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rwt
Design Essentials

Text © 2 0 1 1 by Rockpo rt P u b l is h e rs
Design © 2 0 1 1 by Rockpo rt Pu b l i s h e rs

Fi rst p u b l i s h ed in t h e U n ited States of Am erica i n 2011 by
Rockport P u b l i s h e rs, a m e m ber of
Q uays i d e P u b l i s h i ng G ro u p
1 00 C u m m i ngs Center
Su ite 406-L
Beverly, M a ssach usetts 0191 5-6101
Te l e p h o n e : (978) 2 8 2-9590
Fa x : (978) 2 8 3 -2742
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I S B N -1 3 : 978-1 -59253-701-3
I S B N -l0: 1-59253-701-4

D igita l edition p u b l i s h ed i n 2011
e I S B N -1 3 : 978-1 -61 0 5 8 - 043-4

D igita l edition: 978-1-61058-043-4
Softcover edition: 978-1 -59253-701-3

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data available

Design: Kathie A l exa n d e r
P h otogra p h s and i l l u strations b y Jay C a l d e r i n u n less otherwise noted .

Printed in C h i na

" '" ..g . rwt Design Essentials 100 Principles of Fashion Design CD .. • 0 :I: 0 :I: c: m .g 0 < c: '" '" ID r- � r- n iC: - • ..:III: 00-0 ... . '" . . 00 -t Jay Calderin . '" ..

1 1 8 57. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fit . . . . . .. . 8 16. . . . . . . 1 30 63. . . . . Corro borating Couture . . . . Mend and Alter . . . . Letters: Siopers . . . . . . . . Disposable as I nvestment . . .. . . . I m pu lse. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 44. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B u i l d i ng a n d Breaking Tem p lates . . . . 82 4. . . .. . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 54. . . . 44 39. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 132 64. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Deconstruct and Reconstruct . 90 8. Manip ulating Full ness . . A d d . . . 134 65. . . . . . . 20 22. . . . . 30 27. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 38. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 3. . . . . . . . . . . Reshape a n d Reconfigure . . . . . . . . .. . . Pattern I nstruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ru les. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 4 60. . . . .. . . H i storical Reference a n d Reverence . . . . . . . . . C l ot h es That Carry . . . . Fou r Seasons: A Timeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Vintage Pat i na . . . . . . . . . 108 32. . 7 THOUGHT I N V E N TO RY T EC H N I Q U E 1. Net a n d Narrow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C u stom ization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . 40 37. . . . Articu lation of Style . . . . . 46 40. . . 56 45. . . Off. . . . . . . . . . . 112 34. . M i n d Ma pping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 31. . . . . . . . . . 26 25. . . . . . . . .. 88 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 52. . . . . . . . . . 96 11. Checks a n d Balances . . . . . . . . . . . . Rendering Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . Fringe a n d Fray . . . . . . . 84 5. . . . 104 15. Body Mapping . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 50. . . and Fo ld . . . . . . . . 102 14. . . . . . . . Fashion Translations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Words: Garments . . . . . . 32 28. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C O NTENT S I ntroduction . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Forging I d e ntity . . . . .. . . . 62 48. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 19. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 12 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Care and Feeding of a Garment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 26. . . . . . . . . . Ta ming Texti l es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Su btract. . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Underpi n n i ngs and Assem bly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Punctuation: Deta i l s . . . . . . . . . . Mac hine I nterfa ce . . . . . 3 8 36. . . 86 6. . . . . . . Camo uflage and Complement . . . Environ menta l Context . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . 34 29. . . . . . Emulation a n d I n novation . . . . D rawing t h e Eye .. . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 24. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 30. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 33. . . . . . . .. . . 16 20. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stories: Coll ections . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 23. . . . . . . . . . . . . Cut. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Roads Less Traveled . . . . . . . . . . 128 62. . . Misce l laneous Markers . . . . . . . . 68 51. . 100 13. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Suits of Armor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . I ntarsia: Puzzles a n d Missing Li n ks . . . . . . . . . . a n d I m pact . . . . . . . . . . U n iformity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 43. . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Revea l .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 122 59. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Adjacent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fashion Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rote.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C l ient Compatibi l ity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 10.. . . . . . . . . 76 55. . Accessory Closet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 136 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resu rface . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 41. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Hand to Eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sensing Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 49. . . . . . . . . .. . 60 47. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . . . A-Symmetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Trends: On. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stitc h i ng Too l s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 18 21. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 53. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sentences: Ensemb les . . . . . . and Prese rve . . . . .. . . . . 58 46. . . . . Change Agents . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A Cut Above . . . . . . Drape. . 120 58. . . . . . 10 17. . . . . . . . . . Design u nto Others . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Anatomica l l y Correct . . . . Closures . 98 12. . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . C o l laboration . 78 2. 114 35. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 6 56. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Acquisitions . Ancient Too l s a n d Tec hniques . . . . . . . 92 9. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . Specialty Requisites . . . . . 50 42. . . . . . . . . . . . Structure and Sca l e . . . Restra i nt. . . . . . . . . . . and Roughs . 126 61. . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . 174 85. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B l ackouts a n d Fu l l I m m ersion . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . 186 71. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 90 73. . 184 70. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lifestyle: A Rosetta Stone . C rowdsourcing Style . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 78. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. Meditation on a Dress . . . . . . . . . Symbols . . . . 188 72. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture Filter . . . . . . Build ing on Basics . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . Trompe L'Oe i l . 1 80 Acknowledgments . . 1 52 93. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . Space a n d Sculpture . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 62 98. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What Is Good Fashion? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 83. . . . . . .. . . Matters of Size: Addressing C u rves . . 1 78 Contributor I n dex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 69. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 81. . . . . . . . . . 154 94. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . 194 75. . . . . . . . Myths a n d Archetypes . . . . . . . External I nflue nces . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diversification a n d Specia lization . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . 140 87. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 72 84. . . . 138 86. . . . . . . . . . 198 77. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 88. . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 50 92. . 1 66 Twenty-Fou r-Hour Fa shion . . . . . . . . . . . . Desig n i ng t h e Job . . . . . . . . . . . 1 60 97. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 90. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dressing for Bowie .. . . . . . . . . . . . 207 68. . 1 76 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 76.. . . . . C u ltivated I nflue nce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . Dynam ics . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 100. . . . . 156 95. 158 96. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 About the Author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Luxury Washing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . .. Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . More Is More . . . . . . . . . A Designe r's I n h eritance . . . . . . . . 204 82. . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 79. . . . . . . . . . . Label M a ke r . . . Less I s M o re . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M a ster a n d Ap prentice . . . C u rated Experience . .. . . . . . . . Rapid Prototyping: 80. . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fashion Portals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Attitude Adjustment . . . . . . . . . 148 91. . O bjects of Art . . .. . Copies Degrade . Design of Dissent . . . 144 89. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Representation a n d Abstraction . . . Wit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 92 74. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 99. .ARTI STRY N AV I G AT I O N 66. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Labors of Love: Diy . . . . . . .. . . . 206 67. . . . . .

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to fit t h e project at h a n d . hone yo u r s k i l l s. a d e s ign student. The idea b e h i n d col lecting a n d cataloging T hought the esse n t i a l p r i n c i p les of fa s h i o n d e s ign i s to Intellectual exercises t h a t a re intended to serve a s b u i l d a framework for a rtfu l exa m i nation t h a t the catalysts for c h a n n e l i n g c reativity designer can rev i s it reg u l a rly for i n sp i ration and i n structio n . they can be fas h i o n design ers: C o n t i n u e to expand your h o r i ­ described a s a set of best p ractices for c u l tivat­ zons. o r a fa s h i o n D I Y enthus iast. m a n power. INTRODUCTION Creative ideas are elevated by experience and Five primary areas of investigation provide the expertise. T h i s book i s for a nyone devoted to Inventory fas h i on-whether you a re a profe s s i o n a l design­ Definitions and applications for u s i n g o r repu r­ e r. tools. Dedication a n d att e n ­ tion to d et a i l d u ring that exa m i nation w i l l h e l p l everage a des igner's v i s i o n . Autumn/Winter 1959/60 / / PHOTO BY RDA AGIP GETTY IMAGES 7 . a nd experi m ent w i t h st rat­ i n g c reativity: egies. In m a ny ways. not s i m p l y sti m u l i that m ust be deciphered and then s ha ped reproduction. Fashion Design Artistry Essentials offers p r i n c i p les. Th is book sets forth a c h a l l enge to structure for the book. you ' l l fas h ion design ideas a lways b e ahead o f the c u rve. a n d processes Creative rituals that h e l p co nj u re a n d c u lt ivate the for succeed i n g in a l l fas h i o n endeavors. Pierre Card i n coat a n d hat. w h i l e a l lowing f o r d iverse rei nterpretation. s u c h as t h e benefits or fa r-reac h i ng i m pact tod ay's fas h ion designers w i l l have on the foreseea b l e future. posing tools. i m aginative i n sti ncts of a fas h ion designer E d i t i ng the l ist to o n e h u n d red concepts is m e a n t Navigation to h e l p o rgan i ze a n d prioritize t h i s i n formation Diverse strategies designed to a l low a fa s h i o n for m a x i m u m efficiency. I n a n attempt to round o u t the w h o l e experience. s o m e p h i losophical debates a re woven i nto the ideas t h roughout the book. The refe ren ces in each d e s igner to negotiate a c l e a r path to success l ayout h ave been selected beca use they hone i n Each esse n t i a l concept i s u l t i mately a s o u rce of o n the essence of the topic with p recis i o n . a n d raw m ateri a l s for fas h ion design The world of fas h ion des ign is constantly c h a nging-what was i n sty l e last month may be Technique old hat now. but if you know how to stay a h ead Fundamental skills for i d e ntify i ng and executing of trends and keep yo u r des ign ski l l s s h a rp.

those who d o n 't l e a rn from h istory a re doomed to waste a wea lth of i n s p i ra t i o n . sty le of a p ron that conj u res u p i m ages of l ife on the pra i rie-a look that was very popular in the 1 970s. T-s h a ped robe. Three m a i n stays in the fa s h i o n wo rld t h at a re restyled t i m e and aga i n a re co rsets. w h i c h i s a fixed bolt of fa bric m ea s u ri n g 1 4 i n ches by 1 2 . K i m onos were orig i n a l ly d i sassem b l ed for clea n i ng a n d reconstructed by h a n d . f W h e n part of a t raditiona l e n s e m b le. THOUGHT 1 Historical Reference and Reverence I t i s s a i d that those who don't l e a rn from h istory 4 a re doomed to repeat it. Long ve rsions s u c h as the b i st ro a pron a re a mong many that a re used i n the service i n d u stry. 1. M i u M i u . A col l a r and l a pel-sty le panels a re added with - s m a l l strips of fa bric. T h e a p ron a t i t s most f u n ct i o n a l protects cloth­ i n g from wear and tear. The p i n afore is a decorative . orig i n a l l y a fo u n dation garme nt. the a p ron sti l l m a kes strides in fas h i o n . it i s sec­ " fr u red with an obi sash. Corset 5.. fet ish. The corset. and kim o n os. The k i m o n o i s m ade fro m 0 a t a n . 6 r---L T h e k i m o n o is a fu l l . or heavy ca nvas for m o re rugged uses. r u b b e r. sti l l reigns s u p re m e on the fa s h i o n l a n d scape. "Old Japan" Bridal Kimono (circa 19805) 4.l e ngth. a n d M a rc Jacobs a s fash ion a ccessories. Apron 6. and ties on the side. The length is cut i nto fo u r pa nels of fa b r i c that m a ke u p the two s i d es of the b ody a n d both sleeves. The co b b l e r a p ron is a p u l lover style with a front. a back. Whether it is incorporated i nto a co l l ect ion by way of nosta lgia or u t i l ity. Corset by Joe Carl 2.. Kimono 8 Fashion Design Essentials .. Steam p u n k fa s h i ons. Vintage apron-Poor Little Rich Girl 3. a n d most rece ntly. couturi ers s u c h as T h i e rry M ugler a n d J e a n Pa u l G a u ltier h ave been res ponsible for ra i s i n g the corset to an iconic stat u s . Aprons at their m ost 5 gla m o ro u s have graced the ru nways of A l exander McQueen. W i t h i n the fra m e of fa s h i o n . 5 yards ( 3 5 cm x 1 2 m ) . a prons. S h o rt-waist a p ro n s m a d e in practi­ cal fa brics as we l l as d ecorative h ostess a p ro n s speak t o a t i m e w h e n h o m e m a k i n g w a s a way of l ife for most women. The bi b-sty l e a p ron can t a ke s h a p e in leather.. C o m m o n l y a ssociated with goth.

haute couture collection. Autumn/ Winter 1998/99 .French model Audrey M a rnay in a tweed corset suit by Thierry M ugler.

b u t th rives in the i m agina­ tions of fa s h i o n designers t h roughout h istory. THOUGHT 2 Emulation and Innovation E m u l a t i ng styles from the past often w i l l go a l o n g way i n fa s h i o n d e s ign. H a lston s u m m oned the spi rit of these e n d u r i ng d ra pes and fo l d s with the knit jersey in the 1 970s. At every level of t h e m a rketplace a n d from every corner of the globe. in t u rn. to k i n d red h istorical cou nterparts. I n the 1 92 0 s. t h e god dess gown con t i n ­ ues t o s p r i n g from the co l lect i o n s o f designers who can a p p reciate its bea uty and who wish to interpret it for t h e m se lves. W h i le V i o n n et c o m m a n ded t h e b i a s. The H ouse of H a lston conti n u es to pay h o m age to that aesthetic today. The grace of G re c i a n gow n s forever i m mort a l i zed i n stone i s a prime exa m p l e of the power of a fa s h i o n idea that does not s i m p l y s u rvive. September 1935 1 0 Fashion Design Essentials . M a d e l e i n e V i o n n et wa s i n f l u e n ced by the d a n ces of I sad ora D u n c a n who. Desig n e rs can t a ke a Below: G reek-inspired statue cue from t h is exa m p l e a n d explore t h e degrees of Right: Floor-length separation that l i n k t h e m a n d a ny of t h e i r ideas Madeleine Vionnet d ress. as everyt h ing eventu­ a l ly m a kes a comeback. wa s i n s p i red by G reek sc u l pt u res.

Halston fashion show Autumn/Winter 2008/09 New York City .

she m a kes it easy for cl ients to adopt at least o n e i nterpretat i o n of it on t h e i r own terms. resu lting in new a n d i nterest­ i n g interpretations of it. designers w i l l be m oved by a t rend i n d iffe rent ways from season to season. many t rends a re not m e re l y forecasted. On-trend I � o -< co l l ections w i l l be boil ing ove r with the concept.. a n d a designer who � m =1 h a s a clear u n d e rstand i ng of w h e re s h e sta n d s < :. I � o -< o � < 6 z < � . of cou rse. fol low.. t he re a re those who w i l l want to h ave n o t h i n g to do with it." Truth is.. or ign ore a trend. designers who i ntention a l ly m iss the b a n dwagon sometimes find that t h e i r independent perspe ct ives i n a dvertently trigger tre n d s or cou ntertrends of t h e i r own. and Adjacent Alth ough t re n d s a re no longer d ictated. z be to find s m a l l e r and s u bt l e r ways to e m b race .1 � 12 Fashion Design Essentials .. The fas h i o n fi l m classic Funny Face de picts the c h a ra cter of fas h i o n editor Maggie Prescott pai nti ng the town p i n k .. " M e? I wou l d n 't be caught dead. Someone on h e r staff a s ks. 2007 be o n -tre n d .. Off. des ign Above: Model Naomi Campbell i n leopard print ho uses spend a great d e a l of t i m e and m o n ey hat.conscious des ign ers ride the wave of the media and the p u b l i c's c l a m o ri n g for exa m p l es of the l atest fas h ions. Alth ough tre n d . THOUGHT 3 Trends: On.. 10.. They m u st co nsciously decide whet h e r they w i l l lead. " I h aven't seen a woman i n two weeks i n a nyt h i ng b u t p i n k . Designers looking to find thei r p l a ce in Below: Anna Wintour in the m a rket m ust know whet h e r t h ey i ntend to leopard print jacket. The c o n s u m e r -< z b reaks d o w n t h e s a m e way. I n fa i rn e ss. and a ccessory. W hat a bout you?" P rescott re pl ies. G> o � it without m a ki n g it the foc u s .: . on trend w i l l c o n n ect w i t h the right a u d i e n ce for � � h e r product. o � < An a lterna tive a p p roach to the l atest c raze may m < . b u t often m a d e b y a n i n d u stry. 2004 try i ng to p re d i ct t re n d s a n d/o r set t h e m into motion. Leopard and other a n i ma l pri nts get p u l l ed out of re l ative obscu rity a n d a re p resented as fre s h a n d n ew every few seasons.: . Then. a ccent piece. t rend -adjacent. I f a designer decides to offer t h e trend du j o u r as a statement garme nt. o r off-trend a lto­ get h e r... � � o i� :.

Publ icity portrait of actress
Audrey Hepburn as she
wears a wide-bri m m ed hat
and white blouse d u ring the
filming of Funny Face, d i rected
by Stanley Donen, 1957

o

o
I

THOUGHT

4 Corroborating Couture
Fa s h ion h istory i s t h e next best t h i ng to a t i m e Right: Maureen McCormick
and Barry Wil liams rehearse
m a c h i n e for the fa sh ion designer. Contact with
on the set of The Brady Bunch
a uthentic a rt ifacts brings the true essence of
Hour, 1977.
a t i m e into s h a rper foc us, whether those a rt i ­
facts a re t h e a c t u a l ga rments a n d accessories, Below: Linda Eva ns, John
or i l l u st rations, p hotos, and f i l m c l i ps. Eras a re Forsythe, and Joan Col l ins,
who starred in Dynasty
com posed of c o m p l exities that i nvolve every­
t h i ng fro m science to celeb rity. The 1 950s, for
i n sta nce, could be a s o u rce for fa s h i o n s i nformed
by the Cold Wa r, teenage cultu re, fou n dation
ga rme nts, rock- a n d - ro l l , o r p o p u l a r television
p rogra m s such as I Love Lucy.

Paco R a b a n ne's fas h i o n s i n the 1 9 60s were
considered "out of t h i s world." At a t i m e when
the race to the moon was heating u p, v i s i o n s of a
fut u re i n space f u e l ed the i maginations of m a n y
designers. Raba n n e's foray i nto fi l m l e d h i m to
team with designer Jacques Fonteray. Together
they created the cost u m e s for t h e c u l t c l a ssic
film Barbarella. Although many of the clothes i n
t h i s ge n re now seem dated, e l e ments of t h e i r
fa s h ion pred ict i o n s f o r the fut u re l ive o n .

H a l l m a rks o f the 1 970s i n c l ud e the exploration
of a n d rogyny and a grow i ng im portance for the
re lations h i p between fa s h i o n a n d celebrity. U n i ­
sex fas h i o n b l u rred t h e l i nes between the sexes,
a n d even though ge n d e rless j u m psu its n ever
beca me a m a i n stay, pants p layed a b igge r part
i n women's fa s h i o n t h a n ever before. Fas h i o n
beca me a bo u t l a bels, s o m u c h s o t h at t h e y were
no lo nger on the i n s i d e of ga rments b u t boldly
d i s p l ayed on t h e back pocket of designer jeans.

Everyt h i ng was big i n t h e 1 9 80 s - h a i r, jewel ry,
belts, a n d most of a l l, s h o u l d e r pads, w h i c h
were served u p i n d ra m at i c proport i o n s . Fa s h i o n
designer a n d t e l evis ion cost u m e r N o l a n M i l l e r i s
best known f o r c reating the fas h i o n s f o r the cast
of the popu l a r 1 9 8 0 s television series Dynasty.
C a reful study of bygo n e e ras (or the cu rrent o ne)
can lead designers to consider how they may be
able to best defi n e t h e ti mes they a re l i ving i n .

14 Fashion Design Essentials

THOUGHT

5 Forging Identity
"Age can not wither h e r . . . " These words from Designer Betsey Joh nson
does a signature cartwheel
S h a kespeare best describe B etsey J o h n son's
after her spring 2009
stay ing power in the fas h i o n i n d u st ry. A Betsey
collection show at Mercedes­
J o h n son ru nway show i s not com plete u n t i l the Benz Fashion Week, 2008,
b ra n d's n a m esake takes her bow i n the form of in New York City.
a c a rtw h e e l . G y m n astics as ide, t h e spi rit of the
gest u re is what is i m po rta nt. The bra n d 's the
t h i ng in fa s h io n , a n d i n t h i s case, consistency­
youthfu l s p i r it, fl i rty fe m i n i n ity, a n d a wild-ch i l d
playfu l ness-is respon s i b l e for ma king Betsey
J o h n son s u c h a recognizable l a b e l .

G reat b ra n d s h ave o n e t h i n g i n c o m m o n : They
del iver messages, p rod u cts, a n d services that
evo lve, but never d eviate too far from the f u n ­
d a m enta l s t h at gene rated t h e m . Designers can
craft a n i d e n tity with every c h oice they m a ke.

1 6 Fashion Design Essentials

.

Although s u bt l e. � I o -. movement. and touch. o r stiff? Sound I m agine the c l icks of loose beads knocking i nto each othe r. A fa n c i f u l fas h i o n r u nway s h ow i s a h i g h l ight of t h e event. fa s h i o n h ave always had a m u t u a l l y i n s p i ra t i o n a l Below: Y i ng Gao's Walking re l a t i o n s h i p . m a d e of b read m ight m a ke the m o u t h water which are triggered by i n a s m u c h as they c o u l d i n s p i re t h e color. w h i c h p r i m a r i l y sel l s d ress s h i rts for men a nd women. s u c h as t h i s serve a s a psyc hological trigger. Sonic fabric is woven from h e ighte n i ng t h e fa s h i o n experience t h rough 50 percent recorded audio a romathera py. 2004. text u re.. and form of an a c t u a l ga rment. The S a l o n d u C h ocolat i s a chocolate expo that recognizes the bond between the food i e a n d t h e fas h i o n i sta. When Taste gloves equi pped with tape E d i b l e ga rments m ight seem l i ke the excl u s ive heads are rubbed against the d o m a i n of n a ughty n ove lties. H ow d o shape a n d scale relate t o e a c h other? H o w vi brant i s t h e col or? H ow d ra m atic is t h e contrast? Touch T h i s i s the second most i m port a n t fa ctor. the T h o m a s P i n k l a b e l . cassette tape and 5 0 percent polyester threa d . THOUGHT 6 Sensing Style Each of the five senses p l ays a significant ro l e Fashion designer Jean Pa u l Gau ltier poses with i n how w e interpret fa s h i o n . wind. cri sp. J e a n Pa u l G a u ltier's d ress scu l pt u res City pneu matic fashions. o � � '" o o . For exa m p l e. a n d feat u res m o d e l s c l a d i n every k i nd of cocoa confect i o n . dresses made of bread Sight by French bakers for a n exhibition a t t h e Cartier T h i s i s e a s i l y the fastest way to assess whether Foundation in Paris. H ow does the materi a l feel aga i n st your s k i n? Does the ga rment conform to your body and feel com­ forta b l e? Is the material soft a n d p l ia ble. b u t food a n d fabric the d ress makes sound. deta i l s Rhythm Dress by Alyce Santoro. somet h i n g is pleasing or not. pi pes a fresh l a u n d e red scent i nto its stores as Left: Jon F ishman's Sonic part of its reta i l strategy. camo ufl age. t h e synthetic s q u e a k a n d c r u n c h of plastic as i t stra i n s t o move. papery fa brics that rustle a s they sway o n t h e body. a n d e a c h s h o u l d be a sculpture of one of his considered in the design process. Sonic Fabric 2003. Smell Scents h ave been designed a n d a re chosen to transform e n v i ro n m e nts.: o z o 18 Fashion Design Essentials .: Z (5 C m 0. or se­ duce.

acceleration. temperature. Royal Philips Electronics of the Netherlands is working on projects that promise a new level of interaction between a p pa rel and the wearer. Con­ sider the sense of bala nce. which uses pattern and color cha nges to display a person's emotional state. .H u m a n beings have more than just five senses. and the sense of d i rection. Textiles infused with sensors that read and respond to movement. pain. and external factors hint at the future of fashion. biological varia­ tions. One example is the S K I N : dress. kinesthetic.

T h i s system o f d ressing was a n i m portant too l for wom e n i n the workforce who had a desire to re p l ace t h e i r " power s u its" with m o re fas h i o n a b l e c h o ices. In 2 0 09. TECHNICAL DRAWINGS BY MARIE-EVE TREMBLAY 20 Fashion Design Essentials . I n 1 985. and jeans. design components that w i l l fit i nto the a rch itectu re of the col lection. O n ce a structure i s i n p l a ce. a ch iffon b l o u se. a longer jac ket. a wra p s k i rt. Design det a i l s asi de. B roaden­ i n g a c u stome r's wa rd robe of basics or a de­ s igner's core l i n e i s easy to do. THOUGHT 7 Fashion Equations The basic a rithmetic of dressing can be a useful way to b u i l d a collection. c u stomers have oth e r d e m a n ds. the pa nt. a b l a ze r. t h ey a l l rem a i n re l evant today. l eggi n gs. a coat. or a social occasion at a m o m e nt's notice. H aving more than o n e variation of each f u n d a m e ntal garment i s a n effortless way to i n c rease the n u mber of opt i o n s . and a d ress. s u c h a s p ractica l ity a n d comfort. a jacket. The o rigi n a l Easy Pieces were the bodysu it. a n d to stream l i n e the d e c i s i o n . Donna Ka ra n rei ntrod u ced h e r version of the Easy Pieces w ith an u pd ated l i st of m u st-haves: a t u rtleneck. the fi rst Donna Kara n co l l ection wa s l a u nched a n d it featu red her Seven Easy Pieces. T h e designer m u st a n a lyze those needs. Top p l u s bottom is easy enough. but w h i c h top? W h i c h bottom? O n ce the designer figu res out w h i c h basics w i l l fit i nto a c o l l ection as well as i nto a c l i e nt's wa rd robe. and engineer the garments the mselves. he can beg i n to c a l c u l ate t h e va r i a b l es. a s k i rt. trave l . i t is e a s y t o p u l l i n a ccessories to kee p t h i ngs i nterest i ng. w h e n it co mes t o m ix i ng and matchi ng.m a k i n g p rocess so that they could put together outfits for the offi ce.

21 .

" These works exa m i n e t h e c o m m o n fa ctors that both a rch itec­ ture and fa s h i o n design s h a re. copyright 2011 by m a i l (for a re a s t h a t d i d n o t a l l ow for rigid pl ates). wea ra b l e a rc h itect u re speaks to fa s h i o n designers concerned with social issues such a s s u rviva l and h o m e l essness. two telescopic b reastplate (torso). Mode rn-day fa s h i o n design can provi de protec­ tion i n n ew. THOUGHT 8 Suits of Armor The i n st i n ct to cover o u r bodies for p rotect i o n Right: A model wears a silver c a m e before t h e d e s i re to d eco rate ou rse lves. but a l so e l a sticity. They a l so a d d ress a s h ift i n g l o b a l co nscious ness rega rd ing what we pro d u ce and why. I n a soc iety t h at va lues m o b i l ity. 2010. Alth ough Kev l a r's b a l l istic fa bric is currently the sta n d a rd. ga u ntlets (fore a r m s). whistle. i n n ovative. polyamide. the d eve lo pment of l ightweight. greaves ( l egs). The Below: Refuge Wear­ major sections of a rm o r broke down i nto h e l met H a bitent: Aluminum-coated (h ead). each oth e r. ensemble from Jean-Cha rles i n it i a l ly from the e l e m ents a n d eventu a l ly from de Castelbajac's ready-to­ wear show. Lucy + Jorge Orta It is i nteresti ng to note t h a t some of t h e early vers i o n s of b u l letproof fa bric were m a d e of m a ny l ayers of s i l k due to the strength of the fi bers. Com bat n ecessitated t h e s h i e l d i n g of v u l nerable parts of t h e body d u ri n g wa rfa re. a n d c h a i n a l u m i n u m poles. Contempo­ ra ry visual a rtist Lucy O rta created the H a b itent as part of her e x h i b i t i o n cal led " Refuge Wear a n d Body Arch itect u re (1 992-1 998). experime nts with s p i d e r s i l k a re finding that it has not only compara b l e strength. and re l eva nt ways. a n d compass. 22 Fashion Design Essentials . gorget ( ne c k).

silver metal dress by designer Jean-Cha rles de Castelbajac.A model wears a n armor­ inspired. . 2010.

W hether it is the m use. experienced t h e s a m e transformation when M i c h e l l e O b a m a wore t h e now-fa m o u s wh ite gown h e d e s igned for h e r t o the m a ny i n a ugu rati o n b a l l s . l i ke a rtists. f i l m d i re ctor Sofia Coppola i s recog n i zed as one of M a rc J a cobs' strongest i n fl uences. designer Loulou de la Fa l a ise. having d e b uted h i s fi rst co l l ection i n 2 0 0 6. t h e ben efactor. H i story p rovides exa m pl es of many su ccessf u l pa i r i ngs o f a rt i ste and m u se. 24 Fashion Design Essentials . O b a m a that put her Show name o n everyo ne's l i ps. a ct ress A u d rey H e p b u r n . Later that d ay. La u rent had severa l p ro m i n e n t sou rces of creative i l l u m i ­ n a t i o n : for m e r model a n d fa s h i o n icon Betty Catro u x. THOUGHT 9 Client Compatibility Design ers. a n d ac­ tress C a t h e r i n e Dene uve. but it was the i n a u gu ration s u it Jacobs Spring 2009 Fashion that s h e designed for M rs . Jason Wu. Ove r the years. H aving a h ighly v i s i b l e i nd iv i d u a l i n corporate your designs into her wardrobe can h ave a p rofo u n d effect on a des igner. a re lative newcomer. a re often court i ng thei r m u ses for i n s p i ration. A l ifet i m e frien d s h i p was t h e basis of the re lation­ ship between designer H u be rt de G ivenchy and � I o -. head designer a n d c reative d i rector Karl Lage rfeld a n o inted actress Kei ra Kn ightley a s t h e C h a n e l m u s e . o r the m a i nstay of every b u si n ess-the customer-the best relationsh i ps a re sym b iotic ones where both sides learn a n d benefit from each other. Fi rst Lady M i c h e l l e O ba m a is respon s i b l e for s h i n i ng a D i rector Sofia Coppola l ight o n m a n y t a l e nted d e s igne rs. but recently. And o n the ot her s i d e of the c a m e ra. s u c h as styl ists and celeb rities. S . whom h e a l so d ressed for fi l m s from Belle de Jour to The Hunger. such as I sabel with designer M a rc Jacobs To ledo and J ason Wu. Yves S t . U . many o l ovely wo men h ave i nf l u e nced t h e H o u se of C h a nel. To ledo h a s been design­ bac kstage prior to the Marc ing s i n ce 1 9 85. They m u st a l s o c u l t ivate a rich and mea n i ngfu l re lations h i p with t h e i r patrons a n d those w h o w i l l partner i n pro mot­ i n g t h e i r work.

PHOTO BY MARK WILSON/GETTY IMAGES u. Washington. First Lady Michelle Obama stands with inaugural dress designer Jason Wu i n front o f the gown she wore to the inaugural balls. The gown is now on d isplay at the Smithsonian Museum of American H i story. DC. 25 .s.

a s i m p l e s l eeve l ess d ress with a n A . M ix i ng fa b rics and choosing specific design details. or leather-but that is j u st t h e fou n d a t i o n . The t h i rd p a rt n e r in the design process is the wea rer. and cuff button . Fa ster. m o re fac i l e m a n ufacturing now a l l ows custo m e rs to benefit fro m lower prices. s h o u l d t h e wearer decide t o a d d more color each t i m e i t IS worn. and length simply infi nite design variat i o n s . Conve rse p roduces the iconic C h u c k Tay l o r A l l Sta r h i-top sneake r. beca u se t h ey contrib uted to the d e s ign p rocess. c reat i ng o n e-of-a-kind c o m b i nations. She can use t h e text i l e m a rkers provided with the d ress to m a ke it her own. to the design and c u stomization of the s hoe. C o m p a rtmental ized design a l lows the custo m e r to select how the e l em e nts o f a pro d u ct a re fa b ricated. Berber Soepboer a n d gra p h i c designer M i c h i e l Sch u u rm a n designed the C o l o u r. but i n a l l of these exam ples. THOUGHT 10 Customization Eve n though the d es i re to fit i n i s strong. 26 Fashion Design Essentials . by zipping or u nzipping Based i n the N et h e rl a nds. the p roduct designers h ave the u n iq u e opportun ity to see t h e i r design t h rough the eyes of t h e i r customers. Des ign ers of m a ny d i fferent types of pro d u cts a re taking a dvantage of both the tools a n d consu mers' i nterest in f i n d i n g this b a l a nce between t h e two. 9ta i l o rs pro d u ces q u a l i ty s h i rts. a sty l e that is offered i n t h e tra d i t i o n a l ca nvas. c u ff. The exercise p rovides va l ua b l e i n sight i nto what t h e i r a u d i ­ e n ce wa nts. C u st o m e rs h ave m a ny c h o ices when i t comes Made of 1 2 0 zippers this .l i n e s k i rt. the idea of i n dividual ity a l lows a person to fee l spec i a l . fa s h i o n designer segments. a s dress a l lows the wearer we l l a s a wide assortment o f colo rs. pocket pocket position. such as co l l a r. designer Sebastian Errazuriz. res u lt i n g i n to customize neckline. p l a c ket. The N 3 Zipper Dress by artist suede. The whole customization process is particula rly s uccessf u l when the ga rment itself is fa m i l i a r a n d t h e modifications a re easy t o i m agine. openi ngs.I n D ress. The gra p h i c pattern on the text i l e l e n d s itself to b e i n g interpreted in m a ny d ifferent ways. a l lows a c u stomer to transform a 9ta i l ors s h i rt i nto a n origin a l . The d ress also h a s the poten t i a l to be a work in p rogress. Designers m ight be wary of giving up c o m p l ete contro l . w h i l e sti l l a l lowing t h e m t o e njoy own i ng s o m et h i ng that i s t r u ly u n ique.

2008 Right: Customized Converse sneakers 27 .I n Dress by Berber Soepboer and Michiel Schuurman.Above: Colour.

because it has grabbed your atte ntion. somet h i ng that can be tapped i nto. a s t i m u l at­ i n g pattern. Somet i m es t h i s type of forcef u l fas h io n c a n b e down right h ideous. or the h a n d of a texture. Impulse. b u t it i s not restra i n ed t o passion o r t h eat­ rical ity. O bse rvers c a n 't h e l p b u t b e e ngaged. and Impact Design is a s m u c h a bout what you add to the m i x as what you elect not t o a d d . W i l l pu rposefu l l y dowdy. THOUGHT 11 Restraint. T h i s type o f d e s ign has a p u l se. The l ove-h ate re l a t i o n s h i p teeters on d e s ign se n s i b i l ities. N e utra l col ors a n d the a bsence of adornment a re often used to define a restra i ned aesthetic. Fa s h i o n with more of a pop u s u a l l y re l ies on somet h i n g m o re . The rol e of ugly fas h ­ i o n i s t o c h a l l e nge. T h e fa b r ics. 28 Fashion Design Essentials . whether it is t h e vi brant p l ay of color. d i scorda nt. be­ cause t h e re a re no d i stract i o n s-what you see i s what you get. I m pact c a n have many of the q u a l i ties of i m ­ pu lse. t h e cut. or garish c reat i o n s be i nteresti ng? O r does a ru nway odd ity d isturb a n d u n sett l e you? T h e point i s t h at rega rd less o f whether you l i ke someth i ng you d o n ' t u n d e rstand you can not d i s m i s s it. and the fi n i s h m u st be beyond re p roach. whet h e r t h ey f i n d t h e m se lves i n t rigued or offe n d e d . I t can be a p p reciated merely for having been a b l e t o s h a ke t h i ngs u p a n d pen etrate est a b l i s h ed sta n d a rds of beauty fa r e n ough to c h a l l enge yo u .

A model wearing a H ussein Chalaya n creation. 201 0 .

a n d b u i l d i n g st r u c t u re for a right-b ra i n wel l-versed in the va lue of i n d ivi d u a l . needs of the ma rket. craft language a n d logical. T h e re a re seve ra l ways to map out a su ccessfu l c reative strategy t h at a l l ows the designer to see. a designer needs to move the p rocess outside of h e r head. I t's easy to i d e ntify Left-brain fashion thinking can be found i n a designer's a n d focus on what o u r b ra i n has a natural ten­ ability to a na lyze the d e n cy to be good at. THOUGHT 12 Mind Mapping A t r u l y c re ative m i n d is o n e that b u i l d s a founda­ tion with t h e l eft b ra i n so that the right b ra i n can m a ke giant leaps of fa n cy. S i m u ltaneously enterta i n ing oppos i ng needs a n d d e s i res can b e a tough t h i ng t o contain i n yo u r b ra i n . Lefties a re ana lytical. sort. i maginative. have a n awareness part of thei r b ra i n that a l l ows t h e m to be m o re and basic comprehension i n t u itive. St rengthen ing those sh o rtc o m i ngs i s a key to make reasonably logical success. The s a m e of i n novations i n science level o f effort s h o u l d be put i n t o p l a n n ing. 30 Fashion Design Essentials . critical. They n eed to stretch to tap into the that w i l l best represent their vision. a n d i n novative. o rga­ and technology. tec h n ical. I n order t o overco m e natu ra l tendencies that l e a n to one s i d e o r t h e other. decisions. and be n i z i ng. a n d s h u ffle everyt h i ng i nvolved. and to d i s rega rd wea kness. n u m bers in patte rnmaking as well as i n busi ness.

exercises. without their intuition when making the risk of l etting a n y idea s l i p t h rough you r decisions. When a designer can see the whole p i ct u re s h e w i l l begi n to recogn ize relatio n s h ips betwee n the m a n y d if­ ferent e l e ments. H ea ri n g ideas out loud is a great rea l ity Right-brain fashion c heck. and find the music b u l letin board. always be open to creative insights and fi ngers. i n a designer's ability to consider the process of Write it out. Every designer can use a sound ing board. m a d e even better when others p rovide thinking can be fou n d you with feed back. Talk it out. Com m i tt i ng it to paper a l l ows o n e design thoughtfully. or a wa l l a l l ows the designer that creates a n a p propriate setting for their work. to s p read out a l l as pects of an idea. trust thought to l e a d to a n other on t h e page. a ppreciate the art Lay it out. The wide open space of a t a b l e. M a pp i ng t h i ngs out is a way to fi ne-tune the p rocess and e n h a n ce the potentia l for o rigi n a l t h i n ki ng. 31 . a of fashion.

but he rea l ized h e needed to serve t h i s a u d i - e n ce b y sca l i ng the c l ot h es u p i n s ize. The rest is fa s h i o n b u s iness h i story. s ive that m a n y designers fee l they need t o a l l ud e 2007 t o i t i n t h e i r work. Serving this a ri stocratic caste of couture we l l w i l l often come with critical a c c l a i m . J u st because it i s off t h e rack doesn't m e a n it c a n not have great i n fl ue n ce . H i l ­ figer c u l t ivated re latio n s h ips with other l e a d e rs i n t h i s com m u n ity and a reta i l star was born. Although it h a s a very n a r row a u d i e n ce. i f n o t a s p i re t o i t . Casting such a wide n et not o n l y generates greater s a l es. This was e n o ugh to p l a ce H i l figer o n the m a p. The o n l y l i m i tations when serving vast n u mbers a re m a n ufacturi ng o u t l ets and deve l o ping p roducts that h ave m ass a p pea l . H i s l a rge customer base cont i n ues to i n form the d i rection of his work. THOUGHT 13 Net and Narrow The world of h a ute couture i s so e l ite a n d exc l u ­ Musician/a ctor L L Cool J and designer To mmy H i lfiger. o e­ o I � 32 Fashion Design Essentials . The b l ack. H i lfiger's work was adopted a n d a d a pted by h i p . Ready-to-wea r rea c h es the people e n m asse. if o n l y by associa­ tion. couture h a s a com­ pe l l i ng a l l u re beca use that a ud ience i s com posed of some of t h e rich est.h o p fo l l owers everywh ere. but a l so b u i l d s n a m e recogn i t i o n . rap s u bcu l t u re responded a l m ost i m med iately. I n 1 994. but not a lways eco n o m i c s u ccess. This n iche crowd ce rta i n l y has its pe rks. urban. Fas h i o n designers w h o su pport t h e i r v i s i o n a ry p rojects with m o re m a i n st re a m c reations a re t h e ones who have stay ing power. a n d t u rn i ng h i s logo into a h ig h l y visible status symbol in t h e fas h i o n co m m u n ity. most fa m o u s. ra pper S n oop Dogg wore a To m m y H i lfiger s h i rt on an episode of Saturday Night Live. and most powerf u l fa s h i o n c l ients in the world. sty l i n g h i s work to refl ect the c u l t u re.

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i t m ight not h ave a long l i fe span-a t i ssue-paper gown 's days a re n u m bered. but t h e re i s a greater va l u e to be fou n d . and construction s o l u ­ t i o n s that m ight not h ave otherwise been used to create conventional c l oth i ng become a p p a rent. So. Depe nd i ng on the n a t u re of the raw materia l s i n a ga rment of t h i s category. A n ew set of ski l l s and a fresh perspective can kick-start a col l ecti o n . THOUGHT 14 Disposable as Investment No ntext i l e p rojects a re c o m m o n l y used to stretch a fa s h i o n designer's c reative m u scles. and s l eeve be put togeth e r? W h at k i n d of method of c l o s u re w i l l be devised? The f i n a l prod uct takes s h a p e as a form s c u l pted to f i t t h e body and m i m i c tra d i t i o n a l a p parel. color schemes. why i nvest i n s u c h a d i sposable piece of fa sh ion? The n ovelty and artistic va l u e of ga rments m a d e o u t o f paper bags. Many fa s h ion progra m s offer at least o n e course that req u i res a student designer to b u i ld a body cove ring without fa b r i c and conve n t i o n a l sewing methods. or d u ct tape a re i n h e rent. W h a t a re the objects o f c h o i ce? H o w w i l l t hey be asse m b l ed o r wove n into a su rface? H ow w i l l com pone nts s u c h as t h e bod ice. The exploration of this ty pe of wear­ a b l e a rt i nvo lves a great d e a l of experi mentat i o n . 34 Fashion Design Essentials . textu res. skirt. plastic spoons. Compositions. The res u lts of b r i n g­ i n g fas h i o n design s e n s i b i lities to nontrad i t i o n a l p roj ects i n c l u d e u n ex pected problem-solving methods a n d i n s p i red tec h n i q ues.

Left: Nontextile dress constructed out of pennies by I nes Antigua Right: Nontexti Ie d ress constructed out of tea bags by Kathryn Feeley 35 .

The West Coast a n d t h e East Coast h ave very d iffe rent takes o n the defi n it i o n of fa s h i o n . I n t h e U n ited States a lo n e. somet h i n g t h a t m ight give you an edge when dea l i ng with the gritty rea l ities of the city? W h a t is t h e explanation for a n i n c l i nation towa rd b right colors a n d bold patterns i n the South? Does the weather play a part in it? Do these cho ices reflect the l a ndscape? This exa m i n a t i o n assists design ers i n d e l i ve ri n g thei r p roduct to a m a rket that i s a l ready prone to receive it we l l . These foundations a re u s u a l ly based on t h e m a n y a s pects of a n envi­ ron m e n t t h at would color o u r c h o i ces: h i stori- cal events. W h e n t h i s concept is extended globa l ly there a re even s u bt l e r d iffe re n ces to be studied. geogra phy. a good designer w i l l d elve i n t o t h e roots these assessme n ts stem fro m . The M i dwest has a nother sta n d a rd of sty le a l together. 36 Fashion Design Essentials . a n d c l i m ate. cu ltural i nflue n ces. the N o rth a n d t h e South h ave d istinctly d ivergen t tastes for c l ot h i ng. THOUGHT 15 Environmental Context G eogra p h i c a l regions d evelop a sty l e of t h e i r own . A good fa s h i o n com pass w i l l help u n cover t h e reason s for u n de rsta n d i n g w h y a w a rd robe of b la c k h a s become synonymous with u rb a n sett ings s u c h as N ew Yo rk. I s the i n c l i n a t i o n to adopt s u c h a d a rk pa lette j u st a practical c h o i ce? I s the ove ra l l look h a rder a n d m o re i n t i m i d a t i ng. I n stead of m a ki n g va l u e judg­ m e n ts a bo u t the wort h i n ess of a certa i n s e n s i b i l ­ ity.

Left: Vintage Yves Saint Laurent dress in bright. dark brown cascade collar suit by Sara Campbe l l . colorful floral print Right: Sophisticated.

For i n stance. A s u r p l u s can mean the d iffere n ce be­ tween e n d u r i n g and t h rowing i n the towel when fa ced with situations that c h a l l e nge su rviva l . H owever. based on aesthetic needs a n d seaso n a l demands. a p p l i q u e sc issors. O n ce a workroom is o u tfitted and its s h e lves a re stocked with s u p p l ies. the designer m u st b u i l d a c u l t u re. a n d a cq u i re it. I d e ntify i ng the r ight m a c h i n e ry and the proper tools is esse n t i a l . N ext. the l atter m u st measure m o re t h a n 6 i n ches ( 1 5 cm). a workforce m u st be asse m b l e d . The va l u e of a des ign er's i nventory-co m p r i s i n g m a c h i n ery. Not a l l cutting i nst r u m ents a re c reated eq u a l . P i n k i ng s h e a rs. the d iffe rence between scissors and shears is length. systems. t h e designer m u st dete r m i n e how each m e m be r of the staff fits into the com m u n ity being crafted. I NVENTORY 16 Acquisitions Setti n g u p a bus iness o r sta rt i n g a p roject re­ Right: Design stu dio: button bins q u i res t h at design e rs s h ift into h u nter-gat h e re r m o d e . I n some cases. m a n power. They w i l l forage t h rough the m a n y c h o i ces of fa brics a n d notions to procure the ideal raw m a ­ terials. it is a s m a rt idea to accu m u late reserves. or fin i s h ed p ro d u ct-depends on how cohes ive it a l l is. 38 Fashion Design Essentials . Fa s h i o n gatherers a re a l ittle m o re s u bjective. a n d s n i ps each m a ke specific jobs a little easier. I n d o i ng so. and tech n o l ogy. De­ s ign room s w i l l reserve shears for cutt i ng fa brics versus scissors for c utti ng paper. raw materi a l s . an e n v i ro n ment. stockp i l ing i s n 't h e l pful u n less t h e goods a re rel eva nt and a re actua l ly p u t t o use. W h a t a re t h e m e a n s b y w h i c h they w i l l Far Right: Design studio: b e a b l e t o deve l o p wo rk? H ow w i l l t h ey a m ass fabric and pattern storage resou rces? PHOTO: JOEL BENJAMIN Good fas h ion h u nters w i l l fa m i l ia rize themse lves with a terra i n. track thei r ta rget.

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She is a fash ion designer a n d h e i s a n a rt i st. ed itors. • Power couple Isabel and Ruben Toledo represent t h e h u sband and wife d u o that i m pact c u l t u re o n m u lt i p l e fronts. A c reative c o l l a borati o n can res u l t i n designs that a re m o re complex and i n n ovat ive than those that origi n ate fro m a s i ng u l a r v i s i o n . of Viktor Mulleavy for Roda rte. collection show in Paris. c l i e nts. Ita ly. They h ave 2010/11 ready-to-wear c o l l a borated with the G a p as wel l as Ta rget. Some exa m p l e s of s u ccessf u l fa s h i o n d e s ign teams i n c l u d e : • Viktor Horsting a n d Rolf Snoeren o f V i ktor & Rolf met w h i l e studying fas h i o n at the A r n h e m Academy o f Art a n d Design i n T h e Nether­ l a n d s . � ::! '" . p roving they u n d e rsta nd how to interface well with others. a Toledo m u lt i m i l l io n . Partners h i p s with buyers. • Domenico Dolce m et Stefano Gabbana w h i l e working for the same design firm i n M i l a n. originating from t h e m a iden n a mes of both designers' mothers. n o t riva l ry. and a re now the force b e h i n d Above: Ruben and Isabel I ta l i a n l u x u ry house D o l ce and G a b b a n a . a n d oth e r designers a l l h ave the pote n t i a l to foster s u ccessf u l ideas and e n h a nce the creative process. a company a lso n a m ed & Rolf. T h e i r team a p p roach to fa s h i o n cont i n ­ ues to surprise a n d c h a rm the fa s h i o n e l ite. I NVENTORY 17 Collaboration Some very s u ccessf u l fas h i o n design tea m s p rove that two heads a re often better t h a n one. shake hands at the end of their Autumn/Winter after t h e i r mother's m a i d e n n a m e .d o l l a r fas h ion e m p i re . Right: Dutch designers Rolf • S i b l i ng c a m a raderie.}: o >­ o I � 40 Fashion Design Essentials . i s at t h e Snoeren (left) a n d Viktor h e a rt o f the s i ster t e a m o f Kate a n d Laura Horsting (right).. • Parsons School of Design in N ew York City wa s where Lazaro Hernandez and Jack McCollough both stud ied before go ing on to form the l a b e l Proenza S c h o u l er-a n a m e t h at keeps it a l l i n the fa m i ly. -rt � < �--=� I ��i � u '" >- .

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J u st red? It s h o u l d n ever be just red. When you t h i n k of Fe rrari the associations a re sport. and Ita ly. O r c h er ry red. a designer can d iscover a d i rection for a project. they can also become closely associated with a part i c u l a r color. exte n s ive voca b u l a ry. a b i l ity to c raft words i nto ideas. or satin f i n i s h . I t may just seem l i ke sema ntics. a c o l o r you can a l most taste. porous. b u t a lso posses s i ng the 2008. 42 Fashion Design Essentials . U s i ng color as a n exa m p le. Elsa S c h i a p a re l l i is forever l i n ked with s h oc k i ng p i n k. the adjectives used to n a rrow the defi n ition of a color can affect t h e context i n w h i c h t h e f i n a l pro d u ct is perce ived . I NVENTORY 18 Articulation of Style Use your words. but the s a m e i s t r u e o f a l l t h e v i t a l com pone nts i nvolved i n deve l o p i ng a ga rment o r a central t h e m e for a col lectio n . Per h a ps it i s ru by. W h ether complex o r u nc o m p l icated. or eart hy. wh ereas a gra i n y texture can be descri bed as rough. w h i c h m a kes Ferra r i 's co-bra n d i ng of s n e a ke rs a n d a t h l et i c spo rtswear a natu ra I fit.h ouse on the designer's terms. C l ever word play is at the h e a rt of how fas h i o n is d i scussed in the me­ d i a . so why not sta rt that d i a logue i n . a n d stories. Th rough la nguage. j u st as Va l e n t i n o w i l l a lways b e re m e m b e red for h i s signat u re red.n ot m erely having a n catwa l k for a grand fina le. Va lentino's signature color. a red as rich a n d l u x u r i o u s as t h e ge m ­ sto n e . polis hed. A sm ooth text u re c a n be descri bed as having a glossy. A designer ben efits great ly from Models in red. messages. t h e intent b e h i n d t h e words t h a t a re used t o describe and define t h ings helps to i n spire and deve l o p design concepts. speed. wa l k on the a m astery of la nguage. A lt h ough design ers m ay work from a broad p a l ette.

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Right: Va rious croquis Vel exaggerations designed to t��) . The transformation may refl ect the design e r's style tendencies. a nd respected. This ga rment is constructed so that a designer can m a n i pu l ate the d e s ign a n d custom ize t h e fit. Good c ro q u i s figu res a re based on the propor­ t i o n s of the h u m a n body. The basic s l oper i s e m p l oyed as a fou ndation for flat pattern m a ki n g beca use it conta i n s a l l the vital meas u rements t o b u i ld a pattern that w i l l correspond to the body it is being d e s igned for. a designer can bend. if not break. \� . u n d e rstood. W h e n the re lation s h i p s between parts o f the body a re m a i nta i n ed. when it is positioned as the sta rting point. f . F i n d i ng the m i d d l e is i m porta nt. f \ � ?-�/ \'(/ \/1 \\\ \ \ \\\ \ \ \ cUA 1 _\ '- dJA 1_\ '-' 44 Fashion Design Essentials . With those m e a s u re m ents i n pl ace. a l m ost a n y modification is poss i b le. . I NVENTORY 19 Building and Breaking Templates Esta b l i s h i ng sta n d ards p rovides a fash ion de­ sign e r with reference points. A fitt i ng m u s l i n i s a ga rment that can be used i n m u ch the same way. \ accentuate overa l l sil houette t:-I o �/ -. a l l the rules. Left: Average length and elongated croq u is �) . w h i l e sti l l keepi ng the f u n ction a n d fit of the ga rment gro u nded i n rea l i ty. t h e figu re can b e exaggerated t o extremes without risking a bstract i o n . . O n ce specifica­ tions a re in p l a ce. b u t the finished p roduct will re m a i n recognizable. The "ave rage" s h o u l d n o t be con­ sid e red a death sentence to c reativity. .

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it seems s i m p l e enough. because t h ey Above: Tracing wheel. I NVENTORY 20 Pattern Instruments A s h a rp pencil. A comm e rci a l pattern comes with a set of i n structions that t a ke the consumer t h rough t h e most efficient way o f putting a ga rment togeth e r. wh ich h e l p to e n s u re p roper as­ s e m b ly. and awl sewing a n d p rovide room for a lterations after t h e fa ct-too m u c h a nd you h ave u nwanted b u l k. Designers s h o u l d be very fa m i l i a r with the purpose o f e a c h tool of the t rade and flu ent in the l a nguage of whatever u n its of measurement t h ey a re working i n . some paper. provi de the stitcher with specific places w h e re pieces a re to be joined. and what the specific sequence of steps w i l l be. Seam a l l owance can be looked at a s the b reakdown lane of stitc h i ng l i nes. Ta i loring a garment to the h u m a n form m ight req u i re darts that e l i m i n ate u nwa nted full n ess. 46 Fashion Design Essentials . N otches. down to the s m a l lest fraction. too Right: Pattern rack l ittle a n d sea m s begin to fa l l a pa rt . but pattern m a ki ng de­ m a n d s that d e s igners filter t h e i r vision of a ga r­ m e n t t h rough a strict m at h e m atical grid. or gathers that add it where d e s i red. There is no gett ing away from the fact that we l l-executed patterns rely heavi ly on geometry a n d a re the re­ s u l t of t h i n ki n g l i ke a n engineer. give us room to h a n d l e t h e fa b r i c w h i l e we a re notcher. Beyond taking each flat p iece a n d atta c h i n g it to a n other. Precise measure m ents a n d c l e a r notations a re key when ma king p ieces fit together. a n d a rul e r . t h ese two-d i m e n s i o n a l pieces may a l so be m a n i pu l at­ ed i nto m o re n u anced t h ree-d i m e n si o n a l shapes. for i n st a n ce. They serve as a n chor poi nts. Part of the design process for the d e s igner should i n clude c reat ing a s i m i l a r a lgo r i t h m for a pattern a d d ressi ng w h i c h methods of construc­ tion w i l l be used.

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c ross. There a re m a ny choi ces when it comes to what type of stitch to use for a ny given job. I NVENTORY 21 Stitching Tools Sewing i s a sen sory experience. and each can be executed by hand or on a m a c h i n e : • Loose s i ngle-thread stitches f o r basting • B l a n ket o r overlock stitches to fi n i s h an edge Above Left: Hand sewing • Pad st itc h i n g to sec u re layers of fabric togeth e r Above Right: Machine • Back stitches o r tacking to rei nfo rce a reas sewing • Z igzag o r top stitc h i n g to decorate the su rfa ce Right: Basting samples • C h a i n. N ot h i ng i s pe rfect. 48 Fashion Design Essentials . Eas i ng the cap of a s l e eve i nto a n a r m h o l e i s defi n itely e a s i e r s a i d t h a n d o n e . b u t t h e re is n o su bstitute for expe r i e n ce. select the proper t h read. Fo llowing i n struct i o n s that a re provided i n a book. w h e n it comes to stitc h i ng a ga rment together. a nd l ots of it. a video. see m i ngly effortless touch is the mark of the p rofes s i on a l . or a l ive d e m onst rat i o n is a start. or satin stitches for e m b roidery Far Right: Hand basting • Butto n h o l e stitches to f i n i s h a n d re inforce the ope n i ng for a button c l o s u re • B l i n d stitches for h e m m i ng I n every case. a l ight. a nd u n d e rstand how to co ntrol a n d m a x i m ize the tools you a re work i n g wit h . but p ractice certa i n ly gets you close. O n l y repet ition w i l l provide the experience needed to h a n d l e t h e fa bric expertly.

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design deta i ls. Paris. November 1957. Today. where he has just been na med as successor to couturier C h ristian Dior. or fa s h ion shorthand i n c h a l k on a c h a l kboard. or pai nt. m a r ke r. Whether it's a fash ion n ote on a n a p k i n . Saint Laurent using chalk to sketch fashion designs on a chalkboard in the atelier of the Ho use of C h ristian Dior. A carefully conceived d rawi ng. the pixel is another m ed i u m for d rawing fas h i o n with the a i d of com puter softwa re.d ra p i ng a nd/or pa tte r n m a king. I NVENTORY 22 Rendering Media Fa s h i o n ren d e r i ngs a re u s ua l ly c reated i n pencil. H o n i ng the s k i l l s req u i red t o com m it concepts t o paper is p ri m a r­ ily a bout h a n d to eye coord i nation.move Right: French designer Yves that m u c h faster. o 6 I � SO Fashion Design Essentials . the goa l i s t h e exc h a nge of ideas. w h i c h o n l y comes with t i m e a n d p ractice. it's i m porta nt to rem e m be r t h at these m a sters a re i l l ustrators a n d not designers. a nd propo rti o n s h ave been t h o ughtfu l l y p l a n ned out. There i s a myst i q u e a ro u n d t h e a rt of fa s h i o n . style schematics in a notebook. Alth ough not everyo n e who sits down to d raw w i l l prod uce a rt to riva l t h e work o f Steven Stipe l m a n or Antonio Lopez. will h e l p m a ke the next ste p . as tho ugh o n l y a sel ect few a re entitled t o even atte m pt to c reate it. in w h i c h style l i nes.

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Lycra. and lace for tweed i s o n e . pattern. A p p l y a top-stitched fl at-fe l led seam. c reat­ i n g something fresh a n d u n expected. B l ock­ i n g with color. r i pstop nylon. Combine these methods with tec h n iques u s u a l ly reserved for d iffe rent fa brics. C o l o r. and text u re is another way to s h a ke t h i ngs u p. leather for l i nen. 5 2 Fashion Design Essentials . to s i l k orga ndy and it bri ngs together two see m i ngly u n re l ated a reas of fa s h io n . d e p e n d i n g on whether it i s m a d e of s i l k ch iffo n . a n d the design cho ices m u l tip ly. taffeta. Weight. I NVENTORY 23 Taming Textiles Textiles a re a very tang i b l e s o u rce of i n s p i ration. Much l i ke t h e marble that informs the s c u l p ­ t o r w h a t it wants to become. T h e s a m e pattern for a ga rment w i l l a s s u m e u n i q u e l y d ifferent c h a ra cteristics. The de­ sign e r can design with fabrics ba sed on h ow they coord i n ate and cont rast with each ot her. body. c o m m o n l y found on d e n i m . a n d weave w i l l p rovide further d i rection. and text u re a lso d e l iver a w h o l e set o f a d d i t i o n a l c h o ices. fa b ri c w i l l suggest what sh apes a n d types of m a n i p u lation w i l l transform it i nto a work o f a rt . I � A designer can take ideas fo r a col l ection i nto Right: Medium body: Sara o -.: Ro lf silver d i pped sati n skirt z way t o trigger u n pred icta b l e i n n ovations. c l oth. S u bst ituting Campbell floral jacquard skirt o m � fa brics l i ke d e n i m for taffeta. ch iffon for oxford � m Z Below: Fu l l body: Viktor & ). rib bed knit. () n ew territory by switc h i ng fa brics. or wool felt. pattern.

Light body: soft satin charmeuse blouse .

l e ngt h e n or s horten. the seam that c l oses it does not relate to a ny part of a n other pattern piece. but designers c a n use their own sensi b i l ities to solve design c h a l l enges with t h i s as we l l . the designer h a s the freedom to concent rate on aesthetics. It is used to deve l o p va riations on patterns a n d is a great too l for bra i n st o r m i ng a n d test i ng out design ideas without having to go back to s q u a re one. Every t e m p l ate h a s e l e ments that a re u n iq u e to t h a t piece. as well as cut away or b u i l d a reas onto t h e origi n a l . add fu l l ness. I NVENTORY 24 Letters: Siopers A s l oper is a tem plate for a n y pattern piece t h a t does n o t i n c l u d e s e a m a l lowance. Starting from scratch is not a lways n ecessa ry. S i nce a good sloper a l ready i n c l udes a l l the m e a s u re­ m e n ts that w i l l ens u re a proper fit. The designer can m a n i p u late the position of a d a rt. Getting wrapped up in the m i n utia of t h i s b l u e ­ print for a ga rment may s e e m l i ke t h e exc l u s ive d o m a i n of pattern m a ke rs. I n a sleeve. Each of these base patte r n s is designed to conform to a d iffe rent p a rt of the body as well as i nterfa c i ng with other pieces. The most essentia l a s pect of designing something that goes from two d i m en s i o n s to th ree is fit­ how t h e pieces fit toget h e r and how they fit the pu rpose. 54 Fashion Design Essentials . Each s l oper piece is l i ke a l etter i n t h e D N A o f a ga rment. But the cap of the sl eeve m ust fit i nto an a r m h o l e that is c re­ ated when the fro nt bodice is con n ected to the back bod ice at the s h o u l d e r and side seams.

Slo p er s 55 .

B ig word s as well as l ittle o n e s s h o u l d b e ca refu l ly chosen. The o rigi n a l st i m u l us for a design e r's i n spirati o n can b e d is t i l l ed i nto s u bt l e b ut powe rfu l det a i l s i n even t h e s i m plest of ga rments. I n addition to b e i ng a p p reciated by the true connoisse u r. If they a re designed as independent entities. beca use even the s l ightest va riation i n d efi n it i o n s can m a ke a b ig d iffe rence. they s h o u l d n ever be t reated l i ke an afterthought. A lthough some ite m s a re intended to e m ph a s ize a m o re d o m i n a n t p iece. I n d iv i d u a l ite m s of distinctive with button detail. I NVENTORY 25 Words: Garments Every ga rment m a kes a va l u a b l e contribution to A simple white blouse an overa l l look. 56 Fashion Design Essentials . they w i l l stand a l o n e i n terms of design and q u a l ity. 2006 clothing can be t reated l i ke the words that w i l l b e expres s i n g t h e designer's v i s i o n . made role or as a su pporting piece. these touches add a com plexity that m a kes these ga rme nts d i s t i nct. It might be cast i n the sta rring by Viktor & Rolf.

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The interplay of textu res a n d patterns can a l s o b e used t o sti m u late or re lax the person wea r i ng those specific garments. color s h o u l d a lways a l l u d e t o t h e i m pact the designer w i s h e s to have on h i s a u dience. O rn a m e n t can be sca l ed to differ­ ent propo rt i o n s so that it h a s t h e d e s i red effect. PHOTO: JESSICA WEISER 58 Fashion Design Essentials . the media.c a l ­ ibra ted comb i n at i o n o f refe rences t h a t i n s p i red the d e s ign p rocess i n the fi rst place. and they need to m a ke thei r m a rk o n the observe r-the c l ie nt's c i rc l e. the res u ltant fas h i o n p h rase i s a we l l. In the best of situ­ ations. Design ers need to consider t h at these sets of ga rme nts w i l l not exist i n a va c u u m . whether the designer wants the com p l ete look to h ave a rese rved s i l h o u ette or o n e with d ra m atic f l a i r. At e i t h e r end of t h e spectrum or a nywhere i n between. M ix i ng d ra st i c a l l y d iffe rent colors can p u n c h up a look. The lack of it c a n be j u st as bold i n its a uste r ity. I NVENTORY 26 Sentences: Ensembles Asse mb l i ng a n ensemble i s l i ke stringing words together to form a sentence. Every designer has t h e abil ity to m a ke c l e a r state m e nts o f sty le w i t h every compos i t i o n . F i n d i ng the right b a l ­ a n ce betwee n d i fferent s ha pes is a n i m portant fa cto r. B l e n d i n g more h a r m o n i o u s shades w i l l result i n a gen t l e r t o u c h . a n d the ge n e ra l public.

Samira Vargas ensem bles featuring a mix of texture and pattern. 2010 59 .

c reating co rrespon d i ng pieces to put together a n outfit. The m i x itse lf is an exten­ 2006 sion of t h e conce pt that i n s p i red each e l e m ent of t h e col lection to begin w i t h . I NVENTORY 27 Stories: Collections A variety of looks can be brought togeth e r to C h ristian Lacroix Col lection. M a ny cho ices a re i nvolved i n designing a s i ngle garment. H ave you a made conscious c h oice to j u xta pose contra st­ i n g e l em e nts to c reate confl ict and d ra ma? I s h u m o r wove n into t h e col l ection t h a t con nects with yo u r a u d ience t h rough witty c h o i ces? I s there a s e n se o f harmony i n h ow yo u r c h o ices come together? Does each e n s e m b l e fee l l i ke it represents a c h a ra cter in your story? D o you h ave a strong sta rt and an exciti n g fin i s h? The specific decisions a designer m a kes-putti ng e m p h as i s on what s h e sees as i m po rta nt-wi l l u lti mately set h e r a p a rt from other d esigners and t h e i r co l lect i o n s . a n d t h e n d o i ng that n u m e ro u s t i m e s u n t i l you h ave a l l the i n gred i e n ts n ecessa ry to tel l yo u r fa s h i o n story: a co l l ectio n . Ask the q u estions that would help you c raft a good story. beca use it p l a ces the d esigne r's vision in a context of her own c reation. m o re c o m p l ex pict u re. i l l ustrate a bigger idea. This p rocess is j u st a s i m porta nt as t h e garments themse lves. T h e designer m u st t h i n k l i ke a sty l i st a n d con­ sider how these pieces will go togeth e r to c raft a bigger. 60 Fashion Design Essentials .

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" t h e d e v i l i s i n t h e McFadden gown deta i l s " beca use that i s w h e re t h e y m ight f i n d the process the m ost d iffi c u lt or c h a l l e ngi ng. except when t hey a re strategica l ly pla ced in u n expected locations. a n d when used d e l i be rately they c a n m a ke a statement. b u t n o t d i stract from i t .p l aced e m b e l l i s h m e nts w i l l pu nctuate t h e design. 6 2 Fashion Design Essentials . Above: Beaded Mary Fo r m a ny fas h i o n designers. Big brassy zi ppers stress uti l ity. Exposing t h at k i n d of h eavy h a rd ­ wa re and having i t s l a s h t h rough a del icate d ress defi n itely m a kes a d e c l a ra t i o n . I NVENTORY 28 Punctuation: Details O n ce the structure of a ga rment h a s been clearly defi ned and the materi a l s being used to fa b ricate it have been chosen. A s m a l l godet inserted at t h e end of a seam can provide ease but also i nterest. We l l . Decorative b utton s or s n a p s h e l p to m i x form and f u n ct i o n . O n e big. Right: Decorative zipper I t i s a l s o a way t h at design ers can s u btly sign deta i l by Aey Hota rwaisaya t h e i r m a sterpieces. M ost fa ns of the classic Weste rn -style s h i rt wo u l d agree that pearl s n a ps a re an es­ sential fi n i s h i ng touch. it is t i m e to conte m p late the deta i l s . Top­ stitc h i ng with t h read in an accent color is o n e way t o u n d e r l i n e the style l i nes of a ga rment. These points w i l l fine-tune the d e s ign a n d e n s u re t h at a design er's aesthet ic s e n s i ­ b i l ities a re con s i stent t h roughout. Strictly orna m e n t a l deta i l s s u c h a s e m b ro i d e ry or bea d i ng a re straightforwa rd e nough. The edge of a ga rment may be d otted a n d d a s h ed with a d ecorative b l a n ket stit c h . bold button on an other­ wise u n d erstated coat serves as a n exc l a m ation point.

bowed. 2006 / f ---' / . a n d gilded dress by C h ristian Lacroix.Beaded.

t h e y a re cove red to b l e n d i nto the ga r­ ment. Top: Pink bias ribbon lacing Above: Blue fabric-covered buttons 64 Fashion Design Essentials . H ooks a n d eyes as we l l a s snaps a re ava i l a b l e i n d iffe rent sizes. I n s o m e i n sta nces. b u t they can also be used as prom i n e n t design d eta i l s that com plete a l o o k . Both a lso a re ava i l a b l e on a tape that can be sewn in. I NVENTORY 29 Closures C l o s u re methods a re pri m a rily p ract ical consid­ e rations. A l m ost a n y fa stener c a n be stea l t h i l y h i dden w i t h i n a p la cket or a seam. There a re a l s o specia l considerations for e a c h type o f closu re that w i l l affect the fit a n d f i n i s h of a garment. or camo ufl aged when covered i n fa b­ ric. A sta n d a rd z i pper can be centered. The i nv i s i b l e z i pper is designed to p u l l t h e fa bric o n both sides together t o m i m ic a sea m . frogs. be lts. and toggles a re u s u a l ly chosen for t h e i r decorative contri b u ­ tion as wel l a s t h e i r u sefu l n ess. Vel cro is c o m m o n l y not visible and can be a pp l ied i n segments o r co n t i n u o u s strips. to a c h i eve a c l e a n a ppeara n ce. a n d types. l a p ped. but s h a n ked buttons a re often used when the t h ick­ ness of the fa bric req u i res greater space to a l low for that b u l k to be butto n e d . Flat buttons a re c o m m o n in most i n stances. E l e m e nts such as ties. or i n se rted without a n y exte n s i o n s o f fa bric t o intenti o n a l l y re m a i n vis­ ible. col ors.

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I NVENTORY 30 Specialty Requisites Spec i a l m ateria ls a re often req u i red to a c h i eve d e s i red effects. Clockwise: Decorative yarns. b i l lowi ng h e m l i n e t h a t seems t o ro l l a s it moves. strand (the h igher t h e n u mber t h e finer the horsehair • t h read) a n d the second to the n u m ber of stra n d s t h a t h ave been twisted together t o c reate that t h re a d . a n d e n s u re q u a l ity workm a n s h i p . thread. E m b roid e ry t h read is m o re c o m m o n l y refe r red t o a s floss and is u s u a l l y co m posed o f six loosely twisted stra n d s . Fo r i nstance. The size and weight of a t h read is i n d icated by a set of n u m bers. I n weatherproof outerwea r. such as 50/3 . t h i s m e s h i s now made of nylon. p rovide specific functional ity. A fu l l -flowing s k i rt w i l l ben efit from a b a n d of h o rse h a i r braid sewn into the h e m . t h e s h a pe o f the point o f a needle is very i m po rta nt. Strong t h reads w i l l h o l d u p t o heavier fa brics a n d c a n be used i n situations w h e n t h e re w i l l b e a d d i t i o n a l stress. O n e of its uses i n c l udes provid ing a flexi b l e stiffness that reinfo rces the edge of the hem. needles used fo r kn its need to be sl ightly ro unded at the point so they do n't snag. F i n e r t h reads a re i n kee p i n g with h a n d ­ work a n d d e l i cate fa b rics. The fi rst n u m be r refers to the d i a meter of each heavy-duty zipper . Synthetic t h reads p rovide a l itt l e m o re give when sew- i n g kn its. S o l v i ng u n i q u e design c h a l l enges req u i res d iffe rent m ateria l s . a s i n gath e r i n g stitches a n d b utto n h o les. O rigi n a l l y m a d e o f actual horseha i r. The s k i rt m ight be m a d e without it. I f the right i ngred ients don't exist. a l a c k of b reat h a b i l ity m ight req u i re the i n sertion of a nylon mesh into strategi ca l l y p la ced vents. Each project w i l l req u i re a d i ffere nt type of t h read. 66 Fashion Design Essentials . a n i n n ovative designer w i l l be i n s p i red to invent t h e m . D o u b l e z i ppers a l l ow the garment to be part i a l ly o p e n ed at either end without com pletely exposing the wea rer to the e l e m e nts. but i n ­ c l u d i ng i t res u lts i n a rou nded. I n addition t o d iffe rent lengths a n d d i a meters. T h read i s at the h e a rt of putting togeth e r most ga rments.

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The own. B l ogs a re just one exa m ple. The u n expected s o u rce ce rta i n l y generates interest. the b l oggi ng l a ndscape and garments ta kes into � I 0 account i m portant issues of -. but they ra re l y ga i n traction i n the h igh-end fa s h i o n world. I n truth. Social Fabric. a n d i n s p i ration for the r. even of Conscience in answer the fa s h i o n i n d u stry can fa l l i nto a rut. I NVENTORY 31 Miscellaneous Markers I n fa s h io n . l a b e l . which is made in the G uatemalan tradition Now that v i rtu a l l y everyon e h a s a b l og of h i s of back-strap weaving. Design ers need to be looking fo r signs of the fut u re on a l l fronts-who is s h i n i ng a l ight o n a d iffe rent perspective a n d h ow t h at w i l l fuel t h e i r creative p rocess. i n the J u ne 2 0 0 9 i s s u e of Vogue. and o n l y to the needs of several ra ndom w i l d cards a re a b l e t o s h a ke t h i ngs u p co m m u n ities. New Yo rk. The company a n d sh ift the fa s h i o n l a ndscape j u st e n ough to employs both Mayan I ndian infl u e n ce c h a nge. H oweve r. these locales. L i ke a nyth i ng e l se. fa s h ion fl a res a re u s u a l l y f i l ed under "M isce l l a ­ lightweight material made neo us. so tappi ng n 0 z � into t h e right c o m b i nation of o n l i ne voices w i l l n S2 p rovide i n s ight. The line uses a soft. a fas h ion label c reated by Fat h e r Andrew O'Connor. supporting custo m .. Some a re described � . a C a t h o l i c priest based i n the B ro n x." Their ra n d o m n ess s h o u ld not b e l i e t h e i r of o rga nic cotton.- � as being on t h e front l i nes of fas h i o n . sometimes com p l ex. -< � ra dar u n t i l o n e of these writers chooses to foc u s co 0 0 0 on i t a n d s p read t h e word . but t h e bus i ness model and the message lay the gro u n dwork for the evo l ut i o n of an i n d ustry. Move m ents toward susta i n a b i l i ty a n d fa i r t rade h ave been b u i l d - i n g m o m e n t u m i n t h e fa s h i o n i n d ustry. H owever. is sti l l a p l a ce wh e re d i a m o n d s i n the ro ugh c a n � susta inability and fair trade n 0 b e fou n d . but beca use loca l production in both it is d iffi c u l t to fit t h e m i nto a category. created Goods a n d the u nexpl ored. fa s h ion designer. � � of fa s h i o n that may not h ave been on a nyone's as well as the consu mer. (right). C a m e ron D i a z was featured wearing a p a i r of eco-frie n d ly/h igh-end fas h i o n sh orts by Goods of Conscience. 6 8 Fashion Design Essentials . t h e b l ogos p h e re's i m pact see m s d i l uted a nd manufactu ring of the fabric c o m m o n p l a ce. resou rces. eve ryth ing revo lves a ro u n d the n ew Father Andrew O'Connor. These u n d iscove red ge m s reflect facets that face the fashion ind ustry c � -. called i m porta n ce i n terms o f i n s p i ration a n d d i rection. they deserve t h e i r own weavers and underem ployed Bronx sewers.

Tavi Gevinson is a n American fashion blogging phenomenon. a n d the M u l leavy sisters. . These design stars say she "gets it. She started "Style Rookie" in 2008 at the age of eleven and her followers include M i uccia Prada." and they are taking notice. John Galliano. Rei Kawakubo.

so proper sto rage is be laund ered-hot water for whites. placed in a dryer at a low temperature. and other synthetics W i l l the garme nt's fa bric a n d c o n struction sta n d prevent matting. W h i c h type of h a nger best s u its that warm or co ld for colors. h ow w i l l a t a i l o r's h a m . May be machine washed and washed or dry cleaned. h a i r. a point press. t h rough wear. a n d stea m i ng. a n d fuzz? Does the fa b r i c req u i re p ressing or stea m i ng? I n the case of velvet or cord u roy fa brics. o r a sleeve board wo rk for the user? W i l l a p ress cloth or pad help to prevent the fa bric from s h i n i n g or si nge i ng? After a length of t i m e. dry on a noncolored towel. h e l p i n g t h e m t o m a ke the best c h o ices. or dry cleaned or spot cleaned with a damp vicuna) should be dry cleaned or gently sponge. In some cases. such as h ow t h e ga rment w i l l h o l d u p over t i m e. denim twi l l ) can Dry cleaning is preferred for most n e nt and wea ken the fabric. way to take out wrin kles. Do not wring or agitate. a press m i tt. it is the patina that deve l o ps d u ri n g the aging p rocess that adds to its d e s i ra b i l ity. c l e a n i ng. a lso removing dust and used for outerwear may be machine u p t o m a c h i n e wash i ng. d e l icate si l ks. 70 Fashion Design Essentials . w i l l a needle press board or pad h e l p m a i nt a i n t h e p i l e? W h e n i ro n i n g the ga rme nt. Heavy wool tweeds and suiting may be Hairy fabrics (a ngora. Shrin kage can hand washed with mild soap. a l paca. A steamer is the recommended washed. They may also be gently essent i a l . I n othe rs. They can also be wa s h i n g or d ry c l e a n i ng? W i l l a l i nt b r u s h o r a n h u ng to d ry. Steam. the va l u e comes from t h e item's a b i l ity to reta i n a good-as­ n ew a p peara n ce over t i m e . Faux furs can be brushed gently to Nylon. a seam ro l l . T h i s can m a ke the d iffe rence between having an object that is a keepsake a n d o n e that is re legated to the d u stbi n . but they can be­ come fa m i l i a r with how fa b r i cs and construction tec h n i q ues w i l l sta n d u p to t i m e and use. I NVENTORY 32 Care and Feeding of a Garment I t's i m pera t ive to consider the l ife of a garment w h e n desig n i n g it. moha i r. o r i n a box with acid-free pa­ per? W i l l basting pockets a n d vents closed h e l p p revent saggi ng o r twisti ng? Design ers may not a lways h ave t h e t i m e to test the e n d u ra nce of a ga r m ent. cardboard for m s h e l p keep t h e body o f t h e gar­ ment in s h a p e a n d w r i n k l e-free? Wo u l d it be best to store t h e ga rment on the h a nger in a plastic bag or a cloth bag. polyester. No d ryer o r direct heat. Lay flat to part i c u l a r garment? W i l l p a c k i ng with tissue a n d be addressed with prewashing. folds can beco m e perma­ Sturdy cotton (canvas. dry flat. do not iron flat. o r w i l l it req u i re h a n d debris. a d h esive ro l l e r b e a b l e t o c l e a r the s u rface o f l i n t.

Gown by designer N a ra Paz Raw silks and linens can be dry cleaned o r gently hand washed. A press cloth should be used when ironing on low temperature from the reverse side. o r cordu roy) c a n be cleaned according to fiber content. Steam only from the reverse side or on a needle press board . terry cloth. Pile fabrics (velvet. They may be pressed at a low heat from the reverse side of the fabric or steamed. . Fabrics with meta llic or plastic threads should be dry cleaned. it is a good idea to design the garment so that these sections are removable for cleaning pu rposes. Right: For t h e designer working with exotic trims such as fur or feathers.

M a d a m e Pouz i e u x creates t h e fa m o u s fa s h ion b ra ids on a o ne-of-a-kind a n c i e nt l o o m . I NVENTORY 33 Ancient Tools and Techniques Fo r the fi rst t i m e o n record. 72 Fashion Design Essentials . but for power a n d sta b i l ity. The H o use of C h a n e l i s a loyal patron of h e r wo rk. beca use t h i s type of b ra i d t r i m can be fo und now h e re else. beca use t h ese v i ntage c rafts a re not being passed on. t h e knowledge a n d s k i l l req u i red to m a i nta i n them i s beco m i n g h a rd t o f i n d . but m a n y a p ­ p re n t i ces have been confou nded by i t s intrica­ ci es. M a n y t a l e nts a re a l so fad i ng i nto obscu- rity. not h i ng compares to o l d e r i n d u st r i a l m a c h i nes. not to mention antique tools and m a c h i n e ry. l e a r n i ng. A l t hough automation affords the designer the a b i l ity to p rod uce fa ster. the woman who h a s b e e n c h a rged w i t h creating b ra id w o r k u s e d t o decorate C h a n e l su its s i n ce 1 947 w a s i nt roduced to t h e p u b l i c in t h e documentary Signe Chane/. W h i le the m a ­ c h i nes can st i l l b e found. Wor k i ng the loom i s second n a t u re to h e r. N ew sewing m ac h i nes with bu i lt-in c o m p uters can be p rogra m m ed to do m a ny wonderfu l t h i ngs. T h i s story i l l u st rates o n e exa m p l e of h ow va l u ­ a b l e a n d u n i q u e o l d-world tech n i q ues c a n be. a n d i m p le me n t i ng o l d -fash i o n ed methods may p rove to be a useful c reative exercise. t h e p rocess of resea rc h i ng.

Left Above: Vintage sewing machine Left Below: Loom Right: Assorted braids by 18 73 .

Shoes h ave become one of the most i m portant fa s h i o n a ccessories. Studying t h e m i c rocos m s of sty l e may gene rate ideas that a designer can expand u pon. on ave rage. why c a n 't the design e r? G reat a ccessories that stra d d l e the l i n e betwee n f u n c­ tion a n d a rt a re worthy of a designer's atte ntion. H ats a re n o t a m u st for tod ay's fas h i o n a b l e wom a n t h e way they were i n t h e 1 9 5 0 s a n d 1 960s. shoes r u l e ! PHOTO: SIMPLYNATE PHOTOGRAPHY 74 Fashion Design Essentials . Shaunt Sarian e m powe r i n g t h e i r c u stomers with the confi d e n ce bag. M i l l i n e rs Clockwise: Fashionable a re reg u l a r l y req u i red to rise to the c h a l l e nge of eyewear. a pa i r of shoes is tec h n ica l ly a n ecessity. As a fa s h i o n category. Ap­ parel designers can t a ke a cue from the c raft a n d a rti stry b e h i n d t h e i r work. beca use u n l ess the option of going ba refoot i s on the t a bl e. I NVENTORY 34 Accessory Closet W h i c h comes first t h e s u i t o r the stil ettos? W h a t about the c u r rent "it" bag or a s m a rt p a i r o f g l asses? A great accesso ry can be t h e c e n ­ terpiece of a great o utfit . b u t t hey h ave n o t gone away. women between the ages of twenty-five a n d fifty own from forty to s i xty p a i rs of shoes. Accord i n g to A n swers. I f the sho pper can t a ke that a p p roach. com. a n d pos­ s i b l y b u i l d a col lection a ro u n d . Zack Lo shoes to don these a rtfu l expres s i o n s of fas h i o n .

Ma rie Ga lvin hat .

k i n d p ieces a re sought after regard less of the category. G ivenchy. but t h ere i s n 't a rea l connect i o n . Describing a l i tt l e b l a c k d ress a s "very A u d rey H e p b u r n " m a y be a sort of tri bute to h e r. 1999.1 m i l lion for Marilyn Monroe's dress. ga rment h a s the potenti a l t o b e a t r u l y coveted Col lector Bob Schagrin item. o Does it possess g l a m o u r by association? Designers and j o u r n a l i sts a re often gu i lty of foste r i ng relations h i ps between c l ot h ing and celebrities. o How ra re i s the item? O n e-of. I NVENTORY 35 Vintage Patina You nger s i b l i n gs everywh e re co m p l a i n about Right: "IT'S M I N E ! " A Daily News front-page head l i ne h a nd-me-downs. The s u bt l e use of color schemes that reflect the aesthetics of a n oth e r t i m e i s a n option. The a p plication of o l d -wo rld pattern m a k i ng. o Does a designer l a be l cou nt? I d entifia b l e m a rke rs s p e a k to the power o f b ra n d i ng fash i o n . o r f i n i s h i n g tec h n i q ues is another. Ken nedy i n 1 962 was n oteworthy in its d ay. I n w h a t way can today's designers b r u s h t h e patina of a v i ntage g a r m e n t ove r t h e i r work? I t need not be as l itera l as t a r n i shed butto ns a n d buckles o r d i stressed and faded fa brics. and o n l i ne reta i l e rs Evening gown featuring a re useful b a rometers t h a t a l low a designer to a distinctive geometric silhouette of the 1980s spot ti mely vintage tre n d s . o I s i t a sym b o l i c part o f h i story? The u ltra­ fem i n i n e s i l houettes of the early 1960s have greatly influenced contem pora ry fa s h ion t h a n ks to t h e p o p u l a rity of the television series Mad Men. Vi ntage sources a re now varied a n d p lentifu l . The use of s i l h ouettes that refe rence specific periods in fas h ion h i story can a l so provide the designer with a sense of a not her era. construct i o n . o I s the garment sti l l re levant? A great PHOTO: N Y DAILY NEWS ARCHIVE/GETTY m oto rcyc l e ja cket sends j u st as powe rfu l a IMAGES m essage a s it ever d i d . but has cont i n ued to i n c rease expo n e n t i a l l y in both p o p u l a rity and va l u e s i nce then. 76 Fashion Design Essentials . even if th ere i s no c re d i b l e affi liation betwee n the two . Its degree of va l u e ste m s from m a n y t h i ngs: pays $1. Local boutiqu es. a n d Breakfast at Tiffany's. but i n fas h i o n . o W h o wore it? The provocative d ress that M a r i lyn M o n roe wore to sing " H a p py B i rt h d ay" to P resident J o h n F. regional m a r kets.a . a seco n d h a n d from October 28.

- GORE GOES 17 MIWON LAPTOPS GO ON OFFENSIVE HOT DOGS HOME WITH IN DEBATE RECAll ED SCHOOL KIDS SPECIAL REPORT PAGES 4 6 5 PAGE 2 PAGES 32 6 33 77 . N E W S · B U S I N E S S · F E A T U R E S · S P O R T S -. .-. -. . . . - ----. . . -.--. . . .

The res u l t was cal led a Flash Boy outfit. London. The " rep" tie i s used by schools. a n d r h i n estones. d e n i m went on to se rve as a canvas for s u c h e m b e l l i s h m e nts as m eta l studs. D e n i m ga rments have been interpreted a nd re interpreted over t h e yea rs. 1949 a pa rt to be n ot i ced. 78 Fashion Design Essentials . A large ca rgo of pearl butto n s from J a p a n in t h e 1 8 60s is sa id to have contrib uted to the deve l o p m e n t of this t rend a mong the trad e s m e n . a n d he i s c red ited with creating t h e u n iq u e Pea r l y Ki ngs a n d Q u e e n s l o o k i n 1 875. T h e fi rst "pearly" w a s born. TECHN I Q U E 36 Fashion Translations Fa s h i o n i n fl u ences come fro m many d i fferent sou rces. i n c l u d i ng spo rts. so he covered a n e n t i re s u i t w i t h pearl buttons. would set t h e m se lves a pa rt from ot h e r ve ndors by sewing a row of pearl buttons a l o n g the sea m s of t h e i r ga rments. c l u bs. social and eco­ n o m i c c l ass. I t's up to the designer to tra n s l ate and adopt these i n fl uences to fit i nto the m a i nstre a m . u n derstood that h e needed to set h i mself Southwark. who s o l d fruit a n d veg­ eta b l e s from m a rket sta l l s . I n the U n ited Ki ngdom. Someti m es the fusion of two d iffe rent fa s h i o n languages c a n resu l t i n a fresh new idea-denim a n d pearly button s . The working class adopted the Pea r l y Ki ngs a n d Q ue e n s trad ition t o continue t h e "whip a ro u nd. costermo ngers. n o t t h e c o l o r a n d configurat ion of stripes (a c o m m o n m i sconcept i o n ) . age orphan who had a desire to h e l p those i n Pearly Queen a n d King of need. for exa m p l e. c l u bs. h a n d p a i nt i ng. a n d d iffe rent c u l t u res. I ntro d u ced as work c l othes a n d then ad opted as fa s h i on by teenag­ e rs. How m ight the idea of wea r i ng y o u r "co lors" figure i n the design p rocess? I nteresti ng d i st i n ct i o n s deve l o p a mong d i ffer­ ent social a n d e co n o m i c c l asses. a teen­ M a ry and Fred Ti nsl ey." w h i c h is what they called m a k i ng co l l ect i o n s for those i n need. a l lows t e a m s to ide ntify the mse lves with team-specific colors i n corporated i nto the five or six horizontal stripes cal led hoops. a nd m i l itary reg i m ents to d i splay t h e i r af­ filiations. T h e rugby s h i rt. Croft. H e n ry C roft w a s a part o f t h a t com m u n ity. The term rep refers to the r i b b i ng of t h e fa bric's weave.

Decorative button deta il on denim from Art by T .

fa l l. by designer N a ra Paz patterns. The p ractical d e m a n d s of weat her a l o n e c a u s e u s t o focus o n t h e e l e m e nts o f design that shield a Below: Spring inspiration person from the ra i n . H ow­ Right: Colorful ensemble ever. whether t h ey a re the designers o r t h e c o n s u m ers. the natural aesthetics of each period a l so featuring floral embroidery infl u e n ce designers with regard to t h e colors. Each season is potent with reference poi nts. as a fa s h i o n profess i o n a l y o u a re designing for at least two seasons a h ead. p ro d u c i n g for o n e season a h ead. A n d wi nter has the poten t i a l to st i r u p frosty i mages of s n ow and ice. Rich G i rl These fa s h ion t i m e l i nes a re not s i m p l y l i ne a r. a n d w i nter. Fa l l m ight conj u re u p a cava lcade of color as the l eaves cha nge. a n d text u res t h ey choose. s u m m e r. What seaso n a l associations m ight someone m a ke? S p r i n g could b r i n g s howers a n d gard e n s to m i n d . Below: Fall inspiration Right: Copper leather shirt and sati n stripe skirt by designer Elena Sanders 80 Fashion Design Essentials . each d e s ig n e r has a Right: Vintage hand-painted u n i q u e set of va r i a bles that s h e b r i n gs to the cotton d ress from Poor Little table based on h e r perso n a l expe r i e n ces. TECHN I Q U E 37 Four Seasons: A Timeline The seasons h e l p co m pa rtmental ize fas h i o n . They a re a set of para l le l l i n e s that begi n at d if­ ferent poi nts o n the calendar. S u m m e r may evoke s u n s h i n e a nd s u n fl owers. Below: Summer inspiration Although these a re a c c u rate reflections of s p r i ng. the re a re degrees of d iffe rence that have an i m pact on t h e i r fas h i o n cho ices. o r s n ow. s u n . even for peo ple living in a c l i mate that doesn't cha nge d ra m ati­ ca l ly from season to season. because whic heve r season you're a ctu a l l y experienci ng. It's a b a l a n c i n g act for design ers. a n d d e l ivering i n the p resent d ay. w i n d .

Below: Winter inspiration Right: Black-and-white wool coat by designer Pavlina Gilson .

ste ps.. • Sketch i ng: A s e n se of the shape and flow of a ga rment can often i n it i a l l y be fou n d in a rough sketch. These tem­ pora ry stitches serve much the same f u n ction as a rough sketc h . each and every p h a se of pre p a rat ion p rovides a n op­ portun ity for i n s p i ra t i o n . H ow pattern p ieces i n te r­ lock. pattern m a ki ng. Whether it's i n sketchi ng. Mathematics i s a u n iversal l a nguage. as well as how. a n d i n some cases i rreve rs i b le. Rules. u n t i l something goes wrong. how they a re based o n c l e a r a n d d eta i l ed notations o n a pattern. They let you a ssess h ow the ga rment i s coming together without t a k i ng per­ m a n ent. but the o n e s you a p ply. • Pattern m a k i ng: M e a s u re twice. a n d h ow they a d h e re to t h e body's m e a s u re me nts a re a l l based o n a system o f r u l es. • Construction: Basting seems l i ke t h e biggest waste of ti me. o r sewing. The r u l e s d o n 't n eces­ s a r i l y cha nge. when. I n addition to getting it right the fi rst t i m e. " . TECHN I Q U E 38 Rate. . . is a c reative act i n itse lf. t h i n k i n g a bout basting u s u a l l y wa stes m o re t i m e t h a n actu a l ly d o i ng it. First stage of sketch: the rough 8 2 Fashion Design Essentials . -. and Roughs A fas h i o n designer may be tem pted to avoid ste ps in the creative p rocess to m eet dead l i nes or simply reap the rewards a little sooner. and where you a p p ly t h e m . I n the end. Repeating that p rocess on paper p rovides a place w h e re deta i l s can be fin essed before the actual garment is being deve loped. and t h e re i s l ittle roo m for i m p rovisation when it comes to accu racy. bypassing steps cou ld u n d e r m i n e the final outcome. cut once. " .

: . Fi a l stage of sketc h '' ' clea nmg co or and detail 83 . f � " t • � . .. / .. t r .. r 'f ... . / . • . . " t : >:. . Middle stage(s) of sketch'.. � .." -JI "'" . .� ! � j .1' • " r ... .' . � "- " '1 ' ' .. (w<:: ' � .. 1. " J / " . .-e .. .. .

8agu A designer s h o u l d b e a b l e to n avigate between v i s u a l mode where the i magination a n d a esthet­ ics a re para m o u nt. B u i l d i ng strong bonds re­ q u i res e q u a l pa rts a rtist. after a t i m e. The m o re d i rect the path between the designer's imagination a nd the rea l ities of producing it. TECHN I Q U E 39 Hand to Eye The c o n n ection between the m i n d 's eye a n d the hands of the designer is easily taken for granted. Patter n m a ke rs w h o c a n v i s u a l ize how a ga r­ m e n t w i l l be sewn w i l l be s u re to i n c l u d e t h e Above: Fashion sketch right i nfo rmation i n the pattern they ' re d rafti ng. and construc­ tion worker. or e n o ugh ease is essenti a l if Right: Design by Victoria the stitc h e r i s going to be a b l e to do his job we l l . a rc h i tect. a designer's d exterity i n exec uting ideas beco mes effo rtless a nd. T h i s l i n k m u st be re i n fo rced t h rough conscious exercise and exploration. the b l ueprint phase that d o c u m ents and com m u n i cates how each design w i l l be executed. The seq u e n ce of construction and deta i l p l a ce­ m e n t w i l l m a ke a big d iffere nce i n the fin ish of the f i n a l p roduct. I f the co m m u n ication between the two i s f l u id. second n at u re. of a design by Victoria Dominguez-8agu I n clud i ng we l l . the better t h e work. the a p propriate seam a l l owa n ce. Dominguez. but a good designer w i l l have a clear com pre h e n ­ sion o f cause and effect i n every a rea . I t's easy to p l ay to your strengths. 84 Fashion Design Essentials . A stitc h e r who u n d e rsta n d s h ow a pattern is designed to come together p roduces better work. a nd bu i ld i ng somet h i n g that re­ spects and reflects the origi n a l vision and i ntent.p la ced notches. Rendering the ro l l of fa bric cut on the b i a s has a d istinctly d ifferent feel than d rawing something cut on the l engthwise gra i n . The q u a l ity of a s ketch is h igher when it ben efits from knowledge of construction tec h n iq ues a n d experience with a wide va riety of d ifferent fa brics.

� I o -< !=! A m < Z o » -< Right: Fashion sketch of a design by Victoria Dominguez-8agu Far Right: Design by Victoria Dominguez-8agu 85 .

d o u ble-checking seam a l l owa nce. A vers i o n o f a sketch on t raci ng p a p e r c a n b e folded i n h a l f d own t h e figure's center t o avoid u n wa nted d i stort i o n s . Color in a fabric under fluorescent light has a green cast. Throughout construction. W h e n considering t h e fa brication o f a design. This w i l l a l low the designer to e n s u re an eve n l y d istri b uted s k i rt length. W h i l e re ndering a two-d i m e n s i o n a l representa ­ tion of a design. beca use most fa bric w i l l end up sagg i n g i n those a reas. it cuts down on h u m a n error when trying to p roperly b a l a nce both s i d es of the ga rment. To do t h i s objectively. d a rt l e ngths. with a blue cast. a l l owed to h a n g for at least twenty-fou r h o u rs. col­ ors s h o u l d be checked i n d ifferent types of l ight to have a c l e a r vision of how the colors w i l l read. s h o u l d fi rst be a p pears warm. Eve n patterns for some a sy m m etrical ga rments c a n be sta rted on the fold to e ns u re proper fit in a reas that s h o u l d reflect each other. a l lowing for the asym m et ry to then be incorporated i nto the patte r n . There a re seve ra l ways to c h eck t h e work. 86 Fashion Design Essentials . Fi n i s h i ng h e m s that Color in a fabric under incandescent light fa l l on the bias. with a red cast. The custom o f worki n g on the h a l f i s a l ready Color i n a fabric u nder natural light appears p racticed in pattern ma king and d ra p i ng because cool. t h e piece needs t o b e taken out o f context. t u r n i ng t h e sketch u ps i d e down so that it can be seen a s an a bstract o bject h e l p s to m a ke i m ba l a nces obvious. There may be a sense of something b e i n g off. but it's diffi c u l t to p i n ­ point t h e pro b l e m . l i ke a circ u l a r s k i rt. TECHN I Q U E 40 Checks and Balances O n e of the most im portant stages i n the design p rocess is self-correcti o n . Fa bric s h o u l d a l s o be tested for t ra n s p a re n cy to avoid u nwa nted overexposure . and hems for consistency is a good p ractice to develop.

Once the piece is opened and laid flat.When a tried-and-true basic sloper is used to generate a new pattern with a n asym­ metrical feature. The bal­ ance is a l ready built in. starting the process on the fold will help ensure that the fit is consistent. a l most any alteration to incorpo rate asymmetry into the new model can be made. 87 .

belt. a n d m e c h a n i c a l adj u st­ m e n ts a re a part of basic m a i ntenance that e n ­ s u res consistent resu lts. b o b b i n w i n d e r. a n d b o b b i n c a s e a re the parts common to most m a c h i nes. b o b b i n type. t o a m a c h i n e that is used o n a reg u l a r basis. but th e re is m o re to t h e re lations h i p between sewer a n d m a c h i n e t h a n basic i n structions. t a ke . D o n 't rush. width and need l e position adjustments. she can solve p ro b l e m s more easi ly. feed dog. don't force. TECHN I Q U E 41 Machine Interface The owner's m a n u a l w i l l provide the funda­ I nside a n overlock machine mentals for u s i ng a sewing m a c h i ne. Safe p ra ct i ces a re often based on com mon sen se. T h i s can be a good t h i ng beca u se it means the operator of that e q u i p m e n t is res pons ive to feedback sh e's gett ing. 8 8 Fashion Design Essentials . C l e a n i ng. h a n d wheel. p ressu re a dj u stme nt.u p l ever. tension d i scs. power. Beco m e i n t i m ately a c q u a inted with yo u r ma­ chine. I t's easy to att r i b ute h u m a n c h a racteristics. a n d tact i l e cl u e s u n iq u e t o every m a c h i n e h e l p t h e sewer m a ke decisions d u ring the prod uction process. stitch length. p resser foot. there a re l ittle d iffe rences a n d s u btle n ua n ces rega rd ing h ow they work. and speed of the motor a re a few of the m ost obvious t h i ngs that w i l l va ry a mong m a c h i ne s . m otor. and keep finge rs away from the needle. t h read c utter. even perso n a l i ­ ti es. Although most sewing m a c h i n e s work in p retty m u c h t h e s a m e way. A s u ccessfu l i nte ract ion req u i res a com m itment from t h e de­ signer to "get to k n ow" the m a c h i n e . b o b b i n . Read the m a n u a l . A u d i b l e. If the designer is a b l e to re cogn i ze m a c h i n e parts a n d u n d e rsta n d t h e i r fu n cti o n . l u brication. v i s u a l . spool h o l d e r. A foot pedal. If fa bric is being fed into t h e m a c h i n e p roperly. An i n vestment of t i m e a n d e n e rgy is req u i red if designers a re going to have a good expe r i e n ce a n d positive resu lts. s l i d e p l ate. Some designers d evelop s u c h a strong bond that they go as far a s n a m i ng their m a c h i n e s . there i s no reason w h y h a n d s s h o u l d ever b e c l ose e n ough t o c a u s e inju ry. Threadi ng. power cord. t h roat p l ate. keep the a rea n eat.

Inside a buttonhole machine .

The k i l t has evo lved over time to t a ke o n a m o re ta i l o red l ook. d ra p i ng. but the N iv i style is the most po p u l a r. I t i s a le ngth of fa b r i c. There is a sensual ity i nvolved i n d ra p i ng fa bric on and a ro u n d the body. Deve l o p i ng a lternative cutting strategies. I t i s n ot c u t o r sewn i n a ny way. w h i c h a lthough p l eated. TECHN I Q U E 42 Cut. The modern kilt uses 6 to 8 ya rds (5. permits the designer to tra n sform a ny s i l houette.3 m) of fa b ric and can be pleated to set. Straight-gra i n top Bias top Cross-gra i n top Straight-gra i n swatch Bias swatch Cross-gra i n swatch 90 Fashion Design Essentials . v i s u a l l y m a i n ta i n s the t a rtan repeat.1 m ) in length.l i ke a p peara n ce. Pieces can be cut o n d iffe rent gra i n s or the bias for effect. u s u a l l y featuring a n ornamental border.b u t it i s a job that d e m a nds great precision and attention to deta i l . a p p rox i m ately 5 to 1 0 y a rds (4. I t can be d ra ped in a va riety of ways. Kilt by H ector Russe l l .6 to 9. and Fold Close exa m i nation of how fa bric is m a n i p u lated by cutti ng. The role of the cutter in a design roo m seems Edinburgh. cal led t h e G reat K i lt giv ing a soft toga . or desig n i ng systems of pleats. a n d p l a i d s can res u l t i n d iffe rent a p pe a ra n ces. a m ethod associated w i t h ki lts for the m i l ita ry. A p roper ta rta n is m a d e of wool twi l l a n d m ust be identical i n both d i rect ions of the warp a n d weft of the fa bric. Scott ish tartans were origi n a l ly d raped i n a fa s h io n s i m i l a r to the sari. T h e contem pora ry s a r i is worn ove r a c h o l i (sari blouse) and a petticoat. The s a r i (or saree) i s a n i d e a l exa m p l e o f a garment that uses a rtful d ra p i ng. A k i l t c a n a lso b e pleated t o stri pe. Scotland s i m p l e enough-cut the p ieces . featuring precise l y measured a n d pe rfect ly p ressed k n i fe or box p leats.5 to 7. a n d fo l d i ng a l lows the designer to b u i l d s u bt l e and dyna m i c elements into a design. Drape. H ow the garment i s cut especi a l l y when u s i ng patte rned fabrics l i ke stripes. wrapping t h e figure i n soft fo lds. Methods that req u i re a n a d h e rence to t h e kind of rigid r u l e s i nvolved i n ki lt-m a k i n g c u l t ivate a beauty o n l y mathematics ca n provide. c h ecks.

Vintage sari cou rtesy of Shel ley C h ha bra .

Good workma n s h i p w i l l depend u pon specific tec h n iq ues a n d additional materials that best se rve t h e d e s ign. plackets. They a re ava i l a b l e as wove n. A French seam is a seam within a seam. a n d butto n h o l e s to add body. from p l a i n to intricate. Depe n d i ng o n t h e garme nt's design. I t can be used a long side sea m s to p revent saggi ng or as part of a neckline to avoid ga p i ng. 92 Fashion Design Essentials . t h e re is a lways a logical o rder for its assembly. L i n i n g i s the i d e a l way to profe s s i o n a l l y fi n i s h a ga rment. keep sha pe.i n i nterfa c ings a re fo u n d i n fa c i ngs. and stra p­ less c resses. b u stiers. C h oosing the best seam for a p roject i s con­ ti ngent on the effect t h e d e s igner i s trying to ach ieve a n d the nature of the mater i a l s being used. F u s i b l e a n d sew. co l la rs. B o n i ng is a nother type o f sta b i l i ze r a n d i s not restricted to use in corsets. S i m p l e garme nts may u s e p l a i n sea ms that can be fin i shed with pi n king s h e a rs o r ove r l ock stitc h i n g to p revent u n rave l i ng. I nterl i n ing is used between t h e l i n i ng a n d the garment to provide warmth. Lapped o r flat-fe l led sea ms can be fou n d on jeans a n d a re used for their strength and d u ra b i l ity. I t can be a p p l ied to a n y a rea to prevent it from col l apsing a n d taking away from the design. whereas Clockwise: Boned bodice. Fa ci ngs a re used to f i n i s h off a reas s u c h a s a neckline o r a n a rm hole. H ow it is asse m b l ed a n d f i n ished a l so affects t h e final p ro d u ct. u n d e r l i n i n g is used to a lter the hand (drape a n d Overlocked seam. a n d k n i t materi a l s . w h i l e a lso sta b i l i zi ng a n d sea m strengt h e n i n g it. c uffs. w i l l benefit from a s o u n d i n frastruct u re . I t c a n b e as l ight as organza o r as rigid as buckra m . We l l -const ru cted ga rme nts rely on m a ny e l e ments that a re not a p parent a t first g l a n ce. which works well with shear fa brics. and s u ppo rt a n d rei nforce an area. B o u n d sea ms a re f i n i shed with a strip of b i as-cut fa b r i c a n d a re c o m m o n l y fo u n d i n u n l i ned ga rme nts. TECHN I Q U E 43 Underpinnings and Assembly Any ga rment. Which a reas a re to be stitc hed? G l ued? Ta ped? Fused? Every c h o i ce t a kes the ga rment i n a d i fferent d i rection. Pinked fee l ) o f t h e fa b r i c. no nwove n . m a k i ng it truly u n i q u e t o the designer who conceived of it.

Infrastructure of a Daniel Faucher Couture bridal gown .

a n d godets-wedge­ sha ped i n se rts . Tu cks can be spaced. d o u b led. M a n y of these tec h n i q u e s can be used i n conce rt a n d the com b i nations a re end less. These heat-treated fa brics a re ideal for c reating sta rbu rst pleat i ng and va riations on Right: Empire dress Fo rtuny-style p l eati ng. 94 Fashion Design Essentials . a n d c ross-stitc hed. in m u lt i p l e rows. a n d t u b u l a r. or can r u n the f u l l length of the a rea. as we l l as being contoured. and i nverted box can be p ressed or u n pressed. fa n. B roomst i c k pleating i s a n i rreg u l a r. box. so that the rows a re co nta i n e d .a re used to add f l a red fu l l ness. which a re c re ­ ated u s i n g c i rc u l a r sha pes. The s i l h ouette of a gar­ ment can a l so be pum ped u p with q u i lt i ng a n d stuffi ng. with heat. Smocking i nvo lves p i n c h i ng fa bric in patterns such as the h o n eyco m b . and tapered. gra d u ated. Gathering fa bric is o n e way to add f u l l n ess. Materi­ als that have a m i n i m u m of 60 percent m a n ­ m a d e fiber have thermoplastic p roperties. pleated at bust by Victoria Dominguez. Devi s i ng a p l a n for the a p p l i cation of a ny of these p ro­ ced u res can co n t r i b ute to b oth s i l h ou ette a n d su rface textu re . Fa bric can a l so be folded to c reate m a n y d iffe rent types of pleats t h at m a n age fu l l ness. pi nched. S h i rr i ng i nvolves gathering on opposite edges. Ruffles a re made of gathe red fa bric that is re­ leased on one edge. s l a shed.Bagu D a rts a re one of the most effi c i e n t ways to e l i m i ­ nate u nwa nted fu l l ness a n d contour t h e shape of a ga rment. They a re u s u a l l y triangu l a r or diamond sha ped and sewn r ight s i d es together so that excess fa bric can be folded o r t r i m med away. accord i o n . Flat pleats such as k n i fe. c r u s h ed type o f pleat. can be partia l. Exa m p l e s of p rojecting pleats i n c l u d e c a rtridge. w h ich Above: Gathers create m e a n s they will reta i n shapes that a re ba ked in vo lume in a C h ristian LaCroix dress. TECHN I Q U E 44 Manipulating Fullness The vo l u m e a nd b u l k of a ga rment can be con­ t ro l led by various methods. Both f l o u n ces.

.Box pleats are gathered into the bubble sil houette of a cocktail dress by Ed d i Phi l l i ps.

and grabs a t t h e knee. These a re a l l physical natural tendency of the of the 1910s. i n g t h e re l a t i o n s h i p s between d i fferent a reas of range of motion. 96 Fashion Design Essentials . should take i nto consider­ a l low for any extension of the th igh bone's c o n n ected to the h i pbone. A step further t h a n not to constrict the throat. the body as the wea re r moves? In the case of ga rme nts b e i n g used i n a ct ive s ituations. ca rtogra phy of cou t u re. consider how much ease a m ount of ease to main­ S i m i l a r to u s i ng a road m a p. When interfere with the head's the figure bends or sits. a s l it. The back of the to move in the garment. must take into consid­ deta i l will a l low for a full eration not only the stride i n a skirt with a m u s c l e reflexes. a n d s h o u l d go. CD Designing a neckline close ® The height and shape of to the base of the neck the rise in a pant must the knee bone's c o n n ected to t h e th igh bone. rea l ities. a n d t h e ga rment itse lf. leg. t h e experi ence of the wea rer. the fu l l ness so on and so fort h . the body. the seat spreads. Adding volume to the sleeve at this point will also a l low for freedom of movement. A sma l l dart at the elbow will allow the arm to bend without putting undue wear and tear on the sleeve while sti l l reta i n ing a snug fit. but there a re also a b stract b o u n d a r i e s arms to reach forward. e l ega nt m ove ment a n d shoulder blades due to the Pa u l Poi ret's hobble skirt comfort i n a n y situation. the designer must designed with a generous by co m m u n icating with h i s c l ient. but alters the sil houette.i n q u i ry. a body m a p antici­ w i l l a l low for fu l l or lim ited ta in a smooth sil houette pates needs to build in the structure." the designer can m a ke co u rse the back. rotation of the a rm. TECHN I Q U E 45 Body Mapping The leg bone's con nected to the knee bone. and ation that the neck natu­ the abdomen. b u t a l s o t h e contrac­ designer may limit move­ of a garment that is worn by someone who sits tion and expansion of the ment by design to bring most of t h e day? If t h e a n swer to any of these lu ngs-wh ich also affects about a very specific way q u estions is " no. and the fact that the body a n atomy. do t h e ® The fit at the bust line ® A pleat. s u c h a s h ow Iow a n e c k l i n e o n a b l o u se c a n stress point for a sleeve. infl u e n ced b y society a n d a designe r's s e n s i b i l i ­ @) The elbow is a primary ti es. The point for the arm. Does a stra p l ess d ress have e n ough armhole will also be a shape that bunches u p structural su pport to keep it from s l i pp i ng down contributing factor to fit. The or be intentionally lacking depth a n d breadth of the ease in order to create a and size. The as it b reathes? Is there enough ease in the seat size. When stress point for the pant designer has to gather the same kind of i n s ight engineering a n arm. function. body m a p p i ng is a bout und e rsta nd­ The height of a collar may bends at this point. o r a wrap ga rme nts a l low for fu l l a rtic u l ations o f joi nts. garment is subject to ad­ Some examples include correcti o n s w h i l e d eve l o p i ng t h e ga rment that ditional stress across the the t radition a l kimono or a l low for effi ci ent. a n d/or how the body expands measurement and the c u p narrow sil houette. The pant leg may be hole. The concept o f body m a p p i ng @ The shou lder is a pivot ® The knee is a primary re l ies on se lf-observation and self. These a re the roa d s to the rally leans forward so as and shape of the backside.

97 .

law e nforce ment. Below: Blauer police u niform In the a re n a of mo re t ra d i t i o n a l u n iforms. The great deal more im pact. b u t the c h a l l enge comes i n the fo rm of p rofessi o n a l sta n d a rds of q u a l ity. 98 Fashion Design Essentials . comfort. p rotection. ously speaking to i ssues s u c h a s susta i n a b i l ity. and the service i n d u stry. a n d a n y of t h e specific req u i re m ents of the job. TECHN I Q U E 46 Uniformity H aving been raised i n I nd i a . these deta i l s ga rme nts become sym bols associated with t h e m i litary. where u n iforms were Right: Beyond the practical there is the pageantry. Due a fact of l i fe in p u b l i c school. s i m u ltane­ standing tradition dictates the flourish of deta i l s. The c h a l l e nge lay in sty l ­ often fo rmal ceremonies that i n g and resty l i n g the d ress so t h a t n o two days req u i re a little more gra ndeur. w h i l e su pport i ng a great cause.ba sed designs. U n iform design has its l i m its and may not have the gla m o u r of tre n d . one for wear a uniform. This might be done gently were t h e s a m e . Sheena M a t h e i ke n to the historic and heroic h a d no p rob l e m pledging to wea r t h e s a m e d ress nature of many of those who for 365 days (seven identical d resses. d u ra b i l ity. The whole p roj ect was deve l oped with ribbons and/o r with a as a fu n d ra iser fo r Akanksha Fou n dation. safety. as concept i s a test a m e n t to p utti ng a new face on i n the case of the Scottish how m u c h we can do to express ourse lves. even mi litary tattoo where long­ w i t h i n t h e constra i nts of a u n iform. rescue. there are each day of the wee k).

: . •• • • • • ­ • • •• •• :. o • • • • U n iform Project dress 99 . e• .. .

u s i ng a b a l a nce of ge ntle ta i l oring a n d ease to reta i n the i ntegrity of the s i l hou ette. which m o re accurately reflects t h e psyc h o l ogy of the custo m e r rather than her actual s i ze . o p i n i o n s regard i ng fit a re a lways su bjective. becom ing a second skin. Armed with this useful tool. t h e fit w i l l be d iffe rent from person to person . skim. but as a r u l e. garments that s q ueeze and cut into the body. but Tight fit designers can a lso d evelop i n -house sizing sta n ­ d a rds that reflect specific body measurements. A true fit w i l l fo l l ow the contou rs of the body. A tight fit w i l l seize the body. Wom e n 's. TECHN I Q U E 47 Fit G a r m e nts can g ra b. Category s i z i ng. U l t i m ately. a n d Petite. as in M isses. a re not u s u a l ly considered attractive or p roperly s i zed. 100 Fashion Design Essentials . customers a lways know what they're getti ng. A loose fit's gen e ro u s p roport i o n s m ight a l s o be considered re laxed or oversized beca use t h ey a l low for a f u l l range of mot i o n . a re used to i n form s i z i n g for specific body types. beca use a ltho ugh you m a y b e a b l e t o get a ga r­ ment ove r y o u r body. often creasing and fo l d i ng as it stra i n s to cove r the a rea. C u st o m i zation i s a lways a n option w h e n i t comes to prov i d i n g the proper fit for the c usto mer. d u e t o a wide variety of c u l t u ra l i n f l u en ces that c u l t ivate d i ffer­ ent sta n d a rds of bea uty. or that ove r­ w h e l m it with vo l u me. J u n ior. There is rea l l y no s u c h t h i n g as one size fits a l l . A fl atte ring fit may be i n the eye of t h e beholder. Other factors t o con s i d e r w h e n a d d ressing t h e f i t o f a g a r m e n t i n c l u d e vanity s i z i ng. or bag a ro u n d the wea re r's body depending o n the designer's aesthetic of fit.

- .- True fit Loose fit 101 . / '" " .

. . . • 0. a n d p l a i n as we l l a s deco rative patch i ng. Fixing i m pe rfecti o n s i s a n exercise i n f i n d i n g the beauty in flaws. . and in the end can c reate a u n iq u e design for the weare r. N ecessity bec a m e both t h e mother o f invention a n d fas h i o n . u n p i c k i ng a kn it. • • . •• ... . Eve n a lteri ng perfectly good ga rme nts c a n e n ha nce the ove ra l l look a n d fee l.. • • • • • • f. ..0 o. . "IN . .. TECHN I Q U E 48 Mend and Alter " M a ke D o a n d M e n d " was t h e n a m e of a c a m ­ p a i g n d u ri n g World Wa r I I which encou raged t h e re pa i r a n d rep u rposing o f everyt h i ng t h a t st i l l had the poten t i a l to b e u sefu l . . ... a n d t h i s move ment set a c reative c h a l ­ l e nge t o w o m e n everywhere to do t h e i r p a r t a n d sti l l be sty l i s h . ' • • CI . ' . taking garme nts in a n d letting them out. . Waste wa s t h e e ne m y.." "" . . 9 . I . recutting a ga rment into a n ew style. Booklets were d i stributed t h a t i n ­ c l u d ed tec h n iq u e s s u c h as b i n d i ng frayed edges.. re kn itti n g with the same ya rn. d a r n i ng. Make Do and Mend booklet 102 Fashion Design Essentials . . . •• . . • ....

Origin: men's red hoodie sweatshirt and women's terry cloth tank top 5. Origin: men's plaid flannel jacket 3. Origin: gray knit hoodie sweatshirt 2. Left: Recut and repurposed brown plaid dress by Shannon G lasheen 1 3 2 1. Origin: herringbone pencil skirt Right: Recut and repurposed color blocked dress by Shannon G lasheen 4 6 5 4. Origin: African dashiki 103 . Origin: Vespa logo T-shirt 6.

Shannon G lasheen designs m a n y design ers a re taking u nwa nted clothes a part and refa s h i o n i ng them i nto c o m p letely different and origi n a l ga rments. Designer S h a n n o n G l asheen a pp l i e s all h e r t ra i n ­ i n g i n pattern making a n d construct i o n to re p u r­ pose ga rments that may be outdated. T h i s re purposi ng resonates with a gen e ration of fas h i o n e n t h u s i - asts concerned w i t h the environment. the deconstruct/reco nstruct a pproach to the des ign p rocess c a n be incorporated as an a esthetic from the sta rt. TECHN I Q U E 49 Deconstruct and Reconstruct I n the n a m e of susta i na b i l ity a s we l l as style. a n d warehouses a ro u n d the globe-if t h ey have not a l ready been re l egated to l a ndfil ls-these designers t ra n sfo rm the seco n d h a nd and the u n - sold i nto relevant n ew fa s h i o n s . 104 Fashion Design Essentials . where e le ments from va rious garments a re rem i xed into a designer m a s h u p . In the interest of m a k i n g good use of t h e m o u nt a i n s of dis- carded fas h i o n s that sit i n c losets. O n ce d i ssected. B u i l d i n g hybrids is a not her va riation of t h i s m ethod. th e re may a l so be very specific sect ions of a garment that can be reori­ e nted to serve a n ew pu rpose. B reat h i n g new l ife i nto pieces such as these req u i res that t h e designer look at each item as raw materia l and not as a fin ished p ro d u ct. th rift sto res. Fo r designers worki ng with i n the confi nes of a b u s i n ess model with d iffe rent d e m a nds. we l l worn. or m i s u n derstood. utilizi ng it to d eve lop s a m p l e ga rments that can then be rep l icated.

.

TECHN I Q U E

so Structure and Scale
I n the w i l d , when confronted by a n a n i m a l, some
ex perts suggest extendi ng yo u r arms over yo u r
head o r out t o your s i d es, o r h o l d i ng you r ja cket
open, to give t h e i m p ression of being l a rge r and
m o re th reaten i ng. Basic rept i l i a n b ra i n s u rv iva l
i n s t i n cts m ight be at the core of what d rives u s
t o refra m e o u r bodies to s i m u l ate m o re i m pos­
ing s h a pes. A colorful exa m p l e of fright or fl ight
fa s h ion can be found a m ong the cost u m e s
designed b y Tim C h a p pe l a n d Lizzy G a rd i n e r
for t h e movie Priscilla Queen o f the Desert. M a ny
cost u m e ideas for t h at f i l m c a m e from a n i m a l l ife
i n d ige nous to Austra l i a . O n e of those c reatures,
the f r i l l - n eck l i z a rd , has a ruff of skin around its
neck t h at f l a res out when frightened. The design­
e rs e m u l ated that featu re to d ra m atic effect in a
co l l a r on o n e of the cost u m es. W h e n the m a l e
peacock fa ns o u t its feat h e rs to attract a mate, it
creates a very d ifferent su rviva l i m p u l s e .

T h e h o o p s k i rt is a n und erga rment that consists
of rigid concentric ri ngs m a d e of ro pe, osiers,
w h a l e bone, stee l , or nylon, a n d su spended by
fa bric o r bands of ribbon. When stored, the
structure can c o l l a pse into itse lf, but when worn,
the whole t h i n g functions as a s u p p o rt system
for a wom a n 's s kirt. Partic u l a r shapes refl ect
the fa s h ion of any specific period, but the scale
a lso p rovides a m e a s u re of personal space that
keeps everyone at a r m 's l e ngth . The Fre n c h word
panniers refers to wicke r baskets that a re s l u n g
on e it h e r s i d e o f a pack a n i m a l . Pa n n iers used for
fa s h i o n were faste ned onto a wom a n 's h i p s to
create an effect s i m i l a r to the hoop ski rt.

H ea d d resses, s h o u l d e r pads, b u st l es, a n d
tra i n s a re a l so used t o exte nd o u rselves a n d
o u r personal b o u n d a ries i n t h e n a m e o f fa s h i o n .
-
At a t i m e w h e n fa s h io n w a s focused on the bust,
Vivi e n n e Westwood is c red ited with d ivert i n g u s
t o t h e rea r with bustles d u bbed Faux Cui, that cel­ -
... - ..
e b rated, if not exagge rated, a woman's derriere . .. -_ ... -
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106 Fashion Design Essentials

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2. Panniers

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107

TECHN I Q U E

51 Anatomica Ily Correct
I t i s no coincidence that o n e of t h e t h i ngs that
designer G eoffrey Beene i s known for i s l i b e rat­
ing a wom a n 's body. He stu d i ed m e d i c i n e at
Tu l a n e U n ivers ity for t h ree years before s h ifting
gears and studying fa s h i o n at Tra p h agen School
of Fa s h io n . He u nd e rstood the m e c h a n i cs of t h e
body, a n d therefore e l i m i n ated conventional
i m pe d i ments such as u n n ecessa ry paddi ng,
interl i n i ngs, z i p pers, a n d fasteners.

Co mfort i s one of the p r i m a ry concerns for
the contem pora ry consum er. A designer be nefits
from u n de rsta n d i ng the body a n d h ow it works,
such as what happens when a m u s c l e contra cts,
re l a xes, or extends. W i l l a garment p rovide u n re­
stri cted moveme nt? Struct u res that e n case the
body need to res pond to the p l i a b i l ity of m u scles
and the rigid ity of bones. Studying the a n atomy
of m a m m a ls, b i rds, i n sects, rept i l es, and aq uatic
l ife co u l d p rovide a wea lth of design cues. The
a rch itecture of plant l i fe m ight suggest a lterna­
tive methods i n s o l v i ng c reative c h a l l e nges. Even
m i c roscopic o rga n i s m s can serve a s a s o u rce of
i n s p i ration.

Ath l et i c garm ents, medical ga rments, and u nder­
garments take a dvantage of text i l e tec h n o l ogy
a n d engi neering to add ress the issues a ssociated
with m o b i l ity. Beyo nd range of motion, the same
too l s can be a p p l i ed to com pressing the body to
p rotect o r res hape it. A good com prehension of
the body and how it works a l so a l l ows the de­
signer to i so l ate aspects of the design p rocess to
a d d ress specific a reas of the body, with each zone
offering its own advantages and d isadvantages.

108 Fashion Design Essentials

Haute Contour, the Dessert
Shapewear™ by SPANX,
launched i n 2009 is the
next step in the evolution
of fo u ndation garments,
designed to ach ieve a
specific sil houette while a lso
providing gentler support
and more comfort than it's
predecessors-the corset
and the girdle. What may
be i n itially taken for granted
as a simple u ndergarment
is now infused with the
kind of scientific research
and techno logy that make
it a powerful partn er in the
process of fashion design.

bows. 110 Fashion Design Essentials . a n d the s h a pe of a pant a l l have j ust as m u c h power to set the tone for the rest of the outfit. and oth e r f l o u ri s h es a re j u st a few of the ways to bring u p t h e rea r. P l u nging ba cks. H e re a re oth e r i m porta nt a reas to consider: Far Right: Aey Hotarwaisaya design with focus on skirt Going Below hem deta i l Fo r some designers. b u t how some­ o n e looks as she t u rns and w a l ks away has the poten t i a l to have a s much i m pact. or be decorated . From Beh i n d M a king an e n t ra n ce is one t h i ng. s k i rt tai ls. Side sea ms can s p l i t to reve a l . TECHN I Q U E 52 Roads Less Traveled A designer who foc uses p r i m a rily on t h e front Right: Kira McClellan side deta i l torso when desig n i ng a ga rment is m i ssing out on an opportun ity to explore and accentuate Below: Va lentino back deta i l oth e r parts of the body. pleat to control fu l l n ess. if not m o re so. i ncorporate a c l o s u re. an e m b e l l is h m e n t on a s k i rt. The hem of a d ress. Side to Side The satin t r i m down the s i d e seam of a t u xedo pant i s not t h e extent of deta i l that can be p l a ced i n this a rea. fl owers. the lower h a l f of the gar­ m e n t or e n s e m b l e i s a n afterthought. Inside Look C l ose and c a refu l atte n t i o n to t h e work m a n s h i p a n d special deta i l s i n side a ga rment a re t h e m a r k o f a f i n e pro d u ct . something that c o m p l etes the look but rem a i n s seco n d a ry a n d su bord i n ate to t h e top. The very seam itse lf p rovides myriad cho ices.

.

I t u s u a l ly i n d icates bala n ced p roportions i n a sca l e t h at relates t o he ight. asym m etry. If the m idsection is fu l l e r. design ers need to t h i n k pear. sty le l i nes. The Ru ler The c o m b i n at i o n of n a r row s h o u ld e rs a n d h i ps creates a lo ng. especi a l l y the s h o u l d e rs. A designer who t reats these de­ viations from the ave rage l i ke va riations and not flaws is a l ready a step ahead in t h e psyc h o l ogy of fa s h io n . gives rise t o n u a n ces that m ay req u i re adj ustments a n d/o r a d a ptations. such as a ha lter neckl ine. a n d downplaying the h i ps w i l l b a l a nce a fra m e w i t h n a rrow s h o u l de rs and a f u l l e r h i p. hourglass a bo u t how t o conceal or a ccentuate d iffe rences i n body s h a pe . and not a bout co r rection. a n d fu l l h i ps benefit from asymmetrical style l i nes. T h e Hourglass and t h e Fuller Figure B road s h o u l de rs. C u t le ngth. t h i n fra m e . ing the s h a pe of a body. These basic body types benefit from specia l design d eta i l s : T h e Apple B road s h o u l ders and n a r row h i p s can benefit from something that b reaks u p the width of the s h o u l d e r. Add ing other fa ctors into the equation. a n d weight. fu l l bust. Consider that average is j u st a reference point. s h o r t wa ist. rul er. c u p s ize. and corset ing a re some of the design cho ices t h at a s s i st in t h e modification of a body type t h rough clothi ng. a n d weight. The Pear E m p h a s i z i n g the torso. 112 Fashion Design Essentials . deta i l s such as r u c h i ng can c reate the i l l us i o n of a m o re tapered waist l i ne. Tra nsfo r m i n g the a ppear­ a n ce of a figu re is about red i recting atte ntion. pad­ d i ng. s u c h as l o ng waist. TECHN I Q U E 53 Camouflage and Complement W h e n it comes to camo uflaging or complement­ Clockwise: Bathing suit d rawings: a pple. width. height. That l e ngth c a n be b ro ke n up with horizontal l i nes as well as cups o r oth e r deta i l that e n h a nces t h e b u st l i ne . deta i l p l acement.

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w h i c h is meant to d i sa p pear. s u c h as safari jackets. bum bags. C loth i ng deve l ­ oped for t h e m i l it a ry or spec i a l a ctiviti es. Even a n i n -seam pocket.d riven design. as is evident in the creation of the kanga roo c l oak. a s well a s i n many fas h i o n a bl e wardrobes. 114 Fashion Design Essentials . a n d ph otogra phy vests. Z i pper pockets offer a n other type of closure. such a s the Patch pocket with button flap fa n ny pack. Any type of pocket can have a f l a p t h a t i s faste ned b y buttons or Ve lcro. Accessories that act as uti l ity be lts. Designing pract i c a l pockets for carpenter pants w i l l be d i ctated by t h e specific too l s that need to be c a r ried. Some pockets can be t u rned i n s id e out to envelop a ga rment. or hip sack. The ca rgo pant is sta n d a rd issue in the a rm ed forces. Pockets can d o d o u b l e d u ty d e p e n d i ng on h ow they're m a d e and what t h ey're m a d e of. Designs deve l o ped d u ring that e ra also refl ected needs u n i q u e to the t i m e period. they can se rve as hand wa r m e rs in outerwea r. a re pop u l a r for t h e i r versat i l i ty. TECHN I Q U E 54 Clothes T hat Carry Whether it is the s m a l lest of five pockets o n a pa i r of jea n s meant for spare cha nge. fish i ng vests. o r a l a rge pouch o n t h e front of a hooded sweat s h i rt. helps to keep t h e l i nes of t h e design sm ooth w h i l e s i m u ltaneously p rovi d i n g the ca pacity to carry. provides tem pl ates for pocket. World Wa r I I is recogn i zed as a period i n which m a n y tech nologi cal adva n ces were made i n response to the d e m a nds o f the d ay. This garment was designed with huge pockets that a l l owed the wea re r to q u ic k l y stuff t h e m with household items w h e n air ra id s i re n s went off. l i ke a w i n d b rea ker o r ra i n poncho. a ny type of pocket can be eq u a l parts function a n d design. When made o u t of fleece. poc ket belts. Pockets can be inserted into a s l i t in the fa bric a n d e m ­ b e l l i s h ed/strengthened w i t h a welt.

Inset zipper pocket I nset welt pocket 115 .

W h at a re the c u st o m e r's concerns when it co mes to c l ot h i ng? A designer m u st d eve l o p a certa i n level of e m pathy for c l i ­ e n t s w h o p lace d ifferent d e m a n d s on t h e a p p a re l they p u rchase. Put yo u rself in t h e pl ace of someone who i s es­ pec i a l l y t a l l . B utton c l o s u res that m ight seem s i m p l e e n ough at fi rst g l a n ce c o u l d pose a c h a l l e nge for someone l iving with a rth ritis. wa l ke r. TECHN I Q U E 55 Design unto Others Design u n to others a s you wou l d have t h e m de­ Wetsuit zipper deta i l s ign u nto you. As we get o l d e r. o u r sen­ sitivity to c h a nges in tem peratu re and textu re i n c reases. or w h e e l c h a i r p rovide t h e designer with percep­ t i b l e issues that m u st be add ressed. This golden r u l e s h o u l d a lways be refe ren ced d u ri n g t h e design p rocess. L i m ited m o b i l ity i s a lso considered a fa ctor. The long zipper p u l l for the back z i p p e r on a wet s u i t m ight b e o n e way to d e a l with a back z i p p e r on a d ress for someone with l i m ited ra nge of motion. o r fu l l -figu red. I n addition to the psyc h ological concerns. especi a l ly i n the world of fa s h i o n . t h e m ission of the I nstitute for H u m a n Centered Design is to expand a n d e n ha n ce experiences for people o f a l l ages a n d a b i l i ties t h rough design t o i m p rove q u a l ity o f l i fe. petite. t h e re a re u n d e n i a ble physi c a l aspects to contend with. Fa s h i o n designers can take a cue from other i n d u stries t h at have i n corporated t h ese pri n ­ ci ples i n to t h e i r work a s bench m a rks o f good design. Designers who can put themselves in the shoes of any of these c l i ents w i l l d evelop s e n s i b i l it i e s t h a t i n f l u ence a nd e n h a nce t h e i r work. thin. Arthritis is a d i s a b i l ity that i s less obvious. Fa s h i o n design for the e ld e r l y i s an i m portant consideration as wel l . Fo r exa m p le. D i s a b i l ities that req u i re t h e use of a c a n e. o r whose body proportions have u n expectedly cha nged d ra m atical ly. Poss i b l e solutions can be fo u n d i n the most u n p redictable p l aces. 116 Fashion Design Essentials .

When honoring fashionable and elder clientele. designers can counteract the ageism of the fashion ind ustry and truly serve their customer. . who began her career at the age of fifteen in 1946 a n d continues t o b e a sought­ after model on the runways and in print. Grandmothers are no longer relegated to their rocking chairs-i nstead they can be fou nd at the gym on the tread m i l l beside you-not to mention the front row. With the muse of matu rity. a designer may find inspiration in the form of the iconic American model Carmen Dell'Orefice.

Co ntrasting belts create the most obvious b reak.u n d e r the b u st. TECHN I Q U E 56 Reshape and Reconfigure O n ce of t h e easiest ways to reshape a garment is Viktor & Rolf belted trench coat to belt it. S i l h o u ettes can a lso be transformed w h e n p a rts of t h e garment can be attached or rem oved with button. C o n s u m e rs a re looking for versat i l ity i n t h e i r w a rd robes a n d design e rs can b u i l d t h a t ver­ satil ity i nto t h e i r work by considering h ow tyi n g off a ga rment a t d ifferent p l a ces w i l l t ra n sform it. s n a p. S h o u lder pads Ve l c ro in to c reate an exagge rated shape. S l eeves b utton off and t ra nsfo r m a j a c ket i nto a vest. Pa nt l egs z i p off to become shorts. W h ether it serves to gra b a n d control vo l u m e or create a v i s u a l b reak. D rawstri ngs do t h e s a m e job b u t can be d i s­ creet ly h i dden with i n c h a n n e l s positioned a l most a nywh e re on a ga rment. or o n pant l egs a n d skirt h e m s . a l o n g t h e s l eeve. at t h e wa i st. z i p. Eve n b u l k can be adj u sted with re mova b l e l i n ings. wit h i n s i d e sea ms. A sk irt o r t ra i n c a n b e b u stled u p w i t h h id d e n hooks. A snap-on pep l u m w i l l take a d a y jacket i nto eve n i ng. A self-belt i s a softer way to cinch a s h a pe . or Ve l c ro. 118 Fashion Design Essentials . the effect i s powerf u l . hoo k.

.

TECHN I Q U E 57 Resurface The i m a g i n ative a pp l i cation of d eco rative cou ­ ture d eta i l s a l lows for even t h e most m odest of fa brics to become extra o rd i n a ry. b u st l es. a n d ribbon i s l a rge ly a decorative p rocess that i nvolves raw materials that a re not neces­ s a r i l y generated by the original cloth. U s i ng o n l y t h e fa bric itself. i t i s a l so poss i b l e t o transform both the su rface and the s i l h ou ette with r u c h i ng. The use of t h read. feath ­ e rs. ruffl es. q u i lt i ng. The a b i l ­ ity t o a lter. a p p l iq ue. fl owers. a nd pickups. a n d accent a concept i s restri cted o n l y by o n e's imagination. seq u i n s. e m phas ize. Beading Embroidery Fabric roses Sequins Feathers Corded applique Q u ilting 120 Fashion Design Essentials . beads.

Gold sequin d ress by Daniela Corte .

TECHN I Q U E 58 A Cut Above Scissors a re a n essen t i a l part of a design er's tool kit. 2010 122 Fashion Design Essentials . bound with t h read. The c utaway a esthetic is a lso the basis of cut­ work n e e d l e lace and em bro ideries. Although c utting holes a n d t ri m m i ng edges i nto scallops is tech n i c a l l y a p rocess of e l i m i n a t i o n . w h i c h i n c l u d es c a rving out neckl i nes a n d a r m ­ h o l e s . C a ref u l l y consid ered cutting p roves that there a re t i m es when what i s removed i s a s i m port a n t as w h a t is a d d e d . a designer w i l l use shears to tri m away excess fa bric a n d s h a pe the overa l l s i l h o uette. The edges of a n y a rea that is extracted may be l eft u n t reated. When it comes to most ga rme nts. for obvious reasons. but t h ese open ings can b e scaled a n d even m u lt i p l ied for d ra m a t i c effect. or fin ished with a facing. i t is a lso a form o f d ecorat i o n . Sh aped key h o l e ope n i ngs have l o ng been i n corporated i nto t h e design o f a c l o s u re. T h e laser takes the a rt o f the cut to a n ew level of precision a n d efficiency. � I o -< o ro -< A model wearing a ready-to­ wear outfit featuring cut-outs by designer Yohji Ya mamoto.

. . . � . " e:: • -:::. • � • 0 >- • 0 I � .. '� • � � t5 <: • • .. 2006 . . . • • • • . J . . >- 0 oc � • • w oc ::5 a: • • • >. . >- >- >- . ..A model wearing a cut-out ensemble from Jean-Charles de Castelbajac's ready-to­ wea r collection. • . . . • .

beads. Po m po m s. s u c h as a C h a n e l su it. it's i m perative to a p ply a stay stitch to co ntrol h ow fa r it w i l l u n ­ rave l . a n d feathers have a l l been used to c reate i nteresting and playful edges. A word of caution is in order for des ign ers who see frayed edges as an easy out from the trad itional and often c h a l l e ng i n g work of f i n ish­ i n g a ga rment. TECHN I Q U E 59 Fringe and Fray The outer edges of a s i l h ou ette n eed not be the defi n it ive finish l i n e of a garment. i rreg u l a r l e ngths. I f t h e gra i n l i n e at that edge i s not p roperly a l igned.i n s p i red d ress w i l l d a n ce on the s u rface of the d e s ign with just the sl ight­ est of m ove m e nts. tassels. Eve n s i m p l e eye­ l a s h fringe on a flapper. D e l i berately a d d i n g some type of trim to the edge of a gar­ ment w i l l have a m o re orga n i c a n d less rigid q u a l ity. S u c h a n a n i mated garment is compe l l i ng and enterta i n i ng. it w i l l end up fray ing u n even ly. a n d i n some instances. I n corporating a raw edge i n t o a ga rment has its own set of c h a l lenges if it i s to be d o n e wel l . N a t u ra l frayed edges w i l l soften a n d re l a x even t h e most iconic o f ta i l o red ga rments. Dress by Aida Lourenco with frayed hem as the center of interest 124 Fashion Design Essentials . Fri nge softe ns a s h a pe by e l i m i n a t i ng the h a rd l i n e by way of movement. If the fa b r i c is pro n e to frayi ng.

• II... '" � -- 125 . � � .- -< r> . Z X � '.. A model i n fringed white suit by Chanel. 2005 � I 0 -l 0 'oJ ro ? L . . I .. -l � -l -< '" . ' 41 � I A • 0 . .. � . " .. J..r.... -l 0 � .. ..

and Preserve A sc u l ptor i s afford ed t h ree basic p rocesses t h at Lady Gaga i n a t h ree­ d i mensional black and gold w i l l i nform the style of t h e f i n a l work. " H ow d i d they do t h at?" The Dutch design team a s s u red environ m e n t a l watchdogs that the m issing fa b r i c was properly recyc l e d . The gowns were o bvio u s l y not constructed from one a ltered piece of s q u a re fabric. or preserve. S h e may dress. s: » ii1 �------� � 126 Fashion Design Essentials . I n the a rt o f origa m i . taking i n s p i ration from ava n t­ garde designers s u c h a s M a rti n M a rgiela a n d A l exander M cQ u e e n . C ostu mes l i ke these use the add itive process. but the d ra p i n g and s u rface treatments do pay homage to the gracef u l forms that res u l t fro m thoughtful fo l d i ng. m e n t that s u rro u n d s it. These ca refu l l y executed voids d efy c o m p rehe n s i o n a n d l eave most ask­ ing.d i m e n s i o n a l shapes that p roject from h e r body l i ke an explosion of crystal sta lagmites. s u btract. The M a rc J acobs c o l l ection for Dior in 2007 experim e nted with the l i fe-size a p plication of fo l d s and p l ea t i ng used in origa m i . The t u l l e gown s in a V i ktor & Ro lf 2010 col lec­ tion a c h ieved a l evel of su r re a l i s m that would have i m p ressed Sa lvador D a l i . asse m b l i n g t h e fi n a l s h a pe by b u i l d i n g onto a core ga rment. Subtract. 2008 add. The design of t h e d ress fea t u res m u l tifaceted t h ree . Pa rt o f h e r ha ute cout u re tro u sseau i nc l udes variations of a d ress i n s p i red by Thierry M ugler. Spring/Su mmer 2007 Lady G aga i s known for her high-conce pt fa s h i o n sen se. The m et i c u l o u s l y ca rved s i l houettes we re a n exercise i n the c re­ ation of n egative space. A model i n a n origami­ Each has a n i m pact on the spat i a l re l at i o n s h i p of inspired gown from the a ga rment to the wea re r as well as t h e enviro n ­ C h ristian Dior Haute Couture Collection. TECHN I Q U E 60 Add. nothing is rem oved o r a d d e d . A designer a p p roach­ es the use of materials i n much the same way. O n l y t h rough fo l d i ng d o e s t h e form take a n d ret a i n its s h a pe .

A model wearing a sculptura l cut-out gown by Viktor & Rolf. 2010 .

If exc l u sively f o r e Bay. B e i ng a b l e to p u l l a d rawst r i ng. Adva nces i n t h e science of dyes i n c l ude U V­ reactive photoc h ro m i c pai nts. strap­ less. w h i c h cha nge color in the s u n a n d glow u n d e r a b l a c k l ight. Be lted a n d b l o u sed. o n e . and beads.based e n g i n e e r i ng firm 2 0 : 3 0 .s h o u l d e r. S o m e designers. W h e n these pai nts a re used i n t h read. M o re often these adop­ t i o n s a re m o re a bout aesthetics t h a n function. ha lter. I nter-i n d u st ry part n e rsh ips l i ke t h i s one m a ke it poss i b l e for a designer's c reativity to rea ch new h e ights. I n the h a n d s Norma Ka mali convertible dress versions of i n n ovator H u sse i n Cha layan. I t can be worn i n seve ra l d iffe rent ways: boatneck. O n e exa m p l e i s a gown designed b y N o r m a K a m a l i . but a l so a c reati ve exercise for both t h e designer a n d the user. 128 Fashion Design Essentials . clothes can take on a l ife of their own depend i n g on thei r environ ment. a re m a k i n g the concept of convert i b l e clothing a part of t h e i r brand D N A . categories of fas h i o n . s u c h as Karo l i n a Z m a rlak. button on a h ood. The designer's co l l ection of transfo r m e r d resses pushed the b o u n d a ries of fa brication with the help of the Lon d on . Ath l etic ga rme nts a n d cloth i n g meant for out­ door activities often ben efit from being versa t i l e as we l l . fa b rics. a n d c ross . a l l i n one. Com­ puter syste ms b u i lt into the ga rment mecha n i ­ ca l ly m o rp h ed it i nto a d iffe rent s h a pe a n d style without a ny ext e r n a l assistance.h a lter eve n i ng gown . TECHN I Q U E 61 Change Agents C lever couture that i s m u ltifunct i o n a l by design is not o n l y a great i nvest m ent. The novelty of these very p ract i c a l a p p l i cations m a kes them a n attractive design deta i l t o i n corporate into other . t h e gown transfo r m s i n t o a d ress f o r everyday. t h e tech nol- ogy of cha nge i s m o re complex. or zip off a pant leg a l lows the u s e r to re­ spond to a situation in s h o rt order.

2007 � w " '" ::. >- . 0 I � 129 . w � <- � >- " � w > w � � w a: >- m 0 .... . Left: Karolina Zmarlak convertible design versions Below: A model wearing a garment that transformed into a different sil houette using technology by designer Hussein Chalayan..

C a refu l ob­ servation and meticulous a p p l ication of potenti a l foca l points a l low designers to control t h e p u l s e o f t h e i r design. Wh e re does t h e eye l i nger? What m a kes it dart away? 130 Fashion Design Essentials . the overa l l d e s ign is u n re m a rka b l e . The fa s h i o n designer can con­ tro l where to pl ace e l em e nts t h at block o r push i n and a ro u n d the body. or i ntensity. color. A s e n se dress uses color and of move ment c a n be ach ieved with repeat. E m p h a s i s w i l l d o m i nate the composition and a r rest attention. with n o foca l poi nt. TECHN I Q U E 62 Drawing the Eye The designer i s i n t h e d river's seat when it comes Ed d i Phi l l ips' silver cockta i l to m a p ping a path for the eye to t ravel . Eq u a l b i l l­ i n g cancels everyth i ng out. embel lishment to create a powerful focal point. Action or i m pl ied action i n t h e form of anyt h i ng that points in a specific d i rection may use a gra d u ation of s izes. i n g patterns as wel l as the variat i o n s in those patterns that c reate rhyt h m .

131 .

t h e re is a n a bsence of sym m et ry a n d a designer m ust rely on i n st i nct a n d experience to find the right ha rmony. Whether t h rough sym m etry o r asym m etry. the b a l a nce wou ld be consid ered form a l . tend to be visually we ighted or sta b i l ized at t h e bottom of t h e piece. o r solid a n d patte r n . it is i m portant to b u i l d re lati o n s h i ps between t h e d i s si m i l a r-vibrant color a n d n e u t r a l co l o r. flat a n d t h ree-d i m en s i o n a l . there is a n i n d ication of b a l a n ce. s m a l l a n d l a rge. d a rk. the bias can be a powe rfu l tool beca use of t h e e n e rgy and d i s r u ptive natu re of the d iago n a l l i ne. S y m m et ry i s defi ned by sides that an asymmetrical design over a symmetrical day dress. I n this case. Eve n a see m i ngly c h aoti c d i spersal of deta i l s can ach ieve b a l a nce if there i s an overa l l s e n se of u n ity. position a n d re l ative p l aceme nt. taki ng i n the w h o l e. the designer can d raw d e l i be rate atte ntion to an a rea by d i rect i ng the observer with a rrow-sha ped/ tri a n g u l a r o bjects. woven into an asymmetrical pattern A n i n fo r m a l bala nce can be fou n d i n design that is asymmetrical. As a r u l e. S y m m et ry can a l so be Below: Maison Martin ach ieved t h rough rad i a l b a l a n ce where a l l e l e ­ Margiela vest featuring m e n ts radiate from a central focal point. TECHN I Q U E 63 A-Symmetry Sym m et ry a n d b a l a nce a re not n ecess a r i l y the Right: Pavlina G i lson layers same t h i ngs. leather straps. m i rror each oth e r. l ight. a variety o f sha pes. l i ke a o n e . a n d mid -tones. W h e n o n e s i d e does n o t reflect t h e other. A test of b a l a nce i n sym metri cal or asymmetrical ga rme nts i s to ga uge h ow focused t h e observer's atte ntion i s . If the vi ewer's eye travels a ro u n d t h e piece. 132 Fashion Design Essentials . but not a l l . Zigzags a re a nother way to t a ke co m m a n d of t h e viewer. With each s i d e working i n d ependently. M a n y b a l a nced cout u re co m posi­ tions.s h o u l d e red gow n .

Samira Vargas ensemble .

which is t h e a rt of c reat i ng patterns and pictu res by as­ s e m b l i n g s m a l l pieces of colored mate r i a l . each n ew color is i ntro d u ced by l i t e ra l ly tying i n a d iffe rent ya rn. Patt e r n m a king is. The n onogram is a puzzle akin to mosaics. w h ich uses photogra phs instead of s o l i d b l ocks of co l o r. A designer can c o n n ect t h e dots for h e r a u d i ­ e n ce o r intenti o n a l l y tea se. The c o m b i n at i o n of specific weaving patterns and caref u l l y chosen co lors can be used in m u c h the s a m e way. T h i s tec h n i q u e i s c a l l e d i ntarsia. and h id d e n m ea n i ngs. C o m p uter d i s p l ays e m p l oy the s a m e p r i n c i p les of mosa ics. enterta i n a designer's a u d ie n ce by a l l ow i ng them to solve the c i p h e r. C l oth is wove n by interl a c i ng warp and weft t h reads. i n essence. but each stitch correspo n d s to the pixel p r i n c i p l e . beca use this m e d i u m i s based on grids and u t i l i zes s m a l l recta ngles of co l o r cal led pixels to b u i l d d igital i m ages. The p rocess u s u a l l y i nvolves sq u a res or oth e r specific geomet ric sha pes. 134 Fashion Design Essentials . it becomes paint by n u m bers u n t i l the f i n a l picture is revea led. b u t a rch itect Antoni G a u d ! used the a ngles and c u rves he observed in nature to cre­ ate h i s very u n iq u e a n d o rga n i c mosaics. TECHN I Q U E 64 Intarsia: Puzzles and Missing Links Solving a mystery can be an i rresistible c h a l ­ l e nge-so m u c h so t h at w e w i l l c reate them ou rselves to sti m u late our m i n ds. O n ce the d e s igner designates the p a rt i c u l a r placement of color. t h o s e intricacies have the potential to ca ptivate the i m aginations of others. the q uestion becomes "What is X?" Obvious om issions a re able to b u i l d c u rios­ ity around couture . To c reate m u lticolor patte r n s i n kn its. Coded messages. o n e b i g mathematical puzzle. Photomosaics is an i nte rest i n g a lternative to this p rocess. P rovid i ng y o u with a l l but one c l u e. Des igners can use the p r i n c i ples of puzzle m a k i n g to test thei r p ro b l e m -solving s k i l l s . Pieced work or patchwork is an exa m p l e of how t h i s tec h n i q u e can b e a pp l ied t o fabric. I f a d e s igner c a n s u ccess­ fully express h i s ideas i n a m o re complex fa s h i o n .

Peter H idalgo d resses .

TECHN I Q U E

65 T he Reveal
D i recto r Al fred H itchcock i n tegrated a pers o n a l
c a m eo a ppeara n ce i nto h i s fi l m s . C a r i caturist
AI H i rschfeld i n corporated Nina, his da ughter's
n a me, i nto most of h i s d rawi ngs. Both became
a l m ost as fa m o u s for t h ese ve i led gifts as for
the f i n e work t h ey p roduced. Software, m u sic,
books, a rt, a n d t e l evisi o n s h ows a re just a few of
the media wh ere " Easter eggs" can be h id d e n .
Right: Jeff Lahens for ECC
This l ong-sta n d i ng t radition o f weavi ng i n special
Life & Style; und ercollar
h i dden su rprises can a l so be fou n d i n fas h i o n , deta i l
w i t h d iscovery beco m i n g as m u c h a part o f t h e
exper i e n ce as the actua l c l ot h i ng. Middle: Arnold Scaasi d ress
with matching coat lining
There a re some tra d i t i o n a l target a reas for the
placement of a h id d e n treat. C l assic s h i rts m ight Below: Sara Marhamo cuff
h i de them on the u nderside of the c o l l a r, the col­ lining detail
lar sta nd, or the i n side cuff. Some sort of d ecora­
tive deta i l m ight a l so be p la ced on the sh i rtta i l .
Addressing t h e part of t h e tradition that req u i res
"someth i n g b l u e," a brida l gown can be designed
to i n c l u d e t i ny b l u e bows sewn i nto the l i n i n g.
A s i m p l e s u m m e r d ress c a n m a ke good use of a
contrasting fa bric to face the neckline, a r m h o le,
or hem of t h e garment, h i nt i n g at somet h i ng
m o re p l ayfu l . The a m biguously p l ayfu l m essage
" L u cky Yo u " can be fo u n d on a l a b e l placed o n
t h e i n s i d e z i pper o f Lucky B ra n d jea n s .

Private m o m ents a nd p u b l i c d i sp l ays o f design
can be caref u l l y c rafted i nto a ny ga rment. Letti n g
your h a n d s i n k i nto a pocket l i ned with t h e soft­
est fleece is a pers o n a l present from the designer
to the wearer. A flashy l i n i ng in an otherwise
con servative s u i t a l l ows the user to choose
when, where, and to whom he wi shes to expose
h i s w i l der s ide to a rea l "Ta-da ! " moment.

136 Fashion Design Essentials

Jeff La hens for ECC Life &
Style; suit li ning detail

ARTI STRY

66 Cultivated Influence
Fa s h i o n m avericks a re c o m m o n ly defi ned Right: Actress Marlene

by a s i ngu l a r attri bute: They fo l l owed t h e i r Dietrich making her
Hollywood film debut as the
own i n st i n cts rega rd less o f t h e conve n t i o n s
tuxedo-clad Amy J o l ly i n the
o f t h e i r t i m es. M a r l e n e D i etrich a n d Kathe r i n e
film Morocco, directed by
H e p b u r n h ave beco m e refe rence poi nts for t h e Josef von Sternberg, 1 930
pant a n d m en swea r- i n s p i red fas h i o n s for w o m ­
e n - D ietri c h i n a top hat a n d tai ls, a n d Hepburn Far Right: Portrait of actress
Katharine Hepburn in slacks
i n casual s u iti ng. In l ight of the h i story of pa n ts
for women, these lad ies d i s p l ayed a certa i n l evel
of fa s h i o n bravery. A m e l i a J e n ks B l o o m e r, a n
early advocate of women's rights i n the U n ited
States, is known i n part for adopt i ng the fa s h i o n
o f wearing loose t ro u se rs gat h e red at the a n k l e .
A h e a d of i t s t i m e, the trend d i d n o t last.

World Wa r I I made wea r i ng pa nts a pract i c a l
necess ity f o r wo m e n who were working i n fac­
tories, but it was not u n t i l the 1 970s t h at s l acks
beca me a fas h io n a bl e item to i n c l u d e as part of
a wo m a n 's wardrobe. Designers tapped i nto the
Wom e n 's Li beration M ovem e nt, infusing their
co l l ections with t h e a l l - e m powe r i n g pant, wh ich
had become yet a nother symbol of e q u a l ity
between the sexes.

There a re few co ntem porary exa m ples of s i m i l a r
n o n confo r m ists. B u t t h e re a re more theatrical
fa s h i o n ren egades, such as Lady G aga and Bjork,
who without q u estion integrate fa s h i o n as part
of t h e i r pers o n a l ities that a l s o t ra n s l ates to thei r
perfo r m a n ces. The q u estion fo r design ers w h o
l e a n towa rd t h e re b e l l ious i s , " W h i c h visiona ries
of style infl u e n ce the essence of who you a re a s
a d e s igner?"

o

b
I

138 Fashion Design Essentials

ARTI STRY

67 Curated Experience
I t's a b i rd ! I t's a p l a n e ! I t's a supermod e l ! The I n "Superheroes: Fas hion
and Fantasy," the Costume
power of a fas h i o n concept can be traced
I nstitute at the Metropolitan
back to the most u n expected of sou rces. Who
Museum of Art in New
would have ever thought that a n e n t i re e x h i b i ­ York explores fashionable
t i o n e x p l o r i n g the i n f l u e n ces of s u pe r h e roes on supe rheroes. Outfits by
fa s h ion would be t h e basis for an e x h i b ition at designer Bernhard Willhelm
and Ho use of Moschino.
the M etropolitan M u s e u m of Art in N ew York?
The " S u pe r he roes: Fa s h ion a n d Fa nta sy" e x h i b i t
filtered fas h i o n t h rough t h e colorful fiction of
comic books a nd gra p h i c novels. Beyo n d secret
identities, the e x h i b i t i o n esta b l i s h ed specific
strategi es for c reati ng s u p e r h e ro pe rso n a s t h a t
had a d i rect correlation t o fa s h i o n .

The fas h i o n tactics e m p l oyed i n c l uded u s i ng
gra ph ics to brand a s u p e r h e ro; wra ppi ng a h e ro
i n the flag to capital ize on patriotism; s u persizing
m u s c l e to overe m p has i ze the m a s c u l i n e o r fem i ­
n i n e strength; t h e contra d iction o f good a n d bad
exist i ng s i m u ltaneously w i t h i n the s a m e c h a r­
acter; a d d i n g a p rotective layer of a rm o r; h ow
a erody n a m i c design feeds t h e need for speed;
b re a k i ng with conve n t i o n a l sta n d a rds of bea uty;
h e roes that morphed i nto h u m a n - a n i m a l hybrids;
and the i nt ro d u ct i o n of the a nt i h e ro, with a d a rk­
e r, grittier s i d e t h a t d efied easy c l assificat i o n .
T h i s wealth o f resou rces w a s generated from
j u st one gen re . Ap p roa c h i n g fa s h i o n design l i ke
a m u s e u m c u rator has the adva ntage of b e i n g
exposed to con nections that may n o t h ave been
obvious, and b u i ld i ng a concept a ro u n d t h at.

140 Fashion Design Essentials

141 .

I f we were n ' t certa i n of its origin. The private col lection poncho was used very strategi ca l l y in Ugly Betty. Fas h i o n can use the idea of a ste reotype a s a sta rti n g poi n t. rea c h i ng beyond the expected. a n d l et the idea evo lve into a c o m p l etely new expression of t h e s o u rce. but it does h ave a d i rect c o n n ection to Mexican fol k cultu re . 142 Fashion Design Essentials . a stereotype stradd les t h e border between h u m o r a n d good taste. Used as a storytel l i ng tool i n enterta i n m e nt. t h e word Guadalajara e m blazoned a cross the front of it i nforms us i m m ed iate ly. There is a l s o a n interplay with a very g l a m o rous c h a racter who is wea ri ng a designer's i nterpre­ tation of a poncho t h a t bri ngs the point h o m e t h a t Betty i s n o t sty l i s h . O n e of t h e fi rst t i mes t h e c h a ra cte r o f Betty S u a rez i s on -screen with i n t h e context o f the fas h i on world. a n d that is exactly the same l i n e t h at designers m u st be conscious of navigating when e m bra c i ng c u l t u ra l symbols a s part o f t h e i r concept. A designer m u st stretch. but not bypass the eth n i c and c u ltural sym b o l i s m associated with the ga rment. H i s­ torical ly. she is wea r i ng a decidedly Mexican poncho. Others avoid any d i rect cu ltural refe re n ces because they can not see beyond the folk costume. a television s itcom that revolved a ro u n d the fa s h ­ ion world a n d a M e x i c a n A m e r i c a n fa m i ly. ARTI STRY 68 Culture Filter Anyone who h e a rs t h e word poncho h a s a n I nuit poncho from I ris Apfel i m m ed iate i m age i n h e r m i n d o f what i t is. Some designers shy away from i n corporating e l em e nts from t h e i r own c u ltural background beca use they fear b e i n g ste reotyped. the poncho has n ever rea l l y been a b l e t o ga i n a footh o l d as a defin itively fa s h i o n a b le garment.

America Ferrera stars as Betty Suarez in ABC Te levision's Ugly Betty. o >­ o I � .

Seve ra l strategies c a n b e e m p l oyed w h e n assem­ bl ing e n s e m b l es that i nvolve m a n y l ayers: • Base layers s h o u l d a lways be l ighte r t h a n those on the n ext leve l . • Control t h e v i s i b l e proportions o f each layer t o s e e t h e s h a pe it c reates. goes-with -eve ryt h i n g ga rment. it h a s the poten ­ t i a l t o b e a m u st-have. • Mix day i n to eve n i ng and bring a l i tt l e n ight­ t i m e g l a m o u r into the d a y l ight. This type of core ward robe item c a n be used a s a founta i n head t h a t bra n c h es out into a b road col lection. But the designer m u st a p p roach the d e s ign of each item with a greater u n d e rsta n d i ng of how it works w i t h i n the w h o l e . beca u se t h e overa l l s i l h ouette can easily be com prom i sed by b u l k . a n d a l low t h e eye t o fol low each l a ye r. • Concentrate on s hort over l o ng. • Coord i n ate looks that a re co mforta b l e and not forced. ARTI STRY 69 More Is More I f a designer i s a b l e to synthesize a wide variety Sara Marhamo design of e l e m e nts into o n e garme nt. 144 Fashion Design Essentials . • D raw attention t o fa m i l y rese m b lances i n s i m i­ l a r ite m s and c reate t h e i l l u s i o n of fa m i l i a r ity with d issi m i l a r ones. T h i s a d d i t ive process s h o u l d a l ways e n h a n c e a n d n ever overwh e l m . but not bot h . • Select special items for t h e m i x that a re strong enough to sta nd a l o n e . restricting the a p p l i cation to j ust o n e a rea-ta n ks ove r tees or leggings ove r t ights.

145 .

. this r u l e of t h u m b sets the tone for designers w h o don't wish to e m b e l l i s h or c o m p l icate t h e i r work. But h o w m a ny layers of design can be stripped away without com p rom i s i n g the ga rme nt's functional ity or aesthetic va l u e? W h e n i n d o u bt. l eave it out. d iscarded.. A we l l -ed ited col lection need not be a ustere a n d i s stre ngthened by t h e power of m i n i m a l ­ i s m . Every designer s h o u l d view his work t h rough the visual filter of s i m p l i c ity to avoid weigh ing ideas down with u n n ecessa ry c l u tter. Be w i l l ing to sta rt over.. o I � 146 Fashion Design Essentials . D e s igners m u st resist t h e tem ptat ion to add e l em e nts i n o rder to d i sg u i se m i stakes-a pitfa l l not unco m m o n a mong n ew d e s ig n e rs. o . Knowing when to stop i s n o t a lways easy. the s i m p lest sol ution is by Donna Karan u s u a l ly the right one." As it relates to fas h i on. Anyth ing t h a t d istracts s h o u l d be revi sited a n d . Clear com pre­ h e n s i o n of the design c h a l l e nge at h a n d a l l ows the d e s igner to e m p h a si ze the vital essenti a l s . ARTI STRY 70 Less Is More Ockham's razor i s a p r i n c iple t h at m e a n s "A l l Minima list white d ress t h i ngs being e q u a l . i n m a n y i n st a n ces. A designer s h o u l d be a b l e to create somet h i n g s i m p l e a n d restra i ned t h a t is as compell ing as a m o re complex design.

/ / OJ. .-' . .

m a ny websites a re d evoted to H ija b-fr i e n d l y fa s h i o n for M u s l i m women w h o w i s h to e x p ress t h e i r faith without i n h i biting their fas h i o n sense. Religious icon og­ raphy a lso plays a big part i n fas h i o n . 2009 b rought to the m a i nstre a m by bold. v i s i o n a ry trend setters. I nternat i o n a l l y recogn i zed figu res s u c h a s the D a l a i Lama expose the globe to a way of l ife a n d d ress t h a t people m ight n o t otherwise b e aware of. O n e exa m p l e is the saffron ro bes of Ti betan B u d d h i sts. M a d o n n a i n itiated a trend for wea ri n g cruc ifixes a n d rosa ry beads i n t h e 1 9 80s. ARTI STRY 71 Med itation on a Dress M a n y s p i r i t u a l a n d re l igious i nfl u e n ces i n fas h i o n H i s Hol iness the 14th Dalai a re rooted i n a ncient c u l t u res a n d a re often Lama in Tokyo. rich h i story. a n d beautifu l a rtwork a ssociated with rel ig i o n . 148 Fashion Design Essentials . J e a n Pa u l G a u lt i e r s h owed a c o l l e ction i n 1 993 that was i n s pi red by the t rad i t i o n a l ga r­ m e n ts worn by H a s i d i c J ews. A l o n g the s a m e l i n es. C h ristian Lacro i x e n ded his 2009 h a ute couture show with a heav i l y e m b roid ered gown t h a t c o u l d be descri bed as a trib ute to the V i rg i n M a ry. For i n sta nce. Exploring rel igion t h rough fas h i o n can be seen as a t r i b ute to a l l the m ea n i ngfu l traditions.

A model wearing a haute couture gown with distinctive religious references by designer C h ristian Lacroix. 2009 .

T h e l i t t l e b l a c k d ress is a ga rment t h a t most women own or h ave owned d u ri n g t h e i r l ife­ ti me-it n ever goes out of sty l e . 1953 be m em o ra b l e . 150 Fashion Design Essentials ." refer­ r i ng to t h e Model T. Staple ga rme nts a re not an easy o ut. ARTI STRY 72 Building on Basics Tried-an d-true basics may feel l i ke fa l l back items i n fas h io n . It h a s been at the center of everyt h i n g from m u s e u m exh i b i ­ t i o n s t o m o r n i ng-show m a keove rs. research a n d British actor and comed ian deve l o p m e n t i f the designer wants h e r v i s i o n to Cary G rant in a t u xedo. For m e n. beca use t hey actua l ly pose greate r c h a l l enges for the designer. i t i s G a b r i e l l e Coco C ha ne l 's work i n the 1 92 0 s that i s c redited as t h e origin of the modern-day l ittle black d ress. the tuxedo is a fa s h i o n sta p l e for for m a l occa s i o n s. though most men don't actu a l l y own one. if not m o re. The f i rst association most people m a ke regard i ng the little b l a c k d ress is t h rough t h e film Breakfast at Tiffany's in w h i c h A u d rey Hepburn wea rs o n e d e s igned by H u be rt d e G ivenc hy. Defi n i ng t h e basics t h a t a designer w i l l i n c l u d e i n h e r body of work req u i res as m uch. Vogue cal led it " C h a n e l 's Ford. C o m i n g up with s o m et h i n g com­ pletely d i fferent i s often easier than putting y o u r sta m p on a c l a s s i c . O n e of its most redee m i n g q u a l ities is the a b i l ity to accessorize it to s u it a n y occa s i o n . but ga rments i n this category exist beca use everyon e u n d ersta n d s and a p p reciates t h e i r va l u e . I n fact. w h i c h was a l so designed to be s i m p l e and a ccessi b l e .

2010 .A model wearing a sequined little black d ress at a Marc Jacobs fashion show.

P u n k i s o n e o f t h e most aggressive a ntifa s h ion m ove ments. The u nd e rc u rrent of the very conservative 1 950s was part teenager. part Beat G e n e ration. u n ke m pt p l a i d flannel s h i rts. and s p i ked dog co l l a rs into her fas h ions. the flapper look of t h e 1920s is c h a rm i ng a n d c h i c . razor b l ades. a n d Barbara Sta nwyck b rought t h e fe m m e fata l e o f t h e 1 940s t o l ife i n fi l m n o i r. ARTI STRY 73 Design of Dissent Rebels h ave a lways infl uenced fas h i o n . Ku rt Coba i n . Layers of baggy. Re b e l l ious a n d rec kless. heavily i n f l u e n ced by pop stars M adonna and C i n d y La u pe r. s u c h as Louise B rooks a n d C l a ra Bow. who i n ­ co rporated B D S M gea r. Joan C rawford. w h i c h h a s d i ve rs ified ove r t h e yea rs to i n c l u d e everyth i ng from h orror to h igh fas h i o n . H i pp i e fa s h ions o f the 1 960s were heavily i n fl u e n ced by a b o h e m i a n l ifesty l e a n d the m u s i c of perfor m e rs such as Joan Baez and J o n i M itchel l . Goth-infl uenced style In d i rect contra st to s l ick power d ressing in the 1 9 8 0s. J e a n H a rlow. Fa s h i o n designers m u st be i n touch with t h e fringes o f fa s h i o n . Actresses such as La n a Tu rner. these girls bobbed their hair a n d wore fl i m sy d resses that exposed t h e i r knees a n d ba red thei r arms. I n the 1 970s. a n d Bette Davis perso n ified t h e sloe-eyed va m p of the 1 930s who b ro ke with conve n t i o n a l m o ra l s a n d brandished ove rt sexual ity i n s l i n ky satin gow n s . w h o were t h e bad girls of t h e i r day. cardigans. Function t r u m ped form i n gru nge fa s h i o n s o f the 1 990s. infa m o u s perfo r m e rs such as J o h n ny Rotten a n d Sid Vicious of the Sex Pistols were d ressed by Vivi e n n e Westwood. p o p u l a rized by t h e Seattle m u s i c scene. Virg i n i a M ayo." J e a n s a n d leather jackets were t h e major fa s h i o n influence of icons such a s J a m es Dean and M a r l o n B ra n do. and in part i c u l a r. a n d part "rebel without a cause. c h a rity shop finds. Who a re the outsiders of today that m ight be defi n i ng o u r e ra? 152 Fashion Design Essentials . safety pins. M a e West. By today's stand a rds. Nostalgia now c l o u d s h o w wo men who epitom ized t h a t l o o k were perceived. street fa s h i o n and d e l i berately torn clothing beca m e the a ltern ative fa s h i o n . and c o m bat boots com prised the look. The 1 9 8 0 s a l so i n itiated the start of Goth.

G r u nge-influenced style .

Fa s h ion tel l s a story a s w e l l . 2003 d u j o u r? W h a t i s s h e doi ng? W h ere is s h e go ing? H ow w i l l s h e express h e rself? G etting i nto h e r Right: Costume designs from head a l l ows t h e designer t o adjust a n d a d a pt t h e the show United States of deta i l s o f h i s work s o t h a t i t h i nts at t h e sou rce. Fo r a costu m e r. Fa s h i o n designers often cite fi l m s and actors a s s o u rces o f t h e i r i n s pi rati o n . Tara are a part of a n exhibit but to avo i d c l ic h es. the designer must be a b l e to of nom i nees for a 2009 Emmy Award i n the category p u l l t h e i l l usion i nto the context of rea l ity. Both rely on exce l l e n t powers of o bserva t i o n .. Ward robing s u ccessfu l l y for f i l m or the theater req u i res t h a t each c h a racter i s p rofi led accurately.. s u c h as L i n d a Eva nge l ista. were k n own a s cha meleons. Above: Model Linda into the fa bric of a co l l ection? W h o is t h e m u s e Eva ngelista in Chanel haute coutu re. of Outstanding Te levision Costume Design at the Fashion I nstitute of Design and Merchand ising ( F I D M ) Museum & G a l l eries. z :0 � co . T h a t t a l e is a hybrid of the designer's vision a n d the wea rer's interests a n d ecce ntricities.. when they a re part of the sto ryte l l i ng process on stage or on -scre e n . ARTI STRY 74 Attitude Adjustment C l othes do m a ke t h e m a n . psychology. The title character suffers from dissociative identity d isorder �" and each costume represents � one of her personalities. U ber-versat i l e s u permodels of the 1 9 80s. � � o � . h a i rsty les.... a n d enviro n m e n t i s as i m porta nt as a fa s h i o n designer's grasp of a c l i ent's l i festyle. o I � 154 Fashion Design Essentials . or the wo m a n . and clothes to t ra n sform t h e i r a p pea ra n ce in a n y fa s h ion fantasy. c i rc u m ­ stan ces.. but models that a re a b l e to be c h a m e leons w i l l be va lued for t h e i r a b i l ity t o tra n sform i nto t h e i d e a l o f a ny c l i e nt . based on a f i l m o r mot ivated by c h a ra cters. � o . und ersta n d ­ i n g the c h a racter's h isto ry. They m ade good use of cosmeti cs. Many h ig h . W h y not weave a sto ry.p rofi l e models b u i l d a career by esta b l i s h i ng a d i stinct look that designers want to a l ign themse lves with.

-"' I 155 . .

Tough = Leather 156 Fashion Design Essentials . W h e n rom a nt i c i z i n g the girl next door. t h e re a re ce rta i n ly many shades of style. h a ppy col ors a n d sweet deta i l s s u c h as buttons a nd bows. b r ight. prefa b r i cated l a be l s with l ittle o r no d e p t h . a n d pu r ity tran slate i nto the design deta i l s a n d m a ke h e r i m m ed iately recognizable? H e r identity m ight be s u m med u p b y modest s i l h o u ­ ettes t h a t s u p p ress h e r sex u a l ity. W h at k i n d of fas h i o n do you get when you s h u ff l e the t raits of t h e Earth mother and fem m e fata le? Or the d a m s e l i n d ist ress a n d the trickster? In fa s h i o n . c o m b i ned with fres h . It is fou nded i n the d e s i re to a l ign ou rse lves with experi ences that resonate most with our true selve s . ARTI STRY 75 Myths and Archetypes Accord i n g to American mythologist Joseph C a m pbell. W h o wants t o r u n off c a rbon copies of someone else's ideal? The trick to u s i n g type­ casting in fa s h i o n design is to do it creatively. what types of c h a racteristics a re att r i b uted to h e r? How do virtue. to m i x it up. You're l eft with gen e r i c. S n a p judgments m a y be ti m esave rs. but t h e re is a downside. wholesome­ n ess. Fa s h i o n p l ays a major ro l e i n the d efi n ition o f a n y u n iversal a rc h etype. exploring myths i s about m o re t h a n the q u est f o r m ea n i ng.

Soft = Ruffled Florals - o b I � .

ARTI STRY 76 Wit C a n f u n ny be fa s h i o n a b l e? I t i s safe to a s s u m e t h a t J e a n . The conscientious fa s h i o n designer m a kes a personal choice a bout which a bs u rd ities and a b uses s h e m ight wish to poke f u n at. L i ke a n y good editor i a l c a rtoo n .C h a rles d e C a stel bajac h a s a s e n se of h u m or. Right: Sebastian Errazuriz's teddy bear jacket 158 Fashion Design Essentials . Above: A model wears a Lego-inspired design by French designer Jean-Charles de Castelbajac. 2008. fa s h i o n can become a veh i c l e for del ive r i ng social or political messages. Sometimes the only motivation beh i n d injecting couture with a l ittle comedy i s t h e p ro m i s e o f a good l a u g h . W h e re i s it said that a fa s h ­ ion designer c a n n ot p ro d u ce beautiful work t h at is a l s o w itty? Fa s h ion with a sense of h u m o r can a l s o m a ke a state m e n t . H u m o r does n 't a l ways h ave to be c h a rged with m ea n i ng. M a king c l o t h i n g comical i s at the h e a rt of much of his work. Elsa S c h i a p a re l l i and Fra nco M os c h i n o certa i n l y had an a p p reciation for w h i msy and the ridicu lous. These i m pish designers end eavored to a m use a n d d i d not take fa s h i o n too serious ly. A coat m a d e o u t of teddy bears m ight be t a k i ng a satirical stab at t h e eth ics o f u s i ng f u r i n fas h i o n .

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T h i s doesn't m e a n that a designer should c l oister h i m s e l f c o m p l ete ly.i m posed b l a c kout. and knows it's t i m e to pop u p a n d ride the wave. Full fashion immersion 160 Fashion Design Essentials . A fas h i o n designer a l so needs to find a p l a ce to test the waters. Periods of rest can i n c l ud e b re a k i n g w i t h t h e ro utine a n d f i n d i n g a lternative sti m u lation in u n re l ated a n d u n fa m i l i a r s u bjects. m a ki ng room for the next i n f l u x of d ata.looking for creative triggers in t re n d s that a re relevant to h i s work. A designer who i s ded icated w i l l keep paddling u n t i l he fee ls the swe l l. he can sta nd s t i l l a n d let it c ra s h aga i nst h i m or h e can ride the wave. and stay in h i s league u n t i l he is p repa red to p l ay with t h e big boys. Rec h a rging is we l l served when the creative m i nd is c h a l l enged i n u n c h a rted territory. W h e n a designer i s ready to step back i nto the current. The fi rst i s a "see what stic ks" k i n d of a pproach. respect the e nviron m e n t of the i n d u st ry. A d e s igner w h o i s looking t o ride t h e wave m u st be ready to i m m e rse h i m se lf. D own t i m e provides the t i m e and space needed to edit and d iscard the ir­ re l evant. sched u l i ng blocks of t i m e w h e n every c h a n n e l h a s been turned off i s essenti a l to a designer's process-a self. ARTI STRY 77 Blackouts and Ful l Immersion I n t h i s age of i nfo rmation overload.

Va 1111 . 161 .

N ew methods a l low designers to capture the m i n utest deta i l s . and powerf u l messages. becom ing a bstracted by t h e i r sheer Jessica Lee designs featuring a newspaper print fabric scale and position. set the scene for d iscovery­ a m o m e n t w h e n the o bserver real izes there i s m o re t h e re t h a n m eets t h e eye. maga z i n e covers. fragments of s heet m u s ic. l itera l ly. ARTI STRY 78 Representation and Abstraction Extra ! Extra ! Read a l l a bout it! The written word wraps itself a ro u n d fa s h ion. 162 Fashion Design Essentials . D e s i g n i n g with i m ages is at its best when the translation is not obvious. Pages borrowed from books o r n ewspapers. or the h a n dwritten word w i l l speak vol u m es when it a d o r n s what w i l l be worn . The d i rect a p plication of text to text i l e a l l ows fas h i o n to be an i nstru m e n t that conveys t h oughts. Designers select content to expl icitly represent what they w i s h to express o n t h e i r ga rments. With i n seve ra l co l lections. designer R a l p h R u c c i h a s a rtfu l ly transferred both pai nti ngs of h i s o w n a n d ph otogra phs to fa bric. p h rases. Figu res that exceed the b o u n d a ries of the garmen t. The rep rod uction of a rt a nd p hotogra p h s as texti les f o r fas h i o n is a m ed i u m t h a t gets bet­ ter with t e c h n ological advan ces.

A model wearing a gown featuring a photo print fabric by Chado Ra lph Rucci. 2010 o >­ o I � .

t h ey accurately represent the b ra n d. and e ndearing mas­ cots can speak to the m essage b e h i n d the brand better than just a l ogo ever c o u l d . ARTI STRY 79 Symbols The most co m m o n use of symbols i n fas h i o n to­ day is the gra p h i c T-s h i rt. th ere is i n stant recognition. Business T: Zaftigs Del icatessen Political T: Barack Obama's presidential campaign 164 Fashion Design Essentials . Tag l i n es. and they often become an a lternate m a rk or signature t h at em bodies the m essage of t h e company as strongly as its logo does. a coat of a rm s . w h i c h a l low the wea re r to express h e rself. m e a n i ngfu l m essages. t h e re is a t re m e n d o u s m a rket for garments i n t h i s category. each part of the d e s ign actu- a l ly means somet h i ng. c l ever qu otes. or t h e J a panese fa m i ly badges cal led Phrase T: " N o autographs" kaman." was at the forefro nt of big name b ra n d s that created a lternat ives to the conve n t i o n a l wisdom of t h e day. provocative i m ages. He i s flying the b ra n d's flag every time h e wears it.s l a p your logo on every conceivable s u rface. A customer who adopts a d e s igner's motto or sym b o l i s m is m a k i ng a fa r greater contribution to the growth of the b ra n d than simply m a k i n g a s a l e . A custo m e r often a l igns h i mself with these pictogra ms o r ideogra m s beca use they a re u n i q u e. Alt hough they a re a l l now a p p reciated for t h e i r beauty. B eyond those that a re a bo u t blatant m a rketi ng. These caref u l l y c rafted gra ph ics a re the con­ tem pora ry eq u ivalent of a fa m i l y c rest. N i ke's "J ust do it.

Destination T: Beet lebung of Martha's Vineyard Museum T: Cooper-Hewitt National Design School T: U niversity of Kansas mascot Museum 'Fashion in Colors' exhibit the Jayhawk Band T: Rol l i ng Stones C harity T: Marc Jacobs' for skin cancer awareness Memorial T: Dropkick M u rphys' tribute to Greg "Chicken man" Riley Concert T: Pearl Jam To u r Nostalgia T: Woodstock Cause T: Yoko Ono for Fashion Aga inst A I DS at H&M 165 .

gen t l e r terms. T h e same gest u re a n d t h e s a m e ga rment m ight suggest co m p letely differ­ ent t h i ngs in different colors. a designer can v i rt u a l ly p a i n t move m e nt if h e consid ers h ow h i s garments w i l l become a n exte n s i o n of each gest u re the wea rer w i l l m a ke. d o the yards of fa bric i n a c i rc u l a r s k i rt w h i p a ro u n d the body? H a s the sheer vol u m e of that s k i rt become an extension Above: Classica l ballet tutu of t h e c h o reogra phy? Through modern d a n ce. c u l t u re. D a n ce. Rendered in wh ite it might be described in softer. l i ke fas h i o n . often reflects a cert a i n period. W i l l t h a t s h a pe restrict m ovement? H ow flexible i s t h e fa b ric. The designer m ust a l so take steps to u n d e rsta n d how m u c h stress a ga r m e nt must e n d u re based on how people w i l l move i n it. Texture plays a b ig part i n how s h a r p o r soft the movem ent of a ga rment ca n be. 166 Fashion Design Essentials . Kee p i ng that in m i n d . the spa ce t h at co nta i n s it can be considered a bla n k ca nvas. The s i l h o u ette of a s k i rt w i l l c h a nge d ra m a t i c a l l y o n c e t h e weare r begi ns to move. The designer w h o u n d e rsta n d s t h i s a n d a l s o recog n i zes that both a re n o nverba l fo rms of com m u n i cation is a b l e t o a nt i c i pate a n d i ncorporate m ove m e n t into his works. the Boston Ballet Color i s a vital p a rt of how d y n a m i c a m ove m e n t is perceived to be. and does it respon d to the exte n s i o n and con­ traction of m uscle gro u ps? Does a l o ng h a nging sleeve create the i l l usion of l o nger a r m s? When the h i ps suddenly twist. to be s u re t h a t the mater i a l s a n d construct i o n a re u p to t h e job. at the Boston Ballet c h o reogra p h e r M a rtha G ra h a m uses the body of the d a n ce r to p u l l the fa bric of a ga rment i nto Right: Romantic bal let tutu at bold. ARTI STRY 80 Dynamics W h e n it comes to d a n ce. a n d t rad ition. T h e s a m e d a n ce i s expressed d iffe rently depend­ i n g on which form i s chosen. w h i l e the da ncer who moves t h rough it i s l i ke a brush. expressive s h a pes. Each move m e n t is s i m i l a r to a brush stroke of e n e rgy a cross it. The trad itional tutu i s constructed to reta i n its rigid form w h i l e t h e l onger " ro m a n t i c tutu" is meant t o be f l u i d . A v i b ra n t red m ight push the perce ption of power.

2008 167 .Martha G raham Dance Company performance in Berlin.

creates the i l l us i o n that each t h a t fas h i o n designers a l so play w i t h perception i s float i n g independently of the ot h e r. it's not s u rp ri s i n g lengthwise gra i n . w i t h i n m a n i p u l ated to fa bricate a bel ieva b l e fa <. Co nverging l i nes create the i l l u s i o n of a s h a p e Stroop t h a t i s d i m i n i s h i ng i nto the d i st a n ce. ARTI STRY 81 Trompe L'Oei l I n some ways. Illusory Contour O bjects that a re configured i n s u c h a way that their bord ers create the i l l u s i o n of a n oth e r s h a pe trick the b ra i n i nto i m posing the perception of a n object onto what i s a ct u a l l y negative space.w i red for fa ce recogn i ­ t i o n . is a s h a pe Atmosphere that co u l d not exist i n t h e rea l world a n d was Aerial o r atmospheric perspective i s the place­ i n s p i red by the work of a rtist Escher. paral­ words used to i d e ntify pigments a re re n d e red in lei l i nes can be d i sto rted by out l i n ing offset rows d i ffe rent colors. of b lack and wh ite s q u a res in gray. fas h i o n has a lways been sm oke Ouchi Illusion a n d m i rrors. a s q u a re t h a t p l a ces t h e s a m e pattern on t h e With a h i story of m i s d i rection. ment and size of objects. the va l u e of color. Stroop effect bag 168 Fashion Design Essentials . or the t r i b a r. aesthetic rea sons. so a ny configu ration t h a t closely resembles the p lacement of facial featu res seems to be sta ring back at u s . or Pointillism the use of h ig h l ights a n d shadows to p roduce the Use of points of d ifferent col ors that a re set side i l l us i o n of t h ree d i m e n s i o n s on a flat s u rface. by s i d e to gene rate the i l l usion of a nother color Convergence was a tec h n ique used by a rt ist G eorges S e u rat.:ade. Many of those i l l usions can be Penrose Triangle a p pl ied to the s u rface or woven i n to a text i l e . Every d et a i l of fa s h i o n can be A c i rcle with a pattern on the c ross-gra i n. Face H u m a n b e i ngs a re h a rd . The Stroop effect i s a cognitive v i s u a l i l l u si o n Distortion t h at c reates a conflict i n t h e bra i n w h e n the Someti m es c a l led the "Cafe Wa l l " i l l usion. The i m pos s i b l e tri angle. I t i s n a med and rea l ity to create optical tricks for c o m p l etely after the J a p a n ese op a rt ist H aj i me O u c h i .

Co nvergence Distortion Stroop effect I l lusory contou r Ouchi il lusion Face Atmosphere Pointi l l ism Penrose triangle 169 .

They comp letely surro u n d the o bject at its cen­ ter. This p rocess is both conceptual and orga n i c . b u t re m a i n independent of the same fo r m . I n o n e of h i s creations. I t can be done with every conceiva b l e s h a pe. The natu re of struct u re i n t roduces m ove m e n t i nto the gar­ m e n t that seems to a l most fl oat. This discipline re l ies o n tec h n iques t h at subdue t h e texti le. as it s k i m s a body i n moti o n . When the designer scu l pts to reflect the natural s h a pe of the body it speaks to t rad itional E u ropean t a i l o r­ i ng. W h e n t h ey a re applied h o rizon t a l l y to a design they c a n e m u late the re lati o n s h i p t h a t the r i n g s o f S a t u r n h ave to the p l a net itself. as we l l as the materials. C i rcles can a lso be used to create a u n i q u e t h ree-d i m e n ­ s i o n a l su rface treatment. One exa m p l e would be the use of c i rc l es or r i ngs. I ssey M iya ke takes i t a step fu rt h e r. i n form the designer a s to how it m ight be m a n i p u lated i n d ependent of the body. a n a rt form i n itse lf when done we l l . i n o rder to m a ke it fit. Less common is the expl oration of how d iffe rent sha pes relate to the h u m a n fo r m . Model wearing dress from Issey M iyake's Ready-to­ Wear Collection. a lternating s i zes of those ri ngs a re conn ected to m i m ic h o rizontal acco rd i o n p leati ng. a s i n Va l e n t i no's p i n k b u b b l e s c u l pt u re. The c h a racteristics of each sha pe. at t i m es eve n b o u n ce. c reating a kind of ki netic s c u l pt u re. 1 994 170 Fashion Design Essentials . ARTI STRY 82 Space and Sculpture Clothing can be sc u l pted to co nform to t h e shape of the body o r b u i lt to c reate a bstract spaces between the garment and the wearer.

2007 .Model wearing a pink ensemble by haute couture designer Va lentino.

but wo u l d a nyone rea l l y use t h at term to describe h e r? A designer m ight even find i n s p i ra ­ t i o n i n the descriptors. T h roughout h i story. beca use the struct u re of the clothing m u st fit a n d flow properly for comfo rt a n d movem ent. s h e is a lso a spokesperson for Cover G i r l . w h i c h still ta kes p l a ce in t h i s region. 172 Fashion Design Essentials . w h i l e zaftig captures a s e n se of pers o n a l ity as wel l as size.p rofi le. By today's fas h i o n sta n d a rds. s u c h as the 1 920s a n d 1 960s. l i ke M a r i l y n M o n roe. Gavage. Model Emme unveils the s ize m o d e l . would b e consid e red fat.p rofi l e enterta i n e r in the m u s i c a n d fi l m i n d u stries. Design deta i l s can also be sca l ed to keep in p roportion to the overa l l s i l h o u ette. 2002. and over t h e a i rwaves. someone with a fu l l figu re. H e r s u ccess h a s a d i rect corre l a . m a d e a n a m e for h e rself as a p l u s . wh ose rea l n a m e is M e l i ssa Aronson. H ig h . Theories suggest that cu l t u re. society has both condem ned a n d celebrated a body of gen e ro u s p roporti o n s . or fatte n i ng. politics. ful l-figured Emme Doll at FAO Schwarz in New Yo rk tion to co n s u m e rs' d e s i re to s e e a reflection of City. fem i n i ne attri butes such as the b u st l i n e and the h i ps were d e e m p h asized. R u be n esq u e cou ld s uggest a l eve l of rom a nticism. Eco n o m i c prospe rity i s a lso thought to i n f l u e n ce fas h ion norms. with t h i n b e i n g i n d u ri ng good t i m e s a n d bigger fra m e s be­ ing m o re p reva lent d u ring c h a l l e ng i ng t i m e s . L i n i ngs a l low t h e fas h i o n fa b r i c to s k i m t h e figure and move freely without c l i nging u nattractively to the body. T h e re a re u n i q u e c h a l lenges when designing for fu l l e r-fi g u re women. I n the West African cou ntry of M a u ritania. a p l u m p figu re i s p referred. E m m e. H i story s hows that d u ring t i m e s when women e njoyed greater freedoms. Vo l u pt u o u s m ight i m p l y s e n s u a l i ty. ARTI STRY 83 Matters of Size: Addressing Curves The term i n o logy t h at is used to describe a wom­ an with ge n e ro u s c u rves constitutes a reflect i o n o f h o w t h e o bserver perceives t h ose p roportions. a n d econom ics a l l play a part i n what is acce pted to be beautiful a n d i n fas h i o n . i n pri nt. themselves on t h e ru nway. Fou n dation garme nts can be built i nto a garment to p rovide su pport while a l so strea m l i n i ng t h e s h a pe of the wearer. c u rvace o u s celeb rities continue to m a ke strides in b u i l d i ng an a p p reciation for beauty in a l l sizes. i s j u st as da ngerous a s a n o re x i a . Q ueen Latifah ( D a n a Owens) is not o n l y a h ig h .

Actress Queen Latifah arrives at the 81st Annual Academy Awards. . 2009.

Everyo n e s e e m s to h ave a pictu re i n her head of who s h e bel ieves she is a n d what s h e w i s h e s to l o o k l i ke . n e i t h e r h ere n o r t h e re. so t h ey s h o u l d be ready to a d d ress a n y issues with the c l ient. " W h o a re y o u d ressing for-y o u r b a n k t e l l e r o r David Bowie?" The a n swer for her was clear: " I a m d ressi ng for Bow i e ! " David Bowie i s a great exa m ple o f t h e strength of t h e con nection between fa s h i o n a n d m us ic. I n a story a b o u t her love of fa s h i o n a n d m us ic. h e h a s influenced style. The essence of the m essage came in the form of a q u est i o n . ARTI STRY 84 Dressing for Bowie I s the goa l of the designer to d raw t h e observer David Bowie i n Wem b ley. just ba ckgro u n d n oi se? O r does the occasion c a l l for t u r n i n g up the vo l u m e i n order to attract k i n d red s p i rits? W h i le fa sh ion m a kers s h o u l d be at t h e controls when deve l o p i ng the clothes. w h i l e m u s i c i a n s and oth e r h ig h . from Z iggy Stard ust to present day. sty l ist a n d a rt i st N a n cy H a rt passes on words of wisdom t h at a friend once s h a red with h e r about b e i ng true to your voice and yo u r fas h ion sense. a long t h e way i n s p i r i ng others to express t h e m ­ selves. i n gently a n d q u ietly? S h o u l d the s o u n d of fas h ­ Lo ndon i o n b e somewh ere i n t h e m idd le. Fa s h i o n provides t h e t o o l s t o a ct on c rea t i ng t h a t vision. Design ers a re advised to keep in m i n d t h at psychology is a lways i n play when p u s h i ng t h e e nvelo pe. "Who a nd h ow a m I looking to i n f l u e n ce?" a n d "Who does m y c u st o m e r identify with?" 174 Fashion Design Essentials .p rofile figures who e m brace their per­ s o n a l sty l e sta n d as exa m ples of how rewa rd i n g i t is to do j u st t h a t . Through many fas h ion i n c a rnations. it i s t h e consum­ e rs who will decide h ow loud they d a re to be. A d e s igner m ust a s k h i m self.

� I 0 --< 0 � " � � os: z . i:: � » C> � 175 .: » N C � ::.

p ressed to m a ke t h i s a way of l ife. 176 Fashion Design Essentials . W h at c a n t h e fas h i o n d e s ig n e r take from t h i s? M ost designers would be h a rd . The G ates a n d other p rojects l i ke it set the sta n d a rd w h e n i t co mes to a rt for a rt's sake. i n c l u d i n g aesthetic explorations and sta rt ing d i a l ogues with ot her designers.C l aude. but e ngagi ng i n t h e a rt of fas h ­ i o n w i t h p u re intentions c a n beco m e t h e cata lyst for a host of va l ua b l e resu lts. the o n l y confl ict with t h e t ra d i t i o n a l defi n it i o n o f f i n e a rt is t h a t a ga rment no matter h ow extra o rd i n a ry. ARTI STRY 85 Objects of Art Very few a rtists w h o work with fa bric compare The Gates by C h risto and Jeanne-Claude (1979-2005) with C h ri sto a n d J e a n n e . I n a d d i t i o n t o t h e ratio n a l e b e h i n d these a cts o f a rt the d a u nt i n g scale a n d the f i n ite period o f t i m e i n w h i c h t hey exist m a ke t h e m both o n e of a k i n d a n d o n ce i n a l ifet i m e . does se rve a p u rpose beyond just being a rt . W h a t a re the criteria fo r judging somet h i ng a work of a rt? Does it e l icit a n emoti o n a l re­ sponse? Does it c h a l le nge the observer to look at the world in a d i ffere nt way? Is it s i m p l y bea uti­ f u l ? When it comes to the a rt of fas h i on.

177 .

178 Fashion Design Essentials . I t a lso h e l p s to e n s u re that the vision w i l l cont i n u e i n the eve nt of a t ra n sfer of powe r. and refe re n ce resou rces s h o u l d be col l ected a n d stored by a l i bra r i a n . . oth e r t h i ng t o co n s i d e r is a n h e i r a p parent w h o wou l d b e a b l e t o take the reign s . Designers who a re n o t yet i n a position t o b e t h i n king a bout t h i s f o r themse lves can begin to study the lega c i e s of oth e r des ign ers as a source of g u i d a n ce . specifi ca l ly the passing o n of a c reative m a n tle-a fa s h i o n designer's last w i l l and testa­ ment. Records. M a n y compa­ n i es rea ch a point when it becomes m o re l u cra­ tive to the designer to m a ke a sale a n d move o n . The o n l y " \ . N AVIGATION 86 A Designer's Inheritance I t's n ever too early to be t h i n k i ng a bout the fut u re. c a n ce. A b ra n d b i b l e w i l l e n s u re con s i stency \ and p reserve the i ntegrity of the brand. . Cata l ogs se rve t o d o c u m ent a designer's h istory of col lections a n d spec i a l p rojects. rat h e r t h a n re m a i n ing i n c h a rge. Arch ives ben­ efit from the c u rato r's perspective regard i n g t h e preservat i o n a n d storage o f h e i rloom ga rments based on their c u lt u ra l and h istorical sign ifi ­ . press c l i p pi ngs. The motivation b e h i n d such an exercise m ight be based in the desire to q u a ntify the va l u e o f t h e b ra n d beyond d o l l a rs a n d cents. From Coco to Ka rl: The history behind the House of Chanel i s one of the best examples of a successful long term legacy of fashion.

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A re they a s p i ratio n a l ? O r i s l u x u ry a basel i n e sta n­ d a rd for her c l ient? Fur. m a ny th ings i n f l u ence our c h a racte rization of it: sta n d a rd of l iving. it seems l i ke a n abuse of the term. especi a l l y as it perta i n s to fas h i o n . t h e m e d i a . a n d the p u b l ic t o agree on w h at l u x u ry is at a n y given t i m e? If it i s ge n e ra l ly a ccepted to be t h e sta n d a rd . W i l l t h e con­ s u m e r. a rbitra r i l y i n c reasing o r decrea s i n g t h e desi re for t h e m . Luxe warni ng: The l u x u ry trap comes in t h e form of "the e m peror's new c l ot h es": b l i n d accep­ t a n ce. C o m peting in a m a rket satu rated with cla i m s of l u x u rious ness. This a l so a p p l ies to her customers. who will t h e l e a d e rs be. i n d u lge. sup­ ply a n d demand. The natu re of the fas h i o n b u si n ess i s to intentio n a l l y perpetuate a cyc l e in which t h i ngs come i n a n d out of favor. o r exceptiona l l y d isti nctive. N AV IGATION 87 Luxury Washing The concept of l u x u ry p rovides t h ree rewa rds. W h e n and Luxe costume jewelry how i s it a necessity? I s it a symbol of a s u m p­ t u o us l i festyle or of a n excessive o ne? A c l e a r defi n it i o n of w h at m e rits the l u xe l a b e l p rovides a kind of p rotect ion for a design e r. a n d comfort The word luxury is i n d a nger of l o s i ng a l l m ea n i ng if you b e l i eve t h a t every company t h a t c a l l s itself a l u x u ry brand rea l l y is o n e . who w i l l fo l l ow. is both a coveted a n d controve rsi a l c o m m od ity. Si nce l u x u ry is ulti m ately i n the eye of the beholder. however fl eet i n g t h ey may be: • A s e n se of power: c l ass-d riven prod ucts or encou nters that b u i l d b o u n d a r ies betwee n u s and them • A s e n se o f co m m u n ity: ite m s a n d events t h a t a l l ow us t o b e l o ng to a partic u l a r social gro u p • A s e n se o f p l e a s u re : goods a n d experiences that sti m u l ate. defer to the u n s po ke n contract between t h e i n d u st ry. for exa m p le. a nd i n some cases the designer. H e r c l a i m s a re less at risk of being c h a l l e nged if they a re p resented i n the a p p ropriate context. and who w i l l rebel? 180 Fashion Design Essentials . but the defi n i ­ t i o n o f l u x u ry is a lways s u bject ive. a designer h a s a great adva ntage if she h a s a rea l istic u n dersta n d i n g of w h e re i n t h e spect r u m o f l u x u ry h e r p roduct o r service sta nds. At f i rst g l a n ce.

2006 .Viktor & Rolf fur coat.

:on in Paris. and on general crude facs i m i l es d o n 't l ive u p to expectations. and fi n i s h i ng touches a re i n corpo­ rated into a design w i l l h e l p to m a ke the design h a rder to d u p l icate. At fi rst the producers of authentic glance. the novelty of a knockoff a n d t h e consid­ products in regard to erably lower price tag may be entic i n g. Musee de la Co ntrefa<. Cities a round the world a re cracking down on the pu rveyors of fa lse fa s h i o n s. 182 Fashion Design Essentials . A n y product t h a t assumes the identity of a b ra n d i s a l s o deva l u i ng the origi n a l work. There a re a few t h i ngs that c o n s u m e rs s h o u l d consider w h e n buying a l u x u ry item: • Point of s a l e : Is the p u rchase t h rough a re pu­ table department store or o n a street corner? • Packagi ng: Is it consistent w it h the pro m i s e of the b ra n d ? • Price: Are you gett ing what you pay for? I m itations a re m i s re presenting the brand. b u t these consumers and the wider econo my. but the l ive l i hood of s m a l l e r operations is t h reat­ e n ed w h e n thei r ideas a re m i sa p p ropriated. a n d therefore a re i l lega l . Reflecting o n w h i c h materi a l s. health and safety issues. N AVIG ATION 88 Copies Degrade The M u see de l a Contrefac. tec h n i q ues. confiscating and destroyi ng them. a n d t h e re is no short­ fake items have both on age to choose from in the m a rket p l a ce . Big c o m p a n ies have reco u rse. The museum serves The e x h i b its a re c u ra ted to clearly compare t h e to highlight the impact that origi n a l s w i t h t h e forge r i es.:on i n Paris i s replete Genuine and cou nterfeit with d i sp l ays of counterfeit coutu re a n d every bags are disp layed at the oth e r type of fa u x l u x u ry item worthy of coveting. resu lt i ng in a product that is not profit a b l e to d u p l i cate.

183 .

Authentic experiences a n d va l u a b l e excha nges a re a b i g part of cu ltivating a loyal fa n base. 2008 sketch out answers to aud ience 1995 documentary questions about style. c h oices need to be made regard ing w h i c h o u t l ets best a l ign with the goa ls of the designer: a webs ite. . . social media.e. Editions Comic Book Series. The Adventures of Sandee reward i n g loya lty..: . . . . Artwork by William Frawley .. work expe r i e n ce. television a ppeara nces. and tea c h i ng opport u n ities. . . . . . h a e. ... These syste ms a l low t h e fas h i o n designer t o a d d v a l u e b y e n co u raging i ntera ctiv­ ity. 1997 S&S of t h e bra n d . w rit­ i n g books.. .. speaking e ngage m en ts. a de­ signer s h o u l d a l ways be b u i l d i n g a pl atform with and a ro u n d his work. . "Absohllely � AnI Wdedy FUliny'" h o w . a ut h ored m agaz i n e articles. The designer s h o u l d a l so esta b­ l i s h a n d prioritize h i s va l ues.t y. i aa rn i z r a h i -- tJNZiPr£J5 � Isaac Mizrahi uses a segment How to Have Style ca lled "Sketches & Answers" to Unzipped DVD of by Isaac Mizrahi. . .ca l i b e r co n n ections put the designer i n a position to e n e rgize a n d activate that a ud ie n ce when needed.. . H ig h . l ive events. because s h a red ideals forge strong bonds between h i m a nd h i s constitue nts.. by Douglas Keeve 184 Fashion Design Essentials . ..l. i nvolving h i s a ud ience t h rough reg u l a r u p ­ Isaac M izrahi presents dates.. b l ogs. . o. Before e m b a rking on the d eve lopment of a com­ pl icated com m u n i cation n etwork. t. . releva nt produ cts. and ext e n d i ng the perso n a l ity the Supermodel. N AV IGATION 89 Platforms To be prepared when opportun ity knocks. project partners h i ps. m o b i l izing t h e masses with c a l l s to action.

Three Penny Opera (2006). The Fashion Show. WATC H I SAAC. communicates with fans via a daily video-blog. he designed a diffusion col lection for Target. served as creative d i rector for Liz Claiborne.com. the operetta. hosts reality show. and was among the first generation of designers to livestream his fashion runway shows online. designs products for QVC. and a book on personal style. and the Metropolitan Opera's production of Orfeo ed Euridice (2008). Facebook. Barefoot in the Park (2006). and Twitter. hosts the web­ show.Business Week magazine d u bbed Isaac M izrahi a "one­ man brand. I n addition to a documentary. He was also the costume designer for stage revivals of The Women (2001). ." which describes his exceptional talent for translating his vision and style across a wide variety of platforms. a series of comic books. on Bravo TV.

a n d brand o r m a n ufact u re r. a n d that those ava i l a b l e . labels be securely fastened. co u n t ry of ori. h a n g tags. N AV IGATION 90 Label Maker Pa rt of the fas h i o n design process i nvolves how C a re l a be l s for a pparel s h o u ld p rovide comp lete information about t h e ga rments you c reate w i l l i n st r u ctions rega r d i ng c a re a n d a n y warning spe­ b e s h a red with you r c u stomer. s u c h as " D o n o t i ron. Kee p i ng tabs on i n formation is the designe r's respo n s i b i l ity." req u i res that most text i l e a n d wool p roducts a n d " D ry c l e a n o n l y.C a re Sym bo l s Machine Wash Cycles N o rmal Permanent Delicate Hand Wash Do Not Wash Press Gentle Water Temperature WASHING • • • • • • Cold Warm Hot (86°F [30°C]) (104°F [40°C]) (122°F [SO°C]) Do Not Ring Any Bleach When Needed Do Not Bleach BLEACHING Only Non-Chlorine Bleach When N eeded 186 Fashion Design Essentials . i nterl i n i ng. perce ntages of fiber co ntent for each component of the garme nt. The t h e brand. They can be sewn Designer n a m e l a b e l s. U n ive rsa l G a r m e n t. A label pri n ted d i rectly onto the t i c kets a re u s u a l l y designed to be exte n s i o n s of ga rment ca n end u p as part of the design. Wa r n i ngs s h o u l d use c l e a r U n ited States." " N o bleac h.body. the Federal Trad e C o m m ission ter m i n o logy. symbols for v i rtu a l l y every conti ngency is a l so gin. a n d price i n or i roned on. In the is not com p rom ised. a n d/or decoration-m ust a lso be i nc l uded. l i n i n g." A system of u n iversa l c l ea rly identify fiber content. T h e re a re laws cific to that ga rment to e n s u re t h at the q u a l ity regard i ng how clothing m u st be l a b e l e d .

Tumble Dry Cycles [Q] [Q] [Q] [ill] E1 Normal Permanent Del icate/ Line Dry Drip Dry Dry Flat Press Gentle Tumble Drying Temperatures D RYING 0 e G 0 8 Any Heat H igh Heat Medium Heat Low Heat No Heat/Ai r Do Not Tu mble Dry Iron Dry or Steam a ~ 8 Low H igh Do Not I ron (230°F [11 0°C]) (392°F [200°C]) IRO N I NG B Q N o Steam Medium (302°F [150°C]) oDry Clean Do Not Dry Clean D RY CLEANING 187 .

me ntor. but t h e second-generation Ya m a m oto has an independent perspective on fa s h i o n a l l h e r ow n . 188 Fashion Design Essentials . 1990 " m aste r's" brand. N AV IGATION 91 Master and Apprentice M a ster. I n 1 974. and sti l l p roj ect h e r vision for the fut u re of the l a b e l . S h e had s h own i n To kyo for seve ra l years before a successfu l Pa ris debut i n 20 07. p rotege: The semantics h e re a re not as i m por­ tant as the a cts of giving and receiving that take place when the i n experienced be nefit from those who have come before. was exposed to fas h i o n early in l ife. i n that the a p p rentice can m a i n ta i n the design e r's vision of the brand. H e r fath er's aesthetic c a n ce rta i n ly b e felt t h roughout her work. Fashion designe rs/sibli ngs N ot o n l y have these relat i o n s h i p s be n efited the Gianni and Donatella Versace. She carries on her father's passion for design t h rough her work. L i m i Ya m a moto. Karan j o i ned forces with Lou i s D e l l ' O l i o to cont i n ue to build on t h e A n n e Klei n l egacy. i n stru ctor. student. G i a n n i Ve rsace. D o n n a Karan started work i n g u n der A n n e K l e i n in 1970. Donate l l a Versace was a b l e to step i n a n d m ove forwa rd w i t h h i s v i s i o n for Ve rsace. Yohji Ya m a m oto's da ughter. but they a l so a l l ow the a p p rentice the cha nce to i n sti l l her own se n s i b i l it i es i n the fa s h i o n . when Klei n passed away. i n 1 997.w i n situation. a l a b e l cal led L i m i Feu . H e r experience a n d respect for the b ra n d a l l owed her to honor the position the com­ pany had e a rned i n the fa s h i o n world. After the u nt i m e l y death of her broth e r. It's a w i n . T h i s part n e rs h i p c o n t i n u ed u n t i l 1 984. a p p rentice. w h e n Karan l eft t o begi n h e r s o l o career.

2010 .A model wearing a n ensemble from t h e Limi Feu fashion show.

"I was o n l y fol l owi n g o rders" i s just as bad. Seco nd. H ave a point of vi ew. t h i s is n ot the d o m a i n of a select few. The good n ews is that a fa s h i o n designer i s a l ready o n the a rti st's path. Fi n a l ly. Fi rst. Risk and sacrifice come with the te rritory if i n novation i s goi ng to take p l ace. . a nd let your voice be h e a rd . N AV IGATION 92 Designing the Job " C reate a job you love. Every t i m e y o u s u p press y o u rself a n d avo id u ncomforta b l e situations y o u d eva l u e you rse l f a n d your work. This m e a n s there a re no s m a l l jobs. so s h e assigns h e rself tasks t h at seem petty. is t h e curre n cy you need t o rem a i n com petitive. H aving pu rposefu l p u rs u its. 190 Fashion Design Essentials ." If somet h i ng needs to be done. "That's not my job. Designing your own job may sound l i ke a l u x u ry. a n d lett i n g y o u r work e t h i c class ify you a s i n d i spensable. no one wants to h e a r. t h e re a re some pretty s i m p l e steps you can take to get a l ittle bit closer to that ideal work experience. but i n s p ite of how u n re a l i st i c it s o u n d s. o r perhaps is t h e very defi n it i o n of a fa nta sy. someone who s i n cerely c a res a bo u t the end res u l t also c a res a bo u t how to get there. a n d you w i l l n ever have to work a day i n your l i fe": I t's a sl ightly mod ified vers i o n of the wisdom of Confu c i u s . G o i n g the extra m i l e w i l l pay off i n the e n d . so m a k i ng a n emotion a l i nvest m e nt i n h e r work i s par for the course.

7) opportunity for advancement. 8) ski l l development a n d continu ing education. 2) financial compensation. 6) strong leadership.The top ten things to consider when designing you r u ltimate job: Ask yourself how does this job meet you r expectations with regard to: 1 ) creativity. 9) environmental impact. 4) commu nity involvement. 5) productive teamwork. 3) recognition. 10 191 . 10) intel lectual integrity.

was a n a rtist i n Paris w h o had great i nf l u e n ce i n the 1 93 0 s a n d 1 940s. the vision of the designer. n a t i o n a l . It i s i m porta nt t o rem e m be r t h a t s h e h a d esta b l ished her reputat ion l o ng before movies and books m a d e her a household n a m e . editors. a re i n a position to s h a re inva l ua b l e feed back. a n d A n d re Leon Ta l l ey a re j u st a h a ndful of fa s h i o n ed itors who a re held i n h igh regard for how wel l t h ey a re a b l e to inte rpret fash io n . t h e re will be critics. and the enviro n m e n t i n which the wo rk w i l l be see n . kn own as Bebe. G race C o d d i ngton. N AV IGATION 93 External Influences I nd iv i d u a l s a n d orga n i zations t h a t h ave the a ut h o rity to m a ke their views known to a broad a u d ience can h ave a profo u n d effect on p u b l ic o p i n i o n . A n n a Wi ntour. H a m i s h Bowles. and ulti m ately t h e comm erc i a l success of a designer. Hamish Bowles attend a Marc by Marc Jacobs fashion W h ether the s o u rce o f i nfluence i s i n t e r n a ­ show. he was a p rede­ cessor to the stylist. Sty l i sts p rovide a va l u a b le service because they p rocess fas h i o n i n formation i n a way that t a kes into consideration t h e needs of the c l ient. Although designers s h o u l d a lways trust their i n st i n cts. t h e re w i l l b e j o u r n a l i sts. H e w a s sought after b y c l i e nts o f h a ute couturiers because his fa s h i o n assessments held a lot of weight. 192 Fashion Design Essentials . as a result. Anyone who i s p u rs u i n g a career in fa s h i o n i s fa m i l i a r w i t h Vogue's editor. In many ways.i n -c h i ef. they wou ld be well advised to l i sten when the criticism i s co nstruct ive. Yea rs of experience a re respo n s i b l e for her i m m e a s u ra b l e i m pact o n t h e careers o f designers a n d t h e fas h ion i n d u stry G race Coddington and as a w h o l e . reg i o n a l . or l o c a l . t i o n a l . C h ristian B e ra rd. a n d sty l i sts who h e l p guide the d i rection for fa s h i o n under thei r watc h . On the g l o b a l stage. A s l o ng a s there a re c reat ive i n d i v i d u a l s who a re b rave e n ough to s h a re t h e i r work with the rest of the world. A nod of a p p rova l from a respected i n d u st ry p rofessional can fuel the fire w h i l e a n egative gesture may have the power to ext i n ­ g u i s h it. 2010. These a rbiters of taste enjoy a broader u n d e rstand i ng of the fa s h i o n l a ndscape and.

Andre Leon Ta lley .

but dedi cated p ractice of another a rt fo rm-whether it is p a i n t i n g o r perfo r m a n ce­ ga i n s a d m ission into a n ew d i m e n s ion of that a rtistic outlet. ga i n i n g i n sights into other areas sti m u l ates the d e s ign p rocess and spawns n ew ideas. e d u ca t i ng t h e m as to how v i a b l e a n d va l u a b l e they a re w i t h i n t h e fra m ework o f fa s h i o n . i n sect. W h ether it's p o p c u l t u re o r s c i e n ce a n d tec h n o l ­ ogy. a p r i m e r that h e l p s h i m t o decode a n d t ra n s l ate the i ntricacies of other fields. h e a p p roaches his design c h a l lenge as an i nterpreter. A n i m a l . A n a lyz i ng hortic u lture and the c u ­ l i n a ry a rts provides i n s ight i n t o h o w t o c u ltivate plant l ife and prepare foo d . Even if i n -depth comprehen­ sion is not the goa l. Although h e needs to work w i t h i n t h e natural bounda ries of h i s c raft. Fashion and art: preschool masterpiece by Zak Atkinson as inspiration 194 Fashion Design Essentials . a n d s e a l ife a l so broaden t h e scope o f u n dersta n d i n g of h o w t h ings work. N AV IGATION 94 Lifestyle: A Rosetta Stone The designer d iscovers or creates h i s u n i q u e Rosetta stone. a casual a c q u a intance with the s u bject can be e n o ugh to t rigge r a n idea if the d e s igner is open to it. The a rts have a lways sti m u l ated the c reative m i nd. he can introduce h i s a u d i e n ces to n ew t h i ngs. Armed with a key.

Fashion and tec hno logy: Fashion and architecture: Fashion and food: c i rcuit board surface as decoration reflecting patterns in man-made structures produce provides a source of sil houette and color Fashion and transportation: Fashion and nature: Fashion and lifestyle: emu lating the finish and flair of automobi les identifying layers of texture in landscapes beach toys provide common reference points 195 .

p u b l ic o p i n ion a n d word o f m o u t h a re para m o u n t . i s a powe rfu l conveyor o f m essages. Pop . a nd private s h o p p i n g experiences a re j u st a few of t h e g u e r i l l a tactics that can be e m ployed to s u rprise a n d seduce t h e s h o pper. h a i r. N AV IGATION 95 Fashion Portals There i s l ittle point to a l l t h e h a rd work i nvolved It's i m portant to com part m enta l i ze d i fferent in fas h ion design if t h e fi n a l product doesn't go needs for the press a n d w h at t hey u lt i mately a nyw here . an editor c h a n n e l having a d ist i n ct m essage. as wel l : A that d istribute t h e i r work t o m a ny d i fferent des­ b l ogger is looking to express h i s o p i n ion. How I n -store. Designers m u st a lso design syste m s need to d e l i ver to their a u d iences. P u b l i c o p i n io n . the ti nations. it is a l l a bo u t ha nger a p pea l .known perso n a repre­ senting the prod u ct i s an a sset. a n d that means partic u l a r. The ru nway presentation i s t ra n s ­ formed w it h theatrical m o d e l s. tru n k s hows. The fashion show: Girls Rule! Runway fashion show at Bryant Park during New Yo rk Fashion Week 196 Fashion Design Essentials . no way to touch t h e fa bric or try o n t h e garment. The s a l e s re presentative m u st b e i n formed and invested in the prod uct because she i s e d u ­ cating a n d sti m u l at i n g t h e c l ient i n order to m a ke the s a l e . clear i m a ges. i n Screen a ppeal ru l es o n l i n e.u p stores. a n d sty l i ng. A pict u re m u st provide a great deal of v i s u a l i n formation a n d be stro ng e nough t o e n gage the custom er. The e-co m m erce experi­ It a l s o va l idates a n d perpetuates a design er's e n ce falls sh ort in m a ny ways beca use t h ere is reputatio n . m a ke u p. a n d most i m port a n t. H a v i ng a we l l . Last. taking a co l l ection on tour. Reta i l ers can you h e l p each of them reach t h e i r goa l s? ex pect the prod uct to be pa ckaged in a way that m a i n ta i n s the i ntegrity of the design. Fa s h i o n s hows a n d s h o p p i n g events put the c l othes o n d i s p l ay with i n the co ntext of enter­ ta i n ment. needs to place the designer's work within t h e context o f the c u rre nt v i s i o n for t h e m a rket. beautiful. A s howroom i s a bridge betwee n d e s igner a n d bu yer. u ti l iz i n g lots of c h a n n e l s-with each j o u r n a l ist needs to present the facts. Cele brity association is o n e of the easiest ways to scale u p perceived i m po rta nce w h e n the d e l iv­ ery c h a n n e l is through i m agery-either motion or still shots.

197 .The pop-up store: Puma transformed shipping containers into prefabricated retail stores that can litera l l y p o p u p a nywhere.

accessories. () c o n s u m e r. The com pa ny is a l s o c redited with the i nve ntion of ga b a rd i ne... Below: Skiwear ensemble by the path to spec i a l ization i s o n e w h i c h req u i res M .: �__________________________________� z tan. n ow a registered tradema rk. Outerwea r i s s t i l l at t h e h ea rt of the is m � b ra n d . N AV IGATION 96 Diversification and Specialization Find o n e t h i ng you d o we l l .. the co m pa ny was com­ m issio ned to d eve lop what e n d ed u p being the tre n c h coat. B u rberry estab l i shed itself by foc u s i n g o n outdoor att i re . but items s u c h as the i c o n i c trench coat ro m Z ). Its signature tartan was i ntroduced d u ri n g the 1 920s as a l i n i ng for the coat. l u ggage. a n d red B u rberry patte rn. M i l ler that a designer focus exclus ively on a part i c u l a r m a rket and m a ster the design i ntrica c i es u n i q ue to t h at field. D u r i n g the late 1 8 00s. and even swimwea r. Right: Bridal gown W h ether the niche is brida lwear o r skiwea r.. At the sta rt of Wo rld Wa r I. is no l o nger re l egated to l i n i ngs. fragra n ces. water-resistant fa bric. The classic b l a c k. . a re re i m agined each season. a d u ra b l e . Find o n e t h i ng you do we l l. breath a b l e. a n d do j u st that. j I 198 Fashion Design Essentials . I t can b e found o n a p parel. a n d tra n s late what was s u ccessful a bout it into many d ifferent p rod­ ucts. but d iversification defin itely benefits from t h e p restige o f having d o n e o n e t h i ng wel l for a l o ng t i m e . There i s a n a rg u m e n t to be made for both sides. Good fo u ndations provide a n exce l lent enviro n m e n t for experi mentation and expa n s i o n . The symbols of the b ra n d a re i nterpreted a n d � I a d a pted t o the needs a n d desires o f today's o .

A model displays a swimsuit ensemble by Bu rbe rry. . 2005.

Services s u c h as K i c kstarter . co u rt i ng i n s p i ration. H erd behavior often strives to a ppeal to t h e l owest c o m m o n d e n o m i nator.com h e l p vo l u nteer o rga n i zations. m u lt i p l e s o u rces contributing com po n ents of the d e s ign. When it is m a n aged we l l . cha rities.not to Clevela nd. beca use i n vestors of any kind a re loo k­ is a fashion design incubator ca lled Buzz & Growl. a n d t a k i ng ad va ntage o f t h e wisdom o f t h e masses. a n d poten t i a l l y e m powers partic i pa nts to become a co m m u n ity of brand citizens.com ent from t h e process of d rafting a b u s i n ess p l a n successfu lly to raise funds for t o i m press a b a n ker. ga i n i ng a dem ocratic conse n s u s. The project m a d e. a l lowing a designer to go d i rectly to t h e custo m e r for content. 200 Fashion Design Essentials . a n d d ist r i b u t i o n . m i n i m izing costs. Ta k i n g adva ntage of t h i s platform rai ses awareness a n d h e l p s t o ga uge w h a t people actua l ly want. designers. The goa ls of c rowd s o u rc i ng i n c l u d e f i n d i n g reso u rces. a n d too m a ny o p i n i o n s d u ri n g the design process can t u rn out d i l uted or i n co h e rent work. a n d m o b i lize people. based in i n g for sound ideas a s wel l as a spa rk. a n d b a n d s l evel the p l aying field between a m ateurs a nd profe s s i o n a l s . Above: Designer Valerie Mayen of Project Runway M a ki n g a good pitch o n l i ne is not much d i ffer­ fame. mass c o l l a borati o n can b e leveraged t o take advantage o f having m u lti ple designers participating i n problem solv­ ing. A compe l l i ng case m u st be a startup venture. Bei ng well awa re of the downs ide of design by co m m ittee i s a good reason for c reating a filter for feed back a n d criti­ cism. Ohio. outso u rc i ng p rojects. N AV IGATION 97 Crowdsourcing Style Too many cooks i n t h e kitc hen spoil t h e s o u p. f i n d i n g fund i ng. They remove the m i d d l e m a n . used Kickstarter. C rowd s o u rc i n g i s rea c h i ng o u t t o b road a u d iences-m ost c o m m o n l y ove r the I nternet­ to h e l p d evelop d e s igns. fund ing. ra ise m o n ey. The fl i p side of t h i s i s the positive power of t h e peo ple. startups. mention a reward for gett ing i nvolved. a n d finding scores of patro ns who w i l l support a designer's vision. construct ive o r otherwise.

w h i c h expla i n s why so many i nvest t i m e and m o n ey i n c l asses. Owner/ designer Wendy Downs describes Etsy. maga z i nes. getting o rga n i zed. Altho ugh the res u lts may d is p l ay an obvi o u s l a c k o f tra i n i ng. N AVIGATIO N 98 Labors of Love: DIY I t's easy to say " I c o u l d h ave d o n e t hat. Natural tale nts with the potential to t ra nsform a pastime into a career now h ave d i stribution c h a n n e l s s u c h as Etsy." As a ny design e r knows. great i n ge n u ity and a wea lth of ro ugh con ce pts often can be pol ished in the h a n d s of a tra i ned designer. Sati sfa cti on is cited as the p r i m a ry motivation for d o i n g it your­ self. Writing off h o m e s p u n atte m pts at fas h i o n as m e re l y crafts and h okey hobbies i s a m istake. a Pittsburgh-based company that designs and man ufac­ t u res handmade bags.com as a place she could experiment with and learn how to run a business. workshops. and kits that a l l ow t h e m to l itera l ly t a ke m atters into thei r own h a n d s . The i nf l u ence of these m icroma rkets s h o u l d not be u nderest i mated. and figu ri ng o u t exactly how to do that i s a n other t h i ng a ltogeth e r. 201 . Pay atte ntion to trends i n these ma rkets. Etsy success story: Moop. Many t h i ngs p roduced in t h i s enviro n m e n t cater t o u n identified n i che m a rkets that m ight h ave otherwise gone u n noticed by design e rs.com a n d p u b l ic m a rkets i n which artisa ns and a s p i ri n g designers can show and s e l l their work. was able to use the website to build their business. sett i ng aside the t i me. books.

H o u r F i l m m a k i n g Festival to the phrase "Speed kills a re good exa m ples of popu l a r " s i n k or sw i m " creativity.. S. S peed as a cata lyst for good d e s ign is a d iffi c u l t t h i n g to susta i n . t h at con d e n s ­ software. but that i s h a rd to rely o n . she was able i n g the t i m e a l l owed f o r a project to be executed to generate new u n iform can p ro d u ce both b r i l l i a n t a n d d i sast ro u s res u lts.. N AV IGATION 99 Rapid Prototyping: Twenty. As enterta i n ment. The r u s h of these p ressu re-cooker p roj ­ ects may p rovide a n add ictive r u s h of a d re n a l i ne. effi cient is "' a p plication of tec h n i q ues. so it's i m portant to i m pose t i m e-sensit ive c h a l l e nges to test for v u l n e ra b i l ities. N ot everyon e i s cut out for it.Hour Fashion Real ity s h ows s u c h a s Project Run way a n d proj­ (uni)forms are designer/ artist Ying Gao's response ects s u c h as t h e 24. o Some designers t h rive o n the stress of tight. o � ideal occ a s i o n s i n w h i c h to consider the s k i l l s ro -< o t h a t st i l l n eed t o b e honed. These a re great opportu n i ties to l e a rn h ow to a n t i cipate a n d avoid the k i n d s of t h i ngs t h a t h ave t h e pote n t i a l to dera i l the design process. Rapid-f i re fa s h i o n design re l i es heavily on i n st i n ct a n d ex­ perience . Wo r k i ng i n the fas h i o n i n d u stry doesn't a lways mean r u n n i ng at breakneck speeds. it m ight be f u n to observe the praise a n d t h e pitfa l l s . Situations in w h i c h speed i m pedes the � I p rocess and t h reatens to thwart c reativity a re o . i m m ed iate situation o s: Z asses s m e nt. dead l i nes. o z a n d/o r c reative reso u rcef u l ness. a n d how c l ea rly the designer's vision is perceived. Origi nal 1940s German female worker's u n iform and sometimes u n re a l i stic.Four. q u i c k decision m a k i ng. but it does demand that c reatives be able to m a ke s m a rt decisions i n c r i s i s mode. b u t in t h e real world. however. 202 Fashion Design Essentials . B eyond cross ing the f i n i s h l i ne. B e warned.. s u ccess u n d e r these con d i t i o n s s h o u l d a l s o be m e a s u red by how we l l executed the work is." By using morphing enterprises. t h i s co u l d correlate to the begi n n i ng or end of a career. designs based on the origi na I within seconds. fa st problem solvi ng.

.. •• � I . Ying Gao ( u n i)form #1 Ying Gao (uni)form #2 Ying Gao (uni)form #3 Ying Gao ( u n i)form #4 Ying Gao (uni)form #5 Ying Gao (uni)form #6 203 ...

H e w i l l be rem e m ­ be red for the power a n d p u rity o f h i s work. and as a resu lt. Thei r i m agi nation and passion for the work is f u e l ed by an u ny i e l d i n g need to pro­ voke a n d c h a l l enge us. I n t h e e n d .beare rs. fa sh ion? The i nvento rs. A l exa n d e r McQueen was one of t h ose bad boys of fas h i o n who was known for being t ru e to h i s v i s i o n . if not great. who intro d u ce u n p recedented ideas. not m a ny peo p l e know that a rc h itect Fra n k L l oyd Wright designed d resses for h i s wife a n d for a sel ect few of t h e lad ies h e c reated h o m es for. it i s easy to a ssess why some h o uses e n d u re. some m a ke a b r ief but sign ificant m a rk at a s i n g u l a r point i n t i me. a lthough it d e m a n d s greater effort. serving a n d p rotect ing t h e a rt a n d c raft o f fa s h i o n-they i m m e rse t h e m ­ selves i n the m i n ut i a o f h ow o t h e r s t h roughout h i story h ave done it. o n e word defines good fa s h i o n . For i n stance. who a re the sta n d a rd . I n Center. the re bels­ whether we und e rsta nd them or not we a p preci­ ate t h e i conoc l a sts because they have an i m pact on o u r l ives. 2010 h i n d sight. 204 Fashion Design Essentials . they keep those p ractices a l ive. h a s t h e pote n t i a l to reward us with exciting d iscove ries. who design the b u i l d ings we i n h a b it-t h ey w i l l a l s o look to create a l ifestyle a round t h e i r vision to a c h i eve a com pre h e n sive u n ity. what type of designer produces good. I n tegrity. And fi n a l ly. The s c h o l a rs. a n d some fade from m e m o ry.n ecessity often fuels these design e rs. N AVIG ATION 100 What Is Good Fashion? Assig n i n g va lue to someth i ng t h at ste ms fro m i n ­ A model wearing a gown dividual c reativity i s a very su bjective t h i ng w h e n from Alexander McQueen's the o n l y criteria a re the sta n d a rds o f the day. The t h i rd gro u p. every generation of d e s igners wou l d be sta rti n g from scratc h . I n last col lection during the 2010 CFDA Fashion Awards addition to being j u dged for its aesthetic va l u e. at Alice Tu l l y H a l l at Lincoln fa s h ion is a lso c h a rged with being f u n ct i o n a l . So. Without t h ese stewa rds of fa s h ion. a s they a p p roach a design c h a l l enge u s i ng a lter­ n ative m ethods. The a rc h itects.

.� I 0 -< 0 � -< . Z 0 � m '" � '" i' '" � m -< m -< -< � l> to m � 205 .

com 8.goodsofconscience. Sebastian Errazuriz finea rtbyt@ya hoo. Boston www. m eetse bastia n .a lycesa ntoro.kevi ndayphotogra p hy.etsy.tracya iguier.com www. SKIN Probe Project 6.csph otogra ph ic.cava a l l e r.com 11. n l www.org 9. Boston Ballet . s i m plynate. Daniel Faucher Couture 22.com www. Goods of Conscience 25. b logspot. b l a u e r. Marie-Eve Tremblay www. School of Fashion Design. Blauer Uniforms 19. Uniform Project . p h i l i ps. isaacmizra h i ny. massart. www. schoo loffa s h iondesign . bosto n b a l let.org 21.com www. Isaac Mizrahi 26. Philips Design.com/shop/moop 4. buzzandgrowl . Moop www. Oscar Correcher www. Jessica Weiser 27.ka ro l i n a z m a rl a k.com www. Valerie Mayen Buzz & Growl www.com www. .edu 3. page 7. Lucy Orta 30. Kevin Day 29. Cory Stierley www.com www.com 10.com 20.com /d resses/ i n d ex . Fine Art by T 24. Ying Gao www. Simplynate Photography www. Joel Benjamin 28.com 12.dom i n iq u e l afo n d . berbe rsoepboer. Dominique Lafond 23. Tracy Aiguier www.com www. Victoria Dominguez-Bagu www.joel benja m i n . Massachusetts College of Art and Design www.com www.t h e u n i fo r m p roject.com 206 Fashion Design Essentials .stud io-orta. moopshop.com 2. com 16.com m .Jess lcawe lser. b logspot. Poor Little Rich Girl www. .c l evelands-new-fa s h i o n - www.com www.com i n c u bator 15.C O NT R I B UT O R I NDEX 1. Alyce Santoro 17. Bob Packert www.co m/p rojects/ye l lowca ke/ 14.evetre m b l ay@hotmail . Berber Soepboer & Michiel Schuurman 18.com 13.design .shoppoorl itt l e richgirl .osca rco rrecherphotogra phy 5.com www. packertphotogra p hy.com m a riavictoriadesigns@gm a i l .com/p robes/projects www.com www.com www. d a n ie l fa u chercouture. Karolina Zmarlak buzz-and-grow l . ki ckstarter.

Victoria Dom iguez. R i c h a rd Bath. J a cobo & Edith C a l d e rin. D a n i e l Fa u c h e r. a d m i n istration. S a ra h C a rn a b uci. Ying G ao. . M a r k B a i l ey. M u njeet G eyer. Ti na C a l d e r i n . E l a i n a Ba risa no. Lisa M icheels. Roytel Montero. Lisa Baker. M a r i e G a l v i n . Amie B e l o b row. James H a n n o n . Wendy D owns. D oreen M e n d ez. M a r i e . Betha ny Va n D e lft. Betsy G a m m o n s. S h a n n o n G lasheen. J a ke & Ena C a l d e r i n . Cynthia & Zak At kinson. J a c lyn M c G e e h a n. J a m ie M e n d oza. Fat her A n d rew O'Connor. D o n n a Rice.AC KNOW LEDG M EN T S Special thanks to Ro b e rt Frye.L a n d m a n .M i l l e r. a n d Lisa Koenigsberg T h a n k you to facu l ty. C h u c k Lacombe. H a r rison & A m a n d a Soelter. S h a u n t S a r i a n . Lisa Ta ra nto. S h e lley C h h a b ra. Kathy P i l a rski. Ros i n a Rucci. Jeff Lahens. C h e ry l Rich a rdson. Laura . Fructuoso & G l oria G o nz a lez. a n d students past a n d present at the School of Fas h i o n Design in Bosto n . J a n e Conway-Caspe. P h y l l i s M i site Lou i s Selvite l l a . J aycey Wetheri ngton. Joe C a r l . C h a rl e s H e ightchew. S o n d ra G ra ce. A l icia Ke n n edy. J e n nifer Lu rie. Joel Benj a m i n . Tra cy A igu ier. Bob Packe rt. N a ncy H a rt. M a ri c l a i re H es s i o n . K i l sy C u r i e l . S h i n roku O h a s h i . M a ry G a rthe. To ny H a lston. Rachel Kacenj a r. Viola Gonzalez. A l ex. J a y n e Ave ry. Erika Sta i r. M a ri e l M a c N a ughton. C a r m e n Rita G onza lez. D a n a M oscard e l l i . Rebecca G o nz a l ez. J e n n ifer H u dson. Rafa e l V i l l a l o n a . R i c h a rd B rooks. Va lerie Mayen. Lisa Ko p l ow N ogler.Bagu.Eve Trem b lay. Terri M a h n . M ered ith Bya m . Pat r i c i a & Wa l l ace Frye.

h a s a u t h o red n u m e ro u s a rt i c l es a n d col u m ns for t h i s tome co nta i n s a l l the secrets. a n d as a fas h i o n com mentator for televi­ n ew h o m e. £lIe. and Fashion. a n d La se l l C o l l ege.A BOUT THE AUTHOR Jay Calderin was born a n d raised i n N ew York I n h i s capacity as a fas h i o n designer h i s work C ity. n ewspapers. M o n t a n a . speaker have afforded h i m opport u n ities t o s h a re h i s ideas about t h e a rt a n d i n d u st ry of fa s h i o n at i n stitutions i n c l u d i ng H a rva rd U n iversity. a n d the I nternet. has graced the pages of Vogue. ph otog­ of local fas h i o n t a l e n t. I n addition to the wide va riety of fa s h - local c h a rities a s we l l as grassroots e ndeavors to ion a n d p rofes s i o n a l d eve lopment courses h e n u rt u re a n d develop new tal ent-a d riving force teaches a t S F D. a n d t h e j ust p l a i n c u r i o u s. a n d the Hatch Festiva l i n Boze m a n .ca l d e r i n 3 . Th roughout h i s career Boston. magazines. 208 Fashion Design Essentials . Fit. H e designers. he adopted the city as h i s ra pher. He c redits his s o l i d fo u n dation in fa s h i o n to executive d i rector of Boston Fa s h i o n Week. "a new fas h ion b i b l e for Globe a n d t h e Boston Globe Sunday Magazine.com. As outreach. h i s t ra i n i n g at the H igh School of Fas h i o n I nd u s ­ t r i e s i n N ew Yo rk C ity. The Los A ngeles Times c a l l e d h i s fi rst book. a s p i re rs. B u rd ett Col lege. Les l ey U n iversity. H i s p u rs u its a s a professio n a l coach a n d motiva t i o n a l See h i s website a t www. a position that a l lows h i m to be i nvolved he has m a i nt a i ned a passion ate d e d i cation to the in p rogra m m i ng development a nd com m u n ity i m porta nce of giving back to the com m u n ity. Boston P u b l i c L i b ra ry. Pea body Essex M u s e u m . M u s e u m of F i n e A rts Bosto n . We l l es­ ley Col lege. Tufts U n ivers ity. the Boston Form. where h e fou n ded a n d became the s i o n . w h i l e also functi o n i n g as an i n d u st ry an exte nsion of that c o m m itme nt." After m ov. Design. The school c u ltivated a He is an i n structor a nd the d i rector of creative work eth ic a n d a l legiance to exce l le n ce that h a s m a rket ing at the School of Fa s h i o n Design i n served h i m we l l eve r si nce. h e h a s a lso served as a n i n struc­ be h i n d h i s work with the Fa s h i o n G ro u p I nterna­ tor at t h e Massach usetts Col lege of Art a n d t i o n a l as a reg i o n a l d i rector in Bosto n . He h a s i n g to Boston a n d d i scover i ng t h e great wea lth worked as a n a ccred ited fas h i o n editor. Babson C o l l ege. h e works with l ia i s o n .