Chapter 1

THE FUEL SYSTEM FOR GASOLINE ENGINES
A fuel system provides a combustible air-fuel mixture to power the engine. Today’s gasoline cars commonly use carburetors and injection systems to control amount of fuel that mixes with air.

THE MAIN COMPONENTS
Pictured in Fig.1-1, the main components of the fuel system for gasoline engines are: • • • • • • FUEL TANK. FUEL PUMP. FUEL FILTER. FUEL LINES. AIR FILTER. FUEL-METERING DEVICE.

Fig. 1-1. Basic parts of the fuel system for gasoline engines.

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FUEL TANK
An automotive fuel tank must be safely held. It is normally mounted in the rear of the car, under the trunk or rear seat. See Fig. 1-2. The function of fuel tank is to store the gasoline and supply fuel during engine operation. Fuel tanks are usually made of thin sheet of metal or plastic. An average fuel tank capacity is around 12 to 25 gallons (45 to 95 liters). Fuel tank caps are sealed to prevent the escape of fuel and fuel vapors from the tanks. This cap has pressure and vacuum valves that only open under abnormal conditions of high pressure or high vacuum. See Fig. 1-3.

Fig. 1-2. Basic parts of fuel tank.

Fig. 1-3. Fuel tank cap.

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The gasoline tank contains a float, which is attached to resistance device. See Fig. 1-4. The travel of the float up and down causes the resistance to vary. Low fuel level causes float to move down; as a result, tank unit has high resistance. Low current flow does not heat bi-metal strip and therefore, gauge shows low. When the tank is full, this makes the float to move up. On the other hand, the resistor moves in low resistance position. High current flows through gauge and tank unit heats bi-metal strip. Strip bends and moves needle to full.

F

Fig. 1-4. Fuel gauge operation.

FUEL PUMP
A fuel pump draws fuel from the tank and forces it to the fuel’s metering device. There are two basic types of fuel pumps, mechanical and electrical pumps.

Mechanical fuel pump
An eccentric lobe of the engine camshaft usually powers a mechanical fuel pump. Mechanical fuel pump is commonly used with carburetor type fuel system. The mechanical fuel pump consists of a rocker arm, return spring, diaphragm,

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Fig. 1-5. Basic parts and operations of mechanical fuel pump. diaphragm spring, and check valves. See Fig. 1-5. When the eccentric lobe is pushed on the rocker arm, this pulls the diaphragm down and compresses the diaphragm spring. Since the area in the pumping chamber increases, a vacuum pulls fuel through the inlet check valve. This fills the pump with fuel. When the eccentric lobe rotates away from the pump rocker arm, this releases the diaphragm. The diaphragm spring then pushes on the diaphragm and pressurizes the fuel in the pumping chamber. The fuel flows out the outlet check valve to the carburetor.
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Electric fuel pump
An electric fuel pump, like a mechanical fuel pump, produces fuel pressure and flow for the fuel-metering device of a fuel system. Electric fuel pumps are commonly used in gasoline fuel injection systems. An electric fuel pump can be located inside the fuel tank or between the tank and the engine. There are three common types of electric fuel pumps, an impeller, a roller vane, and sliding vane. See Fig. 1-6.

Fig. 1-6. Electric fuel pumps types and operations. Impeller electric fuel pump This is a centrifugal type pump. Normally, it is located inside the fuel tank. This pump uses a small D.C. motor to spin the impeller. The impeller blades cause the fuel to fly outward due to centrifugal force. This produces enough pressure to move the fuel through the fuel lines. Roller vane electric fuel pump This is a positive displacement pump (each pump rotation moves a specific . amount of fuel). When the rotor disc and rollers spin, they pull fuel in one side. Then the fuel is trapped and pushed to a smaller area on the opposite side of the pump housing. This squeezes the fuel between the rollers and the fuel flows out under pressure.

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FUEL FILTER One or more filters are fitted in the fuel system to stop contaminants (rust. and fuel hoses are made of rubber. corrosion. Others use a sintered bronze element. Vanes (blades) are used instead of rollers. AIR FILTER 6 . Fuel lines are normally made of strong steel tubing. FUEL LINES Fuel lines and fuel hoses carry fuel from the tank to the engine. 1-7. See Fig. 1-7. Some fuel filters use pleated paper elements to trap dirt in the fuel. Both types are capable of stopping very small particles. water. dirt) from entering the carburetor or injection systems. Fuel filter.Sliding vane electric fuel pump A sliding vane electric fuel pump is similar to a roller vane pump. Fig.

The function of an air filter is to remove dirt and dust from the air entering the engine intake manifold. 1-8. The fuel-metering device for gasoline engines is divided into two systems: • • CARBURETOR SYSTEM. See Fig. Air filter. FUEL . 1-8. CARBURETOR SYSTEM 7 . FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM. Fig. Most air filters are made of paper element.METERING DEVICE A fuel-metering device which controls the amount of fuel that mixes with air.

BASIC CARBURETOR SYSTEMS Carburetor systems are a network of passages and related parts that help control the air-fuel ratio under a specific engine operating condition. Fig. Also called a carburetor circuits. 1-9. Carburetor bolts to engine intake manifold. speed. each system applies a predetermined air-fuel mixture as the temperature.A carburetor is basically a device for mixing air and fuel in the correct proportions for efficient combustion. See Fig. must be capable of providing air-fuel ratios of approximately: 8 . The air cleaner fits over the top of the carburetor to trap dust and dirt. performance of the engine. The carburetor bolts to the engine intake manifold. 1-9. Functions of the carburetor are: • • To mix air with gasoline in suitable proportions to obtain the desired To atomize the liquid fuel. and load of the engine change. An automotive carburetor. using its various systems.

18 : 1 for normal cruising at highway speeds. See Fig. 16 : 1 for idling. IDLE SYSTEM (provides a small amount of fuel for low speed engine OFF-IDLE SYSTEM (provides correct air-fuel mixture slightly above idle ACCELERATION SYSTEM (squirts fuel into air horn when throttle valve HIGH-SPEED SYSTEM (supplies lean air-fuel mixture at cruising speeds). FULL-POWER SYSTEM (enriches fuel mixture slightly when engine CHOKE SYSTEM (provides extremely rich air-fuel mixture for cold engine operation). the float pushes the needle valve back into the seat. Parts: Fuel bowl. and to supply fuel for all circuits. As the fuel level in the bowl rises. 15 : 1 for part throttle.• • • • • 8 : 1 for cold engine starting. The needle valve also drops away from its seat. the float 9 . starting). The seven basic carburetor systems are: • • • • • • • FLOAT SYSTEM (maintains supply of fuel in carburetor bowl). 1-10. speeds). 13 : 1 for full acceleration. This makes the fuel level and float drop in the bowl. needle seat. opens and engines speed increases). Operation: When the engine speed or load increases. When the fuel level is high enough. and bowl vent. FLOAT SYSTEM Function: To maintain the correct level of fuel in carburetor bowl. needle valve. The fuel pump can then force more fuel into the bowl. fuel is rapidly pulled out of the fuel bowl and into the venturi. float. power demands are high).

With the engine running. Operation: For the idle system to function. 1-10. 10 . Then high intake manifold vacuum below throttle plates pulls fuel out idle port. idle port.m. or 20 M. and to atomize the liquid fuel. Basic parts and operations of the float system. (At speeds below approximately 800 r. 1-11. throttle plates must be closed.H. bypass. (32 km/hr)). Mixture screw allows adjustment of mixture at idle. economizer.P. the needle valve usually lets some fuel leak into the bowl.closes the opening between the needle valve and seat. Parts: Main discharge tube. and an idle mixture screw. a low speed jet. Air bleed helps premix air with fuel. IDLE SYSTEM Function: To provide a small amount of fuel for low speed engine operation.p. idle air bleed. Fig. idle passage. See Fig.

(Above approximately 800 r. bypass. (32 km/hr)). idle passage. See Fig. idle air bleed.p. and an idle mixture screw. Basic parts and operations of idle system.Fig. idle port. 11 .m. or 20 M. a low speed jet. 1-12. Parts: Main discharge tube. OFF-IDLE SYSTEM Function: To feed more fuel when the throttle plates are partially open. economizer. 1-11.H.P. off-idle port.

Operation: The off-idle system begins to function when the driver presses lightly on the gas pedal. This provides enough extra fuel to mix with the additional air flowing around the throttle plates. Basic parts and operations of the off-idle system. Vacuum then begins to pull fuel out of the idle screw port and off-idle ports. ACCELERATION SYSTEM 12 . As the throttle plates open. they expose the off-idle ports to intake manifold vacuum. 1-12.Fig.

This closes the pump check weight and opens the pump check ball. Basic parts and operations of the acceleration system. The acceleration system squirts a stream of extra fuel into air horn whenever the gas pedal is pressed. the throttle plates open. Parts: Pump linkage. See Fig. Pressure lifts the pump check weight off its seat and fuel squirts into the carburetor air horns. pump reservoir. HIGH-SPEED SYSTEM 13 . and pump nozzle. As the gas pedal is released. 1-13. Acceleration pump pressure closes the pump check ball and fuel flow toward the pump check weight. This causes the acceleration pump piston or diaphragm to compress the fuel in the pump reservoir. Fuel flows out of the bowl to refill the acceleration pump reservoir. the pump piston or diaphragm retracts. Fig. pump check ball. acceleration pump. Operation: When the driver presses the gas pedal. 1-13. pump check weight.Function: To provide extra fuel when changing from the idle circuits to the highspeed circuits.

1-14. main discharge passage. 1-14. and finally pulled out the main nozzle into the engine after mixing with the air. high power conditions. air bleed. Then. and venturi. It functions from about 20 to 55 M. Fuel flows through the main jet. Parts: Main jet.m. This circuit begins to function when the throttle plates are open wide enough for venturi. the fuel flows into the main discharge passage. Operation: When engine speed is high enough. FULL. Parts: Main jet. (32 to 89 km/hr) or 2000 to 3000 r. 14 . See Fig. main discharge passage. air bleed. airflow through the carburetor forms a high vacuum in the venturi. Fig. which meters the amount of gasoline entering the circuit.Function: To supply the engine air-fuel mixture at normal cruising speeds. and venturi.p.POWER SYSTEM Function: To provide a means of enriching the fuel mixture for high speed. metering rod linkage. 1-15. Basic parts and operations of the high speed system.H.P. See Fig. The vacuum pulls fuel through the main jet. metering rod.

As a result. A choke is used to prevent this lean condition. not enough fuel vapors enter the combustion chambers and the engine could miss or stall when cold. When gas pedal is released.Fig. the metering rod will move down inside the main jet. flow is restricted and leaner fuel mixture results. the fuel entering the intake manifold tends to condense into liquid . throttle linkage acts on metering rod linkage. Basic parts and operations of the full power system. For fuel mixture to burn properly. the fuel entering the intake manifold must atomize and vaporize. CHOKE SYSTEM Function: To supply an extremely rich air-fuel ratio to aid cold engine starting. Metering rod is lifted out of main jet to add more fuel to the mixture. Either mechanical linkage or engine vacuum can be used to operate a metering rod. 15 . 1-15. When the engine is cold. Operation: When gas pedal is pushed down for full power.

1-16. TYPES OF THE CARBURETORS Automotive carburetors are available in single barrel. Basic parts and operations of the choke system. hot air causes thermostatic spring to open choke plates. See Fig. and other parts depending upon choke design. and four-barrel (four air horns in one body) designs. The amount of fuel and air that enters the engine is a factor limiting engine horsepower output. thermostatic spring closes choke plates. thermostatic spring. This allows the engine to develop more power. Operation: When engine is cold. All are illustrated in Fig. Multiple barrel carburetors are used to provide increased “engine breathing” (air intake). Fig. 1-17. Extra carburetor barrels allow more air and fuel into the engine at wide-open throttle. 16 . High vacuum below choke pulls large a mount of fuel out main discharge. 1-16.Parts: Choke plate's valve. two-barrel (two air horns in single body). When engine warms.

1-17.Fig. Carburetor primary and secondary circuits Two-barrel and four-barrel carburetors are divided into two sections: the primary and the secondary circuits. Types of the carburetors. 17 .

See Fig. Under normal driving conditions. 1-18. See Fig. See Fig. 1-18. causing the secondary circuits to function. This opens the secondary throttle plates for increased engine horsepower. Vacuum pulls on the diaphragm and compresses the diaphragm spring. Carburetor primary and secondary circuits. If the driver presses on the gasoline pedal. the airflow will increase in the primary circuit producing enough vacuums to operate the secondary diaphragm. 1-18. A diaphragm is connected to the secondary throttle lever.The primary circuit of a carburetor includes the components that operate under normal driving conditions. A secondary diaphragm is normally used to open the secondary throttle plates. A vacuum passage runs from this diaphragm to the venturi in the primary throttle bore. Fig. The secondary circuit of a carburetor consists of the components that function under high engine power output conditions. The engine would run using only the primary of the carburetor. vacuum in the primary is not high enough to actuate the secondary diaphragm and throttles. 1-18. 18 .

Defective fuel pump. Leaking vacuum lines to accessory equipment. Defective gaskets in carburetor. Clogged fuel lines or fuel filter. Loose intake manifold attaching bolts. High float level Incorrect choke adjustment. 19 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Poor Idling • • • • • • • • • • • Hard Starting . Worn or inoperative accelerating pump. Defective gaskets in carburetor. Incorrect float level. Defective choke. Incorrect adjustment of idle mixture screw. Air leak in fuel line. Incorrect fuel level in fuel bowl. Dirt in carburetor jets and passages. Leaking vacuum lines. Loose carburetor. Sticking float needle valve. Clogged exhaust system. Clogged air cleaner. Defective gasket between carburetor and intake manifold.CARBURETOR PROBLEMS Poor Engine Performance • Air leak at carburetor or intake manifold. Defective fuel pump. Incorrect float level. Idle discharge holes partly clogged.to – intake manifold nuts. Clogged or dirty carburetor air filter.

High float level. Defective gaskets in carburetor. Clogged accelerator jets or passages. Incorrect fuel level. Incorrect adjustment of idle mixture screw. Stick float needle valve.Poor Acceleration • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Accelerator pumps inoperative. Accelerator pump leather hard or worn. Defective ball checks in accelerator system. Float level too high. Fuel leaks in carburetor or lines. Dirty air cleaner. Carburetor Floods Excessive Fuel Consumption 20 . Dirty carburetor. Cracked carburetor body.

center of the intake manifold. 1-19-A. A few of these include: • Improved atomization (fuel is forced into intake manifold under pressure Better fuel distribution (more equal flow of fuel into each cylinder). each injector positioned close to inlet valve of the engine. and distribution). This means that the fuel is sprayed into the intake manifold ports. metering. and SINGLE – POINT FUEL INJECTION. • result in more horsepower output). has separate injectors for each cylinder.POINT FUEL INJECTION. See Fig. See Fig. atomization. Most gasoline injection systems are indirect injection. This classification is based on the number and positions of injectors: • MULTI-POINT FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM. Gasoline injection systems can be divided into two main groups: MULTI . 21 . Gasoline is sprayed into each intake port and toward each engine intake valve. Better cold weather driveability (injection provides better control of mixture Increased engine power (precise metering of fuel to each cylinder can which helps break fuel droplets into a fine mist). Fuel is sprayed into the top. Smoother idle (lean fuel mixture can be used without rough idle because Improved fuel economy (high efficiency because of more precise fuel Lower emissions (efficient air-fuel mixture reduces exhaust pollution). has the injector nozzle in throttle body assembly on top of the engine. • • • of better fuel distribution). also called port injection. • • enrichment than a carburetor choke).GASOLINE INJECTION SYSTEM A gasoline injection system has several possible advantages over a carburetor type fuel system. 1-19-B. • SINGLE-POINT FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM.

Multi-point fuel injection. This means that the fuel is sprayed into the engine intake manifold ports. Single-point fuel injection. The system controls fuel flow. MULTI-POINT HYDRAULIC.mechanical fuel injection systems: KJetronic and KE . B. K. not by means of an electronic control unit but by using a fuel distributor. Anytime the engine is running.Jetronic.MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM Hydraulic-mechanical fuel injection system is a continuous injection system that sprays fuel into the intake manifold all of the time. all the time. some fuel is forced out of the injector nozzle and into the engine. System operating pressures range from around 50 – 60 psi.JETRONIC SYSTEM Hydraulic-mechanical type K-Jetronic feeds fuel through all of the injectors. mechanically controlled by a hinged airflow sensor. There are two common types of hydraulic. Anytime the engine is running. Hydraulic-mechanical fuel injection system is an indirect injection. 1-20.Fig. MULTI-POINT FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM There are two common types of multi-point fuel injection systems: HYDRAULICMECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM and ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM. 1-19-A. some fuel is forced out of the injector nozzle and into the engine. See Fig. 22 .

will raise the control plunger and allow more fuel to pass to the chamber. 1-20. These extra fuel flows will more than make up for the fuel that is escaping past the valve to the injector. which. Fuel distributor and airflow sensor controls the quantity of the fuel delivered to the injectors. Lever arm pushes up lightly on the fuel control plunger and opens a slit to allow fuel to the chamber. See Fig. so the extra downward force produced by 23 . Opening the throttle plate will give a greater air flow. Hydraulic-mechanical fuel injection type K-Jetronic. The flow of fuel from the chamber slightly lowers the downward force on the diaphragm. which corresponds to the amount that the control plunger is moved. so the disc will raise further. the force of the spring moves the diaphragm downwards and opens the valve at the center of the diaphragm to release the fuel to the injector. the electric fuel pump draws gasoline out of the tank and passes it to the accumulator.Fig. so a valve-open position is reached. in turn. low airflow only moves sensor plate a little. At idle. 1-20. the pressurized fuel will be entering the fuel filter and then to the fuel distributor. After passing accumulator. Although fuel pressure now acts on both sides of the diaphragm. Operation On starting the engine.

1-21. consists of a venturi (1) in the induction pipe into which is fitted a movable disc (2). Fuel distributor and airflow sensor This controls the quantity of fuel delivered to the injectors.1-21. 24 . Mounted around the plunger are a number of diaphragm valves (5). Attached to the disc is a counter-balanced lever (3). which acts on a control plunger (4). see Fig. The air sensor. The purpose of these valves is to provide a fuel supply to the injectors that are proportional to the movement of the control plunger. opens the valve further and increases the quantity of fuel going to the injector. Fig. one for each injector. K-Jetronic fuel distributor and airflow sensor.the fuel pressure lowers the diaphragm.

1-23. This prevents fuel from dripping into the engine. The fuel is pulled into the engine when the intake valves open.Continuous fuel injector A continuous fuel injector is simply a spring-loaded valve. See Fig. When the engine is running. A steady stream of gasoline then sprays toward each engine intake valve. This aids faster engine restarting. the injector spring holds the injector valve closed. 1-23. 1-22. fuel pressure builds from fuel distributor pushes the injector valve open. The injector is usually push-fitted into rubber bushings in the cylinder head or intake manifold. It injects fuel all the time when the engine is running. Warm-up regulator 25 . Fuel accumulator. Fuel accumulator The fuel accumulator is spring-loaded diaphragm used in an injection system to dampen pressure pulses of the pump. With the engine off. Fig. Continuous injector. 1-22. A spring holds the valve in a normally closed position. See Fig. A filter in the injector traps dirt. The accumulator may also maintain pressure when the engine is shut down. Fig.

When engine warms enough. It consists of a valve. See Fig. Cold-start injector 26 . 1-25. electrical current heats bi-metal strip and gradually closes valve. Fig. 1-24. thermo-time switch opens the circuit to shut off injector. Cold start injector then sprays extra fuel into engine to help keep the cold engine running smoothly. During warm-up. operated by a bimetallic strip. Thermo – time switch Thermo – time switch energizes cold start injector when engine temperature is low enough. This tends to increase fuel mixture. Basic cold start injector. 1-24. Fig. See Fig. open valve reduce pressure acting on the end of plunger. Warm-up regulator. 1-25. When the engine is cold. thermo-time switch circuit.This controls the mixture enrichment during engine warm-up.

When the engine warms up. 1-26. See Fig. Cold-start injector. The function of this valve is to supply more air to engine during the warm-up. 1-26.A cold-start injector is an additional fuel injector valve used to supply extra gasoline for cold engine starting. Fig. The additional airflow causes a greater deflection of the airflow meter plate. See Fig.1-27. Idle air bypass valve. Thermo-time switch is used to operate cold-start injector. The idle air bypass valve is designed somewhat like a sliding gate valve in that it should be fully open on a cold engine and closed on a warm engine. this valve closes off. 1-27. Idle air bypass valve The idle air bypass valve is operated by a bimetallic spring or expansion element. This causes the engine to idle at a higher speed during warm-up. Fig. as a result of which it runs smoothly. Fuel pressure regulator 27 .

The function of fuel pressure regulator is to maintain constant fuel pressure entering fuel distributor. Fuel can flow back to the fuel tank. When a preset pressure is reached. 1-28. 1-29 with the K system. See Fig. the following parts are some of the differences: 28 . Fuel pressure regulator. This limits the maximum fuel pressure entering the fuel distributor. The valve compresses the spring and opens the fuel valve. the spring holds the fuel valve closed. 1-28. When fuel pressure is low (initial engine starting). This causes pressure to build as fuel flows into the regulator from the electric fuel pump. The modified system is called KE-Jetronic. and by virtue of the inherent “intelligence” of the electronic control unit (ECU). The fuel pressure regulator consists of a fuel valve. KE-JETRONIC SYSTEM Closer matching of the mixture to meet changing loads and operating conditions and the introduction of stricter emission control regulations have induced the manufacturers to modify the K-Jetronic system. the modified system is able to vary the mixture to suit a wide range of operating conditions. pressure acts on the valve. Control of the mechanical system by electronic means allows the mixture to be set more accurately. Idle mixture adjustment screw (CO adjustment) To adjust idle mixture of the engine. Comparing the KE system shown in Fig. Fig. and spring.

lambda sensor. Hydraulic-mechanical fuel injection type KE-Jetronic.Acts as the brain of the system. It analyses the signals it receives from the throttle valve switch. This would reduce or limit fuel pressure. which control the fuel mixture. Low engine vacuum would indicate high engine load. especially warm-up. acceleration and full-load operation. and then sends output signals to the actuators. • Electronic control unit (computer) .• Fuel pressure regulator-more precise control of the system fuel pressure is obtained by using a modified regulator valve. 1-29. which takes into account manifold depression. airflow potentiometer. and temperature sensors. • Electro-hydraulic pressure actuator-Functions as a fine mixture adjustment control to vary the air/fuel ratio slightly to suit all engine conditions. Vacuum would act on diaphragm. Spring could then hold regulator closed to increase fuel pressure for more power. 29 . High engine vacuum would indicate low load. Fig. opening regulator return to tank.

• Defective fuel accumulator. Defective fuel distributor. 30 . Air in the fuel line. Dirty injectors. Defective airflow sensor. • Defective fuel pressure regulator. Clogged exhaust system. Hard Starting • Defective cold-start injector. Defective electro-hydraulic pressure actuator in KE-jetronic system. • • Defective injectors. Air leak at intake manifold. • Defective electro-hydraulic pressure actuator in KE-jetronic system. • Defective fuel distributor. Defective fuel pump.HYDRAULIC-MECHANICAL FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM PROBLEMS Poor Engine Performance • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Clogged or dirty air filter. • Defective warm-up regulator in K-jetronic system. Defective sensors in KE. Defective injectors. Defective thermo-time switch. • Defective fuel pump. Defective fuel pressure regulator. • Dirty injectors.jetronic system. • Defective idle air bypass valve. Clogged fuel lines or fuel filter. Defective computer in KE-jetronic system. Leaking vacuum lines.

Defective engine coolant temperature sensor in KE-jetronic system. Defective idle air bypass valve. This means that the fuel is sprayed into the engine intake manifold ports. There are generally as many injectors as there are cylinders. LH . Defective electro-hydraulic pressure actuator in KE-jetronic system.Jetronic. Most multi-point electronic fuel injection systems are intermittent. Fuel leaking. Defective fuel distributor. L3. Dirty injectors. This means that the injectors are not energized at the same time. Defective lambda sensor in KE-jetronic system. In multi-point electronic fuel injection system uses engine sensors and a computer to control the opening and closing of injection valve. There are different types of intermittent injection. The injectors can be turned ON and OFF in pairs or in a specific sequence that is related to valve timing. Air induction system. Excessive Fuel Consumption • • • • • • • • • • • • • MULTI-POINT ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM Multi-point electronic fuel injection system is indirect injection. Incorrect adjustment of idle mixture screw. Defective injectors.Jetronic. and Motronic systems. Defective thermo-time switch.• Defective engine coolant temperature sensor in KE-jetronic system. multi-point electronic fuel injection system can be divided into four subsystems: • • Fuel delivery system. There are four common types of multi-point electronic fuel injection systems: L. Defective fuel pressure regulator.Jetronic. Defective warm-up regulator in K-jetronic system. Defective cold-start injector. 31 . Generally.

injector valves. and connecting lines and hoses. Sensor system Crankshaft position sensor 4. The fuel pressure regulator controls the amount of pressure entering the injector valves. The electric fuel pump draws gasoline out of the tank and forces it into the fuel pressure regulator. Fuel delivery system Fuel 3. 1-31. These four subsystems are illustrated in Fig. See Fig. Multi-point electronic fuel injection. fuel pressure regulator. 1-30. Fuel delivery system The fuel delivery system of multi-point EFI system includes an electric fuel pump. fuel filter.• • Sensor system. 1-32. 32 . 1-30. this would indicate Idle air bypass valve Connected to intake manifold vacuum 2. See Fig. Computer control system. When engine vacuum is low. Air induction system 1. computer control system Distributor RPM sensor Fig.

1-33. high engine load. A fuel injector for multi-point EFI system is simply a coil or solenoid operated fuel valve that sprays and atomizes the fuel. spring pressure makes the injector remain closed. this would indicate low load. See Fig. When engine vacuum is high. When not energized. opening regulator return to tank and reduce fuel pressure. keeping fuel from entering the 33 . Fig. This maintains a preset amount of fuel pressure for injector valve operation. 1-32. Fuel delivery system. Vacuum would act on diaphragm.Fig. Fuel pressure regulator operation. Spring could then hold regulator return closed to increase fuel pressure for more power. 1-31.

When current flows from the computer through the injector coil. 1-33. and connecting ducts. the magnetic field attracts the injector armature. idle air bypass valve. Multi-point EFI injector operation. throttle valves. The injector valve opens. Fuel then squirts into intake manifold under pressure.Fig. engine. Air induction system An air induction system for multi-point EFI typically consists of an air filter. 34 .

When the pedal is depressed. airflow sensor. See Fig. Idle air bypass valve or idle speed actuator. Sensor system The multi-point EFI sensors system monitors engine-operating conditions and reports this information to the computer. The computer decides to increase or decrease the idle rpm after receiving input signals from the sensors. throttle position sensor. also called idle speed actuator. A typical EFI sensors system consists of an exhaust gas or oxygen sensor. Like a carburetor throttle valve. it controls engine power out put. crankshaft position sensor or distributor rpm sensor. engine coolant temperature sensor. it is connected to the driver’s gas pedal. the throttle valve swings open to allow air to rush into the engine. When open. In turn. 1-34. intake manifold pressure (vacuum) sensor. the valve decreases bypass air and idle speed. The system computer opens and closes the idle air bypass valve. This keeps the idle speed at a constant rpm. inlet air temperature sensor. An idle air bypass valve. Fig. regardless of the load placed on the engine while idling. and other sensors. This tends to increase idle rpm.The throttle valve regulators how much airflows in the engine. 35 . When closed. 1-34. is used in multi-point EFI to help control engine idle speed. It is solenoid operated air bypass valve. the idle air bypass valve allows more air to enter the intake manifold.

An intake manifold pressure sensor. To close the injector. To open an injector.). The computer. An engine coolant temperature sensor. An inlet air temperature sensor. A wiring harness connects the engine sensors to the input of the computer. Computer control system The computer control system uses electrical data from the sensors to control the operation of the fuel injectors. also called an ELECTRONIC CONTROL UNIT (ECU). the computer opens the circuit between the battery and the injector coil. ENGINE SENSORS Typical sensors for multi-point EFI system include: • • • • • • • • An exhaust gas or oxygen sensor (Lambda sensor). The ECU uses sensor output to calculate when and how long to open the fuel injectors. A crankshaft position sensor. Another wiring harness connects the output of the computer to the fuel injectors.Engine sensors are an electrical device that changes circuit resistance or voltage with a change in a condition (temperature. An airflow sensor. pressure. A distributor rpm sensor. position of parts. etc. is the ‘’brain’’ of the electronic fuel injection system. Exhaust gas or oxygen sensor (Lambda sensor) 36 . the computer connects the injector coil to battery voltage. A throttle position sensor.

37 . It fits into the exhaust manifold or pipe at a point before the catalytic converter. Intake manifold pressure sensor Measures the pressure (vacuum) inside the engine intake manifold. In this way. 1-36. 1-35. See Fig. The computer can then alter the opening and closing of the injectors to maintain a correct air-fuel ratio for maximum efficiency. Intake manifold pressure sensor. the sensor supplies data (different current levels) to the computer. requiring a rich mixture. 1-36. An increase in oxygen (lean mixture) might make the sensor output voltage decrease. 1-35. The oxygen sensor voltage output changes with any change in the content of the exhaust. High pressure (low intake vacuum) indicates a high load. Exhaust gas or oxygen sensor. A decrease in oxygen (rich mixture) might cause the sensor output to increase.Measures the oxygen content in the engine’s exhaust system as a means of checking combustion efficiency. See Fig. Fig. Engine manifold pressure is an excellent indicator of engine load. Fig.

Fig. 1-37. The computer can then enrich or make lean mixture as needed. The computer would then enrich the air-fuel mixture for cold engine operation. This data is used by computer to alter the fuel mixture. Engine coolant temperature sensor Monitors the operating temperature of the engine. requiring a leaner mixture. When the engine warms. the sensor would supply information (high resistance) so that the computer could make the mixture leaner. When the throttle swings open for more power or closes for less power. the sensor might provide a high current flow (low resistance). See Fig. 1-37. Throttle position sensor Is a variable resistor connected to the throttle plate shaft. the sensor changes resistance and signals the computer. When the engine is cold. It is mounted so that it is exposed to the engine coolant. The manifold pressure sensor changes resistance with changes in engine load. 38 . 1-38. Throttle position sensor. See Fig.Low manifold pressure (high intake vacuum) indicates very little load.

Airflow sensor. Airflow sensor Is used in many EFI systems to measure the amount of outside air entering the engine. The airflow sensor is usually an air flap that operates a variable resistor or hotwire air-mass meter. air flap types. See Fig. 1-39. Since the air flap is connected to a variable resistor. Airflow through the sensor causes an air flap to swing to one side. Engine coolant temperature sensor. An airflow sensor.1-39. Fig. This helps the computer to determine how much fuel is needed.Fig. is a flap-operated variable resistor. the amount of airflow into the engine is converted into an electrical signal for the computer. The computer can then enrich or make lean mixture as needed. 39 . 1-38. air flap types.

Fig. The voltage required to provide this current gives an indication of the inducted air mass. Inlet air temperature sensor Measures the temperature of the air entering the engine. has a hot wire made of platinum element which is heated by an electric current sufficient to maintain it at a constant temperature. 40 . so a large current has to be passed through the wire to prevent a drop in its temperature.An airflow sensor. 1-40. the cooling action is greater. The air temperature sensor helps the computer compensate for changes in outside air temperature and maintain an almost perfect air-fuel mixture ratio. requiring a little less fuel. Airflow sensor. Cold air is more dense than warm air. See Fig. requiring a little more fuel. This voltage is signaled to ECU to enable the ECU to compute initially the basic quantity of fuel. Warm air is not as dense as cold air. hot-wire air-mass meter types. The quantity is then slightly altered to take account of the signals it receives from other engine sensors. When the airflow is increased. hot-wire air-mass meter types. 1-41. 1-40. See Fig.

Some engines used a crankshaft position sensor to detect engine speed. Another engines used a distributor rpm sensor to detect engine speed. This data is used by the computer to alter the fuel mixture. 1-42.Fig. Crankshaft position sensor or Distributor rpm sensor Crankshaft position sensor or distributor rpm sensor is used to detect engine speed. Lower engine speeds require less fuel. 41 . 1-43. 1-41. See Fig. Higher engine speeds generally require more fuel. They allow the computer to change injector opening with changes in engine rpm. Fig. An inlet air temperature sensor. 1-42. See Fig. Crankshaft position sensor.

Under full acceleration. 1-44. the computer will sense a wide-open throttle. The computer would then increase injector pulse width to enrich the mixture for more power. 42 . 1-44. Fig.Fig. Distributor rpm sensor. See Fig. high intake manifold pressure. Injector pulse width. 1-43. INJECTOR PULSE WIDTH The injector pulse width indicates the amount of time each injector is energized and kept open. The computer controls the injector pulse width. and high inlet airflow.

the air-fuel mixture will be leaner for better fuel economy. The L-jetronic system uses airflow sensor. air flap types. • Computer control system. engine coolant connecting ducts). for initial engine start-up. the relay will cut off the circuit between the battery and the electric fuel pump. inlet air temperature sensor. the electric fuel pump draws the fuel from fuel tank at pressure of approximately 2. which injects fuel intermittently into the intake manifold ports. fuel accumulator. fuel lines diverge to the injection valves (injectors) and to the cold start injector. After two seconds. When the ignition switch is rotated to the start position and the engine is running. 1-45. lambda sensor. the relay connects the circuit between the battery and the electric fuel pump. which computes this time based 43 . idle air bypass valve. and connecting lines and hoses). With the injectors being closed a large percentage of time. to measure the amount of outside air entering the engine. typically consists of: • Fuel delivery system (electric fuel pump. From the fuel rail. The L-jetronic system. cold start injector. battery voltage powers the ECU and the electric fuel pump through the relay. the computer will shorten the injector pulse width. and distributor rpm sensor or crankshaft position sensor). 1-45. See Fig. throttle valves. fuel filter. the time during which the fuel injection valves remain open is controlled by the signal from the ECU. which is connected to variable resistor. and Sensor system (airflow sensor. • • Air induction system (air filter.5 bar (36 psi) through a filter into the fuel rail. temperature sensor. With the engine running. For two seconds. fuel pressure regulator. throttle position sensor. fuel injectors.Under low load conditions. Operation When the ignition switch is turned on and the engine is stationary. Fig. L-JETRONIC FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM The L-Jetronic is an electronically controlled fuel injection system.

20.Ignition-starter switch. 11.Airflow. 4. 5.Relay combination.idle-speed adjusting screw.fuel tank. 12. 10. 9. 2. 15. 18.Thermo-time switch. 16. 3.lambda sensor.Throttle valve. throttle position sensor.Fuel filter. 44 . L-Jetronic fuel injection system. 17. engine coolant temperature sensor.Throttle position sensor.Idle air bypass valve. 19.Distributor pipe. Fig.Battery.Electric fuel pump.Control unit (computer). 14. 21. 6. inlet air temperature sensor.Engine temperature sensor.Idle-mixture adjusting screw. 1-45. 1. 8. 7.Ignition distributor. distributor rpm sensor or crankshaft position sensor.Injection valve (injector). 13.Fuel pressure regulator.Cold start injector.on the signals received from the engine mounted sensors (airflow sensor. and lambda sensor).

1-46. 1-46 and Fig. see Fig. The L3-jetronic differs from L-Jetronic in respect of the following details. adaptation capabilities to be implemented as compared with the previous analog techniques used. which is suitable for installation in the engine compartment.L3-JETRONIC FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM The L3-Jetronic fuel injection system has the same components of the L-Jetronic fuel injection system but there is some difference between them. is attached to the airflow sensor and thus no longer requires space in the passenger compartment. L3-Jetronic fuel injection system. 1-47: • The control unit. Fig. • • The combined unit of control unit and airflow sensor with internal The use of digital techniques permits new function with improved connections simplifies the cable harness and reduces installation expense. 45 .

MOTRONIC FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM 46 . LH-Jetronic fuel injection system. See Fig. Fig.Fig. LH-JETRONIC FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM The LH-Jetronic is closely related to the L-Jetronic. Integration of ECU and airflow sensor of the L3-Jetronic system.1-47. 1-48. The difference lies in the hotwire air-mass meter which measures the air mass inducted by the engine instead of air flap types. 1-48.

The same sensors can be used for both the fuel injection and ignition. See Fig. with both systems being controlled by a common digital microcomputer. 1-49. MULTI-POINT ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM PROBLEMS 47 . Fig. thus more is achieved at a lower cost than with two separate systems. 1-49. Motronic fuel injection system.The Motronic fuel injection system uses an L-Jetronic system or LH-Jetronic system coupled with an electronic ignition system.

Defective fuel pump. Defective engine coolant temperature sensor. • Defective thermo-time switch. Defective sensors. Defective fuel accumulator. Defective idle air bypass valve. Air in the fuel lines. Dirty injectors. Clogged exhaust system. Defective thermo-time switch. Defective inlet air temperature sensor. Clogged or dirty air filter. Dirty injectors. Defective fuel pump. Defective idle air bypass valve. Defective injectors.Poor Engine Performance • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Air leak at intake manifold. Defective cold-start injector. Clogged fuel lines or fuel filter. • Defective lambda sensor. Leaking vacuum lines. Defective injectors. • Defective cold-start injector. Defective fuel pressure regulator. Defective computer. 48 . Hard Starting Excessive Fuel Consumption • Defective fuel pressure regulator. Defective fuel pressure regulator.

and MONO-MOTRONIC SYSTEM. • Fuel pressure regulator. • Throttle plates. 1-50. 49 . has the injector nozzles in a throttle body assembly on top of the engine. typically consists of: • Throttle body housing. Fig. This means that the fuel is sprayed into the engine intake manifold ports. • Defective inlet air temperature sensor. Fuel is sprayed into an intake manifold and then delivered to the cylinders. • Computer control system. • Idle air control valve. • Defective engine coolant temperature sensor. • Fuel injectors. There are three common types of single-point electronic fuel injection systems: THROTTLE BODY INJECTION (TBI) SYSTEM. Single-point electronic fuel injection system. THROTTLE BODY INJECTION SYSTEM (TBI system of General Motors) The TBI system. MONO-JETRONIC SYSTEM. • Defective injectors.• Defective idle air bypass valve. • Sensor system. • Dirty injectors. SINGLE-POINT ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM Single-point electronic fuel injection system. is indirect injection system. • Fuel leaking. The injector is pulsed on and off so fast that it sprays a steady stream of fuel into an intake manifold.

the time during which the fuel injection valves remain open is controlled by the signal from the ECU. For two seconds. throttle position sensor. Crankshaft position sensor Airflow sensor Computer Control Injector pulses Analyze needs Oxygen sensor Intake manifold pressure sensor Inlet air temperature sensor Coolant temperature sensor Throttle position sensor Fig. engine coolant temperature sensor. the relay connects the circuit between the battery and the electric fuel pump.Operation When the ignition switch is turned on and the engine is stationary. the electric fuel pump draws the fuel from fuel tank at pressure of approximately 2. After two seconds. battery voltage powers the ECU and the electric fuel pump through the relay. which computes this time based on the signals received from the engine mounted sensors (airflow sensor. and lambda sensor).5 bar (36 psi) through a filter into the fuel injector. the relay will cut off the circuit between the battery and the electric fuel pump. With the engine running. distributor rpm sensor or crankshaft position sensor. for initial engine start-up. 1-50. Throttle body housing 50 . inlet air temperature sensor. When the ignition switch is rotated to the start position and the engine is running. See Fig. Throttle body injection system (TBI). 1-50.

a magnetic field is produced in the injector coil. 1-51. 51 . An outlet return line to the tank connects to another fitting on the throttle body. armature or plunger. The TBI housing bolts to the pad on the intake manifold. needle seat. When the computer energizes the injectors. See Fig. needle valve. like a carburetor body. Throttle plates are mounted in the lower section of the throttle body. 1-51. The magnetic field pulls the plunger and valves up to open the injector. An inlet fuel line connects to one fitting on the throttle body. Throttle body injector It is a solenoid operated fuel valves mounted in upper section of throttle body assembly. throttle valves.It is a metal casting that holds injectors. Fuel can then squirt through the injector nozzle and into the engine. Fig. and injector spring. A linkage mechanism or cable connects the throttle plates with the driver’s gas pedal. 1-52. The TBI throttle body. fuel pressure regulator. See Fig. and other parts. Wires from the computer (electronic control unit) connect to the terminals on the injectors. A throttle body injector consists of an electric solenoid coil. bolts to the pad on the intake manifold.

The valve can be used to control both slow and fast idle speeds. The system computer normally opens and closes the idle air control valve. Throttle body injector. The throttle body fuel pressure regulator consists of a fuel valve. When open. This limits the maximum fuel pressure at the injectors. When fuel pressure is low (initial engine starting). 52 . Idle air control valve An idle air control valve is used in a TBI to help control engine idle speed. the idle air control valve allows more air to enter the intake manifold. When a preset pressure is reached. See Fig. It is a solenoid operated air bypass valve. This causes pressure to build as fuel flows into the regulator from the electric fuel pump. The diaphragm compresses the spring and opens the fuel valve. pressure acts on the diaphragm. See Fig. Throttle body fuel pressure regulator It is a spring-loaded bypass valve that maintains constant fuel pressure at injectors. and spring. When closed. Fuel can then flow back to the fuel tank. the valve decreases bypass air and idle speed. diaphragm. 1-53. 1-53. This tends to increase idle rpm.Fig. 1-52. the spring holds the fuel valve closed.

but the difference lies in the control of idle speed. and distributor rpm sensor or crankshaft position sensor). MONO-JETRONIC FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM (Bosch Company) Mono-Jetronic is an electronically controlled. Another wiring harness connects the output of the computer to the fuel injectors. Sensor system Monitors engine operating conditions and reports this information to the computer (crankshaft position sensor. Computer control system The computer control system uses electrical data from the sensors to control the operation of the fuel injectors. intake manifold pressure sensor. engine coolant temperature sensor. A wiring harness connects the engine sensors to the input of the computer. single-point injection system for 4 cylinder engines. Basic parts of TBI. exhaust gas or oxygen sensor. throttle position sensor. inlet air temperature sensor. Fig. 1-53. airflow sensor.Throttle plate It is butterfly valves that control airflow through throttle body. 53 . Mono-jetronic fuel injection system has the same components of throttle body injection system (TBI). 1-53. See Fig.

When the throttle valve actuator (idle speed switch) pushing the throttle valve lever. the position of throttle valve actuator (idle speed switch) is closed to the throttle valve lever.In Mono-Jetronic fuel injection system. 1-54. 54 . 1-54. Fig. this tends to increase idle speed of the engine. See Fig. Mono-Jetronic fuel injection system.

1-55.MOTRONIC FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM (Bosch Company) The Mono-Motronic fuel injection system has the same components of the MonoJetronic fuel injection system but there is some difference between them. with both systems being controlled by a common digital microcomputer. Mono-Motronic fuel injection system coupled with an electronic ignition system. SINGLE-POINT ELECTRONIC FUEL INJECTION SYSTEM PROBLEMS 55 . Mono-Motronic fuel injection system. thus more is achieved at a lower cost than with two separate systems. The same sensors can be used for both the fuel injection and ignition. See Fig. 1-55.MONO . Fig.

Clogged or dirty air filter. Defective inlet air temperature sensor. Defective fuel pump. Defective fuel pressure regulator. 56 . Dirty injectors. Clogged exhaust system. Defective fuel pressure regulator. • • Hard Starting • • • • • • • • • • Defective throttle valve actuator (idle speed switch) in mono-jetronic fuel injection system. Defective throttle valve actuator (idle speed switch) in mono-jetronic fuel injection system. Defective idle air control valve in throttle body injection system (TBI). Defective idle air control valve in throttle body injection system (TBI). Defective computer. Defective fuel pump. Leaking vacuum lines. Defective injectors. Air in the fuel lines. Defective fuel accumulator in mono-jetronic fuel injection system.Poor Engine Performance • • • • • • • • • • • Air leak at intake manifold. Clogged fuel lines or fuel filter. Dirty injectors. Defective engine coolant temperature sensor. Defective sensors. Defective injectors.

57 . Defective lambda sensor. Defective throttle valve actuator (idle speed switch) in mono-jetronic fuel injection system. Defective engine coolant temperature sensor.Excessive Fuel Consumption • • • • • • • • • Defective fuel pressure regulator. Defective inlet air temperature sensor. Defective idle air control valve in throttle body injection system (TBI). Fuel leaking. Defective injectors. Dirty injectors.