7 views

Uploaded by Maslinda Jaaffar

- RP_21
- Sluiceway Stability
- fluid mechanic
- FLUID-MECHANICS-Hydrostatic-Forces-on-Curved-Surfaces-Samples.pdf
- Module - Pmm
- 6A._Koporetz_Tom_2-Instrumentation__Process_Control_custom_screen.pdf
- Air Combination Model Selection Software – SMC Corporation
- Assignment Jee
- Pressure and Head
- RP_21
- Chapter -5- Pressure Measurements Students.ppt
- Pressure measurement instruments
- FM Chapter3
- CE15-Lab1_Revised.pdf
- Manometers
- Test ESP
- exchap02ans
- Analysis of Well Foundation
- APSL 8774-2
- 5054_s17_qp_12.pdf

You are on page 1of 24

This chapter focuses on how to determine hydrostatic forces exerted on a plane or curved surface

submerged in a static fluid. It covers the force produced by the pressure in a fluid that acts on the

wall and the location of the resultant force, called the center of pressure.

a) Define the terms of ‘Pressure’ and ‘Hydrostatic Force’.

b) Understand the terms centroid and center of pressure.

c) Understand the basic knowledge of hydrostatic forces acting on plane surface.

d) Understand the basic knowledge of hydrostatic forces action on curve surface.

e) Understand the basic knowledge of hydrostatic forces action on inclined surface.

Hydrostatic is the branch of fluid mechanics that related to the fluids at rest. In other word, it's deal

with pressures and forces resulting from the weight of fluids at rest. By referring Figure 1.1, the

fluid exerts force and pressure against the walls of its container, whether it is stored in a tank or

flowing in a pipe. But there is a difference between force and pressure, although they are closely

related.

Figure 1.1:

Hydrostatic Forces in Tank

F = P * A …. (Eq. 1)

Where: P = pressure, A = area over which the force is distributed. Unit is in Newton (N).

Page 1

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

The pressure water exerts is called hydrostatic pressure. These principles always apply to

hydrostatic pressure:

a) Pressure depends only on the depth of water above the point in question (not on the

water surface area).

b) Pressure increases in direct proportion to the depth of water.

c) Pressure in a continuous volume of water is the same at all points that are at the same

depth or elevation.

d) Pressure at any point in the water acts in all directions at the same magnitude.

Specifically, pressure is defined as force per unit area. In S.I units, pressure is usually

expressed in Newton per meter square, N/m2 or Pascal, Pa. In this equation, pressure can be

expressed as:

P = F / A …. (Eq. 2)

Where; P = pressure, F = hydrostatic force & A = area over which the force is distributed

described as absolute pressure or gauge/relative pressure:

a) Atmospheric pressure (ρ a ) is defined as the pressure at any given point in the earth

atmosphere caused by the weight of air above the measurement point. Atmosphere

pressure at sea level (standard) is approximately 101.325 kPa or 760 mmHg.

b) Absolute pressure (ρ abs ) is the pressure with its zero point set at the vacuum pressure.

The formula for this pressure is:

c) Relative pressure (ρ r ) is the terms of pressure with its zero set at the atmospheric

pressure. This pressure is more widely use in engineering than absolute pressure. Thus,

the relationship between them is:

ρr = ρabs - ρa …. (Eq. 4)

Page 2

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

It is often convenient to express pressure in terms of the height of a column of water in meters

instead of terms of kPa. This is called pressure head, h. The water that filled into a tank will

produce pressure at the sides and bottom of the tank. If the h is high, the hydrostatic pressure is

calculated from the bottom of the tank:

h = P / ρg …. (Eq. 5)

What is the pressure and force at the bottom of the cylindrical containers?

Solution

The pressure for cylindrical tank:

P = ρgh(oil) + ρgh(water)

= (0.9 x 1000 x 9.81 x 2.4) + (1.0 x 1000 x

9.81 x 1.5)

= 21189.6 + 14715

= 35904.6 Pa

= 359.046kPa

F =PxA

= 359.046 x (π x 32 / 4)

= 253.795kN

Determine the pressure increase experienced by a submarine as it descends from a depth of 10m to

100m below the sea level. The density of sea water is 1025kg/m3.

Solution

To find the pressure increase, we must determine the pressure from depth 10m and 100m below the

sea level.

Page 3

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

P 1 = ρgh

= 1025 x 9.81 x 10

= 100.551kN/m2

P 2 = ρgh

= 1025 x 9.81 x 100

= 1005.525kN/m2

Hence, the pressure increase is;

∆P = P 2 – P 1

= 1005.525 – 100.551

= 904.974kN/m2

a) Water

b) Benzene (ρ = 870kg/m3)

c) Titanium (ρ = 4500kg/m3)

Solution

By using Equation 5, the head pressure for:

a) Water –

h = P / ρg

= (15 x 103) / (1000 x 9.81) = 1.529m

b) Benzene –

h = P / ρg

= (15 x 103) / (870 x 9.81) = 1.758m

c) Titanium –

h = P / ρg

= (15 x 103) / (4500 x 9.81) = 0.34m

Page 4

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

The Figure 1.2 showed the location of centroid, C for an object. The centroid gives a definition of

the mean position of an area (volume). It is closely related to the center of mass a body. One adds

up position of x for all the little pieces dAi of the Area, A to get average x position, x c . The x and y

coordinates of the centroid are evaluated mathematically as:

𝑖

∑𝑖 𝑥𝑖 𝑑𝐴𝑖 ∬ 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦

xc = = 𝐴

∑𝑖 𝑑𝐴𝑖 𝐴

𝑖

∑𝑖 𝑦𝑖 𝑑𝐴𝑖 ∬ 𝑦 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦

yc = = 𝐴

∑𝑖 𝑑𝐴𝑖 𝐴

Figure 1.2:

The Location of Centroid

By referring Figure 1.2 above, the 1st moments of areas are the average displacement of an area

about an axis of rotation. The SI unit for first moment of area is m3. They are closely related to the

centroid.

𝑖

𝑄𝑦 = � 𝑥i 𝑑𝐴i = � 𝑥 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦

𝑖 𝐴

𝑄y = � (𝑥 − 𝑥c)𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 + 𝑥c � 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦

𝐴 𝐴

Qy = 0 + xc � 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑥c 𝐴

𝐴

𝑄x = � 𝑦 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑦 = 𝑦c 𝐴

𝐴

Page 5

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

The 2nd moments of areas are the average (displacement) of an area about an axis of rotation. Have

units of m4. The second moment of area about the x-axis is:

𝐼𝑥 = � yi2 dAi= � y2 dx dy

i A

It is sometimes called the moment of inertia of the area. The second moment of inertia is

always positive since y2 > 0. The second moment of area about the y -axis is:

𝐼𝑦 = � xi2 dAi= � x2 dx dy

i A

𝐼𝑥𝑦 = � xi yi dAi= � xy dx dy

i A

Working out the second moments would be troublesome as the axes of rotations moved but for

the parallel axes theorem. The moments of many objects through their centroid are known.

𝑰𝑰𝒚𝒚 = 𝑰𝑰𝒚𝒚𝒚𝒚 + 𝒙𝒙𝒄𝒄 𝟐𝟐 𝑨𝑨

𝑰𝑰𝒙𝒙𝒙𝒙 = 𝑰𝑰𝒙𝒙𝒙𝒙𝒙𝒙 + 𝒙𝒙𝒄𝒄 𝒚𝒚𝒄𝒄 𝑨𝑨

One writes down second moment through centroid, then determines distance of centroid to axis

of rotation and finally applies the parallel axis theorem.

There are several steps to be followed for determine the hydrostatic force on plane surface that

listed as following below:

a) Specify the magnitude of the force.

b) Specifying the direction of the force.

c) Specifying the line of action of the force.

d) Determine completely the resultant force acting on submerged force.

Page 6

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

When a surface is submerged in a fluid, the forces will develop on the surface due to the fluid.

The purpose of study on these forces is to help the design of storage tanks, ships, dams and other

hydraulic structures. Generally, all forces in a fluid at rest are normal forces and its must be

perpendicular to the surface since shear forces are absent. The pressure of the forces will vary

linearly with depth if the fluid is incompressible.

Figure 1.3:

The Tank Bottom with a Uniform Pressure Distribution

The Figure 1.3 had shown the tank bottom with a uniform pressure distribution on the entire

area. The resultant force, F R is the force that exerted by a fluid on a surface represent the sum of all

the forces in entire area. The magnitude of the resultant force is simplified as:

FR = PA …. (Eq. 6)

Where; P is the uniform pressure on the bottom and A is the area of the bottom. For the open

tank shown the formulas:

P = γh …. (Eq. 7)

Where; γ is specific weight of fluid. If an atmospheric pressure acts on both sides of the bottom

tank as shown as illustrated, the resultant force on the bottom is simply due to the liquid in the tank.

Since the pressure is constant and uniformly distributed over the bottom, the resultant force is acts

through the centroid of the area.

Page 7

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

When the case in which a submerged plane surface is inclined, the determination of the

resultant force acting on the surface is more involved. By considering an inclined plane as shown in

the Figure 1.4, the liquid acts on the plane area shown as a section of the wall; a top view gives

additional detail of the geometry. Assume that the fluid surface is open to the atmosphere. Let the

plane in which the surface lies intersect the free surface at 0 and make an angle, Ɵ with this surface.

Figure 1.4:

The Hydrostatic Forces on an Inclined Plane Area

The x-y coordinate system is defined so that 0 is the origin and y is directed along the surface

as shown. The area can have an arbitrary shape as shown. We wish to determine the direction,

location, and magnitude of the resultant force acting on one side of this area due to the liquid in

contact with the area. At any given depth, h the force acting on the differential area, dA is dF = γh

dA and is perpendicular to the surface.

Thus, the magnitude of the resultant force can be found by summing these differential forces

over the entire surface. In equation form;

FR = � 𝛾ℎ 𝑑𝐴 = � 𝛾𝑦 sin 𝜃 𝑑𝐴

𝐴 𝐴

𝐹R = 𝛾 𝑠𝑖𝑛 𝜃 � 𝑦 𝑑𝐴

𝐴

Page 8

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

Note that the integral part in equation above is the first moment area about the x-axis, we can write;

� 𝑦 𝑑𝐴 = 𝑦c 𝐴

𝐴

Where y c is the y-coordinate of the centroid measured from the x-axis which passes through 0,

the new equation can be simplified as;

FR = γ hc A …. (Eq. 8)

Where; h c , is the vertical distance from the fluid surface to the centroid of area.

The magnitude of the force is independent of the angle, 𝜃 and depends only on the specific

weight of the fluid, the total area and the depth of the centroid of the area below the surface. In

Equation 8 showed that the magnitude of the resultant force is equal to the pressure at the centroid

of the area multiplied by the total area. Since all the differential forces that were summed to obtain

F R are perpendicular to the surface, the resultant F R must also be perpendicular to the surface.

around the x-axis. So, the moment of the resultant force must equal to the moment of the distributed

pressure force;

𝐹𝑅 𝑦𝑅 = � y dF = � 𝑦 sin 𝜃 𝑦 2 𝑑𝐴

A 𝐴

∫𝐴 𝑦2 𝑑𝐴

𝑦𝑅 =

𝑦c 𝐴

The integral in the numerator is the second moment of the area or moment of inertia, Ixx with

respect to an axis formed by the intersection of the plane containing the surface and the free

surface. Then, we can form;

𝐼𝑥𝑥

𝑦𝑅 =

𝑦c 𝐴

Ix = Ixc+ A yc2

Page 9

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

Where, I xc is second moment of area with respect to an axis passing through centroid and

parallel to x-axis. Thus:

𝐈xc

𝐲𝐑 = + 𝐲c … . (𝐄𝐄𝐄𝐄. 𝟗)

𝐲c 𝐀

Equation 9 showed that for a submerged plane, the resultant force always acts below the

centroid of the plane, since I xc / Ay c > 0. The x-coordinate, x R for the resultant forces is similar like

summing moments about the y-axis. The Table 1.1 below has shown some geometric properties for

locating centroid coordinates, areas and moment of inertia in both x-y axis.

Table 1.1: Geometric Properties for Different Shapes (Source: Fluid Mechanics

Volume I, 2002)

x-axis y-axis

A = ba I xc = ba3 / 12 I yc = ab3 / 12

A = ba / 2 I xc = ba3 / 36

Page 10

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

An object is immersed in the water that has specific weight, γ = 9.81kN/m3. Determine the centroid

of object, h c for the following cases below:

a) If object is immersed horizontally.

b) If object is immersed vertically.

c) If object is immersed at an inclination of θ˚.

Solution

Case (a):

C = 0.6/2

= 0.3m

Locate centroid of the object from the surface, h c is:

h c = 1.1 + 0.3

= 1.4m

Case (b):

C = 1.0/2

= 0.5m

Page 11

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

h c = 1.1 + 0.5

= 1.6m

Case (c)

First, define θ:

sin θ = 1.0/1.3

1.3m

= 0.769 1.0m

θ

θ = sin 0.769

-1

= 50.3˚

1/3h

C = 1/3 (1.3) h

2/3h

= 0.433m

Sin 50.3˚ = y/0.433

0.433m

y = sin 50.3˚ (0.433) y

50.3˚

= 0.333m

0.833m

hc = 0.5 + 0.333

= 0.833m

Page 12

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

By referring the diagram below, determine the resultant force on the plate and location of the center

pressure.

Solution

The Resultant Force;

F r = ρgAh c

= 1000 (9.81) [(1.2 x 1.0)/2] [3 + (1.0/3)]

= 9810 (0.6) (3.333)

= 19618.038 N = 19.62kN

Ixc = bh3 / 12

= (1.2 x 13) / 12 = 0.0333m4

y r = [I xc / Ah c ] + h c

= [0.0333 / (0.6 x 3.333)] + 3.333 = 3.35 m

A pool has a water gate AB with 60˚diagonal to the water surface and has been fixed to pool wall.

The water gate has a rectangular shape and 2m width shown in figure below. Calculate the

hydrostatic force and determine the center of the pressure gate.

Page 13

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

Solution

Find the hydrostatic force, F = ρgAh c

Where, hc is the distance from water surface to the gravity center;

hc = 3/2 = 1.5m

60˚

3m

Then, calculate the length of rectangular; L

L = 3 / (sin 60˚) = 3.464m

= 101945.52N = 101.95kN

Ixc = bh3 / 12

= (2 x 3.4643) / 12 = 6.928m4

y R = [I xc / Ah c ] + h c

= [6.928 / (6.928 x 1.5)] + 1.5 = 2.167m

Determine the resultant force and the center of pressure for the inclined triangular plate as shown in

diagram below.

30°

1m

2m

1.5m

3m

Page 14

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

Solution

The area of triangular plate is,

A = bh / 2 = 2 x 3 / 2 = 3m2

hc = 1 + (sin 30° x 2/3 x 1) = 1.5m

F R = ρghcA

= 1000 x 9.81 x 1.5 x 3 = 44.145kN

The second moment of area of the surface about its centroid is,

I xc = bh3 / 12

= (2 x 33) / 12 = 1.5m4

y r = [I xc / Ah c ] + h c

= [1.5 / (3 x 1.5)] + 1.5 = 1.833m

A trapezoidal channel ABCD 2m wide at the bottom, 5m wide at the top and 1.5m deep has a side

slope of 1:1 as shown in figure below.

Determine:

a) The total pressure.

b) The center of pressure on the vertical gate closing the channel when it’s full of water.

Page 15

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

Solution

a) Total pressure on the plate:

Divide the trapezoid in two section; 1 and 2 as shown in figure. Then, determine an area

of 1 & 2:

A 1 = (2 x 1.5) / 2 = 1.5m2 & A 2 = (5 x 1.5) / 2 = 3.75m2

hc 1 = (1.5 x 2) / 3 = 1m & hc 2 = 1.5 / 3 = 0.5m

F 1 = ρgA 1 hc 1

= 1000 x 9.81 x 1.5 x 1 = 14.715kN

F 2 = ρgA 2 hc 2

= 1000 x 9.81 x 0.5 x 3.75 = 18.394kN

FT = F1 + F2

= 14.715 + 18.394 = 33.109kN

b) Center of pressure:

Determine first the moment of inertia for triangular 1 & 2,

Ixc 1 = ah3 / 36 = (2 x 1.53) / 36 = 0.188m4

Ixc 2 = bh3 / 36 = (5 x 1.53) / 36 = 0.469m4

Then, find the center of pressure from the water surface for triangular 1 & 2,

y r1 = [I xc1 / A 1 h c1 ] + h c1

= [0.188 / (1.5 x 1)] + 1 = 1.125m

y r2 = [I xc2 / A 2 h c2 ] + h c2

= [0.469 / (3.75 x 0.5)] + 0.5 = 0.75m

Now, taking the moment of pressures of 1 & 2 and equating the same,

F T y rT = F 1 y r1 + F 2 y r2

(33.109) y rT = 14.715 (1.125) + 18.394 (0.75)

∴ y rT = 1.091m

Page 16

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

Curved Surface occurs in many hydraulic structures for example dams, tanks and cross sections of

circular pipes. Since this class of surface is curved, the direction of the force is different at each

location on the surface. The pressure forces are divided into horizontal and vertical component.

Figure 1.5:

The Hydrostatic Forces on a Curved Surface

Figure 1.5:

The Hydrostatic Forces on a Curved Surface

Look at forces acting on wedge of water ABC by referring the Figure 1.5 above. Weight force

W, is due to the weight of water volume. F 1 and F 2 is the hydrostatic force on each planar face.

Reaction Forces of F H and F V due to wall of tank. The weight force W passes through the center of

gravity of the wedge.

FH = F2 = ρ g hc A …. (Eq. 10)

The vertical component of the force on a curved surface may be determined by considering the

fluid enclosed by the BC curved surface and AC vertical projection lines extending to the free

surface. Thus:

Where, V is the volume on the curve BC. The Resultant or Magnitude Forces, F R is a triangular

combination of the horizontal and vertical parts. So:

Page 17

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

𝐅𝐅𝐕𝐕

𝛉𝛉 = 𝐭𝐭𝐚𝐚𝐚𝐚−𝟏𝟏 � � … . (𝐄𝐄𝐄𝐄. 𝟏𝟏𝟏𝟏)

𝐅𝐅𝐇𝐇

Determine the resultant force on the curved part of the base by referring figure below.

Solution

We know that resultant force, F R = √(F V 2 + F H 2)

So, let’s find horizontal force first:

F H = ρgAh c

= 1000 x 9.81 x (6 x 1) x (5 + 6/2)

= 470880 N = 470.88kN

F V = ρgV

But, the problem is how to find volumes, V?

Separate the figure 1.8 above to two blocks known as V 1 & V 2 .

V = V1 + V2

= (5 x 6 x 1) + [(π x 62 / 4) x 1]

= 30 + 28.278 = 58.278m3

F V = 1000 x 9.81 x 58.278

= 571707.18N = 571.71kN

Page 18

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

F R = √(F V 2 + F H 2)

= √[(571.71)2 + (470.88)2] = 740.66kN

θ = tan-1 (F V / F H )

= tan-1 (571.71/ 470.88) = 51˚

Determine the resultant force on the face of the dam shown below and the angle it makes to the

horizontal. If the depth of the water increases to 50m, determine the new resultant force and angle.

Solution

The water depth of 30m, determine the horizontal force at 30m water depth:

F H = ρgAh c

= 1000 x 9.81 x (30 x 1) x (30 / 2)

= 4414500N = 4.415MN

F V = ρgV

= 1000 x 9.81 x [(π x 302 / 4) x 1]

= 6934280.385N = 6.934MN

F R = √(F V 2 + F H 2)

= √[(6.934)2 + (4.415)2] = 8.221MN

Page 19

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

θ = tan-1 (F V / F H )

= tan-1 (6.934 / 4.415) = 57˚

If the water depth increases to 50m, determine the new horizontal force:

F H = ρgAh c

= 1000 x 9.81 x (30 x 1) x [20 + (30 / 2)]

= 10300500N = 10.301MN

F V = ρgV

= 1000 x 9.81 x {[(π x 302 / 4) x 1] + [(20 x 30 x 1)]}

= 12820280.38N = 12.820MN

F R = √(F V 2 + F H 2)

= √[(12.820)2 + (10.301)2] = 16.446MN

θ = tan-1 (F V / F H )

= tan-1 (12.820 / 10.301) = 51°

Page 20

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

1) What do you understand by the term of hydrostatic pressure?

2) Derives ‘total pressure on a surface’ and ‘center of pressure’ of a surface.

3) Determine the resultant forces and angle it makes to the horizontal that react on the

curved surface as shown in figure below.

4) Determine the magnitude and the direction of the resultant force due to water per meter

length, acting on the circular gate of radius 3m as shown in the figure below.

5) A rectangular plate 3m wide and 2m deep is immersed vertically in water. Determine the

total pressure and center of pressure on the plate, when its upper edge is horizontal and

3.5m below the free surface of water.

[Answer; 264.87kN, 4.574m]

6) A circular plate of 3m diameter is immersed in water such a way that it makes an angle

of 30° with the horizontal and is 1m below the water surface. Find the total pressure on

the plate and the center of pressure.

[Answer; 121.35kN, 1.911m]

Page 21

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

altitude is immersed in water. The plane of the

plate is inclined 30° with the free surface of

water and the base is parallel to and at a depth

of 2m from water surface as shown in

diagram. Determine the total pressure on the

plate and the position of the center of pressure.

[Answer; 20.31kN, 2.32m]

8) A trapezoidal plate having its parallel sides (2a) and (a) at a distance (h) apart is

immersed vertically in water such that the (2a) side is horizontal and at a depth of (h)

below the water surface. Determine the total pressure of the plate surface and the

location of the center of pressure.

[Answer; 2.167 ρah2, 1.5h]

9) Determine the force exerted on the base of a tank with a rectangular shape measuring

2.5m x 2.5m, if the water is filling up to a depth of 2m.

[Answer; 122.63kN]

10) A vertical plane area having the shape shown in figure below is immersed in an oil bath

(specific weight = 8.75kN/m3). Determine the magnitude of the resultant force acting on

one side of the area as a result of the oil.

[Answer; 373kN]

11) If a triangle of height d and base b is vertical and submerged in liquid with its vertex at

the liquid surface, derive an expression for the depth to its center of pressure.

Page 22

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

[Answer; 3d / 4]

12) A kind of water gate fitted with 8m length of a spillway, as shown in figure below.

Calculate the total force acting on the gate and the angle at which the force is acting.

13) An isoceles triangular plate of base 4m and altitude 4.2m is immersed vertically in the

water as ilusstrated in diagram below. Determine the total pressure and center of

pressure of the plate.

14) A hollow circular plate of 4m diameter has a circular hole of 2m diameter with its center

1m above the center of the plate as shown in figure below.

Page 23

Chapter 1: Hydrostatic Force

Then, the plate is immersed in water at an angle of 35° to the horizontal and with the top

edge 2m below the water surface. Determine:

a) The total pressure on the plate.

b) The depth of center of pressure.

[Answer; 292.8kN, 3.52m]

15) Determine the horizontal and vertical components of the hydrostatic force on the quarter

circle panel at the bottom of the water tank.

Page 24

- RP_21Uploaded byfreddyuae
- Sluiceway StabilityUploaded bymark ignacio
- fluid mechanicUploaded byteknokolik
- FLUID-MECHANICS-Hydrostatic-Forces-on-Curved-Surfaces-Samples.pdfUploaded byJerome Arzadon
- Module - PmmUploaded bygondai
- 6A._Koporetz_Tom_2-Instrumentation__Process_Control_custom_screen.pdfUploaded byShivshankar Ghuge
- Air Combination Model Selection Software – SMC CorporationUploaded bySudipto Majumder
- Assignment JeeUploaded byvikas2504
- Pressure and HeadUploaded byCiti BaziLah Shapawi
- RP_21Uploaded bymuomemo
- Chapter -5- Pressure Measurements Students.pptUploaded byprasaad08
- Pressure measurement instrumentsUploaded byAkash Sood
- FM Chapter3Uploaded bykz_kamran
- CE15-Lab1_Revised.pdfUploaded byLester Jay
- ManometersUploaded byMohamad Shahrom
- Test ESPUploaded bysrigirisetty208
- exchap02ansUploaded byMewnEProwt
- Analysis of Well FoundationUploaded bySumit Jadhav
- APSL 8774-2Uploaded byTuấn Vũ
- 5054_s17_qp_12.pdfUploaded bymaarij ali
- Expt 1 (Fluidshit).docxUploaded byTrisha Marieh
- NI Tutorial 13654Uploaded byRodrigo Serrano
- labrep6Uploaded byheidi marie
- Testo 420 ManualUploaded byzivko13
- Fluid Statics ExamplesUploaded byga_de
- 1201_eng_581Uploaded byNicolas Aguilar
- Borgnakke Fundamentals of Thermodynamics 8th Solution ManualUploaded byBaran Yalçın
- Experimental Observations on the Flow Past a Plano-Convex HydrofoilUploaded byekybagaskara13
- Instalacion de tuberiaUploaded byRuben Iturralde
- PI-117-OPSD-ISATR20Uploaded bygusbec

- HU HUUploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- 04 PMS-MPK-UPLI-04Uploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- 396320738-Laporan-Akhir-Latihan-Industri-DSK.docxUploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- 396320738-Laporan-Akhir-Latihan-Industri-DSK.docxUploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- 04 PMS-MPK-UPLI-04Uploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- 04 PMS-MPK-UPLI-04Uploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- 04 PMS-MPK-UPLI-04Uploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- BAB 1Uploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- BAB 1Uploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- BAB 7Uploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- Kementerian Pendidikan MalaysiaUploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- PENGHARGAANUploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- BAB 1.docxUploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- Rajah 4Uploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- BAB 5Uploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- BAB 3Uploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- FolioUploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- BerUploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- Criteria of Green Building 2Uploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- HeheUploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- alkali.docxUploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- AE 233 (Chapter 3) Fluid Mechanics for Chemical EngineeringUploaded bytsegay
- Contoh Powerpoint Utk Present ProjectUploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- Bab 2 Literatur ReviewUploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- LAB STROKUploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- DISSERTATION-_KGA_120012%2C_2015Uploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- DISSERTATION-_KGA_120012%2C_2015Uploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- Kelayakan OwnerUploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar
- 213859677-lab-docxUploaded byMaslinda Jaaffar

- Main Project DocumentationUploaded bynitin_mic
- Ethylene Gas Equation StateUploaded byIñaki Eseberri
- 1 3 states of matterUploaded byapi-259040408
- EEG and MEG: Forward Inverse SoluionsUploaded byconnadoz4518
- Internal Flow Greitzer Et AlUploaded byMonika Topel
- SciY4Topic4Uploaded byAb Rahim
- LevelUploaded bycool_rd
- 2. Principles of Spectroscopy UV and IR - Copy - CopyUploaded by1985kr
- dmol3Uploaded bySagar Srinivas
- 272974152-ContactLogic-Abaqus.pdfUploaded byFahrgeruste
- SMiRT-23_Paper_552Uploaded bySamul Tyagi
- JC 2 Temperature Thermodynamics Thermal Properties Work SheetUploaded byPaul Pandian
- 835-2310Uploaded byAddin Akbar
- Foundation Design Equations SummaryUploaded bysreejit77
- Edward LUploaded byfarianeto
- An Introduction to Stirling-cycle MachinesUploaded bysandigric
- (1)CURVE BEAM.xlsUploaded byKeat Leong
- 176. Quantum Theory & Res. of JesusUploaded byJodie Barry
- Interview Karen BaradUploaded byFederica Bueti
- Surge Protection DevicesUploaded byECATOnline
- Hall Effect ExperimentUploaded bydeepakkapeed
- Sigma ModelingUploaded byharyadi94
- Newtons Law of Universal GravitationUploaded byfeysalnur
- WPH04_01_que_20150113Uploaded byreemarifkhan
- ] Thermodynamic Simulation of a Solar Absorption RefrigerationUploaded byAngel Jeba
- KSSC_3_2009_9_2_115(C)Uploaded byalbertofgv
- Barton - Rock MechanicsUploaded byKlenher Madariaga Hancco
- Seismic Design of Structures With Viscous DampersUploaded byErland Ramírez Salazar
- AARC the Hundred Year Plan v1.7Uploaded byRichard_OMEGA
- DP Level CalibrationUploaded bySijo Joy