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Advanced Transform Techniques v4.0

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**Advance Transform Techniques
**

Course Code: ECE408

Properties of STFT

Linear

jaj

Window Functions Complex valued

Time invariant

Time shift

Frequency shift

Nikesh Bajaj

Many other properties of the FT also apply.

nikesh.14730@lpu.co.in

Asst. Prof. LSECA, ECE

Lovely Professional University

2 By: Nikesh Bajaj

Where we are?

Introduction to Subject

Brief about Signal & System

Fourier Series

Fourier Transform & Its Limitations

Ba Overview

Introduction to Window Function

Summary

sh

Short Time Fourier Transform & its Limitations

With MATLAB

Window Functions, with MATLAB

Fractional Fourier Transform

Introduction to Wavelet

3 By: Nikesh Bajaj 4 By: Nikesh Bajaj

ke

1

Window Function Effect of Windowing

t

**A mathematical function that is zero-valued outside of Spectral analysis of Cos(wt)
**

Ni

**some chosen interval. Use MATLAB
**

Windowing is a technique used to shape the time portion

of your measurement data, to minimize edge effects that spectral leakage

result in spectral leakage in the FFT spectrum. By using The leakage tends to be worst (highest) near ω

Window Functions correctly, the spectral resolution of and least at frequencies farthest from ω

your frequency-domain result will increase.

leakage can interfere

Applications of window functions include spectral

Any window (including rectangular) affects the

analysis, filter design, and beam-forming.

spectral estimate computed by this method.

In typical applications, the window functions used are non-

negative smooth "bell-shaped" curves

5

apodization function or tapering function By: Nikesh Bajaj 6 By: Nikesh Bajaj

1

9/5/2013

1

Window Function t

Window Function

low-dynamic-range. : excellent resolution for comparable Spectral analysis involves a tradeoff between resolving

strength signals comparable strength signals with similar frequencies and

jaj

Rectangular Window: poor choice for signals of disparate resolving disparate strength signals with dissimilar

amplitudes frequencies. That tradeoff occurs when the window

high-dynamic-range : low-resolution, also poorest in terms function is chosen.

of sensitivity;

waveform contains random noise, the ability to find weak

sinusoids amidst the noise is diminished by a high-dynamic-range

window, used for wideband applications

Moderate windows: They are commonly used in

narrowband applications, such as the spectrum of a

telephone channel

7 By: Nikesh Bajaj 8 By: Nikesh Bajaj

**High-resolution windows
**

Rectangular window

**Also called as Dirichlet
**

1

t

Ba

Moderate-resolution windows

Hann window

sh

window The ends of the cosine just touch zero, so the

side-lobes roll off at about 18 dB per octave.

N represents the width, in samples, of a

discrete-time window function. Typically it is

The first side-lobe is only 13 dB lower

an integer power-of-2, such as 210 = 1024.

than the main lobe, with the rest falling

off at about 6 dB per octave n is an integer, with values 0 ≤ n ≤ N-

1. So these are the time-shifted forms

of the window

9 By: Nikesh Bajaj 10 By: Nikesh Bajaj

ke

**Moderate-resolution windows
**

Tukey window

Ni

Hamming window

11 By: Nikesh Bajaj 12 By: Nikesh Bajaj

2

9/5/2013

Triangular windows Kaiser windows

jaj

13 By: Nikesh Bajaj 14 By: Nikesh Bajaj

**Low-resolution (high-dynamic-range)
**

windows

** Nuttall window, continuous first
**

Ba Low-resolution (high-dynamic-range)

windows

Blackman–Harris window

sh

derivative

**15 By: Nikesh Bajaj 16 By: Nikesh Bajaj
**

ke

**Low-resolution (high-dynamic-
**

range) windows

Flat top window The Hann and Hamming windows, both of

Ni

**which are in the family known as "raised
**

cosine" windows, are respectively named

after Julius von Hann and Richard

Hamming. The term "Hanning window" is

sometimes used to refer to the Hann

window

17 By: Nikesh Bajaj 18 By: Nikesh Bajaj

3

9/5/2013

Window functions

Rectangular window /Boxcar

Hanning

Kaiser

jaj

Bartlett

Chebyshev

Hamming

Hann

Taylor

Triangular

Blackman

19 By: Nikesh Bajaj 20 By: Nikesh Bajaj

Ba Orthogonallity Principle

sh

21 By: Nikesh Bajaj 22 By: Nikesh Bajaj

ke

Ni

4

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