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Advance Transform Techniques
Course Code: ECE408

Properties of STFT
 Linear

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Window Functions  Complex valued
 Time invariant
 Time shift
 Frequency shift
Nikesh Bajaj
 Many other properties of the FT also apply.
nikesh.14730@lpu.co.in
Asst. Prof. LSECA, ECE
Lovely Professional University
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Where we are?
Introduction to Subject
Brief about Signal & System
Fourier Series
Fourier Transform & Its Limitations
Ba Overview


Introduction to Window Function

Summary
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 Short Time Fourier Transform & its Limitations
 With MATLAB
 Window Functions, with MATLAB
 Fractional Fourier Transform
 Introduction to Wavelet
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Window Function Effect of Windowing
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A mathematical function that is zero-valued outside of Spectral analysis of Cos(wt)
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 

some chosen interval.  Use MATLAB
 Windowing is a technique used to shape the time portion
of your measurement data, to minimize edge effects that  spectral leakage
result in spectral leakage in the FFT spectrum. By using  The leakage tends to be worst (highest) near ω
Window Functions correctly, the spectral resolution of and least at frequencies farthest from ω
your frequency-domain result will increase.
 leakage can interfere
 Applications of window functions include spectral
 Any window (including rectangular) affects the
analysis, filter design, and beam-forming.
spectral estimate computed by this method.
 In typical applications, the window functions used are non-
negative smooth "bell-shaped" curves
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 apodization function or tapering function By: Nikesh Bajaj 6 By: Nikesh Bajaj

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Window Function t
Window Function
 low-dynamic-range. : excellent resolution for comparable  Spectral analysis involves a tradeoff between resolving
strength signals comparable strength signals with similar frequencies and

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 Rectangular Window: poor choice for signals of disparate resolving disparate strength signals with dissimilar
amplitudes frequencies. That tradeoff occurs when the window
 high-dynamic-range : low-resolution, also poorest in terms function is chosen.
of sensitivity;
 waveform contains random noise, the ability to find weak
sinusoids amidst the noise is diminished by a high-dynamic-range
window, used for wideband applications
 Moderate windows: They are commonly used in
narrowband applications, such as the spectrum of a
telephone channel
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High-resolution windows


Rectangular window

Also called as Dirichlet
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Moderate-resolution windows
Hann window
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window  The ends of the cosine just touch zero, so the
side-lobes roll off at about 18 dB per octave.
 N represents the width, in samples, of a
discrete-time window function. Typically it is
 The first side-lobe is only 13 dB lower
an integer power-of-2, such as 210 = 1024.
than the main lobe, with the rest falling
off at about 6 dB per octave  n is an integer, with values 0 ≤ n ≤ N-
1. So these are the time-shifted forms
of the window
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Moderate-resolution windows
Tukey window
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 Hamming window 

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 Triangular windows  Kaiser windows

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Low-resolution (high-dynamic-range)
windows

 Nuttall window, continuous first
Ba Low-resolution (high-dynamic-range)
windows

 Blackman–Harris window
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derivative

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Low-resolution (high-dynamic-
range) windows
 Flat top window  The Hann and Hamming windows, both of
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which are in the family known as "raised
cosine" windows, are respectively named
after Julius von Hann and Richard
Hamming. The term "Hanning window" is
sometimes used to refer to the Hann
window

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Window functions
 Rectangular window /Boxcar
 Hanning
Kaiser

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 Bartlett
 Chebyshev
 Hamming
 Hann
 Taylor
 Triangular
 Blackman
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Ba Orthogonallity Principle
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