry dike transects the Cordillera Occidental can be seen in the far. (e. forming a deep stock with an exten- sion to the northeast (Figs. These Eastern Breccia body. Host rocks at Cerro Colorado. Mato (1982) to an intrusive unit character- ized by rounded β quartz and subhedral plagioclase phe- nocrysts in a matrix of microcrystalline quartz and plagioclase (Fig.s. large clasts and fragments with sharp boundaries become less common and veinlets become throughgoing. poor matrix (Fig. large. Abundant pyrite veins fill fractures in the dike and are coated by supergene chalcocite. Within the breccia bodies. north of the West zone). Altered though much fresher. northwest-trending dikes. 3a). sericite. A mine dump (pale) on the western slope saic of laminated bodies along the fractures. quartz. but this is largely a byproduct of pervasive phyllic alteration. and dacitic lapilli tuff (3). Cepeda. Strata of Eastern Breccia in the Main zone (Fig. at the deepest exposed levels. less commonly. It is therefore inferred to have been em- placed into the breccia bodies after major mineralizing hy- FIG. The breccias contain abundant subrounded clasts with well-defined boundaries in the upper levels (Fig. 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. 5h. eroded. 5f). and hornblende phenocrysts in a very fine grained. 3a). The phenocryst assemblage of these intra. and clays (Fig. It contains sub- the Cerro Empexa Formation striking ca. producing a mo- Miocene ignimbrite and gravel (4). A 10. quartz cia (Main zone.. 5d) forms small ir- regular bodies up to a few meters wide and.to 12-m-wide. 4. most less hornblende-plagioclase porphyry dike (between dashed lines) intruding the than 5 m wide. CERRO COLORADO PORPHYRY Cu DEPOSIT. looking south from the floor of Quebrada Parca (ca. 2. subhedral plagioclase. Veinlets are restricted to the clasts. Barren tourmaline-cemented breccia (Fig. G. and covered by the gravels and ign- imbrite of the Miocene Altos de Pica Formation. Quartz porphyry “Quartz porphyry” is a term applied by A. It is characterized by uniformly distributed. Quartz porphyry hosts the lowest Cu grades among the mineralized igneous rocks at Cerro Colorado. Alteration is here restricted to thin veinlets of K-feldspar with minor chlorite and sericite. The lower part of the sequence is composed of volcanic breccia (1). NORTHERN CHILE 99 quartz. commonly subhedral to anhedral.and postmineral- ization intrusive rocks implies a dacitic composition. pyrite. in turn cut by the altered hornblende-plagioclase porphyry dike. below the summit of Cerro Colorado. sericite. which converted plagioclase to fine-grained muscovite.G. overlain by fine-grained por- dioritic composition. 5k) and has an andesitic or west of the embayment (i.290 m a. A petrographically similar unit intrudes the altered an- desite in the Main zone. distance. N40ºW and dipping ca. Biotite-quartz-plagioclase porphyry Biotite-quartz-plagioclase porphyry constitutes an intrusive body emplaced in both the breccias and the volcanic rocks (Fig. (b). (a). northeast-trending. Ditson. 5c). 5e). The copper grade in this unit is generally less than that of the contiguous brec- cias. i). Eventually.600 m). it is essentially barren. 3a. eastern. it is altered to quartz. veins within the larger breccia bodies.) a very fine grained matrix (Fig. a mi- crobreccia texture is developed (Fig. 5g).00 99 . 5c).g. and in some areas. plagioclase hematite caused the darker color of the dike relative to the surrounding brec. The east wall of the Main zone drothermal activity.520 m).

showing microbreccia texture and containing abundant throughgoing quartz veins. (g).560 m). These dikes do not host hypo- gene alteration or mineralization (sample 295. 2. 225). porphyritic andesite. (b). 5. Horn- blende-plagioclase porphyry dike rock with abundant phenocrysts of plagioclase (white) and amphibole (dark) in a very fine grained matrix pervaded by supergene hematite (sample 129.400 m). east wall of the pit. Typical younger hornblende- plagioclase porphyry dike with sparse phenocrysts in a very fine grained quartz poor matrix.g. 2. whereas those from drill cores have two numbers separated by a dashed line (e. Veins are restricted to the clasts. with plagioclase and amphibole phenocrysts in a fine-grained matrix. Characteristic unaltered. south wall of the pit. showing subrounded clasts in a rock-flour matrix (sample 134.530 m). Chilled margin of the barren biotite-quartz-plagioclase porphyry (left) with biotitized and albitized andesite in the deeper level of the Main zone (sample 83-41. (a).00 100 . 2.. showing lensoidal fragments with abundant quartz phenocrysts (sample 225. Barren biotite-quartz-plagioclase porphyry at the deepest levels of the Main zone (Fig. (h). comprising variable-sized fragments in a fine-grained altered matrix. in which the first number represents the hole number. immediately west of the embayment (sample QP 27. 2. The dark disseminated mineral is chloritized biotite.110 m). sericitized matrix and sparse sulfide (sample 4-10. Tourmaline-cemented Eastern Breccia with dis- seminations and veinlets of pyrite (sample 198.300 m). 2. The sample is from the south wall of Quebrada Parca. 3a) with abundant fresh plagioclase and biotite phenocrysts. (l).470 m). 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6.100 BOUZARI AND CLARK FIG. in all figures. (k).g. east wall of the pit. (f).540 m). 26-11). samples collected from mine benches are assigned a single number (e. (i). Quartz porphyry intrusion from lower slopes of Cerro Colorado with rounded quartz eyes. (c). 2. (e). (j).550 m). Sample from the marginal part of the East- ern Breccia. Sample from the lower part of the Eastern Breccia.540 m). east wall of the pit. Alteration is restricted to thin veinlets of K-feldspar and sericite (sample 83-12. 2. Eastern Breccia of the Main zone. south wall of the pit. Mineralized biotite-quartz-plagioclase porphyry intrusive unit with abundant altered pla- gioclase phenocrysts. 2. 2196 m). east wall of the pit. The rock is intensely altered and is composed of quartz and sericitized plagioclase clasts in a fine-grained quartz-sericite-pyrite matrix (sample 26-11. Lapilli tuff of the upper Cerro Empexa Formation.580 m). A quartz vein with irregular boundaries hosts chal- copyrite (sample 119-17. 2.. Note that. Phyllic and supergene alteration have modified the rock texture but remnant plagioclase crystals are commonly preserved in the matrix and clasts.408 m). 2. (d). 2. The dark disseminated spots are super- gene hematite after pyrite (sample 251. ca.

g. interference contrast imaging of fluoboric acid-etched pol- tensely leached. In cathodolumines- mine surface (Fig. Hypogene ished surfaces (not illustrated) shows that much of the plagio- argillic assemblages were studied only in very deep holes clase replacing both phenocrysts and microlites occurs as where supergene clays are normally absent. (3) Transitional. DDH. intersecting the lower part of the cence images. Erosion has removed several plagioclase is seen to replace calcic plagioclase phenocrysts hundred meters of the hypogene assemblages (Bouzari and with whitish luminescence (Fig. Biotite has in- gene assemblages unaffected by supergene alteration.. It is characterized by very fine Four major stages of hypogene alteration and mineraliza.70) and enriched in both F (≤0. intermediate argillic. decussate metamorphic textures are absent. in which the first number represents widely as isolated microphenocrysts. 7a). 1 percent in the unaltered an- desite to over 3 percent in the Early-stage alteration. Hydrothermal sodic pla- Clark. near-surface domain (Fig. 7a) and. Hydrothermal biotite is magnesian (Mg/Mg + Fe = eralization episodes. although the rocks appear hornfelsic. nocrysts (e. In netite. fine-grained titaniferous mag- ing a context for fluid inclusion and mass-balance studies. similar to those figured by Aran- lationships of the veins were recorded at different scales as a cibia and Clark (1996) but more crudely zoned. subequant. 1979). 6b. as is shown below. tensely replaced hornblende and invades plagioclase phe- 83 in the Main zone attained a depth of 550 m below the pre. Disseminated.62–0.g. quartz-sericite-clay. Deep drill holes in the West zone provide access to hypo. Biotite-albite veinlets occur vanced argillic assemblages developed both as veins and per. Nomarski differential construction of the alteration relationships. 3). 3). of the Cerro Empexa Formation prior to the emplacement of reflects Fe metasomatism. magnetite increases from ca. with ac- least 70 percent of the copper was deposited. sodic plagioclase (al- tion are herein defined: (1) Early. rarely. New Mexico (Jacobs and imaging. 7a). 26-11). ≤20-µm grains. 2002). f). The alteration is strikingly texture preserva- the Main-stage alteration complex.) Alteration and Mineralization the breccia bodies (Fig. but the modal content of the hole number (Bouzari and Clark. cessory apatite. cathodolu. nocrysts along cleavage planes (Fig. 225). CERRO COLORADO PORPHYRY Cu DEPOSIT. Parry. provid. laths. tive (Figs. (Cont.00 101 . basis for determination of the sequence of alteration and min. 6a. 6b).26%) were collected for detailed study. The hypogene copper sulfide assemblages could gioclase occurs either as subequant grains in the matrix or as not be studied in detail because of the supergene overprint. It is similar in composition minescence and Nomarski differential interference contrast to secondary biotite at Santa Rita.. 2002). (2) Main. is uniformly the following description.g. and ad. with decreasing with scattered remnants of white to grayish plagioclase phe- depth. Quartz-albite veins form the roots of ture controlled. 6b). but also. whereas including that which replaces plagioclase phenocrysts along those from drill cores have two numbers separated by a cleavage planes (Fig. and X-ray diffraction and chemical analysis. At a smaller scale. microlites (Fig. NORTHERN CHILE 101 FIG. Magmatic magnetite survives dashed line (e. 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. feldspar staining. but the alteration is largely pervasive rather than frac- vasive alteration zones. samples collected from mine distributed in the matrix and is closely associated with biotite. Hy- Early-stage alteration drothermal magnetite plausibly formed as a result of the con- The Early-stage alteration affected the largely andesitic rocks version of hornblende to biotite. 5. which included examination and exhibits no systematic compositional changes with eleva- of rock slabs and thin sections. 3b).85%) and Cl (≤0. during which at bite to albite-oligoclase ≤40%) and magnetite (≥3%). Fe2+-excited (green CL response) sodic hypogene alteration system. grained (<30 µm) biotite (≤35 modal %). The Main stage comprises. Crosscutting re. In hand sample. 7c. the product of Na metasomatism of original plagioclase but remnants of the hypogene silicate assemblages permit re. benches are assigned a single number (e.. distinctly pinkish-gray in reflected light. Figs. even in the in. the altered rocks are black and (4) Late. tion or lateral position (Table 1). Over 840 core and 250 surface samples 0.

Megascopic photographs of cut drill core (left) are juxtaposed with corresponding photomicrographs (transmitted light. act = actinolite. prp = pyrophyllite. 6. Mineral abbreviations for Figures 6 to 9: ab = albite. sm = smectite. ill = illite. mag = magnetite. pla = plagioclase. crossed polars). goe = goethite. epi = epidote. Transitions occur between the five Main-stage sub- facies. ser = sericite. and = andalusite. apa = apatite. bio = biotite. hem = hematite.and Main-stage alteration zones placed in the sequence in which they would be intersected in a vertical profile of the deposit. and tm = tourmaline.00 102 . py = pyrite. musc = muscovite. Representative lithological units of the Early. dsp = diaspore. kao = kaolinite. mb = molybdenite. chl = chlorite.102 BOUZARI AND CLARK FIG. cp = chalcopyrite. 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. qtz = quartz.

04 0.39 1.46 45.00 1.19 10.14 0.00 0. A wide pyritic ization intrusion (Fig.23 — — 0.82 1.85 — — 0.00 0. — = undetected.64 5.00 0.18 4.58 CaO 0.38 4.87 15.16 6.77 44.15 6.99 4. Neither pyrite nor chalcopyrite oc.23 45.46 2.40 20. Therefore.02 0. We therefore wide depth interval in many drill holes (Fig.57 3.00 0.00 0. Quartz.19 MnO — 0.05 18.23 0.16 6. Sericite.05 0.95 3.5 2347.45 2.50 4.06 0. and Cl for biotite and muscovite and 36 for chlorite. chlorite.86 3.72 26.04 — — — OH 3.10 6.37 99.71 2. 1996) or shaped body with horizontal dimensions of ca.10 — 0.42 0. these sulfides are invariably in con.32 32.00 Na 0.43 4.00 0.82 1. F.46 NA 0. Andesite in these holes and in a 25- upper 10 to 50 m of the alteration zone.13 0.41 9.00 0.02 0.13 0.00 0.00 103 .30 0. where present.61 6.82 12. However. At shallower levels.59 1.51 TiO2 3.70 34.31 20.17 4.82 1. the low total value of sample 198 is due to the very fine grained nature of the muscovite and possibly contamination by clay minerals. Representative Compositions of Hydrothermal Phyllosilicate Minerals at Cerro Colorado Mineral Biotite Chlorite Muscovite Biotite-albite. ciated with chlorite and sericite (see below). for numerous logged drill holes in the Main and West zones 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6.35 0.02 0. of propylitic alteration is hole intersections over an area of 8 km2.00 Mg 3. 4 × 2 km and mineralized potassic alteration (Bowman et al. where it is cut by a postmineral.01 0.74 100. facies of the Main-stage assemblages in which pyrite is asso- ward the margins of the deposit (Fig.10 0.81 1. Transitional-stage breccia bodies.44 0.47 10.19 0. CERRO COLORADO PORPHYRY Cu DEPOSIT. Examination of assay data tact with biotite.01 0.00 0.48 0.85 Ti 0.06 0.10 — — — — — MgO 13. regional metamorphism or deuteric alteration. and even existence.l. Despite its large volume and in- tensity.54 0.64 11.00 F — 0.05 — — 0.11 — 0.03 Fe 1.06 3.05 0.95 99.35 0.33 9. calcite.11 0. 3b).destructive Main-stage minerals.56 99.00 0.59 0.37 0.46 0.87 3.07 0.00 0.10 0.04 — F NA 0.05 0.61 1.10 0.42 0.95 29.91 1.61 34.20 — 0. it is evident that both the halo which surrounds the deposit is interpreted as the outer intensity of biotitization and its downward extent decrease to. and minor sericite development).00 16.50 45. 2).46 98.40 0. epidote. Early-stage alteration was not accompanied Main-stage alteration and mineralization by sulfide mineralization.23 0.12 FeO (total) 14.38 3.00 0.80 10.13 — — — 0.96 3.12 1. but DDH 83 essentially uniform saussuritization (i.5 2221. because only a few reverse cir- paddle-shaped in plan and elongated southwest to northeast culation holes have been drilled outside of the biotite-albite- (Fig.47 3.55 5.61 3.00 — — 10.14 — 0.77 1.48 2.10 0.e.s. number of ions calculated on the basis of 24 O.21 94.00 3.. 3). The majority of the drill holes were stopped in the magnetite zone (Fig.29 Total % 99.85 1.60 20.23 Al (tetrahedral) 2.18 6.47 2.07 0.00 0.00 0.39 28.3 2347.40 2.96 2.03 0.01 0.8 2299.84 1.2 2439 2530 SiO2 38..84 1. NORTHERN CHILE 103 TABLE 1.06 0.36 6.28 10.12 0.00 0.28 0. a thickness exceeding 0. and its thickness is km traverse along the south wall of Quebrada Parca exhibits therefore uncertain in the center of the orebody.33 K2O 9.65 5.01 0. however.12 33.00 0.10 NA NA NA H2O 4.01 0.33 0.02 Mn 0.) 2231.73 Cl 0.52 0.01 Calculated number of ions Si 5.99 3. Advanced Alteration assemblage magnetite chlorite-clay Sericite-chlorite-clay sericite-clay argillic Phyllic Sample number 83-58 204-21 83-54 206-10 83-54 210-10 204-21 206-39 204-46 198 Elevation (m a.28 Al2O3 15. 2).00 0.8 2252.78 Al (octahedral) 0. mapped from drill The extent.19 37.6 2221.72 45. plagioclase-amphibole (Arancibia and Clark.09 — — 0.00 0. unknown at Cerro Colorado.69 0.01 0.35 2.76 1.54 0.82 98.05 0.01 0.71 Cl 0.56 5.88 0.82 1.76 27.62 2.44 4.00 Notes: H2O calculated by difference.45 0.14 0.74 1.01 0.5 km.45 0.36 0.06 — Na2O 0. but this zone remnants of biotite-albite-magnetite alteration occur over a lacks the characteristics of propylitic alteration.30 0.6 2337.92 98. possibly related to desite to a depth of 450 m.05 0.57 16.and albite.80 3.06 36.12 Ca 0.00 0.00 3.68 3.44 2.03 0.09 K 1.42 0.00 3.88 1. The Main-stage alteration overprinted the Early-stage bi- curs in direct association with disseminated or veinlet biotite otite-albite-magnetite zone prior to the emplacement of the or albite.27 7.00 0.80 4.27 99.37 0. 8) and are even conclude that Early-stage potassic-sodic alteration was not ac- observed in the leached cap of the Main zone open pit a few companied by a propylitic zone such as those formed else- meters below the preignimbrite surface.67 13. NA = not analayzed The biotite-albite-magnetite alteration.05 0.41 45. forms a large body. we infer where contemporaneously with either barren magnetite- that the original Early-stage alteration zone was a saucer. 1987).53 10.55 16. intersected intensely biotite-albite-magnetite–altered an.28 0.

104 BOUZARI AND CLARK 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6.00 104 .

Biotite is replaced by diate argillic alteration of Meyer and Hemley (1967). and some grains lack albite twinning (Fig. show- ing unaltered tourmaline adjacent to patches of Main-stage andalusite with some pyrophyllite (see Fig. metasomatism under reducing conditions. They are generally less than 1. they are less develop. probably reflecting Fe3+ excitation and hence the higher fO2 quartz-albite veins not only exhibit stronger biotite and albite. (Fig. 5 modal percent chalcopyrite. and albite by smectite. The pyrite/chalcopyrite ratio nowhere exceeds between the intermediate and advanced argillic alteration unity.5 cm thick and composed grained muscovite.304 m). (i). overprints the Early-stage biotite-albite-magnetite alteration semblages with at least five recognizable subfacies. showing central muscovite-chlorite zone with chalcopyrite and pyrite (black axial zone) and a halo of smectite. cutting an Early-stage. sericite form in the centers of the veins (Fig. It generated a >400-m-thick suc. Chalcopyrite was deposited in these veins in close associ- ation with chlorite and muscovite (sample 83-77 at 2.l. 7b). Photographs and photomicrographs of drill core. whereas the albite monly occurs in these veins (Fig. chal. As alteration progresses. However. (h). smec- tite-dominated vein (see (c)). although patches of hydrothermal (QSC). 6c. Quartz-albite veinlet with banded texture and straight boundaries cuts barren Early-stage biotite-albite-magnetite alteration and is itself cut and displaced by mineralized sericite-chlorite-clay veinlets (sample 83-75 at 2. A thin Transitional-stage tourmaline veinlet ((h). (c). tite envelopes propagate outward and abundant chlorite and chlorite-clay veinlets (Fig. the sericite-chlorite-clay subfacies. Smectite (off-white) is the major vein mineral replacing disseminated albite and phenocrysts. Toward the sericite-chlorite-clay zone. Small amounts of chlorite and muscovite also com- (Fig. both staining for Ca and X-ray analysis confirm where illite also increases in proportion. in the vicinity of the zone of pervasive sericite-chlorite. Farther from the vein. The yellow luminescent phase is apatite. NORTHERN CHILE 105 indicates that at least 70 percent of the hypogene Cu resource Sericite-chlorite-clay subfacies: The most strongly mineral- was emplaced at this time. 6e). cession of crudely horizontal. Cathodolumines- cence image of Early-stage biotite-albite-magnetite alteration. Na metasomatized. and by muscovite. Quartz and al. the smec- destructive alteration but are invaded by quartz-poor sericite. The yellow-luminescing mineral is apatite (sample 83-59 at 2. served at any depth. erratically distributed. g). chlorite. 3b). At the deepest levels. and sericite-chlorite-clay (SCC). (a). Main-stage profile represent advanced argillic alteration. with some muscovite and chlorite. that albite is the only feldspar in these veins.319 m). but biotite was not ob..00 105 . 7c). quartz-sericite-clay at higher levels (Fig. and magnetite survive but some remnant igneous Ca-rich plagioclase phenocrysts are altered to smectite (sample 83-72 at 2. Photomicrograph of a thin Main-stage sericite-chlorite-clay veinlet and its envelopes.268 m). more calcic plagioclase (e. Barren bi- otitized and albitized andesite is cut by narrow sericite-chlorite-clay veins at very deep elevations. Chlorite com. Smectite FIG. friable aspect in hand sample (Fig. chalcopyrite (Fig. 3b). Albite appears milky in hand more abundant as veins and disseminations in association sample (Fig. where only narrow veins cut the biotite-albite-magnetite al- bite commonly form alternating bands parallel to the vein teration. yellow arrow). which range from irregular (Fig. ually decreasing upward as a result of alteration to fine- lets. and diaspore-pyrophyl. The teration has a distinctive medium to pale-green color and a sericite-chlorite-clay assemblage is equivalent to the interme. 7e. Chalcopyrite and pyrite which dominate the upper preserved section (≤200 m) of the are intimately intergrown with chlorite and muscovite (Fig. (b). intimately associated with sulfides. 6c) to planar (Fig. smectite is the dominant mineral replacing albite walls (Fig. At the deepest levels. 6f). but the biotite-albite-magnetite assemblages at the base of the Main. grad- abundant and exhibit transitions to sericite-chlorite-clay vein. A typical sericite-chlorite- clay (SCC) Main-stage veinlet cutting disseminations and veinlets of Early-stage biotite-albite-magnetite alteration. With de. veins and pervasive alteration at deeper levels but becomes copyrite and pyrite (Fig. (e). albite. The an. of the Main-stage fluids. green-luminescent.275 m a. largely after albite. The green central part of the vein is dominated by chlorite and muscovite and the whitish-yellow halo is smectite rich. Quartz is a minor constituent of both of quartz and albite with minor. it is focused in and around creasing depth.g. Note the lack of sulfide with the biotite-albite-magnetite alteration in contrast to the abundant chal- copyrite associated with the SCC veinlet (sample 83-87 at 2. At shallower levels. 7c). 7d). andalusite-pyrophyllite (AP).s. (d). and chlorite with disseminated chalcopyrite. flecting Fe2+ excitation and thus recording Early-stage Na and clays. which lacks a strong alteration halo (sample 83-93 at 2. ar- rows) replaced by hydrothermal. 6e. 7b) with abundant sulfides. d). Chlorite is more abundant at lower elevations. reflecting Fe3+ and hence the higher fO2 of the Main-stage fluids. showing details of alteration and veining. disseminated biotite.412 m). 6d). 7b).). ized alteration domain. Cathodoluminescence image of a narrow Main-stage. Plagioclase adjacent to the smectite veinlets luminesces orange-red. 6 for abbreviations). These veins rarely exhibit strong alteration halos monly occur in these veins and are clearly associated with but. albite in the veins and Early-stage biotite and hibit a green cathodoluminescence response. plagioclase phenocryst exhibiting green cathodolu- minescence. with fine-grained muscovite in the upper levels of this zone 6d). showing white-luminescent. overlapping. but there is no textural evidence that smectite is a later whereas the quartz-sericite-clay facies constitutes a transition constituent. CERRO COLORADO PORPHYRY Cu DEPOSIT. Sericite-chlorite-clay veinlet cut by a Transitional- stage quartz-molybdenite veinlet. (g). Transitional-stage tourmaline veinlets cut andesite.278 m). 6e). 8). hydrothermal as. more sodic plagioclase. 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. adjacent to smectite veinlets luminesces orange-red (Fig. biotite survive throughout this zone (Figs. these comprise a quartz-albite vein system veinlets with planar boundaries but becomes more pervasive (QA). (f). commonly nontronite and dalusite-pyrophyllite and diaspore-pyrophyllite assemblages montmorillonite. which was strongly altered to advanced argillic assemblages during the Main stage and contains over 15 percent andalusite as disseminations in the matrix with quartz (sample 199-38 at 2. The SCC al- lite (DP) alteration-mineralization zones (Fig.233 m). Chalcopyrite is considerably Quartz-albite subfacies: Quartz-albite veins cut pervasive more abundant than pyrite in patches of chlorite. sericite. pyrite content increases as fine-grained muscovite and quartz stage alteration column. probably re- albite adjacent to the veins are altered to chlorite. 6c). 7. and only traces of pyrite occur in some zones with over zones. Relics of plagioclase phenocrysts ex- clay alteration.

(≤35 modal %) at the base of the zone. alteration is distinguished from Transitional-stage phyllic (i. resembles muscovite in both hand sample and thin alteration assemblage. including areas with intense advanced argillic (i. in addition to the rutile formed relationships. pore resemble quartz in hand sample (Fig. but this 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. At the destroyed most original textural relationships. im. higher temperature equivalent of the advanced argillic alter- Quartz-sericite-clay subfacies: Sericite-chlorite-clay alter. 6i.106 BOUZARI AND CLARK FIG.. where chlorite is reduced to less than 5 modal percent of the however. The base of this zone is defined as the level ily identified in transmitted light (Fig. This the precursor biotite. how- through replacement of hornblende by biotite in the Early ever. Rem- nants of the Early-stage biotite-albite-magnetite alteration are preserved throughout the Main-stage zones. covite is enriched in FeO (>2. tered to muscovite and clay. traces of MgO and FeO and the highest Al2O3 content deter- followed by smectite. Andalusite. vanced argillic alteration is extensively masked by intense su- tions of FeO and MgO in muscovite commonly occur at the pergene alteration. ation (Meyer and Hemley. and pyrophyllite. Chlorite in the upper levels exhibits very weak quartz-sericite-pyrite) alteration by its significantly lower pro- green pleochorism and is considerably depleted in FeO and portion of pyrite and the absence of disseminated tourmaline enriched in MgO relative to that at lower elevations. Where the supergene overprint is weak. illite locally (Fig.e. These represent the deeper and in the generation of over 1 percent rutile within the deposit. l. Pyrophyllite. 6k. zone (Table 1). Quartz becomes the dominant phase section. occur throughout the upper parts of the Main-stage al- stage and in the alteration of biotite to chlorite. increasing the hard. 2002). which form in both hypogene and supergene titaniferous magnetite grains have been largely oxidized to environments. in the (Bouzari and Clark. 3b). mined for Main-stage mica (Table 1). 3b. and clay minerals (e. Traces of tour- maline can be found in association with the phyllic alteration but small bodies of tourmaline-cemented breccia are also com- mon. has resulted teration zone (Fig. equigranular aggregates intergrown with muscovite carried out. Both magmatic and Early-stage nite). are observed widely (Fig.6 wt Advanced argillic subfacies: At Cerro Colorado.00 106 . and its distinction was only possible by X-ray analysis. cocite or hematite. diaspore. 8. diameter. j. whereas andalusite covite are lower than in the underlying sericite-chlorite-clay is most widely developed at the lower levels (Figs.0 wt %) and MgO (up to 5. but are generally completely or partially replaced by chal- nocrysts and in the sericitic matrix. andalusite and diaspore) alteration (see (h) and (i) and discussion in the text). Mus. but patches of lower levels.e. Illite (>25 modal %) is the dominant clay. and pyrophyllite are abundant at all levels. The MgO and FeO contents of the mus. 6g) and. A halo of tourmaline veinlets overprints the Main-stage assemblages around the breccia body. k) but are read- ness of the rock. 6i. 3). rite (Table 1). and molybdenite (see below). Pervasive alteration and quartz flooding have and diaspore at higher elevations (Figs. 6h). 3b. and we infer that the upper ation is gradually supplanted by quartz. 8). Both chalcopyrite teration in the matrix. and halogens were not detected in chlo. l). during the prolonged mid-Cenozoic erosion of the deposit parting a white to yellowish-gray color (Fig. This. An enlarged east-west cross section of part of the West zone (Fig. most a few millimeters in ward from less than 1 percent to over 20 percent. the ad- %) at the expense of Al2O3 (Table 1). but muscovite occurring with andalusite has only and illite (Fig. 6g).g. 8). The highest concentra. but X-ray analyses of clay separates and pyrite were originally intergrown with quartz and sericite confirm that it occurs both in the remnant plagioclase phe. The muscovite is strongly depleted in F and Cl relative to the pyrite/chalcopyrite (+chalcocite) ratio exceeds 3/1. 6h). Plagioclase phenocrysts are entirely al. occurring as very fine No electron microprobe analyses of illite or pyrophyllite were grained. dickite and kaoli- lower elevations of this zone.. 3b). sericite. 1967).. cannot be used to characterize the hypogene hematite and rutile. 6j. the modal percentage of andalusite increases up- biotite-albite-magnetite alteration. is usually difficult to identify in association with pervasive al. showing details of the alteration zones. Fine-grained andalusite and dias- absence of supergene argillic alteration. but their outlines are preserved The advanced argillic alteration is distinctly zoned. and clay at part of the advanced argillic alteration zone was destroyed the higher elevations of the Main-stage domain (Fig.

andalusite is largely re- Transitional-stage alteration and mineralization stricted to areas of illite and fine-grained muscovite and is. NORTHERN CHILE 107 mineral was observed as deep as 300 m below the current sur- face. generally without clearcut megascopic crosscutting relationships. Occurrences of andalusite in the deepest parts of the advanced argillic subfacies. 9. both kaolinite and alunite. the muscovite of the sericite- chlorite-clay subfacies) to alkali-free minerals at the shallow levels (e. Andalusite clearly replaces muscovite quartz-sericite (muscovite)-pyrite assemblage (Fig. 2001). Andalusite-rich alteration.340 m. CERRO COLORADO PORPHYRY Cu DEPOSIT.). grains intergrown with and surrounded by quartz (Fig. illite is preferentially altered to diaspore. Mineral assemblages in the Main-stage veins and vein en- velopes exhibit mutual replacement relationships at the mi- croscopic scale but change gradationally with depth over dis- tances of centimeters or meters. 9b). FIG.g. sample 205-26 at 2. Chile. at deeper levels and in areas where both large muscovite crystals and remnants of plagioclase are pre- sent. so we infer that andalusite formed through the alteration of muscovite and/or illite at shallower levels. defining an approximately horizontal contact with the quartz-sericite-clay subfacies. fine-grained muscovite and illite (Fig. and the progressive upward change in the composition of mus- covite are interpreted as evidence for the contemporaneity of all Main-stage subfacies. At the shallowest levels. andalusite occurs as large. Moreover. Moreover. and facies. b) and are characterized by the clay alteration subfacies is widespread. (c) and (d). overprinting the Early-stage zone. where andalusite replaces hydrothermal K-feldspar at depth but is itself replaced by muscovite at shal- low levels during the transitional-late–stage alteration (Gustafson and Hunt. ation zone (plane-polarized transmitted light. Pyrophyllite is more abundant in the upper portions of the advanced argillic zone. This is inferred to record replacement of the Transitional-stage alteration and mineralization were muscovite by andalusite (plane-polarized transmitted light. (d) crossed- responding to the phyllic or sericitic alteration of Meyer and nicols transmitted light.. which is everywhere altered to sericite. d). 9a). cor. Neither andalusite nor diaspore has been observed in con- tact with plagioclase.403 m). and the crosscutting relationships (see below). commonly elongated. sur- rounded by the latter minerals. Except for the advanced argillic subfacies. The transition from al- kali-rich minerals at depth (e. 9c. (b). and locally surrounded by. strongly imply that the greater part of the andalusite-diaspore assem- blages formed during the Main stage. andalusite unambiguously replaces muscovite (Fig.. 1975. presumably supergene. The lower limit of the sericite-chlorite-clay subfa- cies was intersected in several drill holes both in the Main and West zones. This relationship differs from that observed at El Salvador. and there is no conclusive evidence of replacement of andalusite by diaspore.l. sample 204-46 at 2. This unusual configu. where it coexists with both andalusite and diaspore. 3). andalusite of the advanced argillic subfacies). the scarcity of advanced argillic alteration assemblages in the subsequent Transitional stage. which may itself have had a tabular con- figuration. Photomicrographs showing modes of occurrence of andalusite in ration does not reflect stratigraphic relationships because the a combined profile through the Main-stage advanced argillic alteration sub- Cerro Empexa host rocks dip ca. showing abundant andalusite inter- alteration and mineralization were therefore not strictly strata grown with quartz and sulfides in the shallowest preserved level of the alter- bound. 3a. sample 204-36 at broadly coeval with the emplacement of the hydrothermal 2. In the middle segment of the profile. Watanabe and Hedenquist. 9b). (a). 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. At the highest lev- els. have commonly replaced the cores of aggregates of sericite (Fig.s. Although these relationships could be in- terpreted as evidence for replacement of andalusite by mus- covite. sample 199-10 at 2. in part.00 107 . where coarse muscovite of the sericite-chlorite- breccia bodies (Fig.439 m a. 10a).g. ((c) plane-polarized transmitted light. within the sericite-chlorite-clay alteration subfacies. the Main-stage alteration exhibits a strikingly tabular geometry. but at greater depth it forms smaller grains in con- tact with. 15º to the west (Fig.278 m).

it occurs much of the molybdenite in the deposit was deposited during as amoeboid. Dark amoeboid bodies are areas in which extremely fine grained molybdenite occurs in the matrix of the breccia (sample 102 at 2. and clays (sample 201 at 2.299 m). (a). (f). 10). as veinlets cutting the breccias. 7f. Very fine grained molybdenite occurs as a thin vein at the deeper levels of the phyllic alteration.450 m). 10.). µm) molybdenite is the dominant opaque phase. However. Molyb- was deposited during this stage but in lesser quantities than in denite commonly occurs in quartz veins which lack alteration the Main stage. 10d).655 m). however. Photomicrograph of the phyllic alteration. b). Note the development of kaolinite. and pyrite in these veins. (d). black domains within the this stage as a breccia cement. Chalcopyrite (<2 vol %) is replaced by supergene chalcocite. A typical phyl- lically altered breccia sample with abundant sericite and quartz (white background) and disseminated pyrite (coated by su- pergene chalcocite).450 m). The matrix is fine-grained sericite and quartz in addition to pyrite (sammple 323 at 2. concentrations (0. Assay data. matrix (Fig. with minor pyrite and traces of chalcopyrite and rutile. cut by a Late-stage pyrite vein (sample 211-12 at 2. (e). showing the multigrain quartz bodies interpreted as sites of volatile-rich domains in the upper portion of the breccia. (b).s. and the halos and cut the Main-stage assemblages in the andesite pyrite/chalcopyrite ratio ranges from 5/1 to 10/1.02–0. 2). associated 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. (c). The dark matrix is very fined grained tourmaline. con. in turn. Pyrite averages 7 to 10 vol percent. The mica is similar in composition to that of available only for the Main zone. sericite. Mineralogic and textural characteristics of the Transitional-stage alteration and mineralization. Photomicrograph of the molybdenite-rich areas of (a). reveal that the highest Mo the preceding Main-stage advanced argillic assemblages.03%) are located at the margins of taining only traces of MgO and FeO (Table 1). Photomicrograph of tourmaline-cemented breccia. sericite. in- side the sericite body.00 108 . Note the oc- currence of a few large tourmaline crystals inside these bodies. Molybdenite is accompanied by very fine grained quartz. See Figure 6 for abbreviations. Pyrite also occurs as larger clasts in the vein (sample 329 at 2. (Figs. In these areas. showing both multigrain quartz bodies with abundant coarse tourmaline and a quartz clast with an alteration rim of quartz and sericite. very fine grained (<10 and as stockworks in the andesite (Fig. commonly ghostlike. showing disseminated fine-grained opaque phases in the matrix dominated by molyb- denite. 10a. probably supergene.530 m a. quartz. Quartz-molybdenite veinlet cutting Main-stage quartz-sericite-clay alteration and.l. Hemley (1967).108 BOUZARI AND CLARK FIG. Within the breccia bodies. Chalcopyrite breccia bodies and in contiguous andesite (Fig.

promoting strong leaching and supergene alteration.8 ± 0. CERRO COLORADO PORPHYRY Cu DEPOSIT. however. but this could not be mapped because of Therefore. 10e). clast overgrowth. Tourmaline veinlets. Ar retention of biotite (ca.8 ± 0.216 m) from a Main- The Transitional-stage alteration clearly postdated all facies stage sericite-chlorite-clay veinlet cutting biotite-albite-mag- of the Main-stage. 1a. during the Main stage). given the relatively low temperature of cluding those of the advanced argillic subfacies. NORTHERN CHILE 109 with quartz. however. The tered tourmaline veinlets were observed cutting a rock mixture of fine-grained muscovite and chlorite yielded older strongly altered to andalusite and diaspore (Fig. 2003) and may be inferred to desite and breccia bodies (Figs. Thus.e. The Late stage is characterized by pyrite and quartz-pyrite Cerro Colorado is therefore younger or. indicates that the advanced argillic alteration occurred prior 12c). stage metasomatism. and multigrain aggregates.237 m a. Multi. report for Rio Late-stage pyrite veins Algom Exploration Inc. A. particularly. pyrite and minor chalcopyrite (widely replaced by supergene chalcocite).. 52. coarse-grained muscovite (sample 206-14 at system. ation has occurred. cannot be resolved within the analytical errors and limits.) from intense Early-stage biotite-albite-mag.e. fine-grained molybdenite occurs in veins in association with sericite. 11). where tourmaline also has been par. sericite.23 Ma: Clark. probably as a result of maline is unstable at the low pH and moderate temperatures recoil effects caused by chlorite. events in the evolution of a single.6 Ma. south wall. 7h. i). Overprinting of the Main-stage plateau ages (i. are commonly observed in the middle Eocene volcanic arc and porphyry belt (Fig. Very fine grained disseminated quartz formed throughout the alteration zone in close association with sericite (Fig. Quartz clasts in the breccias show evidence of dissolution and reprecipitation to form al- teration rims which incorporate sericite (Fig.00 109 . the su. De- breccia bodies. and the Early hydrothermal system. 10e. However. unal. and the absence of dumortierite in such veins leased).g. Andalusite. 10e) but is more abundant in the upper levels of the alteration zone. 10c). f). identical to that of the coarse-grained muscovite (Fig. of muscovite and chlorite (83-53 at 2. hydrothermal netite alteration. The Hydrothermal micas were selected for 40Ar/39Ar geo. halo extending as far as 300 m from the breccia bodies (Fig. Arancibia and yielded a plateau age of 51. spite the possibility of resetting of the biotite and the uncer- 40Ar/39Ar tainty in the biotite age. Main zone pit. Tour. and rutile. This sample...H. at 2σ error. The grain aggregates include abundant interlocking grains larger widths of the veins locally exceed 30 cm. Tourmaline is locally a major phase but occurs only in trace amounts in most parts of the breccia matrix. 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. rarely exceed 1 mm in size. which is focused in its core (Figs.36 ± width.5 Ma (74. and one sample composed of a fine-grained mixture and channeled. occur in a slightly younger apparent age of the Early-stage biotite could. a large hiatus between the Early. Figure 12. These included biotite (sample 83-60 and Main stages of alteration are interpreted to represent at 2. (2σ errors) and 51. These data are in permissive agreement with multistep to their emplacement (i. b).11–52. coeval veins ranging from a few millimeters to tens of centimeters in with the Cuajone deposit. 1996). but larger tourmaline crystals have grown in the multigrain quartz aggregates (Fig.41 ± 0. Toronto. coherent. unpub. 40Ar/39Ar furnace-heating dates of biotite (one sample) and muscovite (two samples.. 3). Both biotite and coarse-grained muscovite yielded perfect tially altered to dumortierite. >99% of the 39Ar released) of 50. In the deeper parts of the breccia bodies. however. and pyrite (Fig.and Geochronology Main-stage alteration events is considered unlikely.and diaspore-rich areas of the netite alteration. 8). however.95 assemblages by pyrite and other minerals of the phyllic alter.l. record resetting of the Ar systematics during Main- 8).18 ± 1. els of the breccia bodies. 1985). Tourmaline is generally very fine grained where associated with disseminated quartz. Early-stage alteration is spatially related to the Main-stage al- chronology in order to establish the age relationships of the teration. These cut all previous alteration assemblages in the an. 11. The pergene leaching. molybdenite and tourmaline do not occur in association. southern Peru (Fig. but the aggregates the breccia bodies. attending advanced argillic alteration (e. quartz. The larger veins commonly occur in than the disseminated quartz (Fig. 40Ar/39Ar incremental laser-heating tech- earlier advanced argillic alteration occur in sharp contact with niques are documented in Bouzari and Clark (2002) and the the phyllic alteration of the breccia bodies (Fig. analytical data are recorded in Appendix 1 and summarized in andalusite and/or diaspore occur very rarely in the upper lev. However. respectively (Fig. 10f). 0.258 m) from pervasive Main-stage sericite-chlorite-clay al- at which hydrothermal volatile phases were concentrated teration. 1995). 12a.3% of the 39Ar re- Clark. 10d. Thicker and more have been emplaced as a terminal event in the Paleocene to abundant veins. 1a). ages in the lower temperature steps. FIG. 310°C: Harrison et al. the ages of Early and Main stages of alteration the similarities of the assemblages and. 2. The quartz of the phyllic alteration exhibits three distinct modes of occurrence: disseminated. The latter are abundant at the shallow levels of the breccia bodies and may represent sites 2. in. Stockwork of Late-stage pyrite veins cutting the breccia unit.s. These veins cut all Main-stage alteration assemblages. Clark.

the ation. and Ho for comparison of biotite-albite- unaltered andesite. pled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP) at Activation Labo- ratories Ltd. The gains or losses of Samples were crushed by a ceramic pulverizer and rock many constituents could not be defined unambiguously be- grain densities were measured using a Micrometric 1303 he. but brecciated. unaffected by supergene alteration. interval was determined for each variable. ca.A. 2). and calculated gains or losses of mass (grams/1 kg of lower parts of the deposit. exhibits minor saussuritiza. C. Reference species stage biotite-albite-magnetite–altered andesite (n = 5). A conservative approach is taken by con- cm–3. The (1996) was used to calculate mass and volume gains and losses. the unaltered protolith shows that. rock) and volume are shown in Table 3. The bootstrap statistical procedure of Ague and van Haren opment of the Cerro Colorado hydrothermal system.00 110 . = integrated age. cause their 95 percent confidence intervals overlapped the line lium-air pycnometer with a measurement accuracy of ±0. with atmospheric argon content and Ca/K ratio for each heating step. An species by examination of the concentration ratio of a con- attempt was made to avoid rocks with obvious veining and stituent between protolith and altered rock (Fig. from the south wall of Quebrada Parca.. = plateau age. Cu. and Y. Moreover. tablished at this confidence level (Fig. Ta.110 BOUZARI AND CLARK FIG. and all Comparison of the biotitized and albitized andesite with other trace elements by ICP mass spectrometry at the Memo. 12. Cl. change percentages for all constituents are shown in Figure tion. See text for discussion.A. P. I. which occurred during the establishment and devel. Ontario. at the 95 percent confi- rial University of Newfoundland. FeO was determined by dence level. Sm. stages of alteration were selected for bulk chemical analysis as Calculation procedure a basis for estimation of the nature and extent of the metaso- matism. as well as their confidence intervals. Eu. All alteration samples were taken from drill core in the 14a and b. and Zr were analyzed by sidering only those phases for which gain or loss could be es- lithium metaborate and/or tetraborate fusion inductively cou. but the samples of bi.A. Analytical meth- Samples representing the host andesite and Early and Main ods. Zr. Tm. analyzed samples included unaltered. 13). Mass 1 km north of the deposit (Fig. and Ga were analyzed Early-stage metasomatism by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) on powdered tablets. Mass and Volume Changes during Alteration colorimetric titration at Queen’s University. por. Early. and Pb were selected as reference species for compar- otite-albite-magnetite alteration included hairlike veinlets of ison of unaltered andesite and biotite-albite-magnetite alter- the Main stage containing traces of chalcopyrite. Major elements and Sc.01g for zero mass change. and results are reported in Table 2. Table 3). magnetite and sericite-chlorite-clay alteration facies. and were selected from a group of immobile and/or less mobile Main-stage sericite-chlorite-clay–altered andesite (n = 5). Sulfur. 20 elements were added but only two lost during 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. for Early-stage biotite and Main-stage muscovites from Cerro Colorado. V. Dy. detection limits. 14c. A 95 percent confidence phyritic Cerro Empexa Formation andesite (n = 5). = correlation age. overprinting of alteration assemblages. Laser-induced 40Ar/39Ar age spectra.

ICP = inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry.61 2.68 5.007 18.19 0.0 1.12 0.15 0.5 0.51 4.71 376 230 335 397 317 326 329 363 151 173 7 67 68 6 32 Y ICP-MS 0.4 1.0 20.80 4.6 3.2 4.74 6.17 19.44 0.41 0.80 5.20 0.1 74.23 9.94 2.65 2.15 0.3 205.00 16.0 2.68 0.3 124.91 4.19 12..43 0.6 512.51 41.38 0.0 5.05 Ce ICP-MS 0.56 0.29 6.04 3.5 0.14 0.0 0.02 5.8 1.95 2.45 0.31 0.10 5.92 2.01 3.20 0.50 10.21 0.0 0.13 0.20 0.05 99.05 4.37 23.125 11.29 56.66 0.2 5. c).13 19.35 5.9 3.01 3.30 3.9 119.9 1.22 7.88 0.26 0.49 40.80 3.04 2.1 35.3 6.12 0.18 0.13 3.012 0.36 0.39 4.009 0.03 27.08 Pr ICP-MS 0.40 0.03 0.2 287.44 19.17 35.10 0.8 1.05 0.19 0.02 MgO ICP 0.27 3. significantly to the overall mass changes because all elements Tl.47 27.31 0. Ga.66 0.7 4.88 4.81 99.0 4.8 23.1 305.12 0.7 2.20 0.0 3.01 0.28 0.4 1.82 2.0 Gd ICP-MS 0.83 51.66 4.27 2.2 0.20 0.74 0.13 0.73 20.38 99.61 50.1 3.8 20.49 4.22 0.22 0.0 1.0 2.8 310.0 92.2 0.01 0.66 2. Cs.8 92.72 10.27 0.10 Yb ICP-MS 0. as well as water.90 2.43 4.15 2.4 0.93 13.57 0.2 1.6 0.8 19.58 0.75 99.71 4.68 0.42 2.07 7. V.27 3.8 2.3 3.54 4.02 0.2 451.97 22.40 99.16 19.47 4.17 3.56 0.99 3. 14a.13 1.83 5.50 0.2 0.12 2.4 2. Whole-Rock Compositions and Specific Gravities of Protolith and Alteration Assemblages.39 11.12 5.00 1.59 9.58 54.03 5.046 59.6 5.27 3. NORTHERN CHILE 111 TABLE 2.37 0.42 1.68 3.3 3.2 17.43 1.49 4.3 1.7 233.36 P2O5 ICP 0.02 Total 99.39 4.11 Nd ICP-MS 0.66 0.17 11.73 10.1 Sm ICP-MS 0.74 20.52 2.09 0.63 0.2 3.1 1.8 423. Al.16 4.67 0.9 Eu ICP-MS 0.37 1.45 54.67 48.3 1.55 1.77 4.2 2.5 26.18 2.1 687.22 16.66 3.75 55.4 116.46 2.9 0.7 1.8 665.51 5.6 added during the Early-stage alteration were lost during the 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6.7 128.019 3.8 1.10 LOI ICP 0.02 0.64 Zr ICP 4 123 203 140 112 124 107 103 97 152 183 192 100 133 123 124 Nb ICP-MS 0.20 4.03 1.26 Na2O ICP 0.77 1.00 111 . Ti.22 MnO ICP 0.12 1.029 3.47 0.55 0.6 1.26 17.55 4.98 11.24 100.30 2.29 0.13 5. Cl. Rb.70 2.11 17.96 2.19 0.20 0.73 4.9 2.22 CaO ICP 0.49 3.80 99. CERRO COLORADO PORPHYRY Cu DEPOSIT.48 3.6 2.1 1.092 18.19 0.46 18.2 8.54 2.93 3.66 18.5 22.1 Fe2O3 ICP 0.14 1.53 4.1 Cs ICP-MS 0.76 0.28 0.4 334.16 2.61 7.22 0.36 1.01 0.38 11.004 5.3 3.35 Er ICP-MS 0.86 0.03 0.84 2.24 1.87 0.3 1.17 4.18 0.44 2.08 0.9 2.72 2.03 2. however.01 16.18 1.018 0.93 7.12 0.83 98.4 301.6 1.01 6.93 54.0 6.20 0.23 0.76 0.2 5.85 16.85 60.02 0.013 9.63 0.64 5.80 0.3 3.01 59.03 1.4 1.1 1.5 3.11 0.17 11.01 2.7 11.65 2.1 Ho ICP-MS 0.3 5.21 FeO Titration 0.85 3.14 41.09 0.86 3.001 0.1 3. XRF = X-ray fluorescence (on pressed pellet) Early-stage alteration (Fig.52 0.44 0.37 0.2 1.87 25.044 4.23 3.44 0.4 1.74 2.90 2.4 1.75 3.47 98.31 4.8 0.g.2 0.012 1.33 0.15 16.81 3. Several major elements g CuO/kg of rock.98 5.98 3.5 2.8 4.96 27. QP1 QP4 QP13 QP21 QP27 83-64 83-66 83-89 152-10 151-12a 151-12b 83-87 199-10 207-13 211-15 Method Detection (Wt %) limit SiO2 ICP 0.11 0.78 0.54 16.92 2.3 2.79 3.060 2.9 Sr ICP-MS 0.84 Al2O3 ICP 0.59 0.22 3.50 Pb ICP-MS 0.94 0.89 0.29 6.23 3.88 19.28 0.84 2.70 4.12 Th ICP-MS 0.09 4.02 4. Mg.02 7.434 28 33 26 22 30 21 22 30 34 33 44 29 8 35 19 S XRF 25 222 195 191 106 221 196 146 125 155 270 2387 13675 3752 11912 3675 Cl XRF 284 179 214 232 179 765 977 987 881 923 163 136 108 70 108 Sc ICP 1 18 18 14 16 12 23 21 30 18 22 16 17 21 22 15 V ICP 5 103 127 135 172 148 194 182 192 161 226 121 140 100 200 119 Cu XRF 5 29 48 33 16 34 365 256 238 358 387 2454 8768 3229 1506 2827 Ga XRF 4 20 18 19 18 20 20 20 17 22 24 19 14 18 19 14 Rb ICP-MS 0.9 4.011 38.1 79.64 4.1 26.56 21.001 0.5 Lu ICP-MS 0.52 0.5 2. H2O by differences and may contain other volatiles (e.5 0.52 11.4 1.15 9.17 0.25 0.9 247.97 0.42 K2O ICP 0.33 3.4 2.7 2.17 0.46 56.77 2. Li.5 18.2 1.1 10.073 1.1 0.98 0.72 H2O = LOI .15 0.8 1.8 0.0 25.1 La ICP-MS 0.03 0.05 100.(S+Cl) 1.56 3.04 99.3 1.48 3. Apparent addition of small amounts of copper (0..18 0.53 4.64 20.38 0.15 2.00 0.42 ρ (g cm–3) 2.4 0.34 4.0 12.25 7.09 23.37 4.15 381.36 0.51 0.75 3. This did not.6 46.5 1145.66 53.29 0.32 3.03 3.11 21.67 2.09 (ppm) Li ICP-MS 0.04 0.2 1.28 4.2 0.27 0.013 19.60 0.25 Tb ICP-MS 0.3 0.014 0.50 0.73 2.46 0.14 0.98 17.022 5.15 0.0 1.3 4.04 55.2 18.32 10.51 6.29 63.40 0.9 4.4 4.49 2.11 98.68 1.6 1.51 0.5 2.20 0.8 Tm ICP-MS 0.30 8.07 Hf ICP-MS 0.93 3.9 1.21 Ba ICP-MS 0.08 2.85 3.15 0.65 0.58 2.6 156.9 5.1 3.64 0.6 285.48 2.9 9.37 3.7 1.88 100.4 Ta ICP-MS 0.08 2.91 TiO2 ICP 0.2 1.56 3.55 0.7 9.3 74.9 21.49 0.11 5.62 0.80 25.012 0.12 1.70 55.022 1.19 Tl ICP-MS 0.31 3.11 4.98 3.4 2.03 0.10 0.41 2.26 0.5 122.33 2.23 0.7 5. Table 3) as well as Mo and S is ascribed to (i.42 Dy ICP-MS 0.51 12.65 20.7 109.61 0.04 0.72 20.65 4.67 3.65 3.71 31.16 0.13 0.79 0.2 0.89 10.59 0.28 0.49 4. Na.05 1.15 2.1 0.2 Bi ICP-MS 0.29 2. K.19 0.1 148.1 3.90 3.0 16.0 287.78 0. and Bi.004 0.13 0.010 0.61 2.48 0.53 0. contribute addition to the trace elements.97 6.6 0.13 0. Sc.19 0.01 1.03 0.6 2.08 0.96 0. ICP-MS = inductively coupled plasma emission mass spectrometry.65 Notes: LOI = loss on ignition.53 4.013 2.57 0.5 9.0 1.8 1.1 1.71 10.30 0.62 7.01 1.3 1.17 23.04 4.97 15.06 1.88 2.15 2.62 0.69 35.38 100.2 1.5 3.25 50.1 2.35 0.5 0.36 3.17 0.4 2.30 4.65 1.34 4.62 0.132 1.9 6.14 0.85 2.97 Mo ICP-MS 0.e. CO2).41 0.12 2.23 56.56 74.069 0.44 0.13 0.3 110.94 1.41 0.36 0.6 5.8 1.22 2. Cerro Colorado Unaltered andesite Biotite-albite-magnetite altered andesite Sericite-chlorite-clay altered andesite Sample no.11 2.1 1.9 0.54 0.50 3. and Fe2+).98 67.41 2.03 0. were added in thin Main-stage veinlets.6 1.91 5. P.56 3.60 U ICP-MS 0.79 38.1 34.81 0.2 136.36 3.

whereas the contribution of the lost components. On this basis. assuming no average grain density decreased by 10 percent from 2. the volume is inferred to have in- and. Much of this mass change is related conversion of calcic plagioclase to oligoclase and albite. Unaltered andesite vs. which was apparently asso. Na was added. mass transfer during alteration. Na. Mg. 14c. but a to addition of Al. stage alteration to form the current mapped biotite-albite- pation of octahedral sites by Ti. trace elements were probably accommodated in the biotite including 136 billion liters of water. c). K. 14c. Li. magnetite alteration zone with dimensions of 4 × 2 × 0. and water (Fig. Mg. The large uncertainty in these values biotite after hornblende and plagioclase (Fig. substitution of Rb and Cs for K and the occu. Overall rock mass increased by 70 percent (Table 3). maintained similar ratios during both Early. the total mass and volume changes would be 36 and ing conditions during this stage. shown by the vertical bars. Fe2+. (b). ciated with loss of Fe3+ (Table 3). Some Ca 3). Addition of Al. biotite-albite-magnetite alteration.and Main-stage alteration. sericite-chlorite-clay alteration.48 g cm–3.. Because the reference ratio is greater than 1. Based on these more conserva- which is absent in unaltered andesite. and the (Table 3) should be emphasized because they include con- higher content of magnetite in the Early-stage assemblages stituents for which gains or losses cannot be confirmed at 95 relative to the unaltered andesite is inferred to reflect iron percent confidence. Mn and was sequestered by the introduced P to form apatite (Fig. Natural logarithms of the ratios of oxide concentrations in protolith and altered rock (ln (Cm ° /Cḿ)) at the 95 per- cent confidence interval. and V). K. 14b. respectively. These and other species shown by open circles are assumed to have experi- enced minor. Fe2+ is inferred to be related to the formation of creased by 88 percent. possibly. La to Lu. 13.5 km. Hf. Note that all REE.112 BOUZARI AND CLARK — — FIG. 14a). through the 51 percent. were added during Early- structure (e. Bi- otite-albite-magnetite alteration vs. a significant overall mass gain occurred during Early-stage alter- ation (a). would correspond to a ca.13%). 3b). or perhaps negligible. a 51 percent increase in volume. If only those constituents which were un- metasomatism. implies a change to reduc.g. Addition of Fe2+.7 billion tons of material. is insignificant (–0.00 112 . 6a). (a). The best estimate of the reference ratio is shown by the dashed line. Reference species were se- lected using option “B” of Ague and van Haren (1996). 170-m-vertical 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. ensuing Main stage (see Fig. Table mass loss of Ca could not be established (Fig.76 to lateral expansion. ambiguously added or removed are considered (Fig. but Moreover. 2. whereas the mass change during the subsequent Main-stage alteration (b) was minimal. Table 3). Several introduced tive estimates approximately 2.

00 113 . Note that the scales in (a) and (b) are different. NORTHERN CHILE 113 FIG. CERRO COLORADO PORPHYRY Cu DEPOSIT. Mass changes during the Early-stage biotite-albite-magnetite alteration of andesite (a). 14. and parts per million is used for trace constituents in (c). and Main-stage sericite- chlorite-clay alteration of the biotitized and albitized rock (b). See text for discussion. Best estimates of absolute mass gain or loss at a 95 percent confidence level are shown in (c) for constituents that were added or lost during the Early or Main stages of alteration (see also Table 2). 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6.

00396] Yb2O3 -0.05702 [222.29305.00836 [0.87973] SO3 12. -0.00011 [0.0001 [0.00213.00088] Cl2O -0. -0.11995 [0.00856 [0.376.01618. -0.00115] Cs2O -0. -0. -0.22181 [78. -0.00016 [0.00030] P2O5 -0.00288] TiO2 -0.503 [183. -0.00106 [0.00004.00234] Bi2O3 0. -1.00708] Er2O3 0.22077. 0. -0.00055] MoO3 0.00516 [-0.31982. 34.00055] SO3 0.00009 [0.00137. -0.07995 [0. -0.01936 [0. -0.00317. -0.18963.15424.46808] Al2O3 -17.and Main-stage assemblages exhibit 14b. -1.00011] Nb2O5 -0.6879 [1.00021 [0. Thus.6%).8 percent and aver- samples with those affected by Early-stage biotite-albite.21990. -0.03614 [0.11432 [-30.136] Volume strain (%) -16.97472] Fe2O3 -9.050.00158] Li2O -0.00036. 0.00524 [0.04168 [0.00015] ThO2 -0.00082 [0.00164.00015 [0.01673] Dy2O3 0.03307] Y2O3 0.4%) relative to the Early stage Comparison of Main-stage sericite-chlorite-clay alteration (0.45383] Pr2O3 0.62085. 13c.86585 [-2.01990.00514 [-0.308 [20.00164. -0. S and Cu account for much of the maximum value for volume change during the Main stage. -0.00020] Rb2O 0.00674. stage assemblages.419] Volume strain (%) 88.00057. V. more material was re- Main-stage metasomatism moved during the Main stage (9. 0.43832.00014. -0. The amount added km). Fe2+.59493 [20..00732] Tm2O3 -0. volume decreased by 16 percent (Table 3).03079.01906 [0.09094 [-22. 20.03090] TiO2 8.00643] Bi2O3 0. -0. -0. -0. -51.08855.77746. -0.00936] FeO -19.36476 [93.01900.04677. -1. 1.29198] Tb2O3 0.00491] CuO 0. was insignificant in comparison with that at the Early stage (36.62239 [3. especially for the Main- by muscovite. Mass and Volume Changes Unaltered andesite vs.00021. 0. -0.00053 [0. -0. void spaces at megascopic or microscopic scales. -1.00003 [0.48670.79068] K2O 33.92511] Al2O3 173.00014 [0.03464. Table 3). -0.00015] ZrO2 0.18752] Na2O -39.00134 [0.00071] BaO -0.00972] MnO -0.e.91327] CaO -3.68549] MnO -1.15508.00009] GaO 0. -35.00004 [0. -23.00003 [0.41224] UO2 -0.87050.00088.35437 [-1.00021] Ce2O3 0.01990.79920] K2O 5. -0. -131.66112. -2.00221.g. the existence terpreted to reflect the replacement of biotite and plagioclase of very small voids cannot be ruled out.01116 [0. italics denote constituents that are either added or lost at 95 confidence expansion during the Early stage (i.00495 [0.29547 [10.00111 [-0.00147] Fe2O3 -4. age grain density increased by 10 percent. bracketed numbers are end points of 95 confidence intervals.00075] GaO -0.01349. -11. 0. -24.00342] Lu2O3 -0. -7. (1.00881] Gd2O3 0.00317.00029. 0.00003 [0. 0.73134 [74.00029.00317 [0.01079] LOI 18.18099] Lu2O3 0. -0. -0. The strong depletions in Na.00093] Tl2O -0. 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6.69764] LOI 0. partic.47294 [0.00055 [0.64097.16817] Yb2O3 0.36864.33466 [0.75457] MoO3 0. -0.00169. The 16 percent estimate is thus considered as a (e.72174] Nd2O3 0. 0.02815.6336 [0. Rock mass decreased overall by 7.00043 [0.079] Rock mass (%) -7.00003] SrO 0.27437 [-0.17925. Sr. 0.01718] HfO2 -0.461.00774] Er2O3 -0.00068. -28.01439. though neither the Early. 10.32746.33124 [6. and Mg are in.00007] Li2O 0..0263 [381.06288] Sm2O3 0.00210] Sc2O3 -0. c).31181.13%).67923] BaO -0.33819.83762] MgO 57.00236.36686] FeO 30.131 [12.00010] SrO -0. -0. 4 × 2 × 0. 6e).90099] CaO -24.85506 [12.00021 [0. 5.05375.00522] P2O5 1.00001.00279.08118. -0.00183 [0.09945 [0.00644.00066 [0. -0.00027 [0.25499] MgO -9.55460. 0.00004 [0.08760] SiO2 23. 0.02672] UO2 0.00257.17645.00006 [0.47757 [36.00002 [0.114 BOUZARI AND CLARK TABLE 3.00091] V2O5 0.05489 [0.98171 [-0.00397. Al- three added during the main Cu mineralization event (Fig.00008 [0.95795. -0. -0.90526] ThO2 -0.27569 [0. Ca.13562.00334.00021.53796.93337.49537 [36.00303 [0. Main-stage alteration (g kg –1) SiO2 346.46251] Rb2O 0. 5.28080. during which numerous trace elements. -36. -0.02414.23418.70885.00226 [0.00198] HfO2 -0.00030.21014 [30. which were associated with over 9 percent ularly Cl.00030] V2O5 -0. -0.00172] La2O3 0.00024 [-0.84067 [28.00027.00006 [0. -0.10619 [12. -28.19640] Ho2O3 0.00230. -0.48 to 2.00078 [0. Early-stage alteration (g kg –1) Early-stage vs.00389. -0.14185] EuO 0. -0.04189] Gd2O3 0.18744. Fig.00860] Cl2O 1.33 argillic alteration (Fig.00278] Tl2O 0.11587 [-0.03493 [0.15207 [0.00 114 .74 g magnetite alteration shows that 11 constituents were lost and cm–3. 2.45890. however.00887 [0.00220] Ta2O5 -0.10628.180. -0. -0.05229] CuO 3.96543 [-3.71652 [1019.26262] Rock mass (%) 69. 0. -15.230 [213.22875 [111. -0.00006] PbO -0.62129.21238 [21. -0.2%).87773] Ce2O3 0.00041 [0.00010] La2O3 0.13297.65910. -0. -25. -0. 0.0058 [-0.00049] Cs2O 0. were also lost but sulfides deposited material loss. from 2. 0. 0.00192] Pr2O3 0. -41.01381] Tb2O3 0. -0. -0.06973 [0. 0.94209. and Ga.65167.01538. Indeed.00019] Sc2O3 0. 0.48091] Na2O 36.00054.00718 [0.65425. -0.37513 [3. -0.11459.00031] Nb2O5 0. Conversely.00021] Nd2O3 0.00653.01226 [0.00227.00050. -0.884] Notes: g kg –1 = mass changes in grams per kilogram of rock ordered from the greatest gain (top) to the greatest loss. the unaltered parent material added during Main-stage pervasive intermediate andesite body would have had dimensions of ca.

. three and four salts are commonly seen in deep quartz-albite 1990. and inclusions with four salts 1998. Early-stage biotite-albite-magnetite alteration (see below). 15f). 1994). in fine-grained disseminated quartz) and in the quartz associated with the late pyrite veins.g. Goldstein. L + V + H + two or more salts drothermal system. vapor rich. Nonetheless. those in the upper parts of the Far Southeast porphyry Cu-Au ation.. Philippines (Hedenquist et al..g. all salt-bearing inclusions. 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. Gravitational settling of dense fluids Type 2b: final homogenization by salt dissolution Type 3: liquid rich. 2003). deposit. may indicate that at least some of these inclusions formed si- metric measurements. This veins in which type 2 inclusions constitute over 30 percent of problem is common to many studies of fluid inclusions in por. 1984. the in each alteration zone. T = translucent cold meteoric water (e. whereas multisalt inclusions associ- phyry deposits (e. cp) ± T saline magmatic fluids with meteoric water (e. served at Cerro Colorado. and cross several grain boundaries. L + V + H + two O (hem. see below). to identify confidently groups of inclusions trapped at the Further. H = halite. their abundance in sions trapped along growth zones or of crosscutting trails of Main-stage assemblages increases upward from the deeper different inclusion types (Fig. ated with the sericite-chlorite-clay alteration account for only Bodnar and Bean. 2001). are absent. L + V generated by boiling may also have influenced the overall dis- Type 4: vapor rich. The only microthermometric data for this type of al. However. ca. on mass-balance and petrographic grounds. Goldstein and Reynolds. the Transitional-stage phyllic alteration.. ev- to establish vertical gradients in fluid characteristics during idence for a secondary origin. alteration types and at all levels. Inclusions at Cerro Col. the saline and zone open pit and from diamond drill core to a depth of 449 multisalt inclusions that homogenize by salt dissolution (types m below the premining land surface from both the Main and 1b and 2b) could not be in equilibrium with the spatially as- West zones. Classification of Fluid Inclusion Types. the nature. has similar vapor/liquid and Early-stage alteration was characterized by strong hydration salt/liquid ratios. and Distribution of inclusion types the Terminal-stage pyrite veins. zones dominated by vapor-rich inclusions. Liquid-rich inclusions also predominate in the shallower parts of the phyllic alter- TABLE 4. 1994. Groups of vapor-rich inclu- the Main-stage event. O = opaque daughter tion of vapor-rich fluids which traveled upward and absorbed mineral (hem = hematite. are commonly observed intimately associated was carried out on 46 doubly polished samples. and some portion of the low-salinity fluid may have been formed through condensa- Abbreviations: L = liquid. V + L + 1 or 2 O tribution of the fluid inclusion types. in the Type 1: saline. Petrographic study of fluid inclusions sions. Each fluid inclusion type parts of the sericite-chlorite-clay zone to the shallower quartz-sericite-clay alteration facies. 15 percent of the inclusions. mometric measurements suggest that the fluid inclusions fides were deposited. presumably because of deeper ero- magnification (100?) lens. However. A fluid inclusion study was carried out to clarify the reason Inclusions trapped along microfractures are dominantly for the lack of sulfides in the Early-stage alteration zone and very small. Main-stage intermediate argillic and quartz-sericite-clay al- teration facies. and the roots of the Main-stage sericite-chlorite-clay alteration zone estimated volumetric proportions of the phases present at (i. cp = chalcopyrite). Moreover. Eastoe. fluid inclusion assemblages: Diamond.. were not ob- ble for small inclusions in disseminated albite using a high. the number of salts in inclusions with multiple salts same time from fluid of the same temperature. Inclusions with multiple salts are commonly seen at the into four types according to the number. no quartz could be Vapor-rich inclusions were observed with all sulfide-bear- unambiguously related to the Main-stage advanced argillic al.. Thus. and there is no clear evidence of either inclu. such as uncommon in the Early-stage biotite-albite-magnetite alter. Type 2a: final homogenization by V disappearance Beane and Titley. Seedorff and Einaudi. Samples were collected from the Main multaneously through boiling. Quartz is also However. pressure.e.g. Fluid inclusions were classified sion. NORTHERN CHILE 115 Therefore. ing alteration assemblages at all levels but are absent in the teration.. and decreases from deeper to shallow levels. Therefore.. were not affected significantly by postentrapment modifica- tion or inhomogeneous trapping. in quartz-albite veins) but their proportion decreases up- room temperature (Table 4. Fig.e. 15). 15f). Nash. 1998). sociated vapor phase (Bodnar. inclusions containing composition (i. This a specific alteration facies were selected for microthermo. these types of inclusions are inferred to have formed at a different time Petrography of fluid inclusions than those formed during boiling (e.00 115 . and microthermometric measurement was only possi. as discussed below. cp) ± T Main and Transitional stages the density of the trapped fluids Type 1a: final homogenization by V disappearance Type 1b: final homogenization by H dissolution decreases from the deeper to the shallower levels of the hy- Type 2: multisalt. 1981). Twenty-eight with saline and multisalt inclusions occurring randomly in the samples containing fluid inclusions unambiguously related to cores of crystals or along well-defined trails (Fig. This may have been caused by mixing of + two O (hem. however. Hedenquist et al. during which sul. 1980. 2004). 1976. V = vapor. CERRO COLORADO PORPHYRY Cu DEPOSIT. Roedder.e. microther- and the Main stage by strong hydrolysis. those that homogenize Fluid inclusions are abundant in quartz associated with the by vapor disappearance and coexist with vapor. 1978. ward through the sericite-chlorite-clay facies and they are not It was not possible on the basis of petrographic examination observed in association with quartz-sericite-clay alteration.g. Cerro Colorado ation zone (i. despite their variable ho- Fluid Inclusion Relationships mogenization temperatures. Nash and Theodore. orado are apparently randomly distributed in the cores of Liquid-rich (type 3) inclusions occur in association with all mineral grains. 1971.. Watanabe and Hedenquist. however. teration derive from a single andalusite grain.

equival and is considered a minimum value because it does the majority of all inclusions were homogenized and some de. Photomicrographs showing various types of fluid inclusions (Table 4) and their mode of occurrence in each al- teration assemblage. (f). the equations of Bodnar and Vityk (1994) and are shown ature measurements were restricted to an upper limit of graphically in Figure 16.g. Inclusions sions. An uncommon third unidentified opaque phase in this inclusion is a trapped mineral (magnetite?). and quartz. Sylvite is slightly out of focus but its rounded shape is evident in cross- polarized light. (d). Dominantly liquid-rich inclusions associated with the quartz of a Late-stage pyrite vein. Microthermometry with very high temperatures of homogenization (>600°C) were therefore probably rare. atures. (g). An exceptionally large saline inclusion hosted in andalusite representing fluids of the advanced argillic alteration. The background is very fine grained sericite. 2). chalcopyrite. affected by shallow-level phyllic alteration.00 116 . However. All fluid inclusion types are randomly distributed. Microthermometric measure- Heating and freezing experiments were conducted on a ments were conducted on samples representing each alter- Linkam THMS600 stage with a precision for freezing runs of ation assemblage (App. Abundant inclusions similar to those of the Main-stage alteration in a quartz clast in a Transitional-stage breccia body. clays. Small.1°C and for heating runs of ±2° at 500°C. so the numbers of this type of inclusion shown in the 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. Lower photomicrograph taken under cross-polarized light to show the strong birefringence of the hydrous Fe chloride. along with homogenization temper- 600°C. This was confirmed by examining several parts of clusions. Few measurements were made on vapor-rich inclu- each sample under a constant high temperature. 15. Halite is obscured by trapped dark clays. Salinities were calculated using about ±0. Liquid-rich inclusion (type 3). a small trail at the top shows salt-bearing inclusions coexisting with vapor- rich inclusions. Saline fluid inclusion (type 1) containing daughter crystals of halite. (j).. (h). (a). one with high relief and birefringence and the other. (i). and small black dots in the albite are magnetite or hematite. Vapor-rich inclu- sions (type 4) with gas filling the entire volume of inclusion (more common) or with a vapor slightly smaller than the inclu- sion and showing its daughter chalcopyrite crystal. (c). not take into account the presence of other cations in the in- crepitated. apparently primary liquid-rich inclusion hosted in albite which is in equilibrium with biotite of the Early-stage biotite-albite-magnetite alteration. showing an alteration rim of quartz and clays which also has trapped liquid-rich inclusions. (e). 444°C for sericite-chlorite-clay). with darker color. (b). with no evidence of age relationships. The inset shows a liquid-rich inclusion associated with a saline inclusion from the sericite-chlorite-clay alteration zone. At temperatures above the highest limit for each al. different salts. which appear dark because of the thickness of the section. much smaller. The small crystalline body between the halite and sylvite is possibly an aggregate of two salts. No vapor-rich inclusions are present. and hematite. Multisalt inclusion (type 2) containing at least four. and possibly five. Photomicrograph showing the mode of occurrence of the fluid inclusions associated with the Main-stage intermediate argillic alteration.116 BOUZARI AND CLARK FIG. A quartz clast of the breccia body. which may have been produced by immiscibility (see text). Temper. The reported salinity is expressed as wt percent NaCl teration assemblage (e.

NORTHERN CHILE 117 FIG. high-salinity fluids at depth (quartz-albite veins. Vapor-rich (ca. c and d). See text for discussion. b). indicating the existence of components other than 260°C and had salinities of 3 to 5 wt percent NaCl equiv. Histograms of homogenization temperature and salinity of fluid inclusion assemblages characteristic of the var- ious alteration facies. ratio of the multisalt inclusions varies from 0. but with low salinities (p). >70% vapor) inclusions are abun- heating data are for inclusions 5 to 6 µm in diameter. The NaCl/(NaCl + KCl) vapor-rich or other types of inclusions were observed in asso. Albite is typically altered to smectite. as de- ciation with these inclusions. Quartz-albite veins: Quartz-albite veins cut the biotite-al- ated with this alteration facies are hosted in fine-grained dis. 3c) and represent the roots of seminated albite which coexists with biotite.00 117 . could be obtained. and saline and multisalt inclusions occur in approxi- mogenization temperatures and salinities range from 186° to mately equal numbers. apparently primary inclusions in the tion. No NaCl. but all freezing and most (Fig. First-melting temperatures were as low as –50° to tively (Fig. possibly through mixing with low-salinity meteoric fluids. similar to those of shallower level phyllic alteration. The Early-stage fluids related to the biotite-albite-magnetite alteration (a and b) are of moderate tem- perature but low salinity. 1984). from 235° to 544°C. 16a. 15e). respec. Liquid-rich inclusions are not com- 311°C and from 0. bite-magnetite alteration (Fig.61 to 0. Heating measurements were numerous large (>20 µm). These inclusions record a wide range rection for confining pressure. similar to those of the deeper level phyllic inclusions. The Main-stage intermediate argillic alteration (c through h) is characterized by high-temperature. termined from the dissolution temperatures of halite and peratures are therefore considered minima and require cor. and their homogenization tem. successively generating sericite-chlorite- clay (e and f) and quartz-sericite-clay (g and h) alteration. but quartz contains range of <2 to 10 µm (Fig. Ho. apparently primary inclusions made on inclusions as small as 2 µm. They are liquid the column of diverse Main-stage alteration and mineraliza- rich and occur as a few. no accurate first-melting temperatures abundance. Late-stage pyrite veins are associated with higher temperature fluids (o). CERRO COLORADO PORPHYRY Cu DEPOSIT. sylvite (Roedder. dant. 15f). Fluid inclusions occurring in the deeper level Transitional phyllic alteration of the breccia bodies have high temperature and salinity (i and j) but those at the shallower level have variable temperatures but low salin- ity (k and l). frequency diagrams are not representative of their relative of the inclusions. 16. 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. Most inclusions homogenized at 220° to –57°C. Fluid inclusions associated with phyllic alteration of intrusive bodies cutting the breccias have high temperature and salinities (m and n).18 to 7.70.86 wt percent NaCl equiv. both temperature and salinity decreased. As these moved upward. such as CaCl2 and/or CO2. mon. Biotite-albite-magnetite alteration: Fluid inclusions associ. Because of the very small size of both homogenization temperature.

these constitute the most abundant secondary inclusion type associated with phyl- lic alteration. slightly less saline than those related to the sericite-chlorite- ing inclusions. These in. where mi- crobreccia texture dominates (see above). a cubic salt. f). Note that very low temperature.2 wt percent NaCl equiv for salt-bear. In one-third of the inclusions this was NaCl equiv.9 wt percent NaCl sions are smaller (less than 20 µm but usually 10–15 µm) equiv. j). First-melting temperatures are similar to sions. Saline and multisalt inclusions in which final homogeniza. as well as deeper level quartz-albite veins. saline. and from 4. Therefore.62. 14i). narrower range of homogenization temperature. but most are solution (types 1b and 2b) are absent in the very high tem. liquid-rich inclusions (Fig. define the halite satu.4 wt percent NaCl equiv. liquid-rich. Type 1b and clay alteration rims of the clasts (Figs.1 to 11. The most abundant are also ca. and in dis- 2b inclusions. 17. final homogenization temperature for fluid inclusions sions in fine-grained quartz aggregates (Fig. but the actual total salinity extends beyond this line due to the Liquid-rich inclusions had a wide range of homogenization presence of other cations.9 wt percent NaCl equiv (Fig. and vapor-rich. identified as chalcopyrite but in other inclusions it had a Sericite-chlorite-clay alteration: Coarse-grained quartz is rounded shape and/or was too small to identify. 100°C cooler. The salinities of the majority of quartz intergrown with sericite and clays (Fig. 1980). alteration facies were studied in disseminated fine-grained mogenized within this range. from as low as 90° to 334°C. This inclusion ho- mogenized by salt dissolution (type 2) at 270°C (the vapor ho- mogenized at 232°C) and had a salinity of 36 wt percent NaCl equiv. Final homogenization quartz with abundant large (>20 µm) inclusions. ration curve.118 BOUZARI AND CLARK and salinity. seminated quartz are dominantly liquid and vapor rich. and from 5. However. followed by saline. homogenization temperatures. 10e). are up to c). one measurement was possible on an exceptionally large inclusion which contained vapor. 16i. whereas vapor disappearance exhibited vapor and salt homogeniza- lower temperature inclusions are more consistent (Fig.6 to 48. However. and multisalt types. <280°C. l). high salin- temperature. and no vapor-rich inclusion ho. 16e. but wider veins contain in the sericite-chlorite-clay alteration. At deeper levels.9 to 46. 15h) are very similar to those in the quartz vein of the biotite-quartz-pla- gioclase porphyry intrusion (see below). the most abundant vapor-rich inclusions. 10f. Thus. The observed gap between low-salinity. inclusions in both alteration types have a similar homogeniza- clusions are commonly spatially associated and may represent tion temperature of around 330°C. Inclusions that homogenized by salt dissolution are perature range (>440°C) but increase in abundance as ho. Homogenization temperature varies from 216° to 444°C and the fluid inclusions overall are up to 124°C cooler and salinity from 28. with abundant vapor- rich. 17). Inclusions in quartz clasts (Fig. 16b. A few multi- not common in association with the early stages of the salt inclusions had NaCl/(NaCl + KCl) ratios similar to those sericite-chlorite-clay alteration. have variable homogenization temperatures. and other Advanced argillic alteration: The andalusite which replaced inclusions is inferred to be real (see Ahmad and Rose. 16g. In contrast. less abundant. Most inclusions contain 1b saline inclusions have salinities as low as 33. Inclu- the inclusions are between 37. 80°C cooler. and are slightly less saline than those of the tion was by vapor disappearance (types 1a and 2a). 15g). liquid-rich. clay minerals (illite) in the advanced argillic alteration facies Thus.5 and 43.7 wt percent NaCl equiv for clay alteration. and from 32 to 37 wt percent NaCl equiv for salt-bearing inclu- multisalt inclusions. Phyllic alteration: Phyllic alteration in the Transitional- stage breccia bodies is associated with two distinct types of fluid inclusions. Type 1a and 2a inclusions have a greater salinity variation at higher temperatures. although saline inclusions in a few clasts did not homogenize at 600°C.52 to 0.2 to 10 wt percent NaCl equiv for the liq- those of inclusions in quartz-albite veins. Liquid-rich inclusions had the lowest KCl) ratio of the multisalt inclusions ranges from 0. salinity from 12 to 28 wt percent NaCl equiv. lowest homogenization temperatures (<320°C) invariably ho. fluids related to the phyllic alteration may be 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. Liquid-rich inclusions a boiling assemblage. Salinity vs. tion at very similar temperatures. which homogenized by salt dissolution.00 118 .6 wt percent NaCl equiv (Fig. and their salinity ity inclusions are dominantly of type 1b and that there is a major hiatus in varies between 0. homogenized above 320°C. Higher temperature More than two-thirds of the inclusions that homogenized by (>350°C) inclusions have larger salinity variations. The NaCl/(NaCl + uid-rich (Fig. However.7 wt percent one opaque phase. 16k. 6h). h). and they are the only saline inclusions with ho- mogenization temperature decreases. Inclusions with the mogenization temperatures below 280°C. Quartz-sericite-clay alteration: Inclusions related to this mogenized by salt dissolution. and low-temperature type uid-rich inclusions are less common. saline. and liq- up to 51. 221° to 260°C. They exhibit final homogenization between 280° to 486°C and have salinities of 34. fluid inclu- FIG. Vapor-rich temperatures ranged from 221° to 320°C. and trapped clays (Fig. from 34 to 52 wt percent NaCl equiv (Fig. its temperature and salinity fall within the ranges observed for the quartz-sericite-clay alteration.1 and 7. high-temperature multisalt inclusions have than those at greater depth. inclusions associated with this type of alteration have a usually contains extremely small inclusions unsuitable for mi- crothermometry. and the salinity inclusions predominate. Therefore. Inclusions that homogenized by salt dis. in quartz- associated with the Main-stage sericite-chlorite-clay alteration.

we propose that the overall scatter of fluid inclusion veloping and intergrown with pyrite. decrease from deep to shallow levels (Fig. those in late pyrite veins). New Zealand: Giggenbach. boundaries were avoided during this study. commonly observed in fluid inclusions of active geothermal 16m. Similar variations and trends are 510°C and 33 to 40 wt percent NaCl equiv. and almost all of those associated with the sions studied show no obvious petrographic evidence for such sericite-chlorite-clay alteration located only ca.2 to 7. would affect static load (ca. Therefore. Haas (1976). lithostatic pressure (Fournier.g. fine-grained quartz ag. 100 m higher. Roedder. domly distributed liquid-rich inclusions. Early-stage fluids. some with irregu. static environments and variation of the density of the fluid clusions of obvious secondary origin which cut several grain load. Thus above). 2003) and the di- sion (Th = 510°C). coeval liquid- shallower level phyllic alteration (i. No high-density highest homogenization temperatures (≤544°C) and salinities inclusions (e. (1998).. Fluid in. Gagua. On the basis of these argu- Late pyrite veins: Euhedral quartz crystals. fields (e. had a mode of occurrence similar to those temperatures. Further. commonly en. (2) inclusions of secondary origin. microthermometric observations on inclusions in which vapor ilar to that of the shallower level phyllic alteration. the observed homogenization temperature and salinity trends lar boundaries (Fig. very sim.. except for one high-temperature inclu. trapping. 2. is observed. Homogenization temperatures and suggest that the measurements overall are not affected by in- salinities of fluid inclusions in the quartz vary from 245° to homogeneous trapping. 6. respectively (Fig. 1999). moreover. mal because no petrographic evidence of deformation. homogenized below 600°C and inclusion observed in some quartz-albite veins with irregular or curved 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. Therefore. Petrographic and microther- ment deformation resulting in leakage and necking of inclu. the fluid inclu. as unusual shapes or phase ratios. salinity. CERRO COLORADO PORPHYRY Cu DEPOSIT. mogenization temperature and salinity. 1984. which oc.. (3) inhomogeneous tional stages the majority of the saline. (≤52 wt % NaCl equiv) recorded herein. corresponding to en- monly randomly distributed in the cores of host mineral trapment pressures of up to approximately 590 bars. data is real and reflects variations in the temperature.g. 1980). mogenization temperature and salinity and their overall scat- ated with Transitional-stage breccia emplacement (see tering..300 m) but considerably less than the equiv- the data by generating “tails” of high homogenization tem. com. the equivalent litho- curred during the Main and Transitional stages.g. Following the reasoning of Albinson (1988) and the been observed in other porphyry systems (e. and possibly greater than.g.9 wt percent NaCl equiv (Fig. The latter have ho- mogenization temperatures of 218° to 377°C and salinities of Entrapment pressure and depth estimates 1. p)..and vapor-rich inclusions with identical ho- gregates) but similar to those of the deeper phyllic alteration. These were dom. Ulrich et al. Vapor-rich inclusions occur as trails that cut and pressure of high-temperature fluids interacting with cool the quartz crystals and apparently do not coexist with the ran. sericite-chlorite-clay and deep-level phyllic alteration.. The entrapment pressure of fluids showing evidence of for- nization temperatures are higher than the fluids related to the mation in an immiscible or boiling system (i. ments. mogenization temperatures) can be estimated on the basis of The salinity of the late pyrite vein fluids is. temperature at shallow levels. and all inclusion types in each alteration zone had have homogenization temperatures of less than 440°C and strikingly similar vapor/liquid and salt/liquid ratios. was equal to. 16). Philippines: Reyes et al. using the experimental data of Urusova (1975).00 119 . but maximum recorded ho- otite-quartz-plagioclase porphyry is an intrusive unit associ. vapor-rich bodies. have because of possible fluctuation between hydrostatic and litho- a narrower range of homogenization temperatures. A similar scatter has 1971). 2001).000 m). their homogenization temperatures and rect analysis of discharge fluids in such fields also confirms salinities are similar to those of the inclusions associated with the cyclic nature of temperature changes (e.. county rocks in a shallow environment. 5i). Most in. 16o. and (4) variation of temper. tained in pockets and not suspended in the liquid (Haas. however. The majority of inclu- peratures in the frequency diagrams (Fig. low-density. At these grains (see above). pos. contain liquid-rich inclu. multisalt saline (types trapping of a boiling assemblage. with pore of secondary low-density inclusions. 1a and 2a) and liquid-rich inclusions formed through immis- ature. NORTHERN CHILE 119 subdivided into two populations: deeper level saline and high. Ahmad and approach of Hedenquist et al.e. 1980. such and Bodnar et al. Evidence of ductile behavior was clusions.. resulting in larger variations in homogenization Quartz vein in biotite-quartz-plagioclase porphyry: The bi. salt-bearing and multisalt inclusions). The homoge. sions in these veins.e. Higher temperature fluids and shallow-level dilute and significantly vapor concentration at shallower levels would promote trap- cooler fluids. For nonboiling assemblages (e. as is shown graphically in Figure 18. most are less than 400°C. salinity. the maximum rather Rose. White Island. rocks behave in a plastic manner. the estimated pressure should be considered a minimum stage fluid inclusions hosted in albite more severely than value. The most than average homogenization temperature values are used for probable causes of this scattering could be (1) postentrap. however. and/or saline. Their trapping pressures may therefore be estimated The effect of postentrapment modification is probably mini. 16). pressure and depth estimation. mometric data strongly suggest that in the Main and Transi- sions. is the last phase to homogenize (Roedder and Bodnar. and pressure of fluid during crystal growth. ping of vapor. It contains abundant quartz veins. the hydrostatic depth can be estimated assuming Scatter of fluid inclusion data that the boiling liquid is open to the surface and vapor is con- Fluid inclusion measurements show a wide range of ho. entrapment depth Whereas inhomogeneous trapping due to boiling. we argue that pressures exceeding the hydrostatic load and approaching the it is unlikely that the high-density fluids are secondary. Main-stage quartz-albite veins contain inclusions with the inantly small. alent hydrostatic load (ca.g. n). decrepitation prior to final homogenization was rare. Thus. cibility. 15j). More accurate depth estimates are difficult to justify those in Main-stage quartz. tentrapment deformation would be expected to affect Early. sions (Fig. (1985).. 1992). Further.

2002). 1998). Moreover. the inclusions trapped at lower temperatures (ca ≤400°C) in these veins could have formed in a brittle environment under hydrostatic conditions. va- Urusova (1975). cause lowering of the pressure at the top of the liquid column. only 300 m of ero- sion could have occurred since the hypogene mineralization event. such as the Far Southeast-Lepanto porphyry and ep- ithermal deposit. The existence of 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. The quartz- sericite-clay samples were taken from approximately 200 m below the present-day surface. Therefore. have abrupt and planar boundaries implying forma- tion in a brittle environment. assuming fluid entrapment in a boiling system. 400°C and a salinity of 40 wt percent NaCl equiv correspond to a hydro- static pressure of approximately 200 bars and a depth of 2. Philippines (Hedenquist et al. Areas domi- nated by vapor-rich inclusions are documented from the shal- low parts of very young deposits which have suffered minimal erosion.5 km. The most reasonable explanation for this is a hydrostatic load with an average density considerably less than unity. The boiling of an exsolved magmatic fluid with a salinity of ca. Therefore. and ground water. Fluids in inclusions disseminated in quartz associated with the higher level quartz-sericite-clay alteration were both con- siderably cooler on trapping. (1985). and Bodnar et al.. Type 1b and 2b in. Most of the quartz-albite veins.00 120 . how- ever. a fractured rock under hydrostatic conditions is dominated See text for discussion.e. but they are shown here to provide a minimum pressure estimate. thereby triggering further boiling FIG. 37 wt % NaCl equiv)..7 wt % NaCl equiv). 1998). The transition from ductile to brittle conditions and the initiation of extensive sericite-chlorite-clay alteration therefore occurred at some greater depth. This will. (Semat. a large portion of the vapor must have escaped to shallow levels which are now eroded.000 m below the paleowater table. Pressure estimates for fluid inclusions that exhibited final ho. as discussed below. condensed steam.. if the inclusions were trapped at 500 m below the paleosurface. 18. That 2 km of erosion occurred during the Main-stage hypogene event appears extremely unlikely. more probably. the latter accounting for more than 90 wt percent of the total ex- solved water (Shinohara and Hedenquist. This is considered a minimum depth because of uncertainty regarding the mean density of the fluid load. 8 wt percent NaCl equiv at a depth of 3 km would generate a hypersaline liquid (ca. and slightly less saline (i. 1997) and more than 99 vol percent of the boiled fluid. Phase diagram after Sourirajan and Kennedy (1962). 20 and text). 300°C. 50 wt % NaCl equiv) and a vapor (ca. 0.120 BOUZARI AND CLARK boundaries (Fig. 1966). porized ground water. In this model the upper part of a boiling fluid column in clusions are treated differently for trapping pressure estimation (see Fig. dif- ferent densities at different depths. Boiling fluids with temperatures of ca. the quartz- sericite-clay samples are located only 100 m above the sericite-chlorite-clay alteration which formed at an approxi- mate depth of 2. Thus. constituting approx- imately 70 to 80 percent of the total volume of the observed inclusions.. Vapor-rich inclusions are the dominant observed phase in fluid inclusions of the Main and Transitional stage (see above). At these shallow levels. or. with a maximum temperature of ca. by a mixture of low-salinity steam. These data correspond to a hydrostatic pressure of only 60 bars and a depth of only 500 m below the paleowater table. mogenization by vapor disappearance (type 1a and 1b). the vapor (superheated steam) con- denses and absorbs cold meteoric water (Hedenquist et al. as well as all veins related to the sericite-chlorite-clay al- teration. an estimate in disagreement with the evidence for deep erosion provided by the thick supergene leached and ox- idized zones (Bouzari and Clark. 6c). in turn. such as would be caused by suspended vapor.

accumulation of the low-den. under lithostatic conditions (Cline and Bodnar. the overall density of the hydrostatic column must inclusions define a pressure of <0. Clus- tic boiling (ca. 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6.000-m depth ters of inclusions with trapping pressures of <0. Cline and Bodnar. Roedder (1984) noted that such high pres- peratures below 320°C (quartz-albite veins: Fig. monly interpreted as recording entrapment at high pressure mulation at shallow levels during the early stages of hydrosta. 20). crepitate inclusions in quartz (850 bars). Assuming an entrapment depth of 2. In the latter alteration. and trapping plausibly spond to the maximum pressure obtained from boiling as- occurred at around 2.6 kbar (∆T ≤30°C). upward migration of vapor. Therefore. as at Questa.5 to 3 km below surface.5 to 3 km. 16e).59 kbar). 20). CERRO COLORADO PORPHYRY Cu DEPOSIT. New Mexico (Cline and Bodnar. and of the boiling assemblage fluids (path 1. Sn-Cu deposit by Kontak and Clark for the formation of lower temperature (≥300°C) and lower (2002). semblages (0. ∆T is very small or negligible in the majority of inclusions. 16c) or sures conflict with the measured pressures required to de- 280°C (sericite-chlorite-clay: Fig. and cooling of the liquid phase by the host rock. 18). knowing vapor homogenization significantly underestimated (Roedder and Bodnar. greater depths. Bodnar et al. respectively (Fig. Over 60 percent of these formed.8 kbars (∆T = 86°C) and 2. but have been around one-third of that prevailing during pressures of up to 1. No vapor-rich inclu. higher pressure (≥60 bars) inclusions in these veins (Fig. based this estimate on synthetic inclusions with diameters of The differences between halite dissolution and vapor disap. 268). trapping pressures may p.6 kbar corre- would be considered a minimum value. inclusions have lower final homogenization temperatures However. Fig. 400°C at 200 bars). The differences between halite dissolution (Tm(H)) and vapor disappearance (Th(L-V)) temperatures of the type 1b and 2b inclusions (∆T) decrease from deep quartz-albite veins to shallower level quartz- sericite-clay alteration. FIG. and halite dissolution temperatures. and therefore the maximum pressures they could sus- quartz-sericite-clay alteration (∆T ≤64°C). If the quartz-sericite-clay alteration developed be estimated for inclusion types 1b and 2b of the quartz-albite under 60-bars pressure and at a depth comparable to that veins and sericite-chlorite-clay alteration with salinities of 40 at which the immediately underlying sericite-chlorite-clay ± 1 wt percent NaCl equiv (Fig. NORTHERN CHILE 121 this low-density fluid mixture at the top of a column of boil.00 121 . Continued boil. temperature of vapor disappearance for fluid inclusions associated with the Main-stage alteration assemblages. 109°C) are obtained for sericite-chlorite-clay alteration and The above argument also applies to the trapping depth of quartz-albite veins. (1989).3 kbars (∆T = sericite-chlorite-clay alteration. 20). 1994). Depending on the extent of vapor accu. produced by cooling and possibly slight pressure fluctuation sity fluids. 1994). Thus. This may be re- lated to greater pressure at depth or to convergence of the temperatures of the fluid and rock at shallower levels (see text for discussion). 1980. absent field (Bodnar. significantly higher pressure (≥1. 1994). pressure inclusions may have formed by fluid and tectonic Inclusions that homogenize by halite dissolution (types 1b overpressuring when mineral deposition sealed the vein and 2b) must have been trapped in the liquid-stable. about 5 and 10 µm at 1 to 3 kbars. as shown in Figure tain probably approach the lower limit proposed by Bodnar et 19. fluids related to the sericite-chlorite-clay alteration and Inclusions that homogenize by halite dissolution are com- quartz-albite veins. the assumed 2. Bodnar (1994) has modeled the H2O-NaCl system and al. These 20).5 kbars) inclusions than other saline inclusions (types 1a and 2a). determined halite liquidus and isochores for a 40 wt percent ing liquid will cause the depth of inclusion trapping to be NaCl solution. (1989) sions had homogenization temperatures below these ranges. The majority of the mea- pearance temperatures (∆T) show a systematic decrease from sured inclusions at Cerro Colorado have dimensions of 20 to the deep quartz-albite veins (∆T ≤120°C) to the shallower 30 µm. channels and a lithostatic environment prevailed (path 2. Plot of temperature of halite dissolution vs. Perú. and they are the are difficult to interpret unless they were trapped at much only salt-bearing inclusions with final homogenization tem. 19. Fig. 1994. as proposed invading meteoric water are inferred to have been responsible for the San Rafael. vapor. these inclusions may have been ing.

indicating an overall prograde thermal 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. salinity of around 5 wt percent NaCl equiv. the maxi. as in most porphyry de- (1994) phase diagram (Fig. however. p. semblages comprising the Cerro Colorado deposit conform broadly to those of porphyry deposits worldwide (e. essentially isobaric cooling of the boiling fluids These relationships. ca. sericite. However. there is no evidence that all shallower level phyllic fluids were boiling at the time of trapping.5–3 km) a pressure inclusions associated with the ensuing. On cooling after trapping. There is no com- Type 1a and 2a inclusions with similar salinity are shown for comparison. the Early-stage fluids were of much lower salinity (≤8 the Transitional-stage breccia pipes and quartz veins in the bi. low salinity (<1 wt % NaCl equiv) fluids may rep- resent heated ground water which did not boil. Pressure and depth estimates for fluid inclusions in clasts of Thus. application of Bodnar’s Early and Main stages of alteration. of 230 bars and 900 m. but their homogenization temperatures could not be measured because most were gas filled. implying a minimum pressure and depth salinity (Bodnar.. have formed only by cooling. The horizontal line labeled 0. The evolution of the mineralizing system may. the pressure must have significantly exceeded the hydrostatic load (path 2). As the fluid ate-temperature. Assum- atures of fluid inclusions in the quartz-albite veins and the ing entrapment at depths similar to those of inclusions asso- more restricted and lower homogenization temperatures of ciated with the Main stage (i. The dashed line labeled 323°C and those parallel to it are lines of constant liquid. Most type 1b take into account the occurrence of CO2 and salts other than and 2b inclusions yield pressures of < 0. these inclusions could have been produced ing a cluster of phreatomagmatic breccia bodies (Fig. inclusions recording very high pressure (>1 kbar) could not trapping pressures.e. bution of Transitional-stage breccia bodies may reflect the lo- 1984. quenching of hot fluids may have Evolution of the Mineralizing System caused trapping in the halite-stable field (path 3). See text for discussion. 12). product of a single hydrothermal system. Inclusions trapped to the right of iso-Th 323°C ex. 1981) and occur within a coherent area surround- Alternatively. Vapor-rich inclusions coexist with these low-salinity in- clusions. which would. hibit final homogenization by vapor disappearance. 18). have homogenization temperatures of up to 377°C and a lution (type 1b and 2b) and have salinities of 40 ± 1 wt percent NaCl equiv. 2). moder- ature must decrease rapidly and significantly.g.. In contrast. 18) would result in significant posits. i. and some of the very low temperature (<150°C). pelling evidence of boiling at the time of trapping of the liq- vapor homogenization temperature (iso-Th) for inclusions with 40 percent uid-rich inclusions. Hence. halite crystals (Fig. enization temperatures of the Early-stage inclusions (Potter. deeper phyllic alteration) are sim- ilar to those for the Main-stage sericite-chlorite-clay alter- ation. and those trapped to the It should be emphasized that the above estimates do not left. Thus. However. As discussed above. (1985) and Bodnar (1994). e. rock and fluid temperatures converge.550 m. 4 × 2 is shown by the very wide range of homogenization temper. km in area. corre- sponding to depths of up to 1. by rapid. During the initial stages of hydrothermal activity. wt % NaCl equiv) and up to 163°C cooler than the later otite-quartz-plagioclase porphyry intrusive unit associated Main-stage fluids. tent of the cooling of the fluids rather than overpressuring. nonboiling fluids generated a flow continues. inclusions associated with the shallow-level phyllic alteration (e. respectively. 453). low-salinity. mum ∆T shown in Figure 19 may simply represent the ex. Fluid inclusions associated with the Late-stage pyrite veins FIG. Phase The overall succession of hypogene alteration and vein as- diagram is after Bodnar et al. the existence of a low-density hydrostatic load would increase this depth. 1985) and decrease (Roedder.e. thus giving erroneously high pressure values if the iso-Th lines are used.00 122 . by salt dissolution. indicating trapping temperatures of 251° to 381°C. Although the distri- bility. This implies that no major erosion occurred between the Main stage and the emplacement and alteration of the Transitional-stage intrusions. g).122 BOUZARI AND CLARK with the breccia body (i. in quartz aggre- gates and disseminations) have a significantly lower homoge- nization temperatures and record pressures (Fig. 20.. Under these conditions.6 kbar. respectively. 1977). but were not trapped in the inclusions: Roedder. and they may therefore have halite. shallower. in addition to the geochronologic data causing halite saturation (path 3. Pressure estimates for inclusions that homogenized by salt disso. are interpreted as evidence that the deposit is the were present at the trapping temperature. During the early stages of fluid flow along fractures. is not exposed. 20. Fig. increase (Hedenquist and formed by cooling and a slight increase of the pressure of boiling fluids (path Henley.. with little or no stockwork development. barring metasta. halite would form cation of the main foci of fluid release at depth. This large volume of sulfide-free potassic-sodic alteration.e. correction of 65° to 70°C would be applicable to the homog- chlorite-clay and quartz-sericite-clay alteration facies (Fig. 2. be reconstructed.6 kbar is the maximum pressure obtained from the boiling type 1a and 2a inclusions. 1994). very Early stage hot fluids interact with cold country rock and their temper. Titley and Beane. the present immediately and the inclusion would follow its isochore exposure interval provides no information regarding any ig- until vapor formed when it intersected the liquid-vapor neous bodies which may have been directly related to the curve. 16c.. 1984) the estimated 1). the zone of vapor exsolution from the parental magmas error in estimating the trapping pressure.g.

and Mg Early-stage fluids were “spent”). ≥52 to < 37 wt percent NaCl equiv (Fig. Na. f. Mass exchange relationships between Early. Main-stage alteration. during which much of the levels (Fig. alteration pattern was the product of variations in both fluid ently low reduced sulfur content of the fluids. f. with <10 wt % percent NaCl equiv may indicate incorporation of connate or.5 km). and thus the fluids density segregation which led to the development of a stack did not achieve saturation in either chalcopyrite or pyrite. atively reduced conditions indicated by the Fe2+ metasoma. It is plausible that single-phase. a relationship which would through destruction of feldspar and biotite. extensive stockwork zone.. they equilibrated with the host rocks. of fluid volumes. NaCl equiv) were involved (Fig. The pH de- added during alteration. It is therefore envisaged temperatures converged. c).. Except for the quartz-al. It is possible that the lack ate to advanced argillic subfacies (Fig. These processes resulted in the contemporaneous that the bulk of dissolved Cu in such a brine would precipi. Burnham and increase in strain rate in the overlying rocks. However. A gradual change is apparent from protracted heating of the alteration zone. the base of the Main-stage domain record the most primitive may have contributed to the distribution and zoning of the Main-stage fluids. rose toward surface. 16c. This would have resulted in an magma at depths of 6 to 7 km (Burnham. meteoric water at this stage. andalusite and diaspore after muscovite and illite at shallow Therefore.. despite the rel. The fluids cooled from at least 550° that fluids would be discharged laterally into lithostatically to below 320°C (Fig. giving rise to the considerable heat loss. resulting in low fluid/rock ratios and persaturation in the fluids (Fournier.g.00 123 . lower tempera- metamorphic or deuteric origin for the Early alteration. Fe content of chlorite and the Fe and Mg contents of mus- bite veins. NORTHERN CHILE 123 evolution in the earlier stages of the hydrothermal system. This fractured. and Fe2+. Higher acidity at shallower lev- fides.e. i. A lack of synal. hence.e. and salinity decreased from pressured wall rock (Hodgson. ≥400°C. causing brittle Ohmoto. 1979. 1999). preceding Early-stage zone. tion of sulfides (Fig. i. caused quartz and albite su- fluids over a large area. Norton and Knapp (1977) and Norton banded quartz-albite veins and local massive silicification at and Knight (1977) have modeled such an environment. the mineral assemblages of the Main stage were covite decrease upward: Table 1). indi- ever. high-temperature (>500°C) brines exsolved magma chamber and/or renewed magma emplacement at during the crystallization and retrograde boiling of silicic shallow depth (e. curred as a result of mixing with nonmagmatic fluids and/or Early-stage alteration is sulfide barren. which the fluids would probably not intersect the solvus (e. Ca. 14). 16d. they must have cooled cate that Main-stage fluids cooled rapidly on encountering significantly before effecting the pervasive alteration.e.. pervasive. ranging from high-density at depth to low- Mass-balance relationships indicate that considerable Cl was density and vapor-dominated at shallower levels. Decompression at the brittle- focus the hydrothermal fluids would promote dispersion of plastic transition. salinities up to 52 wt percent NaCl equiv. so that boiling and. resulting in covite breakdown. The large differ- The extensive metasomatic exchange (Fig. Irregular quartz-albite veins at Several other factors. was generated by fluids that density vapor accumulation in the uppermost preserved por- were significantly different from those which formed the tion of the Main-stage system. in the base of the Main zone. rapid discharge of large quantities of magmatic fluids to shal- teration intrusive dikes or major structural breaks that could lower levels. 1999). How. h). Similar composi- Main-stage alteration and mineralization assemblages cut tional trends are shown by individual phyllosilicates (e. At shal- equilibrating with the Cerro Empexa andesite and causing ex. that the lack of sulfides is best els caused stronger hydrolysis and the loss of K through mus- explained by a gradual increase in fluid/rock ratio. We propose. 19a). the Early stage chlorite-muscovite stability in the intermediate argillic alter- was inherently prograde at the preserved depth interval of the ation horizon. alkali-deficient protore. development of an array of alteration zones from intermedi- tate on cooling from 350° to 250°C. rules out a (Fig. muscovite) stability in the quartz-sericite-clay alteration. This plausibly oc- more probably. Fournier. 1995) at a depth of ca. and behavior at greater depth (Fournier. the albite to the quartz-sericite-clay facies.e. and fluid and rock development would be precluded. however. quartz-sericite-clay alteration (Fig. 1980. <4.. pH and temperature. (1998) demonstrated experimentally rich fluids.and Main- tism. corresponding to the transition from the quartz- tensive mass exchange and pervasive alteration. through muscovite-illite (i. or that major amounts of Cu and Fe sulfides were stage sericite-chlorite-clay subfacies indicate that the major deposited at higher temperatures at greater depths (i. 3). where they boiled... h). cool. Xiao et al. alkali-free phyllosilicate) stability in the ad- Main stage vanced argillic alteration subfacies (Fig. the and replace Early-stage alteration. the Main-stage of chalcopyrite and pyrite may have resulted from an inher. so that Cu would have been readily creased upward through condensation of the abundant vapor- transported. g). 16d. in addition to temperature and pH. 3 km. most notably the fluid/rock 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. CERRO COLORADO PORPHYRY Cu DEPOSIT.g. and the deposi- reconcile the unusually low temperatures with the lack of sul. 3) implies extreme acidity associated with low- protore copper was deposited. lower levels. if magmatic fluids were involved. ture. As the fluids moved through the stockwork in the brittle H2O-NaCl). relative to those of the shallower.g. low-salinity (6–8 wt been generated by injection of mafic melt into the underlying % NaCl equiv). and previously biotitized and albitized host may reflect their origin in a relatively deep seated magma rock. 14b. 1999) and permitting the cooled extensively because of a low fluid flux.. with temperatures as high as 544°C and Main-stage mineral assemblages. to pyrophyllite (i.. e. particularly ences between salt dissolution and vapor disappearance tem- the introduction of considerable K. the effects of these fluids were the leaching of Na. as well as peratures in the types 1b and 2b inclusions of these veins the F-rich nature of the newly formed biotite.g. 8). The formation of abundant radically out of equilibrium with those of the Early stage. progressively greater existence of fluid inclusions with salinities of less than 2 wt proportions of very low salinity fluids (e. The high-temperature fluids of the Main stage may have chamber. 19c).e. at ca.

The final magmatic activity at Cerro Colorado is limit of smectite (i. conditions by low-temperature fluids in a supergene or. deeper parts of the previously altered breccia bodies (Fig. potassic alteration are particularly porphyry emplacement during the Transitional stage.. poorly documented. have postulated Transitional and Late stages prograde transitions from early barren or sulfide-poor potas- Phyllic alteration at Cerro Colorado is centered in the sic alteration to strongly mineralized alteration and stockwork breccia bodies and forms an inverted conical halo in the sur. the abundant smectite at the idence for the occurrence of similar features or processes in shallowest levels may have been generated under more stable other porphyry Cu-Mo and Cu-Au deposits and prospects. 1993) and Gustafson and Quiroga (1995). been reported from other major porphyry copper deposits. mained scantily documented in porphyry systems before the 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. but their parts of the breccia bodies were therefore as hot as the deep original distribution is not fully established because of over. 1968). (2002) document the for. most impor- sibly.. contain minor quartz but abundant hornblende. these late fluids were as hot as those in the formed at temperatures as high as 444°C (Fig.g. 8). how. were ever. commonly nontronitic. The tem. Illite and smectite are. 3). hot (≤486°C) and saline (≤47 wt % NaCl equiv: Fig. such alteration was closely associated with breccia and such early. There. characteris- 1982. and porphyry plugs caused the mixed. early biotitic alteration zones surrounding the Sierrita-Esper- The fluids that caused phyllic alteration in the breccias were anza and other Arizona deposits (Titley. breccia bodies are also extensively phyllically altered. 200°–220°C: Perry and Hower.g. in the porphyry lute (≤8wt % NaCl equiv) at shallower levels. deeper levels of the pluton to ascend to the shallower.. been documented. However. Textural relationships are inter. as- the development of chlorite or muscovite (Fig. 1984). Velde. on the quartz in such hornfelsic facies impedes fluid inclusion study. where the abundant smectite is as. sive pyrite veins were deposited from nonboiling.. 1984) alteration re- (≤40 wt % NaCl equiv: Fig. but intrusive porphyries that cut the mal and/or chemical evolution of the hydrothermal fluids. pos. b. replaces albite in Toward the terminal stages of hydrothermal activity. but under metastable conditions (e. volumes of the magma chamber (Rowland. the proportion of sitional than of the Main stage. sumed to be of supergene origin. shallow intrusion of Similarly. the pluton. Aja et al. 7c).1 percent in the quartz our knowledge. Thus. and in the deepest drill core intersections illite is ab. 16i. To alized. 16e). vacated Meyer et al. the subhorizontal. suming a depth of 2. Embley et al. formed at unusually high In Table 5. 1991a. a process which may have con- confirmed an increase in the formation temperature of illite tributed much of the heat and perhaps the ore metals since and/or smectite as the fluid/rock reaction time decreased.. However. Titley and his coworkers (Titley et al. and there was no overall retrograde rela- printing at shallow levels. portion of smectite increasing with depth. 1970. Fluids related to the phyllic alteration in intermediate argillic (Meyer and Hemley. recorded by hornblende-plagioclase porphyry dikes em- Yau et al. tics that may record the incursion of mafic melt into the Perry and Hower (1970) and Hower and Altaner (1983) have parental magma chamber. tion as a result of the permeability of the breccia bodies. low-salinity preted as evidence that the replacement of both disseminated (≤8 wt % NaCl equiv: Fig. Nonetheless. 1988. 7e). 16m. tionship between the Main and Transitional stages. Titley. boiling and saline chlorite-clay (“SCC”: Sillitoe and Gappe. sent and smectite. would have been around fluid inclusion microthermometry shows that these veins 450°C. 1995) has not boiling. Thus. but became progressively cooler (≤334°C) and more di.g.. but. development. 1993. mas- Main-stage veinlets (Fig. In particular. 1995).. 300°C (Sales and Meyer. Moreover.0 km. the three-dimensional form of the extensive porphyry plug which cuts biotite-quartz-plagioclase porphyry.. basis of crosscutting relationships (Fig.124 BOUZARI AND CLARK ratio and its possible effect on clay mineral distribution. 1988. Montana. 1948.00 124 . Seyfried and Mottl. Trapping temperatures. Alt and Jiang. and Parry et al. the pro. However. 1991). precursor. in part because the paucity of veins and poral relationships of these events are not clear. tantly S. copper grades fall below 0. some with temperatures as low as 90°C. Despite its widespread development (e. The P-T-X conditions and metasomatic exchange attending fore. we highlight four apparently unusual aspects of temperatures. that of the Main stage. 1998). melts in the curs in veins formed at ca. 1981. becoming progressively more felsic and less miner. We propose that Main-stage smectite at Cerro Colorado. Utah. in dis. It is evident that. 1967) or sericite- the porphyries also were very hot (≤510°C).e. ation zone at Cerro Colorado (not listed in Table 5) has rarely placement. blanketlike form of the alter- the porphyries plausibly occurred after the main breccia em. agreement with the generally accepted upper thermal stability 16i. the main clay minerals in Main-stage assemblages with significantly more abundant at the shallow levels of the Tran- minimal supergene overprint. yet denser. the onset of the Main stage. 1986. which oc. 1992). j). n). dilute fluids. Main-stage fluids. These dikes 300°C (e. Seyfried and Bischoff. Progressive rise of the more fel- Page and Wenk (1979) demonstrated that the first product of sic melts of the upper portion of the pluton as breccia bodies plagioclase alteration at Butte. j).. Essene the Cerro Colorado hypogene protore and summarize the ev- and Peacor. 16p) fluids with homogenization albite and relict plagioclase phenocrysts by smectite preceded temperatures of less than 377°C. is smectite. Clay Fluids trapped in the intrusive porphyries and in lower minerals were generated throughout the Main stage. permitting mation of smectite and/or illite in association with both phyllic their emplacement as dikes before the final consolidation of and intermediate argillic alteration at Bingham. although several authors. at Comparison with Other Porphyry Copper Deposits least in the deepest part of the zone.5 to 3. placed both during the final stages of phyllic alteration and smectite is widely reported to form at temperatures exceeding after all significant alteration and mineralization. only sparse evidence is provided for the ther- rounding andesite (Fig. This is interpreted as evidence apparently hypogene smectite group clays increases with for a greater influx of meteoric water and/or vapor condensa- depth. cool hypogene environment. a trend similar to Cu-Au deposits of the Philippines: Sillitoe and Gappe.

precursor alteration and zoning Preece and Beane mineralization is hosted by central propylitic and green (from sericite-chlorite-clay to quartz-sericite-clay) are (1982). Arizona: bulk of the copper Mineral assemblages. and qtz + prp assemblages. CC = Cerro Colorado. but style of Carten (1986). Dilles et al. 37–41% NaCl equiv the fluids were markedly more saline (1986). and moderate Th fluids of Preece and Beane alteration is barren and extends over 30 km2 the early barren potassic alteration resemble CC. zone between the propylitic fringe and qtz + ser + py alteration D. Utah: ser + sm ± kao ± chl alteration overprinted Chlorite is less abundant than clays due to higher feldspar/ central part of the potassic zone biotite ratio of the precursor alteration Hedenquist et al. 35–40% NaCl equiv). Philippines: sericite-chlorite-clay alteration Overall alteration style and assemblages are similar to that overprinted bio + mag ± K feldspar alteration but much at CC but significant copper deposition was delayed Manske and Paul (2002) of the Cu was deposited in association with later qtz + until the onset of phyllic alteration ser veins Intermediate argillic alteration less important ore host Superior district. which are in turn capped by advanced argillic alteration zones. NORTHERN CHILE 125 TABLE 5. Chile: bio + ab + act + K feldspar ± mag ± qtz The EB veins were probably similar to those at CC but Gustafson and Hunt veins (EB veins) host minor chalcopyrite at depth they may have been contemporaneous with mineralized (1975). Arizona: intermediate argillic alteration than at CC forms a narrow. (2002) Bingham. and Cu mineralization was (1982). Chile: From EB veining in depth to the The prograde transition from barren (moderate Th (?) and Gustafson and Hunt mineralized potassic (> 600°C. also low salinity) to the mineralized (high Th and salinity) (1975). ≤60% NaCl equiv) Redmond et al. all generated by a single hydrothermal system from 11. Philippines: K silicate alteration is The absence of hypogene alunite at CC is attributed to a Arribas et al. Importance of intermediate argillic alteration Sierrita-Esperanza. all reported temperatures are those of fluid inclusion homogenization (Th) 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. 10–15 wt %) fluids in Titley et al. qtz + the timing of the potassic and sericite-chlorite-clay or (1992). fluids: liquid-rich + vapor. shallow depth (≤725°C. (≤430°C. 350°–430°C. deep potassic (≤430°C. central zone of propylitic alteration Titley (1993) El Salvador. Gustafson and Fluids: liquid-rich + vapor (similar to those in D veins) potassic alteration Quiroga (1995) Bingham. deep K silicate phyllic alteration. Arizona: from Early-stage potassic Prograde history similar to that at CC. Utah: qtz + K feldspar + bio alteration is barren Like CC. overlain successively by intermediate argillic. (1995). unlike CC. but the overall upward trend from (2000) alteration contemporaneous with shallow sericitic and chlorite and/or sericite to advanced argillic alteration advanced argillic alterations generated by a single rising fluid is similar Far Southeast-Lepanto. lower temperature.6 to 10. Prograde history Sierrita-Esperanza. lack of vapor phase separation from the Early-stage Hedenquist et al. Arizona: qtz + bio + ab + K feldspar The size. partly mineralized. Gustafson and recorded from earlier. pyrophyllite. (1986) transition to quartz-muscovite assemblages alteration at CC Island Copper. Simultaneous development of intermediate and advanced argillic alteration facies Yerington-Ann Mason. alteration and inferred source of fluids differ Dilles and Einaudi 31–41% NaCl equiv) which generated sodic-calcic alteration (1992) C. Bingham has a barren potassic alteration root but. but (1982). specular alteration is similar to that at CC but potassic alteration Quiroga (1995) hematite to the pyrrhotite-chalcopyrite veins persisted Bingham. (1998) kandite and shallow alunitic assemblages which were fluids and the deeper level of erosion represented by sensibly contemporaneous the Main-stage assemblages Ohio Creek-Lookout Rocks. Titley et al. Fluids: 300°–370°C. Premonitory barren potassic alteration Sierrita-Esperanza. Nevada: Magmatic fluids heated Overall fluid zoning is similar to that at CC. deeply circulating nonmagmatic fluids (250° to >400°C. CERRO COLORADO PORPHYRY Cu DEPOSIT. ser + py. Comparison of Hypogene Features at Cerro Colorado with )ther Porphyry Systems Observations Comparison with Cerro Colorado References A. NaCl equiv) to the ore-related potassic alteration at Bowman et al. ≤7% Similar situation to that at El Salvador Roedder (1971). New Zealand: potassic Similar to Far Southeast-Lepanto Brathwaite et al. (2004) at depth. mineral assemblages. ≤15% NaCl equiv) generated by cooler (<370°C. (1987). ≤41% NaCl equiv) to the Main-stage potassic alteration persisted. sericitic (ser + clay + chl + bio) alteration with outward very similar to the Main-stage intermediate argillic Titley et al. (1986). particularly in Dilles and Einaudi overlain successively by ab + chl + tm + ser + py. Redmond et al. Titley (1993) El Salvador. (1998) Far Southeast. shallow mineralized potassic alteration occurs 2–7 wt % NaCl equiv B.00 125 . British Columbia: ser + chl + clay ± epi Arancibia and Clark alteration overprinted Main-stage potassic but contributed Very similar to the Main stage at CC but differs in its (1996) little Cu paucity in copper Parry et al. but potassic Preece and Beane (≤370°C. Nevada: K silicate alteration is The facies differ in detail from those at CC. (2001) alteration zone is overprinted by intermediate argillic and phyllic alteration zones. (2004) Yerington-Ann Mason.7 Ma Notes: Mineral abbreviations are as in Figure 6. Utah: From earlier.

1933. phyllite. In the major Broadlands- however. Analogies with Geothermal Systems zones at temperatures between 320° to less than 120°C.. 1980). and Simmons and Browne (2000) documented low-sulfida- terns and fluid evolution. 2003).G. reveal striking similarities with the Cerro Colorado Ohaaki geothermal system. alunite. despite their possibly extensive alteration was overprinted by illite-chlorite alteration as the thermal footprint (e. system cooled and meteoric-derived fluids became dominant. Nasuji-Songongon sector of the Palinpinon geothermal field Lindgren. Cerro Colorado is such alteration the major ore host. 1979. a vertical zoning from bi- otitic. andalusite. Cunningham et al. temperatures of alteration minerals in numerous Philippine blages in the upper Eocene to lower Oligocene and Miocene geothermal fields. (2003) demonstrated that early biotite alteration in the cited as modern analogs of epithermal ore deposits (e.. illite. 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. diaspore. with decreasing Eocene centers (e.. unpub. particularly in terms of alteration pat.00 126 . but detailed petrographic data are lacking in argillic alteration. blind intrusion (Rae et al. illite (230°–320°C).. 2001.126 BOUZARI AND CLARK work of Parry et al. Finally. identifying four major facies. paralleling the measured isotherms. The transitional facies is characterized by in- company report. this assemblage persists to higher temperatures (Reyes. White. Rae et al. >400 km2 at Bingham Canyon: cf.. Hedenquist (1990) hydrothermal center. Fluid up. 21). However. such was generated essentially contemporaneously with shallow links are rarely (e. D). comprising various proportions of pyro- most such cases. Cuajone: Clark. 2005. Major geothermal fields. transitional (180°– but is more intensely developed in several Paleocene-middle 230°C). through illite (sericite)-chlorite to advanced argillic (acid zone) alteration is apparent. Presnall and Parry. The sections emphasize the markedly more focused nature of hydrothermal activity in the mineralized system. 2004. Weissberg et al. the contemporaneous development of deep intermediate and 1990).and outflow usually conform to a T-shaped shallow advanced argillic alteration. as is exemplified in Figure 21. and smectite (ambient to 180°C). forms along narrow. New Zealand. dickite.g. which characterizes the pattern. tion epithermal gold and silver mineralization associated with FIG. only at terlayered illite-smectite but. Rae Although large-scale geothermal fields have long been et al. Rowland. however. SCC alteration Reyes (1990) documented the distribution and formation apparently occurs as only a weak overprint on potassic assem. Biotite porphyry copper deposits. and the alteration facies boundaries are commonly Main stage at Cerro Colorado has been described elsewhere subhorizontal. (2002) at Bingham. of (a) the central area of the >20-km-wide Palinpinon geothermal field. namely. Cross sections. and the biotitic alteration de- veloped well below 400°C.. where permeabilities are low.g.. commonly structurally controlled. Utah.. depth (Fig. Advanced (Table 5. 2005) and The absence of hypogene advanced argillic alteration in the the widely accepted spatial and genetic relationships between Puhagan sector.g. In both centers.g. Philip- pines (from Reyes. 2003). is ascribed to the nondegassing of a epithermal and porphyry activity. 1981). 21. and (b) the Cerro Colorado porphyry Cu-Mo deposit. bi- to Pliocene porphyry Cu-Mo deposits of the central Andes otite (270°–340°C). 2003) proposed in detail for advanced argillic alteration by 267° to >600°C fluids. and kaoli- nite. Spence: M. at the same scale.

boil. nonexplosive systems alteration in other geothermal fields (e. 1997. the intense. 2003). sodic alteration system by nonboiling.00 127 . episodes of significant increase in temperature (up to 150°C) However.g. therefore. sulfide-free. Moore et al. and the thermal evolution has been documented in several other ge. generating mushroom-shaped patterns of ther. The commonly lack even subeconomic mineralization despite the pervasive biotite alteration at temperatures commonly not ex. fluid temperatures teration patterns are recorded in the Salton Sea geothermal greater than 350° to 400°C have rarely been encountered in field. 2003). cool. Overall. Geothermal fields most important ore-forming factors. mechanical energy release. Iceland: the search for geothermal power sources. 1980). Such alteration and thermal zoning is flect the rarity of these phenomena but may also be due to an documented in geothermal fields around the world (e. similarities in alteration mineralogy and metasomatic ex- The biotite-albite-magnetite alteration at Cerro Colorado change relationships. fluids. Rae et al. tence of high-temperature fluids capable of dissolving and It is therefore evident that low-temperature (≤350°C) transporting large quantities of metals to shallow levels.g.. Philippines: Hedenquist et al. mineralization at active geother. blanketlike. which is hosted by Pliocene and Quaternary geothermal fields. below 2. The Cerro Colorado porphyry copper deposit exhibits al- mented a thermally prograde multistage evolution at the Tiwi teration assemblages typical of porphyry systems. are character- tern of alteration with decreasing depth (from 1. pervasive alteration in these laria. In contrast. The moderate to low temperature and low salinity of meability. 300° to 350°C documented in numerous geother. and segregate into high. or a combination ation assemblages occur widely along zones with greater per.5 km. is characteristic of the early stages for rapid cooling of the metal-bearing fluids. focused. Di- creasing depth. porphyry mineralization. and illite and/or these features in explored active geothermal fields may re- smectite (115°– 220°C). (2000) docu.g. weak partitioning of sulfur lateral flow. CERRO COLORADO PORPHYRY Cu DEPOSIT. El Salvador. metals. Chile: Gustafson and Quiroga. 2001)... (1990) and Rae et al. both the styles of alteration and their association contemporaneous with initial deposition of sericite. even where drilling has been carried out shale and sandstone (McKibben and Hardie. which may have resulted from an inherently low sulfur lute. and become di. Fig. pro. in particular. 1997). such zones may represent a similar alteration style prior to the corporates economic concentrations of base or precious main. Yau et al.g.. Sierrita-Esperanza.g. depths through deep sulfide mineralization. Reykjanes. as well as hydrothermal breccia pipes representing fluids (Williams and McKibben.g. Pan.. but elsewhere develop blanket-shaped (e. to those at many active geothermal fields.g. potassic- The zoned pattern of alteration from intermediate to ad. 1986) sectors of mineralized porphyry systems suggests that mal fields (e. Philippines. striking analogies are apparent formed prior to the Main-stage assemblages. fields suggests that such factors were not determinants. The extensive vol- orado may have developed under similar conditions. ization plausibly reflects a low sulfur content in the Early-stage density phases. Palinpinon and Broadlands-Ohaaki) rarely in. 1987. Reyes solved fluids (Rae et al. Furthermore. with or without contemporaneous ad. vanced argillic facies is apparently a common pattern in both low-salinity fluids is for the first time documented in detail in geothermal systems and porphyry deposits in which fluids as.. The lack of of biotite (≤310°C). At shallow levels the fluids adopt a major component of content in the crystallizing melt. the exis- Tomasson and Kristmannsdottir. vironment at Cerro Colorado involved a marked increase in 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6. illite and/or smectite and smectite facies with de. of these.g. tion state (Einaudi et al.. apart from the sulfida- also commonly exhibit a multistage and.. The transition to the Main-stage mineralized porphyry en- ability and insufficient fluid flux (Simmons and Brown. existence of pervasive alteration. The lack of sulfide mineral- cend to shallow levels. Although.. Salton Sea). Lepanto. Cerro Colorado probably developed under conditions similar mal fields suggests that Early-stage alteration at Cerro Col. a major porphyry copper deposit. avoidance of systems with high gas content and explosivity in telleria. less saline. Advanced argillic alter. 21) and in the Palinpinon geothermal field strongly mineralized potassic zones of many porphyry deposits (Reyes. illite. mix with other fluids. Similar al.. umes of barren or low-grade potassic-sodic alteration in the Despite the similarities in alteration patterns and fluid deep (e. Italy: Fulignati et al. The temperature falls from over 250°C in the rect analogies are apparent with pervasive Early-stage alter- feldspar zone to below 150°C in the smectite zone. Valles Caldera. NORTHERN CHILE 127 a zoned pattern of alteration comprising albite and/or adu. 2000. loss of sulfur at greater mal gradients and alteration facies... ation at Cerro Colorado. Arizona: Titley et al. from melt to the exsolved fluids.. 1989) generated a zoned pat. 3. moderate-temperature. in particu- geothermal system. and Epstein.. Similar with sulfide assemblages are apparently anomalous.and low. with at least two main lar an evolution from alkali exchange to hydrolytic facies. and potassic alteration.. per and epithermal deposits. chlorite (220°–310°C). 2003) and metal budget of the ex- grade thermal history. New Mexico: Lambert phyry centers is not evident. despite the bodies (e. such high-temperature (>450°C) (1988) showed that deep hypersaline and shallow. 1998). These extensively documented. 1972). retrograde thermal path almost universally assumed for por- othermal fields (e. as at Cerro the early fluids contrast with those which generated the Colorado (Figs. California. 21). but similar potassic zones may have with many productive or potentially productive geothermal formed at the same time as the overlying intermediate argillic fields. (2003) demonstrated that the southeast- ern sector is becoming hotter whereas the western is cooling Conclusions due to incursion of cooler fluids. 1990. more localized. 1995) characteristics between geothermal fields and porphyry cop. in fluid temperature and salinity and alteration zone geometry pinon geothermal field.. this is commonly attributed to poor perme. of a mechanical energy release sufficient to create fractures vanced argillic alteration. Ulrich et al. ceeding ca. However. at Palinpinon. as in the Palin. forming pockets or inverted cones. For example. enormous. fluids. may be the two of development of geothermal systems.547–256 m) istics of both porphyry and epithermal deposits. In its initial stages. or peripheral (e. The generation of a large. Bowman et al.

D.O.H. 7. S. Field and laboratory research on the Cerro Colorado de. Jennifer Anderson. 1985. accompanied by fluid boiling.. and Kittrick.M.W.B. Tom Ullrich. and Fresnillo districts. Instead.C. Fluid inclusions in minerals: Methods and applications: International Mineralogical Association... I Región.5 percent. De- therefore contemporaneous with Main-stage alteration. Jr. Burnham. T.. 1861–1873. 83.. 235–269. level processes (cf. retrograde path of a rising single fluid through heat loss to the December 24. Marcos Zentilli and Ferenc Molnar are Colorado took place before the Transitional stage.. initiation of magmatic-hydrothermal systems. the Main-stage alteration zoning records the versity Central Andean metallogenetic project. The project Bodnar. v.F. The system H2O-NaCl.4 to 0. W. Assessing metasomatic mass and vol- those of the Main stage.L.N. Therefore. Synthetic fluid inclusions. A. R. although both the volume and chemistry erete. smectite in Recent massive sulfide deposits from the sea floor: Geology. many nonexplosive geothermal fields evolved into one more Experimental determination of the halite liquidus and isochores for a 40 wt characteristic of porphyry deposits in general. and Laurel Basciano (drafting). II.U.J. Phase relationships in the system K2O-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta. p. Inclusions Acknowledgments in Minerals. 1980. 1994. P. 23. J. p.J. 91. This study is a contribution to QCAMP. and Frezzotti.. and Titley. Aja. Beane. shallow. 1053–1063. p. 1365–1374.M. Contemporaneous formation of adjacent porphyry sociated with the Domeyko fault in northern Chile commonly and epithermal Cu-Au deposits over 300 ka in northern Luzon. Hy- ever. 2003. New Mexico: ECONOMIC GEOLOGY. crystallizing parental melt or melts released high-tempera.W. Fluid inclusions in porphyry and skarn stable conditions. tailed reviews by Mark Hannington significantly improved rather than being the product of late. Porphyry copper deposits. p. The occurrence of veinlets of undu.. R. v. who provided a bursary sions in natural quartz. VI. Arribas. generating an essentially simul..J. M. J. nage of protore with Cu grades of 0. It was thanked for their constructive and insightful reviews. ON. 1991a.N. unstinting assistance argillic alteration. III. Hypogene and supergene evolution of the Cerro Colorado als. J. 1980. I. Okada. v. J. 2006 host rocks and condensation into meteoric water. particularly. How. T. v. and Vityk. Colorado. Ague provided FORTRAN 77 computer codes for mass-bal- taneous vertical zonation from intermediate to advanced ance calculations.and Late-stage alteration REFERENCES zones were generated by fluids with temperatures as high as Ague. drothermal alteration of marble: ECONOMIC GEOLOGY. 19. Bouzari. 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005 0.009 ± 0.805 ± 0.003 0. NORTHERN CHILE 5 2.008 ± 0.5 ± 0.013 ± 0.019 ± 0.017 ± 0.92 0.873 42.5 ± 14.005 0.408 ± 0.952 ± 0.51 6.18 ± 1.837 ± 0.957 ± 0.6 ± 8.09 51.008 ± 0.10 53.10 ± 0.021 ± 0.60.537 ± 0.020 ± 0.25 43.226 ± 0. power (W) 40Ar 39Ar 38Ar 37Ar 36Ar Ca/K Cl/K atm f 39Ar 40Ar*/39ArK 2σ error 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6.014 ± 0.23 ± 0.04 ± 0.7 22. Integrated age = 51.567 ± 0.25 22.002 0.002 0.18 8.306 ± 0.297 ± 0.002 0.017 0.002 0.018 0.002 0.012 ± 0.705 ± 0.022 0.002 5.002 0.88 10.018 84.87 8.5 10 • 6 73.015 0.011 0.033 ± 0.008 0.651 ± 19.2 5• 2.73 ± 0.040 7.73 ± 0.005 0.4 ± 6.046 0.046 0.99 ± 0.002 0.03 ± 0.003 0.012 ± 0.78 0.603 ± 0.122 7.012 ± 0.575 50.025 0.019 ± 0.12 51.09 × 1E-10.018 ± 1.003 0.002 0.004 0.008 ± 0.029 0.477 ± 0.12 51.062 0.002 0.162 ± 0.86 17.424 ± 0.033 0.006 55.75 10.101 4.028 ± 0.012 ± 0. 40Ar* = radiogenic 40Ar.09 51.002 0.051 0.001 ± 0.63 7.87 ± 7.72 (99.011 0.003 0.2 ± 5.002 0.305 50.25 5.892 ± 0.7% of 39ArK) 1 0.029 ± 0.003631 ± 0.75 2.10 52.181 11.75 51.068 0.8 17.503 ± 0.090 ± 0.095 ± 0.002 0.031 0.012 0.569 ± 0.000 10.004 ± 0.915 ± 0.002 0.037 ± 0.002 4.005 0.7 7• 3.011 ± 0.018 ± 0.000034.017 ± 0.010 0.100 2.041 4.33 8.002 56.8 ± 332.007 0.56 52.00 CRCO 83-60 hydrothemal biotite J = 0.024 0.8 CRCO 83-53 hydrothermal muscovite + chlorite J = 0.83 × (37ArCa/39ArK) 131 .009 0.75 4.023 ± 0.152 ± 0. Integrated age = 50.000 0. f 39Ar = fraction of 39Ar.023 ± 0.6 ± 3.003 0.4 3• 1.1 ± 21.132 ± 0.002 0.094 2.4 2 0.25 39.833 ± 1.002 0.06 ± 0. Volume 39ArK = 82.003 0.686 ± 0.019 ± 0.39 ± 0. Plateau age = 51.210 ± 0.27 7.013 ± 0.015 ± 0.001 7.198 0.002 0.3 ± 0.006 0.003 4.029 ± 0.133 7.080 ± 0.397 ± 0.7 0.000 3.000030.1 ± 47.003 0.002 0.001 0.4% of 39ArK) 1 0.026 0.006 ± 0.002 0.6 131 5• 2.256 50.049 0.6 6• 2.92 ± 0.002 0.60 ± 49.096 6.6 CRCO 206-14 hydrothermal muscovite J = 0.6 9• 5 164.01 0.017 ± 0.047 0.070 ± 0.001 0.004 0.138 4.027 ± 0.011 ± 0. Plateau age = 51.6 11 • 8 59.125 8.472 ± 0.81 0.017 ± 0. Volume 39ArK = 53.3952.010 ± 0.002 0.25 4.3 ± 2.002 0.66 8.040 13.000 0.52 -43.001 8.94 12 7.821 ± 0.002 0.067 ± 0.25 60.674 ± 0.003 16.8 4 1.002 4.001 0.5 8.64 10.83 9.323 ± 0.812 50.00 ± 0.005 0.13 49.002 0.298 51.75 0.002 4.021 0.013 ± 0.58 (99.924 ± 0.66 42.2 7• 4 4.013 ± 0.007 ± 0.14 51.116 ± 0.066 ± 0.002 0.39 2.75 0.8 14.314 ± 0.12 51.040 ± 0.000 1.89 8.011 ± 0.11 8.039 ± 0.769 ± 0.9 ± 0.028 ± 0.87 11.348 ± 0.823 ± 0.6 8• 4 99.4 3 1.55 7.64 8.25 11.009 0. (36Ar/39Ar) Ca = 0.14 6.65 7.13 ± 2.647 ± 0.206 ± 0.4 7• 3.86 7.033 71.039 ± 0.157 5.7 Notes: Measured volumes are × 1E-10 cm3.421 ± 0.002 0.021 ± 0.002 0.034 0.002 0.164 ± 0.04 ± 0.008 0.033 0.8 8• 4 36.032 0.002 0.6 ± 0.086 ± 0.7 2• 1.306 ± 0.50 (74.03 7.003 4.081 ± 0.000 0.006 0.445 ± 0.039 9.7 7.115 49.325 ± 0.011 ± 0.040 3.004 0.009 96. Integrated age = 51.6 9.052 115.498 ± 0.1 6• 3.081 ± 0.006 0.009 0.723 ± 0.041 ± 0.045 0. APPENDIX 1 40Ar/39Ar Analytical Data for Hypogene Alteration Minerals.005 0.002 0.9 ± 3.008 ± 0.003 0.020 ± 0.075 4.200 ± 0.094 2.773 ± 3. Ca/K = 1.9 ± 0.003627 ± 0.9 9• 5 36.646 ± 0.025 0.009 0.137 6.007 0.003 0.51 7.9 ± 1.11 52. Plateau age = 50.4 ± 1.038 0.039 0.000 2.002 0.09 8.866 ± 0.97 ± 0.002 0.007 ± 0. % 40Ar atm = percentage of atmospheric 40Ar.25 71.000 0.002 0.03 ± 0.22 51.003 0.003 0.002 0.57 8.003 0.006 0.08 51.703 ± 1.004 0.059 ± 0.75 21.009 0.072 ± 0.110 8.04 -6.004 0.010 ± 0.023 ± 0.007 ± 0.003 0.912 ± 0.002 0.127 ± 0.25 3.96 × 1E-10.017 ± 0.38 8.26 8.013 ± 0.22 9.009 ± 0.439 ± 0.002 0.102 4.018 ± 0.021 0.028 0. (37Ar/39Ar) Ca = 1416.9 ± 1.25 1. all ages are Ma and errors are 2σ standard error.003 0.97.82 ± 0.4306.004 0.4 8.0302.76 ± 0.140 ± 0.005 ± 0.041 50. • = steps used to determine plateau age.228 19.0 3• 1.012 ± 0.003 0.002 0.002 0.001 0.6 ± 7.75 74.27 5.007 ± 0.63 8.26 8.003 0.25 1.972 ± 0.71 8.003619 ± 0. Volume 39ArK = 25.029 0.002 0.030 ± 0.009 ± 0.041 0.008 ± 0.006 0.1 ± 0.007 0.023 ± 0.59 8.9 10 • 6 46.002 0.005 0.000028.066 ± 0.6 ± 0.24 51. 39ArK = 39Ar from K.039 0.4 4• 1.39 38.012 ± 0.41 ± 1.002 0.008 ± 0.017 0.680 ± 0.000 3.055 ± 0.000 0.2 ± 0.003 0.112 0.001 0.04 ± 0.801 ± 0.86 18.48.176 ± 0.91 2.017 0.01 ± 0.002 0.002 0.6 ± 0.002 0.2 ± 18.00 ± 0.8 ± 0.166 ± 0.000 0.6 8• 8 18.003 0.19 ± 0.9 ± 0.002 0.36 23.3% of 39ArK) 1 0.141 ± 0.052 ± 0.71 ± 2.013 ± 0.006 0.0 ± 0.002 0.001 0.005 0. isotope production ratios: (40Ar/39Ar) K = 0.014 ± 0.6 2 0.75 8.482 ± 0.75 25.56 16.002 0.25 0.264 ± 0.37 41.712 ± 0.14 51.027 0.69 × 1E-10.11 56.07 3.002 0.004 0.002 0.59 9.064 1.659 ± 0.480 ± 0.039 ± 0.005 0.003 0.9 ± 126. Cerro Colorado Step Laser %40Ar Age (Ma) no.003 0.013 ± 0.26 52.010 0.78 7.48 5.039 5.410 ± 0.7 ± 0.002 0.228 ± 0.92 7.24 8.038 33.6 6• 2.000 14.007 0.862 ± 0.000 22.7 CERRO COLORADO PORPHYRY Cu DEPOSIT.002 0.69 ± 0.7 4• 2.003 0.

8 _ 6.6 450 3 _ 272 3 _ 196 3 _ 239 1a 321 39.4 290 3 _ 241 3 _ 241 2a 338 41. 2283 m. a.3 229 3 _ 233 1a 347 42.7 220 3 –1.0 241 1b 301 38.5 _ 0. a.8 333 3 –1.2 370 3 4.2 _ 8. APPENDIX 2 132 Fluid Incluison Data.5 _ 4.4 444 3 –2.s. a.1 _ 1.2 _ 6.5 312 3 –0.7 269 3 3.2 236 3 _ 231 1b 358 43.4 235 4 _ 390 1b 228 33.1 _ 3.7 266 3 –2.2 212 3 –1.3 _ 6. 2336 m.1 _ 6.5 330 3 –4. 3 4.3 197 .0 213 1b 355 42.1 316 3 4.2 206 Sample 210-10.7 320 3 _ 247 3 –1.0 397 3 4.1 292 3 _ 186 3 –4.5 227 3 _ 225 3 _ 221 2b 364 43.0 360 3 7. a. 2326 m.2 246 3 _ 250 1a < –51 348 42.2 270 3 _ 242 Sample 83-63.7 _ 6.l.2 _ 6.3 351 1a < –40 292 37.l.4 186 3 –4.6 235 2b 433 51.9 531 1b 299 38.5 _ 4.l.1 341 41.9 _ 3.7 380 3 –4.4 _ 2.s.6 _ 4.9 _ 1.5 _ 7.l.7 _ 1.8 336 3 –2. Cerro Colorado Salinity Salinity Salinity Salinity (wt % (wt % (wt % (wt % Te Tm(ice) Tm(NaCl) NaCl Te Tm(ice) Tm(NaCl) NaCl Te Tm(ice) Tm(NaCl) NaCl Te Tm(ice) Tm(NaCl) NaCl Type (ºC) (ºC) (ºC) equiv) Th(L-V) Type (ºC) (ºC) (ºC) equiv) Th(L-V) Type (ºC) (ºC) (ºC) equiv) Th(L-V) Type (ºC) (ºC) (ºC) equiv) Th(L-V) Assemblage: bio + ab + mag Assemblage: bio + ab + mag Assemblage: bio + ab + mag Assemblage: ser + chl + clay Sample 83-40.6 233 3 _ 198 1a 366 43. 2281 m.4 372 3 _ 240 3 _ 225 3 –4.4 228 2b 338 41.4 _ 7.3 _ 6.2 242 3 _ 208 1a 311 39.2 249 3 –4.0 _ 5.7 281 1b 323 40.9 _ 3.5 311 3 –1.6 242 4 _ 376 1b 216 32.5 _ 7. 1b 260 35.9 235 3 7.1 502 3 _ 252 3 –2.9 245 3 _ 224 Sample 83-58.4 205 Assemblage: qtz + ab 4 _ 340 3 _ 199 3 _ 206 Sample 83-44.6 _ 4.s. a.1 _ 0.2 236 3 –0.0 _ 3. 2193 m.s.9 223 3 _ 236 1a –56.3 310 1a 281 36.1 _ 3. 3 –2.l.6 320 1a 267 35.s.6 246 1a 315 39.0 252 1a < –57 256 35.1 _ 3.l.7 197 3 –3. 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6.s.l. 3 _ 220 2a 349 42.4 249 3 _ 240 4 _ 369 3 6.6 302 Sample 83-58. 2269 m.6 373 1a < –61 276 36.1 305 Sample 148-10.5 268 4 _ 353 3 _ 328 3 _ 220 3 –2. 1a < –76 272 36.s.0 _ 3.0 _ 7.l.9 _ 6. 2241 m.2 250 3 –5. 2b 324 40.3 242 3 _ 228 Sample 83-79.s.1 _ 3.3 217 3 _ 208 1a 330 40.9 230 1b 342 41.2 _ 5.0 298 1a 277 36.2 197 2b –56. 2252 m.2 227 2b 330 40. 2230 m .l. 4 < –65 _ 396 3 –2. 2199 m.1 _ 6.2 251 BOUZARI AND CLARK 3 –1.0 247 Sample 83-50.4 272 3 _ 210 3 –2. a. 2202 m.0 257 1b 327 40.5 _ 5.1 307 38. a.l. 3 _ 263 3 _ 230 3 _ 242 1a < –60 292 37. a.0 413 1a 318 39.6 260 3 _ 196 3 –2. a.5 237 3 –2.2 _ 6. 2210 m.0 _ 10.3 370 3 4.0 _ 6.9 236 3 –2.0 _ 3. 2232 m.1 258 3 5.l.l.s.5 470 1a 122 28. 3 –4.0 315 3 –4.6 _ 5.5 244 1a < –49 303 38.7 281 3 –3.0 _ 6. a.l.s.7 247 3 _ 226 2a 322 40.s.0 _ 1.s.0 _ 5. a. a.0 _ 9.5 323 3 _ 212 3 –3.9 256 3 –1.4 336 1b < –74 264 35. 3 –4.6 345 4 _ 440 3 –2.3 318 3 3.9 339 3 _ 239 3 _ 217 3 –2.5 _ 2.6 332 3 _ 198 3 –3.5 _ 1.s.0 219 3 _ 246 1b 355 42.5 _ 4.2 215 3 _ 235 1a < –55 335 41.3 _ 3.1 329 3 –0.1 314 3 –3.5 199 3 _ 227 1a 333 40.8 _ 7.4 214 3 –1.9 240 3 –1.a.0 _ 10.7 _ 7.6 189 2a 382 45.4 194 3 –3.9 236 3 –1.9 237 Sample 83-72.0 _ 5.4 _ 4.7 225 3 _ 245 3 –3.7 333 1a 246 34.1 212 132 3 –4.1 352 3 –2.1 _ 5.9 273 2a 318 39.0 _ 3.8 _ 1.0 _ 6.3 340 3 8. a.0 _ 11.s. 3 _ 240 2b < –32 335 41.9 222 3 –0.3 _ 2.3 _ 6.6 273 1a 326 40.1 _ 3.7 _ 2.4 266 Sample 83-59.5 _ 2.00 3 –1.3 251 2b < –44 350 42.6 228 1b 312 39.7 230 3 –0.4 222 3 _ 209 Sample 83-46. 2233 m.1 305 3 –2.6 205 3 –4.3 390 Sample 148-13.6 339 3 –2.4 236 2b 406 48.l. 3 _ 234 3 _ 242 2a < –47 318 39. 3 _ 238 3 –3.5 _ 2.9 544 Sample 83-79.

0 315 3 –2.3 290 1b 270 36.1 330 40.5 312 3 –5.3 354 1a 253 34.2 244 1a 280 36.2 258 3 –4.9 297 1a 290 37. a.7 216 3 _ 234 1b 235 33.l.6 324 1a 277 36.0 259 3 _ 303 2b 325 40. a.s.2 220 Sample 119-16.2 327 3 _ 389 1a 310 38.9 261 3 _ 318 1a 315 39.0 _ 6.2 315 3 –3.2 311 3 _ 249 1a 327 40.2 263 1b 283 36.6 312 Assemblage: ser + chl + clay Assemblage: qtz + ser + clay Deep-level phyllic Pyrite vein 1a 273 36.7 247 3 _ 315 1b 326 40.s.9 283 1b < –45 290 37. 1b < –52 307 38.6 10. a.6 279 3 –28 –5.3 402 1a 258 35.3 324 1a 240 34.1 _ 0.0 340 1a 250 34.3 299 3 _ 328 1a < –60 311 39.3 319 1b 257 35.0 _ 6. 2440 m.l.4 277 3 _ 368 1a 242 34.6 270 Sample 321.0 245 3 –2.9 275 Sample 210-10.6 _ 4.7 510 3 –4.9 289 3 –6.1 258 1b 292 37.0 _ 5.9 _ 4.0 249 1b 294 37.7 302 3 –3.5 7. a.s.2 313 2b 280 36. 2265 m. a.3 307 3 _ 251 3 –2.0 314 3 _ 340 1a 279 36.2 313 2a 254 34.2 321 3 –3.l.4 294 3 –2.l.s.5 247 3 _ 4.8 _ 3.7 241 1b 245 34.8 247 2a < –58 322 39. 2252 m.5 _ 3.7 _ 6.6 326 2a 243 34.5 _ 5.0 319 1b 274 36.l.7 292 3 –4.4 273 3 _ 325 1a 314 39.7 367 1b 276 36.5 335 3 –4.s.l.8 _ 1.1 236 1b 333 40.7 257 1a 287 37. 3 –4. 3 –24 –4.2 309 Assemblage: and + pyp 1b 280 36.1 260 1b 304 38.4 _ 4.1 _ 5. 2372 m.8 174 1a 285 37. 2530 m.6 286 3 _ 321 133 1a 298 38.2 378 1a 247 34.3 304 2a 268 35.4 237 1b 267 35.6 416 3 –0.6 303 1b 287 37.0 236 3 –2.1 351 3 _ 316 CERRO COLORADO PORPHYRY Cu DEPOSIT. 2550 m.) Salinity Salinity Salinity Salinity (wt % (wt % (wt % (wt % Te Tm(ice) Tm(NaCl) NaCl Te Tm(ice) Tm(NaCl) NaCl Te Tm(ice) Tm(NaCl) NaCl Te Tm(ice) Tm(NaCl) NaCl Type (ºC) (ºC) (ºC) equiv) Th(L-V) Type (ºC) (ºC) (ºC) equiv) Th(L-V) Type (ºC) (ºC) (ºC) equiv) Th(L-V) Type (ºC) (ºC) (ºC) equiv) Th(L-V) 3 –2.2 258 1b 290 37.0 243 3 _ 234 1b 328 40.6 308 Sample 206-48.5 _ 5. 3 _ 313 1b –56 323 40.4 327 1b 278 36.1 229 2b 344 41.0 344 1a 296 37.1 193 2b 396 47.8 206 3 –2.0 _ 5.4 436 1a 319 39.9 309 3 _ 309 1b 323 40.1 _ 6.6 338 3 _ 225 3 _ 204 2b –56.6 334 3 –35 –4.0 279 3 –5.9 305 3 –3. a.4 191 3 _ 230 1a 306 38. 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6.3 179 3 _ 316 2b 355 42.2 310 1b 297 37.s.0 240 3 –25 –3.1 280 36.00 3 –3.9 269 1a 300 38.9 _ 3. a.1 _ 0.4 238 1a 255 35.4 180 3 _ 323 2a 323 40.2 _ 3.3 240 1b 362 43.9 402 1a 282 36.9 306 3 _ 109 3 _ 310 4 _ 340 1a 233 33. 2199 m. 3 _ 318 1a 380 45.3 270 1a < –65 363 43. 2530 m.7 297 133 . 1a –56.9 328 Sample 251.4 210 3 _ 243 2b 307 38. 2304 m.9 361 1a 259 35.5 247 1b 327 40.l.4 240 3 _ 215 1a 303 38.0 330 2a 259 35.6 313 1b 314 39.6 330 3 _ 225 3 –3. a.8 _ 6.s.8 _ 7.2 8.0 232 Sample 200.0 _ 3.7 199 3 _ 221 1b 322 39. Shallow-level phyllic 3 _ 316 1b 326 40.l.8 309 2a < –50 205 32.7 337 3 _ 158 3 –3.2 423 3 _ 315 1b 385 45.0 _ 7.8 335 3 –1. NORTHERN CHILE 1b 408 48.8 268 1a 258 35.7 260 1a 302 38.9 _ 1.0 237 Quartz vein in BQPP 3 –0.5 254 3 _ 364 1a 275 36.s.9 224 Sample 210-14.5 248 3 –0.4 486 3 –0.4 323 1a 164 30.3 305 1b 282 36.2 _ 6.4 334 3 _ 367 1a 233 33.4 261 3 –1.0 333 1a 258 35.5 _ 5.6 220 Sample 146-16.7 328 3 _ 90 3 _ 315 2b 309 38.l. APPENDIX 2 (Cont.7 449 3 _ 292 1a 298 38.9 208 3 _ 246 4 _ 426 1a 317 39.2 175 3 _ 4.2 339 1a < –65 264 35.8 263 2b 318 39.2 307 1a < –55 296 37.4 314 1a 300 38.1 295 1a 312 39.5 _ 3. a.s.5 _ 3.0 _ 6.2 298 3 _ 225 3 _ 242 2a 328 40.9 _ 6.3 244 1b 313 39.0 _ 7.7 258 3 _ 316 1b 319 39.3 332 Sample 200.9 312 1a 266 35.8 344 1a 278 36.7 241 1a 277 36.4 348 3 < –57 _ 235 3 –3.2 258 1a 289 37. 3 –2.4 271 3 _ 248 1b 281 36.2 221 1a 296 37.

9 319 3 –3.8 270 1a –56 306 38.4 _ 2.6 294 3 _ 341 Notes: Te = temperature of eutectic.9 317 3 _ 285 3 –3.4 334 1a –56 260 35.1 _ 1.2 324 3 –2.5 _ 4.l. 2384 m.2 _ 5.7 _ 1.4 233 3 _ 305 Assemblage: qtz + ser + clay 1a 230 33. 2550 m.2 231 1b 288 37.6 _ 5.3 289 3 –3.7 269 2a < –45 278 36.7 297 Sample 253.2 _ 5.6 287 3 –2.5 443 3 –3.4 325 3 –32 –3.l.0 _ 5.7 230 3 –3.3 365 2a 248 34.0 223 1a 246 34.7 263 2a 279 36. _ = no solid salt was observed .0 5. 1a 256 35.8 _ 1.3 267 3 _ 237 3 –0.0 294 3 –3.0 301 1a 256 35.4 285 1a 279 36.) 134 Salinity Salinity Salinity Salinity (wt % (wt % (wt % (wt % Te Tm(ice) Tm(NaCl) NaCl Te Tm(ice) Tm(NaCl) NaCl Te Tm(ice) Tm(NaCl) NaCl Te Tm(ice) Tm(NaCl) NaCl Type (ºC) (ºC) (ºC) equiv) Th(L-V) Type (ºC) (ºC) (ºC) equiv) Th(L-V) Type (ºC) (ºC) (ºC) equiv) Th(L-V) Type (ºC) (ºC) (ºC) equiv) Th(L-V) 3 _ 350 1a 263 35.9 243 2a 266 35.2 _ 5.2 274 3 –1. 3 –1.5 _ 7.8 227 3 _ 339 1b 226 33.1 288 3 _ 191 3 –0.1 139 3 _ 344 1a 244 34.7 277 3 _ 226 3 –3.4 315 134 1a 266 35.7 _ 1.2 320 1a 285 37.4 _ 2.7 _ 1.2 _ 5.3 214 3 –0.6 283 1a 264 35.9 347 Sample 210-98.s.3 _ 2. a.00 1a 245 34.7 250 1a 273 36. 2a 274 36.1 260 1a 303 38.5 _ 5.l.8 _ 1. 2a 225 33. a. Th = temperature of homogenization.4 320 3 –25 –3.3 262 2a 287 37.6 226 3 –4.s.3 350 3 _ 326 3 –3.2 5.1 5.4 265 1a 318 39.0 287 Sample 206-42. a.s.5 259 1b < –60 293 37.0 255 2a 291 37.9 _ 4.0 288 2b 275 36.5 _ 4.2 352 1a 251 34. 2530 m.1 268 3 _ 340 1b 277 36.6 _ 5.6 263 4 337 3 _ 185 3 –3.2 321 3 _ 308 1a 283 36.6 412 3 _ 262 3 –4.7 _ 6.7 _ 1.s.4 336 0361-0128/98/000/000-00 $6.5 _ 5.3 231 3 –0.9 320 3 –29 –2.5 _ 5.4 281 3 _ 207 3 _ 340 1b 259 35. 3 _ 235 3 –3.8 _ 3.7 6.5 4.3 232 Sample 119-46.5 322 3 –4. 2347 m.l. 2431 m. 2384 m. a.2 342 BOUZARI AND CLARK 4 320 4 245 Sample 198.2 324 1a 242 34.6 422 3 –3.2 347 3 –3.4 245 1a 297 37. blank means phase change was not clearly observed or no measurment was made.4 218 Sample 210-81. Tm = temperature of melting.2 319 1a 255 35.2 336 1a 268 35.3 239 1b 297 37.1 _ 5. APPENDIX 2 (Cont.4 _ 7.7 377 3 –2.0 237 1b 328 40.s.5 366 3 _ 184 3 –0.0 _ 6.4 331 3 –3.0 330 3 _ 205 3 –29 –3.5 360 3 –1.5 320 3 –3.9 333 3 _ 155 3 _ 350 1a 261 35. a.2 316 1b 279 36.3 201 1b 303 38.l.2 259 2a 304 38. a.s.3 258 1a 310 38.7 245 3 –0.0 357 3 –1.2 235 3 –1.9 298 2a 253 34. 3 _ 302 3 _ 325 3 –3.l.9 246 3 _ 343 1a < –50 250 34.6 5.0 _ 3.7 _ 6.6 337 3 _ 172 3 –2.6 249 4 371 Pyrite vein 3 –1.1 239 2a 298 38.5 _ 2.9 281 3 _ 213 3 _ 341 4 295 1b 281 36.