You are on page 1of 9

“Elie Carafoli” Aerospace Science Department

Preliminary design and sizing of the fuselage for a transport airplane

BEng Final Project

Author: Socaciu-Nemeș Denisa

Supervisor(s): Ș.I.Dr.Ing.Ion Predoiu

Session: July 2018


Anti-Plagiarism Declaration

I the undersigned Socaciu-Nemeș Denisa, student of the University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty
of Aerospace Engineering declare herewith and certify that this final project is the result of my own,
original, individual work. All the external sources of information used were quoted and included in
the References. All the figures, diagrams, and tables taken from external sources include a reference
to the source.

Date: _________ Signature: __________________________


Abstract

Airplane design commonly involves three successive phases: conceptual, preliminary and
detailed design phase. The second phase, the preliminary one is of great significance because
the elementary layout of the fundamental structure is defined in accordance with the mission
for which the airplane will be used. The fuselage is the next most important airplane part after
the wing and the tail, its main objective being to accommodate the payload.As secondary
functions the fuselage should provide housing concerning the non-human items such as
landing gear, engine and fuel tank, items for which the comfort is not an obligation.

The study attempt to investigate preliminary design and sizing of the fuselage for the
Antonov An-24. In addition, the study focused on the determination of computational cases
(critical computational cases, forces and stresses), study of the subassembly's structure,
tehnical drawings of the airplane.
Contents
1. General project ............................................................................................................................... 5
1.1 General presetation ................................................................................................................ 5
1.2 Geometry ................................................................................................................................ 8
1.3 Performances .......................................................................................................................... 8
1.4 Drawings (the 3D views of the aircraft) .................................................................................. 9
1. General project
1.1 General presetation

The Antonov An-24 is fitted with a high wing configuration which protects the two
Ivchenko Al 24K turboprop engines and blades from debris. The wings are configured
with single slotted Fowler fype trailing edge flaps on the inboard section, these being
double slotted on the outboard section. Its fuselage is of the semi-monocoque type that
introduces a welded construction. The An-24 is designed to operate from airfields of
limited size, with paved or natural runways and can be fitted with rocket-assisted take-off
units to permit operation with a full load of cargo at ambient temperatures above 30°C.

The wings are high-mounted and equally tapered from the engines to the blunt tips. Two
turboprops are mounted in pods beneath the wings, which extend beyond the wings'
leading and trailing edges. The fuselage is long and slender with an upswept rear section
and a solid, rounded nose featuring a stepped cockpit. The fin is back-tapered with a blunt
tip and angular fairing. Flats are high-mounted on the body, back-tapered with blunt tips,
and have a positive slant.

Development of the An-24 began in 1960 in response to an Aeroflot requirement for a


cheap and simple transport to replace the Li-2 (licensed DC-3), Il-2, and Il-14 aircraft.
Two prototypes flew in September 1962, and the An-24 Coke first entered service in
1962.

The weight of an aircraft is distributed all along the aircraft. The fuselage, along with the
passengers and cargo, contribute a significant portion of the weight of an aircraft. The
Fuselage AN-24 is an all-metal beam stringer monocoque. It links together the individual
parts of the aircraft, as the base-support for wing and empennage. The power frames of
the fuselage are made through stamping and widely used precision casting of steel and
non-ferrous alloys. The use of chemical milling of sheet, extruded and pressed parts from
aluminum alloys provides a significant reduction in the weight of individual parts.

The An-24 has a capacity of 52 passengers with 12 rows, each of 4 seats separated two by
two and also a seat in front and one in a back of the fuselage. The tail section of the
fuselage of the passenger compartment is placed a toilet, wardrobe and accessory cargo
space. Before the passenger compartment is a chamber for luggage, and then - a room for
the team.

Antonov An-24 aircraft is a metal-made monoplane with high-mounted tapered straight


wing. The aircraft wing consists of center-section, two middle sections and two cantilever
sections.On the wing of the airplane are mounted the main landing gear and the power
pland consisting of two turbo prop AI-24, 1875 kW each.

AN-24 is fitted with in-flight retractable tricycle-type landing gear with a nose wheel. At
at each leg there are double wheels, the front leg can be laterally oriented, thus facilitating
the take-off run.The main landing gear struts are installed in the engines' nacelles and are
retracted against ram air into special under-engine compartments. The nose wheel is
installed at the fuselage front end and is retracted into compartment under the cockpit.
The nose strut is a pedal-controlled unit that significantly improves the aircraft mobility
on the ground. The landing gear wheels with low-pressure tires allow landing soaked
unpaved aerodromes.

Antonov AN-24 has a conventional tail.

Empennage of the aircraft - cantilever,


single-fin, all-metal.

Where 1-ventral ridge 2-right


horizontal stabilizer console 3-right
half of the elevator 4-elevator trim tab
5-rudder trim tab 6-rudder 7-fin 8-the
upper light-signal for fire 9-dorsal fin

• The console of stabilizer consists of upper and lower panels, nose, tail section and end
fairing. The panel of stabilizer consists of two half-spars, collection semi-arch, stringers
and skin. Panels are connected between themselves along the walls of half-spars and
along the end ribs. The nose of each console of stabilizer consists of skin, corrugation and
collection of diaphragms. The upper and lower parts of the corrugation form the profiled
slot, into which through the micro-ejectors will be given hot air. After passing along the
channels of corrugation, air exit to the atmosphere through the louver of the lower side of
end fairing. Joining stabilizer with the fuselage is carried out on the spars by means of
bolts and fittings.

• Elevator consists of the glue-welded panels, connected together in the chord plane.
Each panel consists of half-spar, semi-arch, skin and balance weight. Panels are
connected along the walls of plungers by ramrod, on the noses – by bolts, and on the
trailing edge they are rivet through the end profile. Elevator has aerodynamic balancing
and hundred percent mass balancing. On each half of elevator is established the trim tab,
which consists of the longeron, nose, fiberglass cloth skin and foam plastic filler. The
maximum deflection of elevator angle is limited by the stops mounted on the shaft of the
rudder.

• The fin consists of two glue-welded panels, detachable nose, tail section and end
fairing. Structurally keel is executed analogously to the console of stabilizer. Fin tip is
prepared from the fiberglass fabric, in it the antennas SO-69 and RSBN (Short-range
Navigation Radio System), are placed. Along the sides the fairing has louver for the air
outlet, which warms the nose of fin. Joining of the fin with the fuselage is accomplished
with the aid of the fittings and bolts.

• The rudder design is similar to the elevator. On the root rib of the rudder is a unit
which limits the deflection. To the rudder it is attached the trim-tab, which consists of
longeron, ribs and skin, made from aluminum alloy.

• Dorsal fin has in the section triangular form and consists of the diaphragms, stringers,
longitudinal bent profile and skin. It is attached to the fuselage with the aid of the
duralumin corners.
1.2 Geometry
?

1.3 Performances

Performance is a term used to describe the ability of an aircraft to accomplish certain things
that make it useful for certain purposes. For example, the ability of an aircraft to land and
take off in a very short distance is an important factor to the pilot who operates in and out of
short, unimproved airfields. The ability to carry heavy loads, fly at high altitudes at fast
speeds, and/or travel long distances is essential for the performance of airline and executive
type aircraft.

The primary factors most affected by performance are the takeoff and landing distance, rate
of climb, ceiling, payload, range, speed, maneuverability, stability, and fuel economy. Some
of these factors are often directly opposed: for example, high speed versus short landing
distance, long range versus great payload, and high rate of climb versus fuel economy. It is
the preeminence of one or more of these factors that dictates differences between aircraft and
explains the high degree of specialization found in modern aircraft.

The various items of aircraft performance result from the combination of aircraft and
powerplant characteristics. The aerodynamic characteristics of the aircraft generally define
the power and thrust requirements at various conditions of flight, while powerplant
characteristics generally define the power and thrust available at various conditions of flight.
The matching of the aerodynamic configuration with the powerplant is accomplished by the
manufacturer to provide maximum performance at the specific design condition (e.g., range,
endurance, and climb).

WEIGHTS & PERFORMANCES

Empty weight Gempty 13350 kg

Max T-O weight GmaxTO 21000 kg

Accommodation 4 crew + 52 pax

Max cruising speed at 6000m Vcrz-max 460 km/h


Range 2820 km

Ceiling 8400 m

Take-off and Landing Performance

En-route Performance

1.4 Drawings (the 3D views of the aircraft)