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ISSN 2229-5518

Dona Mary Daniel, Shemin T. John

Abstract— In this study the seismic response of a ten storied reinforced concrete building is analysed by displacement controlled

pushover analysis. It is assumed to be located in seismic zone 3. The building frame is simulated and analysed using the structural

analysis and design software SAP2000. In non-linear analysis, moment-curvature relationship is used to model plastic hinge behaviour.

Thus it was developed for modelling the user defined hinges for beam and column sections. Moment (M) and interactive P-M hinges were

assigned to the both ends of beam and column sections respectively. The lateral forces were obtained as per IS 1893 (Part1):2002 and

applied to the building. Top node displacement is incremented step by step up to the limiting displacement to obtain the pushover curve

and the sequence of formation of plastic hinges and failure of beams and columns were recorded. The analysis results including the

pushover curve and hinge formation are discussed. The maximum base shear capacity was found to be higher than the design base shear

and hinges were formed in beams prior to columns.

Index Terms— Capacity curve, Hinge formation, Load- moment interaction curve, Moment-curvature relationship, Pushover analysis.

—————————— ——————————

1 INTRODUCTION

among all the natural hazards. Since earthquake forces are

unpredictable and random in nature, proper analysis of

In SAP2000, a frame element is modelled as a line element

having linearly elastic properties and nonlinear force-

displacement characteristics of individual frame elements are

the structures must be ensured to withstand such loads. The modelled as hinges represented by a series of straight line

recent developments in the performance based engineering segments. There are three types of hinge properties in

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design have brought the non-linear static (NSP) or pushover SAP2000. They are default hinge properties, user-defined

analysis to the forefront. It has replaced the conventional anal- hinge properties and generated hinge properties. Studies

ysis procedures due to its simplicity and proved to be a useful show that user defined hinge model gives better results than

and effective tool for assessing the real strength of structures. default hinge model [10]. Moment-curvature relationship is

Pushover analysis can be either force controlled or displace- used to model plastic hinge behaviour in non-linear analysis.

ment controlled. The pushover analysis can provide signifi- The seismic performance of a structure can be evaluated in

cant perception and understanding about the weak links in the terms of pushover curve, plastic hinge formation etc. The max-

structure. imum base shear capacity of structure can be obtained from

SAP2000 can perform static or dynamic, linear or nonlinear base shear versus roof displacement curve.

analysis of structural systems. To perform pushover analyses

in SAP2000, users can create and apply hinge properties.

SAP2000 is fully equipped with US, Canadian and Interna-

2 BUILDING DESCRIPTION

tional Design standards and codes like ACI concrete code, The building used for analysis is a non-existing structure

AISC building codes and AASHTO specifications [1]. These which is a ten storied RC building with floor to floor height of

integrated design code features can easily generate wind, 3.2 m. The building is assumed to be located at seismic zone 3.

wave and seismic loads with comprehensive automatic steel The building is designed as a frame model with infill and con-

and concrete design checks. straints as fixed for the ground story columns. The building

Pushover analysis is a static non-linear technique in which details and design data are given below. The plan and eleva-

the magnitude of the structural loading is incremented in the tion of the building frame is shown in Fig. 1.and the 3D model

lateral direction of the structure according to a certain pre- is shown in Fig. 2. All dimensions are shown in mm.

defined pattern. Generally, it is assumed that the behaviour of 2.1 Building Details

the structure is controlled by its fundamental mode and the •Number of bays along X- axis :6

predefined pattern is expressed in terms of either story shear •Number of bays along Y- axis :4

or fundamental mode shape. FEMA-273 and its successor FE- •Spacing along X and Y axis :4m

MA-356 describe about the non-linear static procedure (NSP) •Size of column : 300 x 800 mm

or pushover analysis and its uses in the structural engineering •Size of beam : 200 x 600 mm

field. It is recommended as a standard tool for estimating •Thickness of slab : 120 mm

seismic demands for buildings [2]. •Thickness of infill : 200 mm

•Grade of concrete : M20

————————————————

• Dona Mary Daniel is currently pursuing masters degree program in 2.2 Design Details

structural engineering in University of Kerala, India

E-mail:dona.dnl7@gmail.coom •Live Load :1.5kN/m2 on roof and

• Shemin T. John is currently working as Assistant Professor, Mar- Baselios 3kN/m2 on other floors

college of engineering and technology, University of Kerala, India, E-mail: •Earthquake Load : As per IS 1893(Part 1):2002

sheminjohn123@gmail.com

•Type of soil site : Medium

IJSER © 2016

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 10, October-2016 89

ISSN 2229-5518

•Seismic Zone :3 3 MOMENT-CURVATURE PARAMETERS

Moment-curvature relation is a basic tool in the calculation of

deformations in flexural members. It has an important role to

play in predicting the behaviour of reinforced concrete (RC)

members under flexure. In non-linear analysis, it is used to

model plastic hinge reinforced concrete (RC) members under

flexure. In non-linear analysis, it is used to model plastic hinge

behaviour. The materials used in the design were M20 grade

concrete and Fe415 steel reinforcements. The cross section of

the beam and column used for the analysis are shown in

Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 respectively. All the sections in the structure

are of same cross-section and reinforcement detailing.

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Fig. 1. Elevation and plan of the building frame

Fig. 3. Cross-section of beam

are generated for a specific confining steel using the stress-

strain curves for concrete and steel as per IS 456: 2000 using an

iterative algorithm [9]. The moment-curvature curve generat-

ed for the column section for an axial load of 500kN and that

for beam is depicted in Fig. 5 and Fig. 6 respectively. The mo-

ment curvature curves were developed for different axial

loads and the axial load-moment values were used for devel-

Fig. 2. 3-D building model in SAP2000 oping the P-M interaction curve as shown in Fig. 7. Using

these relationships Moment (M3) and interactive load-moment

IJSER © 2016

http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 10, October-2016 90

ISSN 2229-5518

(P-M3) hinges were defined and were assigned at both ends of shown in Fig. 8. The salient points in the idealized moment-

each beam and column respectively. curvature curve can be defined as follows:

• The point A corresponds to the unloaded condition.

• The point B corresponds to the nominal yield strength and

yield rotation.

• The point C corresponds to the ultimate strength and ulti-

mate rotation, following which failure takes place.

• The point D corresponds to the residual strength, if any, in

the member. It is usually limited to 20% of the yield strength,

and ultimate rotation can be taken with that.

• The point E defines the maximum deformation capacity and

is taken as ten times that at the yield point.

Pushover analysis is carried out by vertical loading (gravity

load) followed by a gradually increasing displacement con-

trolled lateral load in both +x and +y direction. The design

base shear calculated as per IS specifications is compared with

the overall capacity of the structure obtained from the pu-

Fig. 6. Moment-curvature curve for beam shover curve.

The analysis results that include pushover curves, se-

quence of formation of hinges are briefly discussed below.

The capacity curve also known as pushover curve is a plot of

base shear versus displacement of the roof of the structure.

From the pushover curve the maximum displacement at the

roof and base reaction of the structure during displacement

controlled analysis can be obtained. The capacity curve is a

good indicator of the inelastic behaviour of the building

beyond the elastic stageshows The pushover curves for build-

ing when analyzed by displacement controlled pushover

analysis in both +x and +y direction are shown in Fig. 9 and

Fig. 10. The Pushover curve shows that the building has high

base shear capacity than the design base shear. Hence the

building is safe for the designed level of earthquake The de-

Fig. 7. Load-moment interaction curve for column sign base shear (V B ) was found to be 3435 kN and 2804 kN for

x and y axis loading and the corresponding capacity obtained

from the pushover curves are 3884.855 kN and 3534.256 kN

Moment-curvature parameters are used as the input for respectively. The base shear capacity of the building was ob-

modeling the hinge properties and it can be idealized as tained to be 13.09% and 26.04% higher than design base shear

IJSER © 2016

http://www.ijser.org

International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 10, October-2016 91

ISSN 2229-5518

for x and y axis loading respectively. The maximum roof dis- maximum displacement was obtained in 205 incremental

placement were 167.35mm and 240.712mm for x and y axis steps. The sequence of formation of hinges show that collapse

loading respectively. mechanism occurs in beams earlier than columns in all cases.

According to the concept of strong column weak beam, this

failure mechanism is adaptable.

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Fig. 10. Pushover curve for y axis loading

Pushover analysis result gives the sequence of plastic hinge

formation and state of hinge at various levels of building per-

formance. This gives the information about the weakest mem-

ber in the structure. So the member which is to be streng-

thened in case if the building need to be retrofitted can be thus

identified. The detailing of the member can be done accor-

dingly in order to achieve the desired pattern of failure of

members in case of severe earthquakes. The Acceptance Crite-

ria IO (Immediate Occupancy), LS (Life Safety) and CP (Col-

lapse Prevention) is indicated by different colors to indicate Fig. 11 : Hinge formation for frame loaded in x direction

the state of the hinge at various stages. Pushover analysis is (Total steps=288)

carried out as displacement controlled where the maximum

displacement is incremented in 1200 steps.

Higher value of multiple steps is chosen to get a clear per-

ception about the formation of hinges at each stage of dis-

placement increment. Fig. 11 and Fig. 12 show the formation

of hinges for various cases. In the case of pushover analysis

with respect to x axis loading maximum displacement was

obtained in 288 incremental steps where as for y axis loading

IJSER © 2016

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International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Volume 7, Issue 10, October-2016 92

ISSN 2229-5518

LOCATION OF HINGES FOR X AND Y AXIS LOADING

5 CONCLUSION

• Pushover analysis is an ideal method to explore the non-

linear behaviour of structure

• Moment-curvature relationship is an essential tool to define

the user defined plastic hinge properties of the sections

•Load–moment interaction curve is required for defining

column hinges

• In all cases the maximum base shear capacity was higher

than the design base shear

• Sequence of formation of hinges showed that localized

collapse occur in beams prior to columns. 77.6 % and 84.56 %

of hinges were formed within life safety level for X axis and Y

IJSER

axis loading respectively

• The building is acceptable and it is safe for the assumed

level earthquake in terms of base shear capacity

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors gratefully acknowledge Ms. Indu Geevar,

Researcher in the field of structural engineering for her

contribution.

REFERENCES

[1] SAP 2000 manual (Version 14), “CSI getting started with SAP2000”, Comput-

ers and Structures, Inc. Berkeley, USA.

[2] ATC-40, “Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Concrete Buildings”, Applied

Technology Council, California, Volume 1, 1996

[3] ASCE 41-06(2007), “Seismic rehabilitation of existing buildings”, American

Society of Civil Engineers, Virginia, USA

[4] FEMA 356, “Pre-standard and Commentary for the Seismic Rehabilitation of

the Buildings”, Federal Emergency Management Agency & American Society

of Civil Engineers, November 2000.

[5] Rohit,B., “Pushover Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Frame”, M.tech thesis,

Thapar University, 2011

[6] Hyo-Gyoung,K. and Sun-Pil,K., “Nonlinear analysis of RC beams based on

Figure 12 : Hinge formation for frame loaded in y direction moment–curvature relation”, Computers and Structures, 2002, pp. 615-628

[7] Shinde,D.N., Veena,N.V. and Pudale,Y.M., “Pushover Analysis of Multi Story

(Total steps=205)

Building”, International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology,

Vol.3, May 2014, pp.691-693

[8] IS1893-2002, Indian Standard Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of

From table 1, 77.6 % and 84.56 % of hinges were formed within Structure, Bureau of Indian Standards, Fifth revision, New Delhi

life safety level for X axis and Y axis loading respectively. On- [9] Devdas,M., “Modelling of RC elements for non-linear analysis”

ly 20.2% and 12.8% of hinges were formed beyond the collapse [10] Inel,M., Hayri,B. O., “Effects of plastic hinge properties in nonlinear analysis

prevention level respectively for X axis and Y axis loading. of reinforced concrete buildings”, Engineering Structures, Vol. 28 ,2006, pp.

1494–1502

[11] Poluraju, P. and Nageswara,R, “Pushover Analysis of Reinforced Concrete

Frame Structure Using SAP 2000”, International Journal of Earth Sciences and

Engineering, Vol.4, pp.684-690,2011

TABLE 1

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