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TERMINOLOGY

:
STRESS INTRODUCTION:
STRESS
Stress is a part of life. Everyone feels “ It is a condition in which the human system
AND stress at one time or another. The
experience of stress & the way one
responds to changing in its normal balanced state
.stress result from a change in the environment
response to it are unique to each
ADAPTATION individual. The process of responding to stress
,that is presided as a challenge a threat or a
danger and can have both negative and
is constant & dynamic & is essential to positive effects.”
ZANKHANA RATHOD F.Y. M. the person’s physical, emotional & social
well being.
- Pender and Parsons (2006)

CONTI… CONTI…. HOMEOSTASIS
2) STRESSOR ADAPTATION “The various physiologic mechanism within
the body responses to internal changes to
maintain relative constancy in the internal
“ stressor are themselves neither positive “ when person is in a threatening environment is called homeostasis.”
nor negative but they can have positive and situation immediate response occur
negative effects as the persons responds to .those response are often involuntary
the changes.” ,are called coping response. The change that PHYSIOLOGIC HOMEOSTASIS
take places as a result of the responses to PSYCHOLOGIC HOMEOSTASIS
a stressor is adaptation .”

occur without conscious LOCAL ADPTAVIE GENERAL thought. LOCAL self regulatory. GAENRAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME ALARM RESPONSE According to “Hans Selye” Three distinct stages:- This is the “ Fight or Flight” ALARM REACTION STAGE response that prepares the body for STAGE OF RESISTANCE immediate action STAGE OF EXHAUSTION . THE RESPONSE SYNDROME INFLAMANTORY Short term & long term stress can threaten the RESPONSE physiologic homeostasis & result in illness. & usually function to correct ADAPTATION ADAPTATION RESPONSE abnormal conditions.PHYSIOLOGIC HOMEOSTASIS TYPES OF PHYSIOLOGICAL HOMEOSTASIS Autonomic nervous system & the endocrine THE REFLEX PAIN system primarily control homeostasis RESPONSE mechanisms.

physical and mental relaxation and rest to counterbalance the stress resources suffer heavily. physical and need fulfillment occurs homeostatic measures in the spiritual health. TYPES OF STRESS NEGATIVE STRESS PSYCHOLOGICAL HOMEOSTASIS It is a contributory factor in minor conditions. . the body experiences ‘ response. insomnia and ulcers. form of coping or defense mechanisms help return the person to emotional balance. When these needs are not met or a threat to have a harmful effect on mental. Excessive. belonging. but must include periods of exhaustion phase: emotional. prolonged and unrelieved stress can esteem. illness and collapse. STAGE OF ADAPTATION / RESISTANCE PHASE STAGE OF EXHAUSTION If the source persists. secreting hormones to increase blood sugar levels. sufferers enter the necessarily harmful. tolerance. This phase is common and not In chronic stress situations. such as headaches. progressive mental and physical exhaustion. concentration lapses. digestive problems. Fatigue. irritability and adrenal exhaustion’ leading to decreased stress lethargy result as the stress turns negative. the body prepares for long- term protection. to feel safe & secure & to have self. skin Each person needs to feel loved & a sense of complaints.

a ily reaction Stress also provides the sense of urgency and to illness alertness needed for survival when confronting threatening situations. providing the PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESSORS F stimulation to cope with challenging situations. SOCIAL STRESSORS THOUGHTS EFFECTS OF THE THE SOURCE OF STRESS ADAPTATION TO STRESS STRESSOR Developmental stress (IMBALANCE ) Situational stress TYPES OF STRESSOR EXPERIENCED Physiologic stressor Psychological stressors PERSONAL FACTORS .POSITIVE STRESS TYPES OF STRESSOR Health Basic Stress can also have a positive effect. spurring ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS and human illness need motivation and awareness.

ADAPTATION TO STRESS (BALANCE ) MIND BODY INTERACTION PSYCHOLOGICAL STRESS humans react to threats of danger as if they were physiologic threats of a ADAPTATION person perceives the threat on an emotional level& the body prepares Perception Coping itself to either resist the danger or to run away from it. Each person reacts of stress Sources in Backache mechanism Constipation Diarrhea Dilated pupils Dry mouth Mind body interaction Headache nausea Balance Anxiety Sleep disturbances Coping mechanisms ANXIETY COPING MECHANISMS UNDOING COMPENSATION DENIAL DISPLACEMENT MILD ANXIETY SEVERE INTROJECTION PROJECTION RATIONALIZATION MODERATE PANIC REACTION FORMATION REPRESSION SUBLIMATION .

Rest and sleep:. Nutrition:- SECOND ARY It plays an important role in maintaining the body’s homeostatic mechanisms & in increasing resistance to stress. CO GNITIVE APPRAISAL b). INFLUENCE ISTING CONDITION AST EXPERIENCES Regular exercises help to maintain physical & emotional health. PR PRECIPITATING EVENT GE EDISPOSING FACTORS NETIC EX P a). Obesity & malnutrition are major stressors & greatly Availabi of coping strategies Perceived effectiveness of coping strategies lity Perceived ability to use coping strategies effectively increase the risk of illness. STESS AS A TRANSACTION BETWEEN THE INDIVIDUAL & THE INTERVENTIONS TO REDUSE ANXIETY Support system provides emotional support that helps a person identify & verbalize ENVIRONMENT feelings associated with stress. RIMARY P Rest and sleep helps the body to maintain homeostasis & restore IRRELEVANT BENIG N POS ITIVE SS STRE APPRAISAL energy levels. Exercise:. QUALITY OF RESPONSE d). NO RESPONSE PLEASURABLE RESPONSE HARM THREAT CHALLENGE c). Encouraging the use of support system:. ADAP VE TIVE MALADAPTI STUART STRESS ADAPTATION MODEL STRESS MANAGEMENT REDISPOSING FACTORS P BIOLOGICAL PPSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIOCULTURAL PRECI TING STRESSORS PITA MEDITATION NATURE ORIGIN TIMING NUMBER APPRAISAL TRESSOR OF S COGNITIVE AFFECTIVE PHYSIOLOGICAL BEHAVIORAL SOCIAL PROBLEM AWARENESS SOLVING COPNING R URCES ESO PERSONAL ABILITIES SOCIAL SUPPORT MATERIAL ASSETS POSITIVE BELIEFS COPING ME NISMS CHA RELAXATION MUSIC CONSTRUCTIVE DESTR UCTIVE ONTINUUM OF COPING RE SPONSES ADAPTIVE MALADAPTIVE RESPONSE INTERPERSONAL PETS COMMUNICATION WITH RESPONSE CARING NURSING DIAGNOSIS .