You are on page 1of 3

Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association

ISSN: 0002-2470 (Print) (Online) Journal homepage:

Isokinetic Flow and Sampling

James D. Wilcox

To cite this article: James D. Wilcox (1956) Isokinetic Flow and Sampling, Journal of the Air
Pollution Control Association, 5:4, 226-245, DOI: 10.1080/00966665.1956.10467715

To link to this article:

Published online: 19 Mar 2012.

Submit your article to this journal

Article views: 2443

View related articles

Citing articles: 3 View citing articles

Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at

Download by: [] Date: 08 September 2017, At: 01:38

Isokinetic Flow and Samplin;
Chemical Corps
Chemical and Radiological Laboratories
Army Chemical Center

The sampling of airborne participates many errors. Special precautions must be tical tube it is well to keep in mind that
by chemists, physicists, biologists, taken when sampling to avoid segrega- all particles in the tube may not be
meteorologists, engineers, and investiga' tion or classification of the particulate moving at a uniform rate and that the
tors in the field of medicine is indicative material. When the sampling velocity larger particles may be moving only
of the many types of aerosol sampling is too low, i.e., the velocity in the sample along the tube axis. It is often desirable
being performed. Some of the investiga- tube is less than the velocity in the main when conveying large particles to use a
tors engaged in this field of sampling stream, the particles in the stream will high degree of turbulence. Also, it is
realize the importance of isokinetic enter the sampling tube due to their obvious that the shorter the tube length
sampling but are unfamiliar with the greater inertia while the gas is diverted the lower the loss of particulate material
errors incurred by deviation from iso- around the tube. This gives a higher on the tube walls. Bends will tend to
kinetic conditions, others are confused particulate concentration in the sample concentrate the particulate material at
by it, and it is completely overlooked tube than in the main stream, as illus- the outside walls of the tubing. It is
by others. trated in Fig. la. Similarly, if the samp- often a good idea to install a mixing
Downloaded by [] at 01:38 08 September 2017

Isokinetic conditions prevail when ling velocity is too high, i.e., the velocity device, such as a disk baffle or nozzle,
there is no divergence of flow lines in the sample tube is greater than the in the tubing some distance upstream
around the sampler inlet. The velocities velocity in the main stream, the inertia from the sampling location.
of the sampled and sampling streams of the particle will keep the particle When attempting to obtain a truly
must be equal, and the sampler must from following the flow lines which representative sample of air-borne par-
face directly into the sampled stream in converge into the sampling tube. This ticulate material, the following points
order to minimize or eliminate diver- gives a lower concentration in the samp- should be considered:
gence of the flow lines at the sampler ling tube than in the main stream, as
inlet. When divergence of these flow illustrated in Fig. lb. A finer particulate 1. Velocity balancing of the main and
lines is present there is the possibility of sample is obtained where the sampling sampling streams. (For minimum di-
particle size fractionation. Many inves- velocity is too high and a coarser par- vergence of flow lines these velocities
tigators(1) have contributed to the prac- ticulate sample when the velocity is too must be equal. A sharp edge on the
tices now being used in isokinetic low. sampling inlet aids in reducing diver-
sampling. gence and turbulence.)
The location of the sampling tube in
Familiarity with isokinetic flow and a system is an important part of the 2. Position of the sampling inlet relative
sampling is necessary when determining sampling operation. Usually samples to that of the main stream. (Diver-
the performance of sampling instru- should be taken at various points across gence of lines of flow is minimized:
ments, when evaluating aerosol and air a tube to obtain a representative sample. when the sampling inlet faces directly
pollution data, and when obtaining in- It is interesting to observe the velocity into the main stream.)
formation for the design of sampling profile across a tube, as shown in Fig. 2. 3. Length of the sampling tube. (Tube
equipment. The reduced velocity at the edges of the losses are reduced by using a snorter
Obtaining a representative aerosol tube is due to friction, roughness of sur- sampling tube.)
sample, often a primary factor in the face, and turbulence. One of the best 4. Diameter of the sampling inlet. (In-
intelligent selection of an aerosol dis- sampling points in a system is at the end vestigations have shown that the im-
persing apparatus or collecting device, is of a long straight vertical section of proper selection of an appropriate
usually very difficult and subject to tubing. Long horizontal tubing tends to sampling tube diameter is a source of
^Presented at the Conference on the Physics yield a higher and coarser particulate error (2) ).
of Cloud and Precipitation Particles at concentration near the bottom of the 5. Particle size distribution and density
Woods Hole, Mass., Sept. 7-10, 1955. tube. However, in sampling from a ver- of the material. (These factors aid in
estimation of the inertial effects of
the airborne particulate material).
(continued on page 245)

Fig. 1 (a) Fig. 1 (h)

Fig. 1. The inertial effects of particles are large particles in the stream enter the sample
shown resulting in nonHsakinetic sampling. tube due to their greater inertia while the
The flow lines depict non'iso\inetic flow. The small particles and the gas follow the flow •MAX.
large hollow spheres represent particles of a lines.
relatively large mass, and the small solid (b) The sampling velocity is too high, the Fig. 2. Velocity profile across a tube. The
spheres represent particles of a relatively small inertia of the large particles will \eep them reduced velocity at the edges of the tube is
mass, from following the flow lines which converge due to friction, roughness of surface, and
(a) The sampling velocity is too low, the into the sampling tube. turbulence.


NEW YORK 38, N. Y.
at Smoke

through the
Isokinetic Sampling Inspector's Eyes
(continued from page 226)

(a) Drinker, Philip and Hatch, Theodore, Men who know most about the problem of air pollution
"Industrial Dust," New York, M e agree t h a t . . .
GrawHill Book Company, Inc., 1936,
p. 133.
1 Everyone is anxious to avoid polluting the air because it means fuel
(b) Lapple, C. E., "Sampling of Process
and Ventilation Gases," Heating, waste as well as bad public relations.
Piping, & Air Conditioning 16, 578 2 Most offenders have the false idea that good fuel burning equip-
Downloaded by [] at 01:38 08 September 2017

ment, properly installed will not pollute the air. Most owners tend
(c) Lapple, C. E., "Dust and Mist Collec
tion," Air Pollution Abatement Man- to forget that any slip-up in operating or maintenance can mean
ual, Washington, D. C , Manufac smoke from the best equipment.
turing Chemist Association, Inc.,
1951, Chap. 9, p. 5. 3 Too few offenders remember that operators or custodians are inside
(d) Lapple, C. E., and Shepherd, C. B., ... that a man at the boiler front can't know what is coming out of
Calculation of Particle Trojectories," the stack, or when smoke occurs. That means smoke and fuel waste
Indust. & Engin. Chem. 41, 2417 are undetected . . . and failure to quickly correct the condition back
(1949). of it.
(e) Dalla Valle, J. M., "Micromeritics,"
New York, Pitman Publishing Cor- 4 What every fuel burner needs is a really effective smoke indicator
poration, 1948, p. 485. and alarm to signal that something needs attention in order to stop
(f ) May, K. R., "The Cascade Impactor," the pollution and fuel waste.
]. Scient. lustrum. 22, 187-195
(1945). A majority of pollution and fuel burning experts also agree that the most
(g) Anderson, Evald, "On the Quantita- effective system for detecting smoke, and warning the operator, carries the
tive Determination of Industrial Gas name FIREYE. Below is a brief description. Send for the new Bulletin
Dispersoids," Trans. Inst. of Chem. which tells all about FIREYE System FE-3. You'll find the cost is so low
Engrs. 34, 589-601, (1938). that even the smallest apartment house can have it. Meets all smoke
(h) Hardie, P. H., "Resume of Methods ordinances. WRITE FOR BULLETIN, NOW.
for Measuring Flue Dust," Trans.
Am. Soc. Mech. Engrs. 59, 355-358,
(i) Kowalke, O. L., "Manner of Liquid
Flow Through a Pipe-Line Orifice," HOW
Indust. & Engin. Chem. 30, 216-222
(j) Fahrenback, W., "Die Dynamick des
Staubes und irk Einfluss auf die
Staubgehaltmessungen," Forschung auf
dem Gehiete des Ingenieurwesens 2,
395-407, (1931). SYSTEM FE-3 WORKS
(k) Zimmermann, E., "Messung von
Flugstaub in Rauchgasen," Zeitschrift Fireye System FE-3 measures directly the degree of
des Vereines Deutscher Ingenieure 75, obscurity of smoke or haze passing between a light
481-486, (1931). source and a photoelectric "scanner" measuring
(1 ) Griffiths, J. H. and Jones, T. D., Three simple basic elements—light source, scanner,
"The Determination of Dust-Concen- and indicator—comprise the system.
trations in Mine Atmospheric," Inst. Light source (A) and scanner (B) are installed in
Mining Engrs. 98-99, 156-166 (1939- a breeching, stack, or duct—wherever it is desired to
1940). measure smoke density—so that light beam, aims
directly at scanner lens.
(m) Caldwell, W. R., "Characteristics of As smoke density increases, the intensity of the light
Large Hell Gate Direct-Fired Boiler the scanner receives decreases. This change is meas-
Units," Trans. A. S. M. E. 56, 73-75 ured by Smoke Density Indicator (C) connected elec-
Paper FSP—56-2 (1934). trically to scanner, giving a direct reading of smoke
(n) Landahl, H. D., and Herrmann, R. An extra visual check .. . red and green alarm lights
G., "Calculation of the Efficiency of tell when smoke density is above or below a preset
Impaction of Airborne Droplets in level. Indicator can also be used to actuate recorders
Bent Cylinderical Tubes," J. Colloid (D) and audible alarms.
Sci. 4, 133-135, (1949).
Griffiths 6? Jones, 1 1.
^'\y>.c•) D e p , C 3 O _ 2 , 718 Beacon St. Boston, Mass.