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Mechanical Engineering Laboratory Report



Student ID: SUKD1400458

Group ID: N

Course Code: EGE3431

Course Name: Laboratory Investigation 4

Submission Date: 04-10-2017

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The purpose of this experiment was the determination of linear range of operation of LVDT and
was to get the knowledge of Input-Output characteristics of LVDT as well as to determine the
sensitivity of LVDT. LVDT is a sensitive device which can detect a smallest change in
displacement by this experiment. The basic variable in LVDT selection is the maximum range of
core motion, which produces an analog output of specific linearity. Full-scale displacement is the
distance a core can travel from its null position in this linear region. It is a variable resistance
device, where a primary center coil establishes a magnetic flux that I coupled through a center core
to a symmetrically wound secondary coil on either side of the primary. Thus, by measurement of
the voltage amplitude and phase, one can determine the extent of the core motion and the direction
that is the displacement.


To determine,

 Study of Input-Output characteristics of LVDT.

 Purpose of linear range of operation of LVDT.
 Purpose of sensitivity of LVDT.

3.0 Theory/Introduction:

Linear variable differential transformers (LVDT) are used to measure displacement LVDTs
operate on the principle of a transformer. LVDT is a position sensing device that delivers an AC

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output voltage proportional to the displacement of its core which is passed through its windings.
It can detect the smallest change in displacement as they are very sensitive. LVDTs provide linear
output for small displacements where the core remains within the primary coils.

An LVDT is much like any other transformer in that it consists of a primary coil, secondary coils,
and a magnetic core. The two secondary coils are connected in series opposition, so that the
potentials induced in the two coils segments oppose each other as shown in the figure 1. An
alternating current, known as the carrier signal, is produced in the primary coil. The changing
current in the primary coil produces a varying magnetic field around the core. This magnetic field
induces an alternating (AC) voltage in the secondary coils that are in proximity to the core.

The ratio of the change in LVDT output to a change in the value of measure and displacement.
Sensitivity is the smallest change in displacement, which LVDT is able to detect. The output of
LVDT is an alternating signal which is rectified and filtered to give DC output (Signal conditioner
output). The DC output is proportional to amplitude of alternating signal of LVDT. Whereas
sensitivity is equal to AC output by displacement or DC output by displacement.

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 Scientech 2304 trainer with power supply cord.
 Connecting rod.
 Multimeter.

5.1 Experiment 1
1. The trainer was switched on.
2. The thimble was rotated to 0 of circular scale coincides with 10 of main scale.
3. The core was positioned to centre with the display indicated to 00.0.
4. The trainer was connected to the PC with USB cable given.
5. The software was opened in the PC and the Start button is clicked.
6. Port which was connected with USB cable is selected and started.
7. The thimble was rotated clockwise so that the micrometer read 9.0mm. It will move core
1.0mm inside the LVDT and simultaneously and the reading on display is observed.
8. The step was repeated by rotating the thimble clockwise again with 1.0mm. Display
readings is noted down after each 1.0mm rotation until micrometer read 0.0mm
9. The thimble was rotated anti-clockwise until the micrometer read 10.0mm. Display
reading is 00.0.
10. The step was repeated by rotating the thimble anti-clockwise with 1.0mm. Display
readings are noted down after each 1.0mm rotation until micrometer read 20.0mm.

5.2 Experiment 2
1. The procedures of experiment 1 are repeated.
2. The graph for the display reading is plotted with the proportional change against the
3. The point which disobeys the linear relation is found.
4. Noted the displacement reading of micrometer for the above point and subtracted it by
5. Trainer is linear over full scale that is 10mm. So linear range is 10mm.

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5.3 Experiment 3
1. The trainer was switched on.
2. Micrometer reading adjusted to 10mm.
3. The reading of micrometer was noted down.
4. The differential voltage between Test Point TP6 and TP7 in mV range is used and
measured by multi-meter.
5. Micrometer reading adjusted to 9mm.
6. Step 4 was repeated and the reading is noted down.
7. The sensitivity of LVDT is calculated by the formula given.

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Table 1 Data for Experiment 1

Displacement (mm) indicated by

Display Reading (mm) Voltage (mV)

0 mm 9.6 95.4

1 mm 8.6 85.4

2 mm 7.7 77.2

3 mm 6.8 68.5

4 mm 5.8 58.5

5 mm 4.9 48.9

6 mm 3.9 39.2

7 mm 2.9 29.7

8 mm 2.0 19.9

9 mm 0.9 9.7

10 mm 0.0 0.5

11 mm -0.9 -9

12 mm -1.9 -19.1

13 mm -2.9 -28.8

14 mm -3.8 -38.4

15 mm -4.8 -48.1

16 mm -5.7 -56.8

17 mm -6.7 -67.1

18 mm -7.6 -76.1

19 mm -8.5 -84.9

20 mm -9.3 -93.4

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Displacement (mm) indicated by micrometer vs Display reading

10 y = -0.953x + 9.5775
R² = 0.9999
Displacement (mm)

0 Display Reading (mm)

0 5 10 15 20 25 Linear (Display Reading (mm))


Display reading (mm)


Display Reading (mm) VS Voltage Reading (mV)


Display Reading (mm)

y = 10.004x + 0.0855
R² = 1

0 Voltage Reading (mV)

-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 Linear (Voltage Reading (mV))


Voltage Reading (mV)


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Differential Voltage for 9.6 𝑚𝑚 − Differential Voltage for 8.6 𝑚𝑚

9.6 − 8.6

95.4 − 85.4
9.6 − 8.6
𝑺 = 𝟏𝟎 mV
Linear range of operation = (Max value of display reading – (Min value of display reading))

Linear range = (9.5-(-9.3))

Linear range = 18.8mm

Theoretical value attained from the graph

(Theoretical value − Calculated value

% error = | | x 100
(Theoretical value)

(10.004 −10)
=| (10.004)
|x 100

= 0.04%

Accuracy = 100% - 0.04%

Accuracy = 99.96%

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The purpose of this experiment is to study the characteristics of input-output signal values of
LVDT. Besides, to determine the linear range and sensitivity of LVDT. Graph 1 shows that the
displacement reading shown by micrometer and display reading are inversely proportional.Greater
the display reading, lower the displacement shown by micrometer. This experiment proves that the
values are almost linear except for some points which were scattered due to the random or
systematic errors.

The linear range of operation of LVDT is calculated by using maximum display reading and
subtracting the minimum display reading of the experiment. The maximum display reading of this
experiment measured is 9.6mm while the minimum display reading of this experiment measured
is -9.3mm.The linear range of operation of LVDT was thus proved to be (9.6 – (-9.3)) mm that is
18.9mm. Theoretically when the reading value is zero the display reading would also be zero but
in this experiment, there is a certain value of 0.

The sensitivity is the slope between the voltage reading and display reading which in this
experiment was calculated to be 10 mV. This means that the minimum value that the LVDT can
measure is 10 mV.

The experimented conducted was really successful as it did not deviate much from the original
value. Certain minor errors can be improved is by measuring the value from the micrometer
precisely and there should not be any parallax erroring order to eliminate zero error the hexagonal
nuts should be adjusted and their mean would be calculated to get more accurate results when
setting the displacement on micrometer.


The sensitivity was calculated for the LVDT and all other objectives of the experiment was
successfully completed by this experiment. The calculations obtained were actually accurate which
is marked by the graphs. The characteristics of Input and Output for LVDT was also achieved.

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(Figure 1)
ii) Baumeister, Theodore; Marks, Lionel S., eds. (1967), Standard Handbook for
Mechanical Engineers (Seventh ed.), McGraw-Hill.

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