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# Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

## 1.1 Learning Outcomes

This chapter focuses on how to determine hydrostatic forces exerted on a plane or curved surface
submerged in a static fluid. It covers the force produced by the pressure in a fluid that acts on the
wall and the location of the resultant force, called the center of pressure.

## At the end of this chapter, student should be able to:

a) Define the terms of ‘Pressure’ and ‘Hydrostatic Force’.
b) Understand the terms centroid and center of pressure.
c) Understand the basic knowledge of hydrostatic forces acting on plane surface.
d) Understand the basic knowledge of hydrostatic forces action on curve surface.
e) Understand the basic knowledge of hydrostatic forces action on inclined surface.

## 1.2 Hydrostatic Force

Hydrostatic is the branch of fluid mechanics that related to the fluids at rest. In other word, it's deal
with pressures and forces resulting from the weight of fluids at rest. By referring Figure 1.1, the
fluid exerts force and pressure against the walls of its container, whether it is stored in a tank or
flowing in a pipe. But there is a difference between force and pressure, although they are closely
related.

Figure 1.1:
Hydrostatic Forces in Tank

## In summarize, the formula of hydrostatic forces (F) is:

F = P * A …. (Eq. 1)

Where: P = pressure, A = area over which the force is distributed. Unit is in Newton (N).

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

## 1.2.1 Hydrostatic Pressure

The pressure water exerts is called hydrostatic pressure. These principles always apply to
hydrostatic pressure:
a) Pressure depends only on the depth of water above the point in question (not on the
water surface area).
b) Pressure increases in direct proportion to the depth of water.
c) Pressure in a continuous volume of water is the same at all points that are at the same
depth or elevation.
d) Pressure at any point in the water acts in all directions at the same magnitude.

Specifically, pressure is defined as force per unit area. In S.I units, pressure is usually
expressed in Newton per meter square, N/m2 or Pascal, Pa. In this equation, pressure can be
expressed as:

P = F / A …. (Eq. 2)

Where; P = pressure, F = hydrostatic force & A = area over which the force is distributed

## Depending on the benchmark used (with/without atmospheric pressure), pressure can be

described as absolute pressure or gauge/relative pressure:
a) Atmospheric pressure (ρ a ) is defined as the pressure at any given point in the earth
atmosphere caused by the weight of air above the measurement point. Atmosphere
pressure at sea level (standard) is approximately 101.325 kPa or 760 mmHg.
b) Absolute pressure (ρ abs ) is the pressure with its zero point set at the vacuum pressure.
The formula for this pressure is:

## ρabs = ρgH + ρatm…. (Eq. 3)

c) Relative pressure (ρ r ) is the terms of pressure with its zero set at the atmospheric
pressure. This pressure is more widely use in engineering than absolute pressure. Thus,
the relationship between them is:

ρr = ρabs - ρa …. (Eq. 4)

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

It is often convenient to express pressure in terms of the height of a column of water in meters
instead of terms of kPa. This is called pressure head, h. The water that filled into a tank will
produce pressure at the sides and bottom of the tank. If the h is high, the hydrostatic pressure is
calculated from the bottom of the tank:

h = P / ρg …. (Eq. 5)

## Example Problem 1.1

What is the pressure and force at the bottom of the cylindrical containers?

Solution
The pressure for cylindrical tank:
P = ρgh(oil) + ρgh(water)
= (0.9 x 1000 x 9.81 x 2.4) + (1.0 x 1000 x
9.81 x 1.5)
= 21189.6 + 14715
= 35904.6 Pa
= 359.046kPa

## The force for cylindrical tank:

F =PxA
= 359.046 x (π x 32 / 4)
= 253.795kN

## Example Problem 1.2

Determine the pressure increase experienced by a submarine as it descends from a depth of 10m to
100m below the sea level. The density of sea water is 1025kg/m3.

Solution
To find the pressure increase, we must determine the pressure from depth 10m and 100m below the
sea level.

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

## So the pressure at 10m;

P 1 = ρgh
= 1025 x 9.81 x 10
= 100.551kN/m2

## The pressure at 100m;

P 2 = ρgh
= 1025 x 9.81 x 100
= 1005.525kN/m2
Hence, the pressure increase is;
∆P = P 2 – P 1
= 1005.525 – 100.551
= 904.974kN/m2

## Express a pressure of 15kN/m2 in terms of pressure head using following material:

a) Water
b) Benzene (ρ = 870kg/m3)
c) Titanium (ρ = 4500kg/m3)

Solution
By using Equation 5, the head pressure for:
a) Water –
h = P / ρg
= (15 x 103) / (1000 x 9.81) = 1.529m

b) Benzene –
h = P / ρg
= (15 x 103) / (870 x 9.81) = 1.758m

c) Titanium –
h = P / ρg
= (15 x 103) / (4500 x 9.81) = 0.34m

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

## 1.2.3 Definition of Centroid

The Figure 1.2 showed the location of centroid, C for an object. The centroid gives a definition of
the mean position of an area (volume). It is closely related to the center of mass a body. One adds
up position of x for all the little pieces dAi of the Area, A to get average x position, x c . The x and y
coordinates of the centroid are evaluated mathematically as:

𝑖
∑𝑖 𝑥𝑖 𝑑𝐴𝑖 ∬ 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦
xc = = 𝐴
∑𝑖 𝑑𝐴𝑖 𝐴
𝑖
∑𝑖 𝑦𝑖 𝑑𝐴𝑖 ∬ 𝑦 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦
yc = = 𝐴
∑𝑖 𝑑𝐴𝑖 𝐴

Figure 1.2:
The Location of Centroid

## 1.2.4 The First Moment of Area

By referring Figure 1.2 above, the 1st moments of areas are the average displacement of an area
about an axis of rotation. The SI unit for first moment of area is m3. They are closely related to the
centroid.
𝑖
𝑄𝑦 = � 𝑥i 𝑑𝐴i = � 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦
𝑖 𝐴

## The first moment of area about the y-axis is:

𝑄y = � (𝑥 − 𝑥c)𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 + 𝑥c � 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦
𝐴 𝐴

Qy = 0 + xc � 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑥c 𝐴
𝐴

## So; the first moment of area about x –axis is:

𝑄x = � 𝑦 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑦c 𝐴
𝐴

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

## 1.2.5 The Second Moment of Area

The 2nd moments of areas are the average (displacement) of an area about an axis of rotation. Have
units of m4. The second moment of area about the x-axis is:

𝐼𝑥 = � yi2 dAi= � y2 dx dy
i A

It is sometimes called the moment of inertia of the area. The second moment of inertia is
always positive since y2 > 0. The second moment of area about the y -axis is:

𝐼𝑦 = � xi2 dAi= � x2 dx dy
i A

## The products of inertia about a xy coordinate axes:

𝐼𝑥𝑦 = � xi yi dAi= � xy dx dy
i A

Working out the second moments would be troublesome as the axes of rotations moved but for
the parallel axes theorem. The moments of many objects through their centroid are known.

## 𝑰𝑰𝒙𝒙 = 𝑰𝑰𝒙𝒙𝒙𝒙 + 𝒚𝒚𝒄𝒄 𝟐𝟐 𝑨𝑨

𝑰𝑰𝒚𝒚 = 𝑰𝑰𝒚𝒚𝒚𝒚 + 𝒙𝒙𝒄𝒄 𝟐𝟐 𝑨𝑨
𝑰𝑰𝒙𝒙𝒙𝒙 = 𝑰𝑰𝒙𝒙𝒙𝒙𝒙𝒙 + 𝒙𝒙𝒄𝒄 𝒚𝒚𝒄𝒄 𝑨𝑨

One writes down second moment through centroid, then determines distance of centroid to axis
of rotation and finally applies the parallel axis theorem.

## 1.3 Hydrostatic Force on a Plane Surface

There are several steps to be followed for determine the hydrostatic force on plane surface that
listed as following below:
a) Specify the magnitude of the force.
b) Specifying the direction of the force.
c) Specifying the line of action of the force.
d) Determine completely the resultant force acting on submerged force.

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

When a surface is submerged in a fluid, the forces will develop on the surface due to the fluid.
The purpose of study on these forces is to help the design of storage tanks, ships, dams and other
hydraulic structures. Generally, all forces in a fluid at rest are normal forces and its must be
perpendicular to the surface since shear forces are absent. The pressure of the forces will vary
linearly with depth if the fluid is incompressible.

Figure 1.3:
The Tank Bottom with a Uniform Pressure Distribution

The Figure 1.3 had shown the tank bottom with a uniform pressure distribution on the entire
area. The resultant force, F R is the force that exerted by a fluid on a surface represent the sum of all
the forces in entire area. The magnitude of the resultant force is simplified as:

FR = PA …. (Eq. 6)

Where; P is the uniform pressure on the bottom and A is the area of the bottom. For the open
tank shown the formulas:

P = γh …. (Eq. 7)

Where; γ is specific weight of fluid. If an atmospheric pressure acts on both sides of the bottom
tank as shown as illustrated, the resultant force on the bottom is simply due to the liquid in the tank.
Since the pressure is constant and uniformly distributed over the bottom, the resultant force is acts
through the centroid of the area.

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

When the case in which a submerged plane surface is inclined, the determination of the
resultant force acting on the surface is more involved. By considering an inclined plane as shown in
the Figure 1.4, the liquid acts on the plane area shown as a section of the wall; a top view gives
additional detail of the geometry. Assume that the fluid surface is open to the atmosphere. Let the
plane in which the surface lies intersect the free surface at 0 and make an angle, Ɵ with this surface.

Figure 1.4:
The Hydrostatic Forces on an Inclined Plane Area

The x-y coordinate system is defined so that 0 is the origin and y is directed along the surface
as shown. The area can have an arbitrary shape as shown. We wish to determine the direction,
location, and magnitude of the resultant force acting on one side of this area due to the liquid in
contact with the area. At any given depth, h the force acting on the differential area, dA is dF = γh
dA and is perpendicular to the surface.

Thus, the magnitude of the resultant force can be found by summing these differential forces
over the entire surface. In equation form;

FR = � 𝛾ℎ 𝑑𝐴 = � 𝛾𝑦 sin 𝜃 𝑑𝐴
𝐴 𝐴

## Where, h = y sin 𝜽. For constant γ and 𝜃,

𝐹R = 𝛾 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 � 𝑦 𝑑𝐴
𝐴

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

Note that the integral part in equation above is the first moment area about the x-axis, we can write;

� 𝑦 𝑑𝐴 = 𝑦c 𝐴
𝐴

Where y c is the y-coordinate of the centroid measured from the x-axis which passes through 0,
the new equation can be simplified as;

FR = γ hc A …. (Eq. 8)

Where; h c , is the vertical distance from the fluid surface to the centroid of area.

The magnitude of the force is independent of the angle, 𝜃 and depends only on the specific
weight of the fluid, the total area and the depth of the centroid of the area below the surface. In
Equation 8 showed that the magnitude of the resultant force is equal to the pressure at the centroid
of the area multiplied by the total area. Since all the differential forces that were summed to obtain
F R are perpendicular to the surface, the resultant F R must also be perpendicular to the surface.

## The y coordinate, y R of the resultant force can be determined by summation of moments

around the x-axis. So, the moment of the resultant force must equal to the moment of the distributed
pressure force;

𝐹𝑅 𝑦𝑅 = � y dF = � 𝑦 sin 𝜃 𝑦 2 𝑑𝐴
A 𝐴

## and we note that, F R = y A y c sin θ;

∫𝐴 𝑦2 𝑑𝐴
𝑦𝑅 =
𝑦c 𝐴

The integral in the numerator is the second moment of the area or moment of inertia, Ixx with
respect to an axis formed by the intersection of the plane containing the surface and the free
surface. Then, we can form;
𝐼𝑥𝑥
𝑦𝑅 =
𝑦c 𝐴

Ix = Ixc+ A yc2

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

Where, I xc is second moment of area with respect to an axis passing through centroid and
parallel to x-axis. Thus:

𝐈xc
𝐲𝐑 = + 𝐲c … . (𝐄𝐄𝐄𝐄. 𝟗)
𝐲c 𝐀

Equation 9 showed that for a submerged plane, the resultant force always acts below the
centroid of the plane, since I xc / Ay c > 0. The x-coordinate, x R for the resultant forces is similar like
summing moments about the y-axis. The Table 1.1 below has shown some geometric properties for
locating centroid coordinates, areas and moment of inertia in both x-y axis.

Table 1.1: Geometric Properties for Different Shapes (Source: Fluid Mechanics
Volume I, 2002)

## Shape Area, A Moment of Inertia on Moment of Inertia on

x-axis y-axis

A = ba I xc = ba3 / 12 I yc = ab3 / 12

## A = πR2 I xc = πR2 / 4 I yc = πR2 / 4

A = ba / 2 I xc = ba3 / 36

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

## Example Problem 1.4

An object is immersed in the water that has specific weight, γ = 9.81kN/m3. Determine the centroid
of object, h c for the following cases below:
a) If object is immersed horizontally.
b) If object is immersed vertically.
c) If object is immersed at an inclination of θ˚.

Solution
Case (a):

## Height of rectangular is 0.6m. Centroid of the rectangular,

C = 0.6/2
= 0.3m
Locate centroid of the object from the surface, h c is:
h c = 1.1 + 0.3
= 1.4m

Case (b):

C = 1.0/2
= 0.5m

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Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

h c = 1.1 + 0.5
= 1.6m

Case (c)

First, define θ:
sin θ = 1.0/1.3
1.3m
= 0.769 1.0m
θ
θ = sin 0.769
-1

= 50.3˚

1/3h
C = 1/3 (1.3) h
2/3h
= 0.433m

## Locate centroid of the object from the surface, h c is:

Sin 50.3˚ = y/0.433
0.433m
y = sin 50.3˚ (0.433) y
50.3˚
= 0.333m

0.833m
hc = 0.5 + 0.333
= 0.833m

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

## Example Problem 1.5

By referring the diagram below, determine the resultant force on the plate and location of the center
pressure.

Solution
The Resultant Force;
F r = ρgAh c
= 1000 (9.81) [(1.2 x 1.0)/2] [3 + (1.0/3)]
= 9810 (0.6) (3.333)
= 19618.038 N = 19.62kN

## Then, calculate second moment of area;

Ixc = bh3 / 12
= (1.2 x 13) / 12 = 0.0333m4

## The Center of Pressure,

y r = [I xc / Ah c ] + h c
= [0.0333 / (0.6 x 3.333)] + 3.333 = 3.35 m

## Example Problem 1.6

A pool has a water gate AB with 60˚diagonal to the water surface and has been fixed to pool wall.
The water gate has a rectangular shape and 2m width shown in figure below. Calculate the
hydrostatic force and determine the center of the pressure gate.

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

Solution
Find the hydrostatic force, F = ρgAh c
Where, hc is the distance from water surface to the gravity center;
hc = 3/2 = 1.5m
60˚
3m
Then, calculate the length of rectangular; L
L = 3 / (sin 60˚) = 3.464m

## ∴ F = 1000 (9.81) (3.464 x 2) (1.5)

= 101945.52N = 101.95kN

## Then, calculate second moment of area;

Ixc = bh3 / 12
= (2 x 3.4643) / 12 = 6.928m4

## The Center of Pressure,

y R = [I xc / Ah c ] + h c
= [6.928 / (6.928 x 1.5)] + 1.5 = 2.167m

## Example Problem 1.7

Determine the resultant force and the center of pressure for the inclined triangular plate as shown in
diagram below.

30°
1m
2m

1.5m

3m

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

Solution
The area of triangular plate is,
A = bh / 2 = 2 x 3 / 2 = 3m2

## The centroid from the free surface,

hc = 1 + (sin 30° x 2/3 x 1) = 1.5m

## Hence, the resultant force is,

F R = ρghcA
= 1000 x 9.81 x 1.5 x 3 = 44.145kN

The second moment of area of the surface about its centroid is,
I xc = bh3 / 12
= (2 x 33) / 12 = 1.5m4

## Thus, the center of pressure is,

y r = [I xc / Ah c ] + h c
= [1.5 / (3 x 1.5)] + 1.5 = 1.833m

## Example Problem 1.8

A trapezoidal channel ABCD 2m wide at the bottom, 5m wide at the top and 1.5m deep has a side
slope of 1:1 as shown in figure below.

Determine:
a) The total pressure.
b) The center of pressure on the vertical gate closing the channel when it’s full of water.

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

Solution
a) Total pressure on the plate:
Divide the trapezoid in two section; 1 and 2 as shown in figure. Then, determine an area
of 1 & 2:
A 1 = (2 x 1.5) / 2 = 1.5m2 & A 2 = (5 x 1.5) / 2 = 3.75m2

## Thus, find centroid of triangle 1 & 2:

hc 1 = (1.5 x 2) / 3 = 1m & hc 2 = 1.5 / 3 = 0.5m

## and calculate the pressure of 1 & 2:

F 1 = ρgA 1 hc 1
= 1000 x 9.81 x 1.5 x 1 = 14.715kN
F 2 = ρgA 2 hc 2
= 1000 x 9.81 x 0.5 x 3.75 = 18.394kN

## Hence, the total pressure on the plate is:

FT = F1 + F2
= 14.715 + 18.394 = 33.109kN

b) Center of pressure:
Determine first the moment of inertia for triangular 1 & 2,
Ixc 1 = ah3 / 36 = (2 x 1.53) / 36 = 0.188m4
Ixc 2 = bh3 / 36 = (5 x 1.53) / 36 = 0.469m4

Then, find the center of pressure from the water surface for triangular 1 & 2,
y r1 = [I xc1 / A 1 h c1 ] + h c1
= [0.188 / (1.5 x 1)] + 1 = 1.125m
y r2 = [I xc2 / A 2 h c2 ] + h c2
= [0.469 / (3.75 x 0.5)] + 0.5 = 0.75m

Now, taking the moment of pressures of 1 & 2 and equating the same,
F T y rT = F 1 y r1 + F 2 y r2
(33.109) y rT = 14.715 (1.125) + 18.394 (0.75)
∴ y rT = 1.091m

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Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

## 1.4 Hydrostatic Force on Curve Surface

Curved Surface occurs in many hydraulic structures for example dams, tanks and cross sections of
circular pipes. Since this class of surface is curved, the direction of the force is different at each
location on the surface. The pressure forces are divided into horizontal and vertical component.

Figure 1.5:
The Hydrostatic Forces on a Curved Surface

Figure 1.5:
The Hydrostatic Forces on a Curved Surface

Look at forces acting on wedge of water ABC by referring the Figure 1.5 above. Weight force
W, is due to the weight of water volume. F 1 and F 2 is the hydrostatic force on each planar face.
Reaction Forces of F H and F V due to wall of tank. The weight force W passes through the center of
gravity of the wedge.

## To determine the horizontal force on static equilibrium:

FH = F2 = ρ g hc A …. (Eq. 10)

The vertical component of the force on a curved surface may be determined by considering the
fluid enclosed by the BC curved surface and AC vertical projection lines extending to the free
surface. Thus:

## FV = F1 + W = ρgV1 + ρgVABC = ρg ∑V …. (Eq. 11)

Where, V is the volume on the curve BC. The Resultant or Magnitude Forces, F R is a triangular
combination of the horizontal and vertical parts. So:

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Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

## Hence, the Direction of Resultant Force is determined by using following formula:

𝐅𝐅𝐕𝐕
𝛉𝛉 = 𝐭𝐭𝐚𝐚𝐚𝐚−𝟏𝟏 � � … . (𝐄𝐄𝐄𝐄. 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏)
𝐅𝐅𝐇𝐇

## Example Problem 1.9

Determine the resultant force on the curved part of the base by referring figure below.

Solution
We know that resultant force, F R = √(F V 2 + F H 2)
So, let’s find horizontal force first:
F H = ρgAh c
= 1000 x 9.81 x (6 x 1) x (5 + 6/2)
= 470880 N = 470.88kN

## Then, calculate vertical force:

F V = ρgV
But, the problem is how to find volumes, V?
Separate the figure 1.8 above to two blocks known as V 1 & V 2 .
V = V1 + V2
= (5 x 6 x 1) + [(π x 62 / 4) x 1]
= 30 + 28.278 = 58.278m3

## Thus, the vertical force:

F V = 1000 x 9.81 x 58.278
= 571707.18N = 571.71kN

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## So, the Resultant Force,

F R = √(F V 2 + F H 2)
= √[(571.71)2 + (470.88)2] = 740.66kN

## Therefore, the direction of Resultant Force is:

θ = tan-1 (F V / F H )
= tan-1 (571.71/ 470.88) = 51˚

## Example Problem 1.10

Determine the resultant force on the face of the dam shown below and the angle it makes to the
horizontal. If the depth of the water increases to 50m, determine the new resultant force and angle.

Solution
The water depth of 30m, determine the horizontal force at 30m water depth:
F H = ρgAh c
= 1000 x 9.81 x (30 x 1) x (30 / 2)
= 4414500N = 4.415MN

## Then, calculate vertical force:

F V = ρgV
= 1000 x 9.81 x [(π x 302 / 4) x 1]
= 6934280.385N = 6.934MN

## Thus, the resultant force is:

F R = √(F V 2 + F H 2)
= √[(6.934)2 + (4.415)2] = 8.221MN

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

## And the angle made to the horizontal is:

θ = tan-1 (F V / F H )
= tan-1 (6.934 / 4.415) = 57˚

If the water depth increases to 50m, determine the new horizontal force:
F H = ρgAh c
= 1000 x 9.81 x (30 x 1) x [20 + (30 / 2)]
= 10300500N = 10.301MN

## Then, calculate the new vertical force:

F V = ρgV
= 1000 x 9.81 x {[(π x 302 / 4) x 1] + [(20 x 30 x 1)]}
= 12820280.38N = 12.820MN

## Thus, the new resultant force is:

F R = √(F V 2 + F H 2)
= √[(12.820)2 + (10.301)2] = 16.446MN

## And the angle made to the horizontal is:

θ = tan-1 (F V / F H )
= tan-1 (12.820 / 10.301) = 51°

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

## PROBLEM EXERCISES 1.1

1) What do you understand by the term of hydrostatic pressure?
2) Derives ‘total pressure on a surface’ and ‘center of pressure’ of a surface.
3) Determine the resultant forces and angle it makes to the horizontal that react on the
curved surface as shown in figure below.

4) Determine the magnitude and the direction of the resultant force due to water per meter
length, acting on the circular gate of radius 3m as shown in the figure below.

5) A rectangular plate 3m wide and 2m deep is immersed vertically in water. Determine the
total pressure and center of pressure on the plate, when its upper edge is horizontal and
3.5m below the free surface of water.

6) A circular plate of 3m diameter is immersed in water such a way that it makes an angle
of 30° with the horizontal and is 1m below the water surface. Find the total pressure on
the plate and the center of pressure.

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

## 7) A triangular plate of 1m base and 1.8m

altitude is immersed in water. The plane of the
plate is inclined 30° with the free surface of
water and the base is parallel to and at a depth
of 2m from water surface as shown in
diagram. Determine the total pressure on the
plate and the position of the center of pressure.

8) A trapezoidal plate having its parallel sides (2a) and (a) at a distance (h) apart is
immersed vertically in water such that the (2a) side is horizontal and at a depth of (h)
below the water surface. Determine the total pressure of the plate surface and the
location of the center of pressure.

9) Determine the force exerted on the base of a tank with a rectangular shape measuring
2.5m x 2.5m, if the water is filling up to a depth of 2m.

10) A vertical plane area having the shape shown in figure below is immersed in an oil bath
(specific weight = 8.75kN/m3). Determine the magnitude of the resultant force acting on
one side of the area as a result of the oil.

11) If a triangle of height d and base b is vertical and submerged in liquid with its vertex at
the liquid surface, derive an expression for the depth to its center of pressure.

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

12) A kind of water gate fitted with 8m length of a spillway, as shown in figure below.
Calculate the total force acting on the gate and the angle at which the force is acting.

13) An isoceles triangular plate of base 4m and altitude 4.2m is immersed vertically in the
water as ilusstrated in diagram below. Determine the total pressure and center of
pressure of the plate.

14) A hollow circular plate of 4m diameter has a circular hole of 2m diameter with its center
1m above the center of the plate as shown in figure below.

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## A HYDRAULIC TEXTBOOK FOR POLYTECHNICS

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

Then, the plate is immersed in water at an angle of 35° to the horizontal and with the top
edge 2m below the water surface. Determine:
a) The total pressure on the plate.
b) The depth of center of pressure.