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Figure 1.0: Start Up Procedure

Figure 1.1: First, Second and Third Trial PID value with SV = 25 kg/hr

Figure 1.2: Ziegler-Nichols PID tuning.

Figure 1.3: Quarter Amplitude Damping Response

Figure 1.4 Shut Down Procedure


This experiment is about air flow process control. An experiment has been conducted by
using Flow Ratio Plant Control (WF922). The air flow process control training system (Model
AF922) uses air to simulate a gas or vapour phase flow process. Gas/vapour volumetric flow
can be measured either by the differential pressure across orifice or by a variable area flow
meter. Compensation for pressure and temperature variation using Perfect Gas Law can be
made to the flow measurement by the differential pressure measurement. The objective of this
experiment is about to identify the important components of the air pressure control system
and to mark them in the P&I Diagram. Second to carry out the start-up procedures
systematically, to study gas volumetric flow rate measurement using orifice plate, to study gas
mass flow rate measurement using orifice plate and perfect gas law to compute the gas density
from the pressure and temperature measurements, to study gas mass flow rate (Fm) control
using PID controller and last but not least to design a PID controller using Ziegler Nichols
closed loop method.
The startup procedure was done and the result can be seen in the Figure 1.0. The result was
shown in a graph form with three colors of lines which is red line, the green line and the blue
line. The red line was representing as the mass flow rate, the green line represent as the
volumetric flowrate and blue line for TE91 (C). At this stages, MV of FIC91 was set to -6.3%
and it was adjust the manual valve MV900A till the air flow rate is about 50 kg/Hr. After that,
MV was set at 106.3% and change to 50%. .
Two types of analysis; Air flow system and PID controller tuning was used to conduct this
experiment. Besides that, Flow controller was used to control of gas flow system. The analysis
was to identify the importance of the air flow control system to this whole experiment. Flow
control loops are characterized by fast and with essentially no time delay.

On the first PID trial, the set point (SV) is set to about 25kg/hr, and the PID values
below set on in the panel controller:

PB 200%

TI 6 secs

TD 0 sec
In this trial, a pulse disturbance was introduces by quickly opening and shutting fully
the by-pass valve around FCV91. The responses were observed for about 1 minute, and after
the by-pass valve is closed, the responses were observed again for about 1 minute. The
responses needed to be observe until it becomes fairly steady. The responses showed the great
changes occurred to red pen which was the Mass flow rate (kg/hr) compared to the volumetric
flow rate (m3/ hr).

For the second and third trial, the SV is set to about 30kg/hr and the PID value was set
into the Panel controller as below:

PB 150% PB 100%

TI 6 secs TI 6 secs

TD 0 sec TD 0 sec

In these two trials, the procedure was same as the first trial only the SV was changed
from 25kg/hr to 30kg/hr and the pulse disturbance was also introduces as the first trial by
quickly opening and shutting fully the by-pass valve around FCV91 and the responses were
observed. The Pulse Disturbances that introduced to the all trial was for flow response (red pen)
can be seen at figure 1.1, which are the three trials by change PB value. The result showed that,
when PB is increase controller gain is decrease, thats why the gap between the responses of
the three trials was different from each other. The responses were observed. As showed in
figure 1.1, the responses at the red pen and green pen at the gap of the response are different
from each other. This is due to the differences in the PB values and the SV values in every each
of the PID value. When PB is increase controller gain is decrease. When the SV is lower the
responses set to lower SV which reached the steady state and increased as the value of the SV
was increased and reached its steady state. (John Wiley, 2011).

As the result, the red line responds quickly than the green line and it states that the mass
flow rate represent more sensitive than the volumetric flowrate. By decreasing the value of PB,
the oscillation will increase. The PB corresponding to the constant amplitude oscillation as PB*
ultimate. PB is actually the fractional error change, relative to the error range, required to
produce a 100% change in the proportional term output. The response damping extremely for
the second trial at 150% compared to 200% of set point setting. For this experiment, the PID
controller using Ziegler Nichols closed loop method was used. The point of tuning a PID loop
is to adjust how aggressively the controller reacts to errors between the measured process
variable and desired setpoint. If the controlled process happens to be relatively sluggish, the
PID algorithm can be configured to take immediate and dramatic actions whenever a random
disturbance changes the process variable or an operator changes the setpoint. Then the PID
algorithm must apply more conservative corrective efforts over a longer period. The essence
of loop tuning is identifying just how dramatically the process reacts to the controller efforts
and how aggressive the PID algorithm can afford to be as it tries to eliminate errors.

For the second experiment which is controller tuning was run to develop optimizes the
closed loop response for process model with the absence of specified disturbance or set-point
change. The FIC91 in Manual (M) mode with the set point SV=25kg/hr. This experiment is the
PID Controller Tuning and its applied the The Ziegler-Nichols Closed Loop method. The
Ziegler-Nichols Closed Loop method is one of the most common methods used to tune control
loops. This method is to determine the gain at which a loop with proportional only control will
oscillate, derives of the controller gain, reset, and derivative values from the gain at which the
oscillations are sustained and the period of oscillation at that gain. Besides that, this method
should produce tuning parameters with will obtain quarter wave of decay.

As shown on figure 1.2, the SV is set to 25kg/hr and the PID value below is set into the
control panel:

PB 100%

TI 9999 secs (maximum)

TD 0 sec (minimum)

In this trial, the TI introduced maximum as 9999secs is to eliminate the function of the
TI itself. The integral controller produces an output proportional with the summarized deviation
between the set point and measured value and integrating gain or action factor. Integral
controllers tend to respond slowly at first, but over a long period of time they tend to eliminate
errors. The integral controller eliminates the steady-state error, but may make the transient
response worse. The controller may be unstable. As in this experiment, the MV is adjust until
the PV reads close to the set point 25 kg/Hr. after that, the set point pulse disturbance was
introduced to the system where the SV is 28kg/hr and the response was observed for about a
few seconds and the SV is set back to 25kg/hr. as shown at figure 1.2, the red pen response
which was the mass flow rate response showed some fluctuation, but after a few second the
response back to the steady state at the SV 28kg/hr. Then, the SV set back to 25kg/hr which
back to the usual steady state.

In this step, the set point pulse disturbance was introduced. The Close Loop Method
was repeated with a decreasing PB until uniform (constant amplitude) oscillation is observed.
In this experiment, the value PB was decrease at 50 % which is constant amplitude. The
distance between adjacent peaks was assumed 2 mm. After the constant amplitude appear, the
Tn need to be calculated by using this formula.

Tn = measured period in mm x 3600 = 1 x 3600 = 7.2

Chart speed eg 500mm/hr 500

TI = Tn = 7.2 = 6
1.2 1.2

So, the PB* = 2 x PB* = 2 x 50 = 100%

Based on the calculation, the new PID value is PB= 100%, TI=6 sec and TD=0sec
(Min). A major control system that makes the effect to the process is called a closed loop
control system. There is feedback to the control system so it can regulate the process. There
are oscillations in the graft and PB was increase until the oscillation damped out which is about
96 % which illustrated in Figure 1.2.

An on/off controller only has two outputs, either full maximum or full minimum. For
this system it has been determined that when the measurement falls below the set point, the
valve must be closed to cause it to increase. Thus, whenever the signal to the automatic
controller is below the set point, the controller output will be 100%. As the measurement
crosses the set point the controller output goes to 0%. This continuous oscillation may or may
not, be acceptable depending upon the amplitude and length of the cycle. Rapid cycling causes
frequent upsets to the plant supply system and excessive valve wear. On large capacity process,
such as temperature vats, the large capacity causes a very long time constant. Therefore, the
measurement can change only very slowly. The disadvantages using Ziegler Nichols tuning
method are gives very aggressive tuning, some trial and error and also process upset. The
disadvantages using Ziegler Nichols tuning method are gives very aggressive, some trial and
error and also tuning process upset. (Mahoney, 2006).

Furthermore, the PB was changed to 300% and the response on the graph paper chart
showed some noise due to the highest PB introduced. But different to other which the PB was
lower, the response was showed only a damping but then, it reached the steady state. This
proved that, the higher the PB in this experiment, the response on the damping occurred rapidly
compared to the lower PB. The result can be seen in the figure 1.3 and lastly shut down
procedure has been done and the result can be seen in the Figure 1.4.

1. Mahoney, P.M., Svrcek, W.Y., Young, B.R., A Real-Time Approach to Process Control
(2nd Edition), John Wiley and Sons Inc., West Sussex, 2006

2. Seborg. Edger. Mellichamp. Doyle, Process Dynamis and Control Third Edition, John
Wiley & Sons,Inc. 2011.

3. Process Controllers, Basic process controllers with proportional, integrating and

derivative functions [Online]. [27 April 2017]. Available from World Wide Web: