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is unsuitable.

It is also very desirable in the vertical and

overhead positions for the first pass.
S H OP TAL K For short arc welding of stainless steel in light gauges,
the argon-oxygen shielding gas mixtures do not produce
Spraying Safety the best coalescence. A triple mixture consisting of
Its worth being cautious in areas of arc 90percent helium, 712percent argon, and 212percent carbon
and plasma spraying that chlorinated hydrocarbon solvent dioxide gives good arc stability and excellent coalescence.
vapor is not present. Those activities create ultraviolet It does not lower corrosion resistance, and it produces a
radiation; if such radiation contacts vapors, phosgene gas small heat-affected zone that eliminates undercutting and
can be produced. This gas is hazardous.
reduces distortion. The flow rates must be increased be-
cause of the lower density of the helium gas.
Stainless steel produces a very sluggish welding pool. It
Continuous wire feed permits uninterrupted welding. does not like to wet out and flow especially with the short
MAG lends itself to automation. circuit mode of transfer. The high heat effect of helium
Welding may be performed with the short-circuiting, helps make the weld pool more fluid. However, this may
spray, or the pulsed spray modes of transfer. not be sufficient to eliminate excess convexity. Increasing
voltage does not flatten the weld and creates more spatter.
Spray Arc Welding Electrode diameters as large as 332 If the power source is equipped with slope and/or induc-
inch can be used for stainless steel. Usually 116inch wire tance control, increase them as much as possible. If exces-
is used with high currents to create the spray arc transfer sive slope and inductance is set, the arc may stubble at the
of metal. Approximately 300 to 350amperes are required start or simply may rope up on the base metal, similar to
for an electrode 116 inch in diameter, depending on the that shown in Fig. 22-13, page 715.
shielding gas and type of stainless wire. The amount of
spatter is determined by the composition and flow rate of Pulse Spray Arc (GMAW-P) Pulse spray arc welding can
the shielding gas, wire-feed speed, and the characteris- be done with lower current levels similar to short arc
tics of the welding power supply. DCEP is used for most welding. It can also be done at higher wire-feed speeds
stainless-steel welding. For metal thicknesses up to and like conventional spray but at lower heat input. Thus it can
including 316inch, a mixture of argon and 1 to 2 percent be used on all thickness ranges. A spray-type gas must be
oxygen is used. This argon-oxygen mixture improves the used, one having 1 and 2 percent oxygen with the remain-
rate of transfer and arc stability. It produces a more fluid der being argon is most common. Some 90 percent argon
and controllable weld pool and good coalescence and and 10percent CO2 welding is being done. But corrosion
bead contour while minimizing undercutting. For metal resistance may be jeopardized. Since the arc is on all the
thicknesses greater than 316 inch, a mixture of argon and time with spray arcs, the weld is more fluid and flows out
2 percent oxygen is used. This mixture provides better better. Spatter is also reduced on thin base metals as com-
arc stability, weld coalescence, and higher welding speed pared to the short-circuiting mode of transfer.
on heavier materials. It is recommended for single-pass Hot Cracking Some stainless steels have a tendency toward
welding. hot shortness and hot cracking. Type 347 is an example.
A push travel angle technique should be employed on When these metals are welded, more welding passes are
plate 14 inch thick or more. The gun should be moved back needed. Stringer beads are recommended instead of weave
and forth in the direction of travel and, at the same time, beads. Stringer beads reduce contraction stresses, and cool-
moved slightly from side to side. On thinner metal, only ing is more rapid through the hot-short temperature range.
the back-and-forth motion along the joint is used. In welding sections 1 inch or thicker, bead contour
and hot cracking can be reduced by preheating to about
Short Arc Welding (GMAW-S) Short arc welding requires 500F. Hot cracking may also be reduced by GMAW-S or
a low current ranging from 20 to 175 amperes, a low volt- P welding. These modes prevent excessive dilution of the
age of 12 to 20 volts, and small diameter wires. Metal weld metal with the base metal, a condition that produces
transfer occurs when the filler wire short circuits with the strong cracking characteristics.
base metal. The stable arc with low energy and heat input
that results is ideally suited for most stainless-steel weld- Stainless-Steel SensitizationThe austenitic types of
ing on thicknesses from 16 gauge to 316 inch. The short stainless steel are susceptible to sensitizing the chromium
arc transfer should also be employed for the first pass in out of the individual grains. This is also known as carbide
those situations in which fitup is poor or copper backing precipitation. This occurs most readily in the 1,200F

744 Chapter 22 Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate)
Gas Metal Arc Welding of Other
Earlier in this chapter it was stated that the MIG/
MAG process is capable of welding any metal
or alloy that can be welded by the other arc and
gas welding processes. Thus most aluminum,
magnesium, iron, nickel, and copper alloys, as
Fig. 22-45 Fillet weld on a lap joint in 38-inch stainless-steel plate welded in well as titanium and zirconium, can be MIG/
the 1F position with the gas metal arc welding process.
MAG welded. Welds of the highest quality are
produced at production welding speeds in these
metals by the MIG/MAG process.
The Job Outline Table 22-8, pages 746747,
includes practice jobs on three of the major met-
als that are likely to be encountered by the new
welder in industry: carbon steel, aluminum, and
stainless steel. A new welder in a plant is not
likely to be called upon to weld the other metals
listed here. It is the purpose of this text to make
Fig. 22-46 Fillet weld on a T-joint in 38-inch stainless-steel plate welded in
the 1F position with the gas metal arc welding process. sure that the student welder has an opportunity
to become familiar with the often used metals.
You are urged, however, to secure pieces of met-
als not included in the course and practice with
them. The following information will provide
you with the necessary information about these
metals, and the instructor can readily demon-
strate the welding procedure.
Copper and Its Alloys
Fig. 22-47 Fillet weld on a T-joint in 38-inch stainless-steel plate welded in Copper can be alloyed with zinc, tin, nickel, alu-
the 2F position with the gas metal arc welding process.
minum, magnesium, iron, beryllium, lead and
other metals. Copper and many of its alloys,
heat range. The GMAW process with its rapid speed and including manganese-bronze, aluminum-bronze, silicon-
high deposition rate greatly reduces this situation over the bronze, phosphor-bronze, cupro-nickel, and some of the
slower GTAW or SMAW processes, minimizing the time tin bronzes may be welded successfully by the gas metal
at this critical temperature range, using stabilized and low arc process. Electrolytic copper can be joined by using
carbon grades of stainless steel, and using proper filler special techniques, but its weldability is not good. The
metals such as ER 308L. The L indicates low carbon. various grades of deoxidized copper are readily weld-
Lowering the carbon content also reduces the possibility able with the MIG process. Deoxidized filler wires are
of carbide precipitation. necessary for welding deoxidized copper. For welding
Inspection and Testing: Jobs 22-J17J23After each other copper-base alloys, with the exception of the zinc-
weld has been completed, inspect it carefully for defects. bearing type, filler wires of approximately matching
Use the inspection and testing procedures that you have
learned in previous welding practice. Look for surface de-
fects. Keep in mind that it is important to have good ap-
pearance and uniform weld contour. These characteristics
usually indicate that the weld was made properly and that Breathing Safely
it is sound throughout. Be conscious of the tendency of Ionizing radiation comes from electron
stainless steel to undercut along the edges of the weld and beam welding. During the grinding process, radioac-
be excessively convex. tive dust is made. Welders avoid the dust by using local
Examine the appearance of fillet welds made on heavy exhaust and sometimes a respirator.
stainless-steel plate, Figs.22-45 through 22-47.

Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate) Chapter 22 745
Table 22-8 Job Outline: Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid Core Wire (Plate)

Material Electrode2 Welding Current3 DCEP

Recom- Speed4 AWS
mended Job Number in Thick- Type of Type of Size Gas Flow (WFS) Text S.E.N.S.E.
Order1 Text Type ness Weld Joint Weld Position No. of Passes Type AWS (in.) Shielding Gas (ft3/h) Arc (V) Amperes (in./min) Reference Reference5
1st 22-J1 Carbon 1
8 Groove Square Flat (1G) 2 E70S-3 0.035 Carbon dioxide 2025 1921 110160 170340 751 Entry level
steel butt ER70S-6
2nd 22-J3 Carbon 16
Fillet Lap Flat (1F) 1 E70S-3 0.035 Carbon dioxide 2025 1921 110170 170360 752 Entry level
steel ER70S-6
3rd 22-J4 Carbon 16
Fillet Lap Vertical down- hill 1 E70S-3 0.035 Carbon dioxide 2025 1921 120160 190340 752 Entry level
steel (3F) ER70S-6
4th 22-J5 Carbon 16
Fillet Lap Overhead (4F) 1 E70S-3 0.035 Carbon dioxide 2025 1921 120160 190340 752 Entry level
steel ER70S-6
5th 22-J6 Carbon 1
8 Fillet T Horizontal (2F) 1 E70S-3 0.035 Argon 75% 2025 1921 110170 170360 752 Entry level
steel ER70S-6 carbon
dioxide 25%
6th 22-J7 Carbon 1
4 Fillet T Horizontal (2F) 1 ER70S-3 0.045 Argon 98% 4050 2432 200375 225410 752 Advanced level
steel Oxygen 2%
7th 22-J8 Carbon 3
8 Fillet T Vertical uphill 3 ER70S-6 0.035 Carbon dioxide 2025 2123 150160 300340 752 Entry level
steel (3F)
8th 22-J9 Carbon 3
8 Fillet T Horizontal (2F) 3 ER70S-3 1
16 Argon 95% 4050 2633 275400 200280 752 Advanced level
steel Oxygen 5%
9th 22-J10 Carbon 3
8 Fillet T Overhead (4F) 6 ER70S-6 0.035 Carbon dioxide 2025 2123 160180 340380 752 Entry level
10th 22-J2 Carbon 1
2 Groove V-butt 60 Vertical downhill 2 ER70S-6 0.035 Carbon dioxide 2025 2123 160190 340400 751 Entry level
steel root (3G) 2
Vertical uphill 2025 2123 160180 340380 751
22-J1J10 22-JQT15 Carbon 3
8 Fillet and Butt, 2F As required ER70S-3 0.035 Argon 75% 2025 1921 160180 340380 753 Entry level
steel groove lap, T-, 3F to get weld Carbon
corner 4F size dioxide 25%
22-J1J10 22-JQT25 Carbon 3
8 Fillet and Butt, T 2F As required ER70S-3 0.045 Argon 98% 4050 2432 200275 225410 754 Entry level
steel groove 1G to get weld Oxygen 2%
22-J1J10 22-JQT35 Carbon 1 Groove Butt 1G As required ER70S-3 0.045 Argon 98% 4050 2432 200275 225410 757 Advanced level
steel to get weld Oxygen 2%
11th 22-J11 Aluminum 1
8 Groove Square Flat (1G) 2 ER1100 3
64 Argon 3035 2024 150190 280400 760 Advanced level
12th 22-J13 Aluminum 1
8 Fillet Lap Horizontal (2F) 1 ER1100 3
64 Argon 3035 2024 150190 280400 761 Advanced level
13th 22-J14 Aluminum 16
Fillet T Horizontal (2F) 3 ER1100 3
64 Argon 3035 2125 160200 290430 761 Advanced level
14th 22-J15 Aluminum 1
4 Fillet T Vertical uphill (3F) 2 ER4043 3
64 Argon 3035 2125 160190 290400 761 Advanced level
15th 22-J16 Aluminum 1
4 Fillet T Overhead (4F) 3 ER4043 3
64 Argon 3035 2125 170190 320400 761 Advanced level
16th 22-J12 Aluminum 8
Groove V-butt Vertical uphill 4 ER4043 1
16 Argon 75% 3040 2226 200250 260330 760 Advanced level
60% (3G) Helium 25%
22-J11J16 22- JQT45 Aluminum 8
Groove Butt 3G As required ER4043 3
64 Argon 3035 2125 160190 320400 763 Advanced level
4G to get
weld size
17th 22-J17 Stainless 8
Beading Plate Flat (1C) Cover plate ER308 0.035 Helium 90% 2224 2426 130160 160280 766 Advanced level
steel Argon 7%
dioxide 2%
18th 22-J18 Stainless 4
Beading Plate Flat (1C) Cover plate ER308 0.035 Argon 98% 2535 2427 130160 160280 766 Advanced level
steel Oxygen 2%
19th 22-J19 Stainless 8
Fillet Lap Horizontal 1 ER308 0.035 Helium 90% 2224 2426 140160 175280 766 Advanced level
steel Argon 7%
dioxide 2%
20th 22-J20 Stainless 8
Fillet T Horizontal 1 ER308 0.035 Helium 90% 2224 2426 150180 190290 766 Advanced level
steel Argon 7%
21st 22-J21 Stainless 4
Fillet T Horizontal 6 ER308 0.035 Argon 95% 2535 2427 180240 290390 766 Advanced level
steel Oxygen 5%
22nd 22-J22 Stainless 4
Fillet T Vertical uphill 6 ER308 0.035 Argon 98% 2535 2026 140200 175320 766 Advanced level
steel (3F) Oxygen 2%
23rd 22-J23 Stainless 8
Groove V-butt 60 Vertical uphill 1 down ER308 0.035 Argon 98% 2535 2028 140200 175320 766 Advanced level
steel backup (3G) 5 up Oxygen 2%

Note: The conditions indicated here are basic. They will vary with the job situation, the results desired, and the skill of the welder.
It is recommended that the student do the jobs in this order. In the text, the jobs are grouped according to the type of operation to avoid repetition.

On all carbon steel work, use metal cored wire to practice (E70C-1C or E70C-1M, depending on the shielding gas being used). You will need to increase the wire-feed speed or go to the next sized electrode d
iameter to compensate for
the higher current density.
Pulse spray arcs should be practiced on all jobs. Use the equipment manufacturers recommended parameter setting. Meet or exceed the wire-feed speed for the other modes of transfer.

WFS = wire-feed speed.


Refer to AWS S.E.N.S.E. documents QC10:2008, QC11-96, and QC12-96 for additional information.
chemistry are generally used. Copper-zinc alloys are not gauges. Oxygen should not be added to the inert shielding
suitable as filler wire because zinc boils at a low tempera- gases because it produces oxide films and inclusions in
ture (1,663F) and vaporizes under the intense heat of the the weld and rough, heavily oxidized weld surfaces.
electric arc. These alloys can be welded, however, with Joint preparation is like that used with other metals.
aluminum-bronze filler wires.
Argon is the preferred shielding gas for welding mate- Magnesium
rial 1 inch and thinner. A flow of 50 cubic feet per hour Magnesium is a silvery white metal that is two-thirds the
is sufficient. For heavier materials, mixtures of 65 percent weight of aluminum and one-quarter the weight of steel.
helium and 35 percent argon are used. It has a melting point of 1,204F, which is near that of
Joint design is like that for any other metal. Steel backup aluminum. Its strength-to-weight ratio is high when com-
is usually necessary for sheets 18 inch and thinner. Backup pared to that of steel.
is not needed on plates more than 18inch thick. Because Welding techniques for magnesium are like those for
of the high heat conductivity of copper, welding currents aluminum. The rate of expansion of magnesium is greater
on the high side are required. Preheat is not required when than that of aluminum. This must be taken into consider-
welding thicknesses of 14inch or less. Preheating to 400F ation when preparing the joint for welding and in choos-
has proved to be helpful when welding copper 38inch or ing the type of restraint to put upon the assembly. Severe
more in thickness. warpage will result if proper precautions are not taken.
Always provide good ventilation when welding cop- As with aluminum, care must be taken that the surface is
per and its alloys. This is of particular importance when clean before welding. The surface may be mechanically
welding beryllium-copper. The dust, fumes, and mist pro- cleaned with abrasives or chemically cleaned.
duced by beryllium compounds are highly toxic. Precau- The arc characteristics of helium and argon are somewhat
tions should be taken to reduce the dust, fumes and mist different with magnesium than they are with other metals.
to zero. The burnoff rates of the wires are equal for both gases at
A variation of the GMAW process is GMAW-B, where the same current. Penetration is greater with argon-helium
the B indicates brazing or just MIG brazing. It uses a sil- mixtures. Argon is recommended in most cases because of
icon-bronze type electrode with inert shielding. Argon at the excellent cleaning action o btained. The argon-helium
100 percent is most common. It is generally done with mixtures might be preferred in multipass welding in which
small diameter wire and in the short-circuiting or pulse the rounded type of penetration pattern is most desirable.
mode of transfer. The main application is for coated car-
bon steel sheet metal (light gauge). The coating, such as Titanium and Zirconium
zinc, is generally applied for corrosion resistance in the Titanium is a bright white metal that burns in air, and it
automotive and sheet metal industries. The lower melt- is the only element that burns in nitrogen. It has a melt-
ing point of this electrode plus the lower heat input of the ing point of about 3,500F. Its most important compound
short-circuiting and pulse mode does little to disturb the is titanium dioxide, which is used extensively in welding
coating in the weld area. The base metal is not melted, and electrode coatings. Titanium is also used extensively as a
thus it is considered a brazing operation. stabilizer in stainless steel.
Zirconium is a bright gray metal with a melting point
Nickel and Nickel-Copper Alloys above 4,500F. It is very hard and brittle and readily
Nickel, nickel-copper alloy (Monel), nickel-chromium- scratches glass. Because of its hardness, it is sometimes
iron (Inconel), and most other nickel alloys can be welded used in hard-facing materials. Zirconium is often alloyed
using the gas metal arc process. Always remove all foreign with iron and aluminum.
material in the vicinity of the weld or heated area. Nickel Both titanium and zirconium and many of their alloys
alloys are susceptible to severe embrittlement and cracking may be welded by the gas metal arc process. Special pre-
when heated in contact with such foreign materials as lead, cautions must be taken, however, to protect the welding
phosphorus, and sulfur. operation during the period when the metal is hot and
Argon is generally preferable for welding nickel and susceptible to atmospheric contamination. Welding may
most nickel alloys up to about 38inch in thickness. Above be done in an enclosed chamber filled with inert gas, or
that thickness, argon-helium mixtures are usually more other special gas shielding methods may be necessary
desirable. The higher heat input of 50 and 75percent he- to ensure adequate inert gas coverage. Argon or helium-
lium mixtures offsets the high heat conductivity of heavier argon mixtures may be used.

748 Chapter 22 Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate)

Multiple Choice 8. If the power source energizes (voltage on meter)

Choose the letter of the correct answer. and the wire feeds but there is no arc, the problem
is . (Obj. 22-4)
1. is the length of electrode that extends
a. Primary power fuse blown
beyond the contact tube. (Obj. 22-1)
b. Wire feeder not on
a. Visible stickout
c. Loose work connection
b. Setback
d. Shielding gas not on
c. Electrode extension
d. Standoff 9. Arc starting and the beginning of the weld bead is
not an issue with the GMAW process because of the
2. The angle is the angle the electrode makes
constant voltage power source used. (Obj.22-5)
between the major workpiece surface or groove face
a. True
and the axis of the electrode. (Obj.22-1)
b. False
a. Work
b. Travel 10. Travel speed has a major effect on bead size,
c. Perpendicular penetration, and fusion. (Obj. 22-5)
d. Drag a. True
b. False
3. If incomplete penetration and fusion are a problem,
the length of electrode extending beyond the contact
tube should be . (Obj. 22-2) Review Questions
a. Lengthened Write the answers in your own words.
b. Shortened 11. List the five operational variables and describe
c. Does not matter, has no effect each. (Obj. 22-1)
d. Both a and b 12. Describe the three main modes of metal transfer
4. How can metallic fumes be reduced in the GMAW used with the GMAW process. (Obj. 22-1)
process? (Obj. 22-3) 13. Name and explain a minimum of eight defects asso-
a. Use of higher argon content gases ciated with the GMAW process.
b. Use of GMAW-P (Obj. 22-2)
c. Lower deposition rate
14. List the safety concerns for GMAW that are
d. Both a and b
different than those for the SMAW and GTAW
5. If the contact tube has internal arcing and is rough- processes. (Obj. 22-3)
ening the electrode passing through it, it can be sal-
15. Describe how bird nesting can be eliminated.
vaged by cleaning the hole of the contact tube with
(Obj. 22-4)
an OFC tip cleaner. (Obj. 22-4)
a. True 16. List the equipment needed for the GMAW process.
b. False (Obj. 22-4)
6. The gas metal arc welding gun or conduit should be 17. Describe the indicator you will have if the proper
coiled up and kinked in use. (Obj. 22-4) arc length (voltage) is set when a spray arc mode of
a. True metal transfer is being used. (Obj. 22-5)
b. False 18. Describe the crater filling technique.
7. GMAW can weld directly through rust, scale, (Obj. 22-5)
burned edges, and chemical coatings due to the di- 19. List the types of metal that can be welded with the
oxidizers in the electrodes and the fluxing action of GMAW process. (Obj. 22-6)
the shielding gases. (Obj. 22-4) 20. List the four causes of incomplete penetration and
a. True fusion when welding aluminum with the GMAW
b. False process. (Obj. 22-6)

Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate) Chapter 22 749

Internet Activity A
Use your favorite search engine to find out if women welders during World War II
have received any honors for their wartime efforts. If so, what are they?
Internet Activity B
What does the future hold for welding? Use the Internet to find out what people
think about the future of welding.

750 Chapter 22 Gas Metal Arc Welding Practice with Solid and Metal Core Wire: Jobs 22-J1J23 (Plate)