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13º Congresso Ibero-americano de Engenharia Mecânica

13º Congreso Iberoamericano de Ingeniería Mecánica
Lisboa, Portugal, 23-26 de Outubro de 2017


Maria Augusta Minguta de Oliveira1, Antônio Carlos de Araújo Santos1, Antonio Marinho

1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rio de Janeiro State University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,


Surfaces of UNS S32205 Duplex Stainless Steel were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy
(SEM) after erosion by impacts of alumina particles entrained in air flux, using an especially
designed setup. Morphological observations were done on craters and singularities of the eroded
surfaces. Images of craters in different stages of evolution were put in sequence; from those
presenting exclusively plastic deformation to those evidencing mass loss. This sequence matches
a well-accepted model on the behaviour of ductile metals under erosion by impact of solid particles.
Cross sectional examination of erosion craters shows evidence of plastic deformation, strain
hardening and cracks along Adiabatic Shear Bands (ASB). These bands are typically found in the
microstructure of materials under dynamic compression loads, as in ballistic impacts and in
some high-energy manufacturing processes. SEM images of morphological features allowed
the correlation of fracture cracks in craters with the presence of ASB.

Keywords: Solid Particle Erosion, Duplex Stainless Steel, Adiabatic Shear Band.
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1. Introduction material, under specific conditions, was
determined using mass loss measurements along
Degradation of engineering materials is a matter of the time. Through this procedure, it was possible to
economics. Billions of dollars are expended study the role of several variables in erosion
annually to improve design, and to prevent and process, although in general they did not consider
control the deleterious effects of this phenomenon morphological and topographical aspects of the
[1-3]. Friction, wear, lubrication, erosion and surfaces.
corrosion are the main concerns of tribologists and Observation of these aspects, by microscopy, could
many efforts have been made, in the last decades, help in understanding the behavior of the target
to anticipate the effects of degradation in the material surface and to discuss erosion models.
performance of engineering materials [4,5]. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), rather than
Erosion of surfaces, especially in case of impact of Light Optical Microscopy (LOM), offered the
hard particles entrained in moving fluids, is a possibility of observing eroded surfaces, detecting
relevant issue in design, operation and singularities and/or the number, size and
maintenance of pumps, turbines, separators, valves distribution of craters, as well as their shape, depth
and tubes, as well as in structures. This and texture. Thus, it was possible to observe the
phenomenon was object of some earlier studies [6- morphological evolution of craters along the
8] and deserved detailed reviews [9,10]. erosion process, as well as other aspects such as
Among other issues, the role of some variables was details of microstructural changes[14-17].
pointed out. For materials of the particle and of the Degradation researches on ductile metals consider
target: Young´s modulus, Poisson´s ratio, plastic a variety of them, including traditional stainless
behavior and failure behavior; for the particles: steels (SS), which have been studied for years,
specific gravity, size, shape, velocity and also the especially on their corrosion resistance. Presently,
impingement angle. The more a particle is dense modern types of SS like duplex stainless steels
and hard, the greater its ability to cause erosion. (DSS) are in evidence. Their applications by
The same applies to velocity, but there is a velocity industry are spreading, not only to meet
threshold below which erosion is negligible. mechanical requirements but also to achieve a
Within certain limits, wear is favored by irregular better corrosion resistance. They are having
shape and by inhomogeneous size distribution of increasing applications by chemical,
the particles. Only very low impingement angles petrochemical, petroleum and power generation
can produce erosion by cutting (“ploughing”), industries [18-21]. The use of DSS in structures,
regardless the brittle or ductile behavior of the both outdoor or subsea, suggests the need to pay
target material. On the other hand, high angles up attention to their behavior under wear, as in the
to 90° can enhance erosion, but only in brittle case of erosion by impact of solid particles
materials. In case of ductile metallic materials, entrained in air or water fluxes. Among others
intermediate angles are more effective to promote DSS, the UNS S32205 has been extensively used.
erosion, typically by mass losses related to craters Its satisfactory mechanical properties and good
[6-11]. corrosion resistance are presently well known [22].
Craters and ploughs have been considered the keys Other aspects, like its weldability, have been
for explaining the mechanisms of mass loss in accurately examined in various studies, once
metallic materials under this type of erosion. In heating conditions can lead to formation of some
ductile metals, the craters play a relevant role in specific and deleterious metallurgical phases[23].
elucidating the phenomenon and there is a model On the other hand, its behavior under erosion is an
based on the effects of successive impacts of single issue to be more explored, and this encourages
particles, on the same point of a surface. In a first efforts to get more knowledge on this material. The
impact, a particle can have sufficient energy to; at present work was undertaken aiming to study
least, cause a localized plastic deformation in the morphological remarks of the eroded surfaces of
target material, creating a crater. A second impact the DSS UNS S32205, by impact of alumina
on this crater can increase deformation on the particles, which was chosen due to their
bottom of it, strain hardening the material and effectiveness compared to other hard particles [24].
creating side borders (“lips”). From the following Erosive wear was produced by attacking the
impact on, the target material could be submitted surfaces with particles entrained in air flux,
to strain conditions leading to fracture along a through a specifically designed low cost
heavily sheared layer at the base of the lip. The installation. SEM images allowed observing, on
detachment of the lip characterizes the loss of eroded surfaces, the consequences of particle
mass, i.e. erosion [9,12,13]. In most of impacts in different conditions. In general, voids,
experimental works cited, the erosion rate of a cracks, pits and precipitates were revealed by the
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images, and their possible significance and origins The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin, as
were discussed. In images of craters generated in in metallographic procedures, with the exposed
the experiments, it was possible observing and surface (5 mm x 5 mm) corresponding to that of
analyzing particular aspects related to the original plate. The exposed surfaces of the
microstructural transformations attributed to specimens were grinding with SiC grit paper from
impact of particles. It was discussed a possible 400 to 1500 grid. Then the specimens were
association between the mechanisms of erosion by polished with 3.0 μm, 1.0 μm and 0.5 μm diamond
impact of solid particles and the effects of dynamic pastes. Both grinding and polishing procedures
compression. Additionally, the observation of a set were performed in automated equipment, until the
of craters, in the same image, allowed seeing them specimen´s surface be considered satisfactory by
as a group where different shapes, depths and other optical microscopy inspection.
aspects could indicate different stages of their To do the erosive attack on the specimens’
evolution, according to conditions of erosive surfaces, an installation consisting of a compact
attack. Adiabatic shear band (ASB) is a narrow sand-blasting chamber, coupled to an air
region of very large shearing that sometimes compressor, was set, see Fig. 1 (a). The internal
occurs in some materials under intensive dynamic diameter of the nozzle was 1.2 mm. The velocity
load. The thickness may be of order of only a few of the particles carried by the air flux was
tens of micrometers, whereas the lateral extent may measured by the double disk method [29-31]. The
be many millimeters. The presence of ASB alter particles velocity depends upon the line pressure of
the subsequent behavior and performance of the the air flux and therefore a calibration curve was
material. ASB commonly acts as sites for further plotted, to set the working point of the
damage and may act either a ductile or brittle experiments. The line pressure was set to get an
manner [25] [26]. average speed of 50 m/s, assuring that the particles
velocity was above 20 m/s, which is a velocity
2. Methodology threshold for erosion by impact of particles [8].

2.1. Experimental approach

Samples of UNS S32205 duplex stainless steel
were extracted from an as received commercial hot
rolled plate, with 12.7 mm thickness, produced by
North American Stainless and supplied by
Expander [27]. The chemical composition is
[wt%][28]: 0.023%C, 1.752%Mn, 0.028%P,
0.001%S, 0.519%Si, 5.454%Ni, 22.010%Cr, (a) (b)
3.108%Mo, 0.178%N. The mechanical properties Figure 1: Installation
of this material were certified by Sandmeyer Steel
Company [28] and is presented in Table 1. Considering the objectives of this work, the mass
flux of the particles was not measured, but it
Table 1: mechanical properties [28] remained the same and stable along all the
Yield stressUltimate Elongation in Hardness
0,2% tensile 50 mm HRC experiments. To ensure that, in each test, the
stress particles feed rate was maintained constant. In each
586MPa 784MPa 34% 19 experiment, a specimen was placed in the locker
“A” of the device shown in the Figure 1 (b). The
The erodent particles were polyhedral alumina, nozzle “B” in the same figure was positioned to
with variable morphology and 150 μm average size obtain an incident angle of 30°. This angle was
(100 mesh). Compared to other hard materials, chosen to maximize the erosive wear by impact of
alumina particles with these characteristics are solid particles in ductile metals [10,11,17,20]. The
more effective to erode ductile metals [24]. distance from nozzle to the center of the target was
To achieve the erosion of the surfaces examined, set as 20 mm, considering the exposed area
some steps were taken. First, a piece of 150 mm x available on the specimens’ surface and the full
200 mm x 12.7 mm was extracted from the original cone spray pattern of the air flux.
plate, by sawing. From that piece, 16 sticks of 10 In sequence, the device was placed inside the
mm x 5 mm x 3 mm were machined by a linear chamber and an adequate air pressure was set to
planer. Then, from these sticks, 20 specimens of 5 achieve a mean velocity of 50 m/s for the particles.
mm x 5 mm x 3 mm were cut by a grinding disc Then the specimens were submitted to the impacts
under water-cooling.
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of particles, for different times of exposure, i.e. 3 s,
5 s, 8 s, 10 s, 20 s, 60 s, 120 s and 180 s.
The eroded surfaces of the specimens were There are also evidences of ploughing, pits and
observed by Scanning Electron Microscopy, using remains of the original surface. These features
a FEI Quanta 250 microscope, coupled to an image were expected and previously mentioned in other
processor. studies [16, 17], but they clearly pointed out to the
To observe the effect of erosion in sub surfaces, amount and to the diversity of features available in
the specimens corresponding to 5 s and 20 s of the image of a experiment with a flux of particles.
exposure were examined and manipulated by a This fact could be attributed to the size distribution
TESCAN LIRA 3 FIB-SEM microscope [41]. of particles and to the turbulent nature of the air
After selecting a crater of interest, a trench milling flux, allowing impacts with different incident
was done along it, by FIB (“Focused Ion Beam”) angles, orientations and energies.
and a cross sectional area was exposed. For Some other images, representing the effects of
protection, a platinum layer was deposited on the larger time expositions, allowed a more detailed
craters surface. Repeating this procedure, two more analysis of the specific features observed. Besides
parallel cross sectional areas were examined, at the diversity of shapes and sizes of the craters, it is
different depths. possible to see spherical dark particles all over the
surface. They were observed in different situations,
2.2. Results and discussion as inside cavities, on deformed internal surface of a
crater, on striations and in plastic flow dimples. An
analysis of the causes of these localizations is
SEM images of the specimen’s surfaces polished beyond the objectives of this work. In Fig. 3, the
and after 3 seconds of erosive attack is shown in image shows a massive occurrence of voids but
Fig. 2. Despite the short time of exposure to the also their coalescence into cracks (I) and (II) and in
erosive attack, it is evident the overall effects of agglomeration as pits (III). Since the nitrogen
the erosion. In an overview, it is possible to see content in DSS is higher than in common stainless
many craters with different shapes, sizes, depths steels, the occurrence of voids could be
and orientations. consequence of nitrogen introduction during the
manufacturing process of DSS [35,36].

Figure 3: SEM micrographs after 10 s exposure. (a) In details
(I) e (II) void coalescence into cracks and in (III) void
agglomeration in pits.
As seen in the Fig. 4, the surface of the specimen
exposed to a 120 s attack of the erodent particles,
several situations can be observed at the same
time. In the selected areas of the image, enlarged
below it, the crater (I) appears to be consequence
of one single impact, and shows exclusively plastic
deformation, besides the evidence of the
polyhedral shape of the particle. The shape of
crater (II) could be consequence of at least two
Figure 2: SEM micrographs of (a) polished surface and (b) impacts, with formation of side borders, or lips, as
after 3 s exposure to erosive attack. seen in upper area, where it is also evident an
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incipient fracture. In the crater (III) it is seen that
part of the border was detached, meaning some
loss of mass. Probably, the previous impacts
promoted the strain hardening of the material in the
bottom of the crater and create local conditions of
stress and strain leading to fracture and material
discard. This sequence of events, related to the
morphology of craters, match the Sundararajan-
Shewmon model on erosion by solid particle
impacts in ductile metals [9, 12, 13]. Such model
contemplates also the mechanism of lip´s fracture,
which is based on crack formation along adiabatic
shear bands (ASB), find in dynamic compression
Figure 6: Selected crater on surface of specimen exposed to
processes [37-40]. Thus, observing crater (IV), it is
erosion by 5 s
possible to see a line of fracture surrounding it,
suggesting the mechanism of fracture previewed
by the model. This is highlighted in Fig. 5.

Figure 7: Cross sectional area of the selected crater showed in
Figure 4: SEM micrograph of polished sample after 120 s of Fig. 6.
erosive attack. Craters in different status are seeing in the
outlined area and detailed below right.

Figure 8: Deeper cross section showing a displaced chip
bounded by an ASB

Figure 9: Selected crater on surface of specimen exposed to
erosion by 20 s
Figure 5: (a) Detail IV in Figure 6. Note shear fracture at the
bottom of crater, highlighted in (b)

It was chosen a crater, as shown in Fig. 6, to obtain
the cross sectional views of in surfaces exposed to
5 s and 20 s of erosive attack. Next images, Fig. 7
to 10 show the cross sectional views.
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