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()

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Myanmar Datum 2000


(Topographic Base Map)

Newjec Inc.
(Outcrop)
(Rockmass class)

(Rock Mass Classification)


( )
--
()

()

(Field Equipment)

(Geologist)
(field equipment) (geological hammer)
(geological compass) (pocket steel tape)
(geological hand-lens) (camera) (map case)
(note book) (map scale) (protractor)
(acid bottle) (jack-knife)
(binocular)
hand-held GPS (Global Positioning System)
() stereonet (aerial photograph)
filed (pocket stereoscope)
(altimeter)

label marker pen (timber


crayons) (rucksack)
(water bottle) (first aid kit)
(Geologist)
field work efficiency

(reconnaissance geological map) (regional
geological map) (detail geological map)

(dam foundation geological


map) major joint ( ) fault ( )
(fractured/weak zone) layer survey
instrument survey

( )
()

() (geological hammer) geologist field


geological hammer ()
3/4 kg (1.5 Lbs)
() strength (very soft rock)
(1kg)
Geologist prospecting pick hammer
Point tip hammer

float soil

strength (igneous
rock) (metamorphic rock)
( )

Estwing Supreme 22 oz Pointed Tip Rock Hammer E3-22P




/

() (geological compass) Geologist


compass dry type
Brunton compass
Finnish Suunto compass geologist
compass compass

( )
()

protractor plotting Compass


360 (degrees) Bearing Quadrant
0-90 azimuth 0-360


(N)
Bearing
Azimuth bearing Quadrant bearing

( )
()

() (geological hand-len)
() () hand-len
slope
(Binocular)
fracture zone slope

Pocket Light weight


Belomo 10x Triplet, 8x21 Binoculars
10x All Metal Hand lens
Hand Lens / Loupe BIN003

() (digital camera)


GPS

Panasonic Lumix DMC-TZ30


(Camera with GPS tagging built in)

() (pocket steel tape) (rock


exposure) (discontinuities)
(bed thickness)
() ()

()
()

( )
()

(tape and compass survey)


() (map case)

() (field note book)


field note
rain-proofpaper

( )
()

() (scale)
(scale ruler)
Geologist 15 cm (6)
(Mineral) (hardness)

Mineral Hardness Scale Ruler

() (Protractors)
dip dip direction (15-20) cm
protractor

() (Pensil & Eraser) field


soft pen

() (Acid Bottle)
(hydrochloric acid)
(ear-drops) (eye-drops)

() GPS (Global Positioning System) GPS



Handheld GPS (track/
route) geological feature

( )
()

() (altimeter) Altimeter
elevation Handheld GPS
mountain altimeter elevation
(bechmark) BM elevation
elevation known point
altimeter elevation

() (pocket stereonet) Field


(aerial photograph) pocket stereoscope
(fault)
(lineament) (geological structure)

() Laptop Computer (temporary camp)


laptop computer
data processing
geological software data analysis
mapping software
Geological software mapping software

( )
()

()

opographica ap am ert ro ection


Universal
Tranverse Mercator (UTM)
:, () :, () :,
() am ert
(Conical Projection) UTM (Cylindrical
Projection) erest ipsoi ata

(Topographic Map)
() ( ) Lambert Conformal Conic (LCC) ( )
Universal Tranverse Mercator (UTM)


( ) UTM ( :, )
( ) UTM ( :, )
( ) UTM ( :, )
() Lambert ( = )
( ) Lambert ( = )
( ) Lambert ( = )

( )
()

Lambert Conformal Conic (LCC)

One Inch Map ( )


Topographic Map Quarter Inch Map ( )

() ( )
() ()
(:) ()
()
63360

() survey ()

()
( )
() ground survey ()
publish

(map datum) India-Bangladesh Grid Zone


Indian II-B, III-B IV-B (interval)
() Minor Grid () () Major
Grid (,)
() (feet)
(horizontal) grid line
(vertical) grid line ()
( )
94 A/9 105
953 W 94 A/9 W 105953

( )
()

India Grid IVB =

India Grid IIIB =

India Grid IIB =

Longitude
minute mark

Latitude

grid reference lines and numbers

() ( ) ()
()
(:,) (,)
() Map datum

( )
()

(interval) () Grid
()
(feet)

Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM)

UTM
() (:,)
(:,)
(meter) (map datum) Myanmar datum 2000 Myanmar
datum 2000 Horizontal datum Vertical datum Mean Sea Level
(MSL)

UTM zone UTM Zone 46


Zone 47 UTM Zone P, Q, R
UTM Zone 46 P, Q, R
47 P, Q, R

() (:,) UTM (:,) UTM


(interval) () Grid () (,)
()

( )
()

elevation (meter)

(horizontal) grid line


(vertical) grid line ()
( )
1994 Kan Than Taung
55 46 FS
1994 FS 5546

(:,) ()
() UTM
()

() (:,) UTM (interval) ()


Grid () (,) Map datum
Zone (:,) UTM
()
(feet)
(horizontal) grid line (vertical) grid line
() ( )
1994-
09 Let pan ta ga village
653 869
FS 1994-09 FS 653869 UTM
()

( )
()

(Construction Survey Maps)

(Feasibility Stage) Project Layout


coordinate
(detail geological map)
(Construction
Satge) construction survey map

(special purpose geological map)


(Base Map)

() (Topographic Survey)

UTM
(:,) (:,)


( )
() ()
(coffer dam)
(slope stability)

(dam top elevation) (/) (dam top


elev. + 1/4H)
() ()

( )
()


(:) (:,)

( ) maximum water level


()

2
2 km (:,)
2
10 km (:,)
2
10 km (:,)

( )

2 2
5 km (:,) 10 km (:,)
(:,)
construction layout
(:,) (:,)

map datum assumed datum Bench


Mark (BM) Zero setting UTM map
Myanmar Datum 2000
Survey Instrument UTM datum WGS 84 (World
Geodetic System) WGS 84 Myanmar datum 2000 Scale factor
convert

Map datum Handheld GPS


(Base Map) datum
LCC Map datum India-
Bangladash UTM Myanmar datum 2000
Map datum
GPS (Base Map) datum Setting

( )
()

( )
()

()

interpretation
(Stereoscope) Stereopair field

geologist geological hammer

(topographic map)

(altimeter)

Flight

Fiducial marks corner

flight flight
overlapping (%) stereoscape
3D image

(focal length) (ground distance)


corner

(aerial photograph)
:, :, ()
UTM

( )
()

()
surficial feature

()

A-B pp (principal point)


(f/h) (focal length /ground distance)

Project altimeter clock

Flight No.

Fiducial marks

()

( )
()

(geologic information)
(structure) (lithology)
() ()
(terrain type) () ()

()

(physical characteristics)
(plutonic rock)
(homogeneous)

() arid semi-arid tropical



soil soil

() (geomorphic cycle) mature stage

desk study mirror stereoscope


interpretation
Field pocket
stereoscope
contact

()

topographic map
( ) flight no.

( )
()

(a) (b)

(c)

() X (a)
46 45 X (b)
(pp) X (c) base
map 45 46 pp X

()
base map

scale exaggeration

( )
()

()

( ) Tone tone
tone
tock type
(weathering)

( ) Texture texture erosional


characteristic coarser feature
limestone rough texture soft shale
micro-drainage pattern

( ) Lineament
geological feature
drainage

contact

() Vegetation vegetation
guide Vegetation
Vegetation tone colour
texture

(alluvium) (swamp/marsh)
boundary

() (Planar Structure)

(bed) (foliation) (joint) (fault)


planar structure Interpret

( ) resistant bedding interpretation


(dip)
(strike) runoff

( )
()

(bedding plane)
()
E-E
(edge)

()

( ) bedding surface

()

( ) () () V ru e
V (apex) (dip direction)
V (dip amount)
V

()

( )
()

()

()


tributary
tributary

()

( )
()

()

( ) ()
stereopair ()
tape () (principal point, pp)

( ) Stereoscope (drainage)
alluvium
terrace boundary
scree landslide

( ) scarp edge
dip slope dip
direction
()

() bed
dip (tick mark) bed
(tick mark) ()

( ) fault

( ) feature
major linearment lineament
() three dot interval broken line

( ) contact dotted
line

( ) formation
level

interpretation
field map photogeology
field map

( )
()

() interpretation

( )
()

Digital elevation data

(geomorphology)
(rock formation)
stereoscope
terrain geological interpretation

terrain 3D ground
elevation digital elevation models (DEMs)
(land surveying)
(topographic map) contour DEM

Digital elevation Computer software Surfer


(Golden Software) 3D topographic surface
slope landscape

(Remote Sensing) GIS (Geographic Information


System)
computer software
Rectification satellite scene
()
Remote Sensing & GIS
satellite scene
()
Landsat MSS band ()
band ratio RGB (Red, Green,
Blue) ratio
RGB band ratio 7:4:2 Image Rectification
( )

( )
()

( )
()

()


(Reconaissance Study) (Construction Stage)
(small-scale)
(large-scale)
(geomorphical map)



(basic knowledge)

(topographic base map)


(quality)

(Geological map)
(topographic base map)

(Topographic map)

( )
()

()

()
( ) (reconnaissance geological maps)
( ) (regional geological maps)
( ) (detail geological maps)
() Special purpose

( ) (reconnaissance geological maps)

(:,)

- :, UTM
(rock type) lineament
structural feature
(aerial photograph) interpretation
(photogeology)
ground checking reconnaissance survey/ site
seeing confirm
(reconnaissance map)

( ) (regional geological maps)

(reconnaissance map)

(:,)
(:,) (:,)

(photogeology)

(evidence)

( )
()

(aerial photograph)

(test pit) (auger


hole) (drilling)
(satellite image)

()

( ) (detail geological maps)

(:,)

(dam site) (Preliminary


Investigation)

( )
()

()

() (special purpose)


(:, :,)
(:)


(foliation) (joint) sampling plan

() (special purposed map)

( )
()

()

field
()


knowledge
imaging Art Science

(reconnaissance)

(Base Map)

() field data

() field sketch field data


field note

() Field note mapping data

field data sheet

() (map symbol)

( )
()

() (geological cross section)

(Base Map)

grid orientation (compass)
megatic north declination Known point
() bearing Triangulate
bearing
()

()

GPS
GPS base map map datum
coordinate GPS setting GPS Accuracy

(:,) ()
()
() error ()
(:,) accuracy

( )
()

(Observation)

(exposure)
mineral composition grain size
texture geological structure
bedding tectonic fabric sedimentary structure

data () () Field map


() Field note
book
geological structure
Map data reference no.
field note book Field map Field note book ()

sample
Field geological feature

(topographic changes) (vegetation) (spring lines)
float

( )
()

lithologic contact Field


map

() rock exposure
()
()
structural symbol
()
()
()
()
slope
() (certain) (inferred) (fault) contact

() (river terrace)
() Alluvium, scree, boulder clay landslide debris superficial
materials
() Cuttings, quarries excavation

() Soil cover rock exposure


geological structure
boundary

(outcrop exposure) solid line

(geological
structure) ()

( )
()

()
()

()

( )
()

(rock exposure) solid line


(moderate color) exposure
( )

()

(exposure)

() Map A: Good Features

Map A rock
exposure

( )
()

dash
line

() Map B: Poor Features

Map B
rock exposure
boundary

() Treverse

traverse

Traverse
(topographic map)

reconnaissance work Reconnaissance
traverse

( )
()

traverse
GPS traverse
compass Tape & Compass Traverse

() Traverse

solid line dash line

( )
()

() (Exposure/Green Line)

(outcrop exposure) 0.1 mm nib size marker pen


solid line Exposure
soil Exposure
Lithologic Unit Boundary
(:,) ()

() Boundary mapping

Boundary mapping
boundary
Exposure

Exposure
()

() ()

( )
()

() Geological Structure Data

()

(geological structure)
bedding cleavage joint
dip & dip direction
(strike) (dip) (dip direction)
143/76 SW
dip & dip direction
Strike dip direction () Strike N-S
(0/360 or 180) Dip direction strike E (90)
or W (270) dip direction strike
Strike dip direction (90)
dip direction/dip (233/76) dip direction
() dip amount ()
protractor dip direction
(strike) dip amount dip
direction (symbol)
(fault)
(symbol)

( )
()

()

(indirect evidence) soil colour

float
float transported
material soil
stream section
lithologic contact
unit lithologic contact
cut slope outcrop
( )

() section

Topographic map
feature Topography
contour topographic offset (drainage system)

lothologic boundary
slope break (topographic offset)
topographic offset fault line

( )
()

(drainage system) stream



Fault control ( ) Fracture control

() Slope break fault ( )

() Lithologic Boundary/Contact

Field unit boundary


unexposed
(extrapolate) boundary
boundary line

certain boundary solid line

uncertain boundary dash line

conjectural boundary spot line ..

Field data sheet lithologic key


structural symbol
lithologic key

( )
()

Formation list

()

() Boundary/Contact

Field sheet lithologic key


Diagram field sheet
()

Field
field slip
( )

( )
()

()

( )
()

()

( )
()

()

( )
()

()

()

() data

()

( )

( )
()

( )

()

( )
()

( )
field note book

( )
()

() field sketch

( )
()

()

()
(reconnaissance geological map) (regional geological
map) (Quarry)

(Engineering Geological Features)

(formation)
Obogon Formation
sandstone unit arkosic sandstone Rock/soil unit

alluvial formation
alluvium (flood plane)
(terrace) fan deposit
(geomorphology)
Rock soil unit

(weathering) jointing
filling material joint surface
Fold fault weak zone

(steep scarp) landslide/


subsidence erosion meander
mark swampy ground geomorphical feature

( )
()

hydrogeologic information
spring hot spring (hand dug well)
(tube well)
swallow hole/sink hole
symbol

Geodynamic active fault tectonic movement


volcanic activity

(mine) / (quarry)
original ground
filled area dumping site

rock class outcrop


solid line rock class/quality

(:,)
1:<=10,000
construction topographic map base map
topographic map
topographic map map datum coordinate
GPS setting

dam site

(Upstream) (Downstream)
() (abutment)
() ( )

( )
()

()

rock exposure geological


feature (:,)
(:,)
(:,)
(world bank specialist) (dam axis)
upstream () () downstream () ()
Downstream energy
dissipation stilling basin

upstream ()
upstream
abutment ()

( )
()

()
Upstream () downstream () abutment
() ()
(:,) (,) ()
topographic feature
Newjec Inc. (:,) topographic
map

()


()

excavated rock surface

core zone CFRD plinth concrete


gravity dam foot print
weathering rock quality
as-built

()

( ) (rock type)

( )
()

( ) (strength)

( ) (degree of jointing/fracturing) discontinuity


(fault) (joint) (bedding)
(spacing)

( ) (weakzone) (fracture/shattered zone)


shear zone (width)

() discontinuity (type)
(dip & dip direction orientation) (width)
filling material (roughness)

( ) Seepage stability shear plane major


feature

( ) Spring flow rate

( ) (rock class)

()

overburden soil
weathered rock
high pressure air/water jet
discontinuity shear zone fault
foundation

foundation excavated
rock surface rock nose sharp corner
(foundation shape) loose rock
foundation rock surface
surveying topographic contour map
as-built-topography
topographic map base map

( )
()

(:) (:) topographic contour map


topographic survey prominent major
discontinuity location
major
geologic feature

() As-built-topography

() Major prominent feature survey

block

( )
()

graph paper (protractor) data sheet form


( ) 5 m square shape
/ 1 m marking
11"x17" clipboard () graph paper
reference point
2
1m

1m

5m

() Grid

( ) 5 m 1 m scan-line discontinuities
graph paper discontinuity
Discontinuity set
(dip direction/dip amount) (width) spring location
(spacing) /
(fratured layer/ fratured zone) graph paper


(:) (:)
Major discontinuity orientation weathering
opening fillinf material joint water

( )
()

data sheet form


() Scan line discontinuity

( ) (slope)
Abutment slope
abutment dam axis
high angle steep slope
developed plan map

() Abutment slope

() (rock type) rock unit boundary graph paper


( )
()

( ) data 5 m
(rock class)

()

weak layer

() advance (face
portion) (crown portion) (left & right side wall)

(sketch)

() Discontinuites
persistence ()


side wall

side wall
face side wall
face

/ /

()

( )
()


discontinuities rock unit boundary

() developed plan
data sheet

Developed Plan Map

developed plan
abutment side
wall roof portion (developed plan
map)

discontinuity developed
plan developed plan
grid
slope grid (5 m)
plan map slope angle
Slope
slope distance horizontal distance Horizontal
distance

( ) Slope Developed Plan

( )
()

( ) Tunnel Developed Plan

Developed Plan

( )
()

Myanmar Datum 2000

ELLIPSOID Everest WGS 84

a 6377276.345 m 6378137 m

f 0.00332445 0.003352811 m

1/f 300.8017 298.2572235

MMD 2000 to WGS 84

Da (Meter) = 860.655

Dfx 10,000 = 0.283606655

Transformation parameters from Myanmar Datum 2000 to WGS 84

Dx = 246.632 m

Dy = 784.833 m

Dz = 276.923 m

( )