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CRISTOFARO'S
. -JRfik *

MANDOLIN
F. DE CRISTOFAFkO

TRANSLATED AND KEVISED BY

PAUL LOSING

1 A

VOLUME I

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY


THEODORE PRESSER CO, DISTRIBUTORS, 1712 CHESTNUT ST., PHILADELPHIA
^Madt in U. S. A.
^\STOFA^
c ^

MANDOLIN

F. De CRISTOFARO « ft

TRANSLATED AND REVISED BV


PAUL LOR1NG

Volume I.

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY


c
Theodore Presser Co., Distributors q i

1712 Chestnut Street Philadelphia

Made in U. S. A.

Copyright MDCCCXUV, by Oliver Dltson Company


Public Pot'o T\»nr§ Permitted.
1
Digitized by the Internet Archive
in 2013

http://archive.org/details/cristofarosmando01cris
1

\Mk.

Rudiments of Music 3 Triplets 33


Of the Mandolin 6 Scale of A major 34
Of the Compass of the Mandolin 6 Exercise in 6-8 time 34
Rule tor Tuning the Mandolin 6 Scale of G minor 35
To Learn how to place the Plectrum (Plume), on the 4th Recreation. Septuor d' Ernani 35
Strings 7 5th Recreation. Schubert's Serenade 37
To Learn how to Execute the Tremolo 7 Lesson in Quarter Notes and Eighth Notes 39
To Learn the Notes on the Mandolin 8 Lesson in Detached Eighth Notes "
40
Of the Scale 8 Of the Gliding of the Plectrum on the Springs 41
The Intervals io 6th Recreation. Valse 43
Of the Chromatic Scale 12 7th Recreation. Mazurka 44
Scale and Lessons in C major 13 Sixteenth Notes Slurred and Detached 46
Lessons with Quarter Notes 16 8th Recreation. Polka 47
Lessons with Whole, Half and Quarter Notes 16 9th Recreation. Mazurka 49
Of the Slur and Tie 17 10th Recreation. Minuet 50
rst Recreation. Norma 18 Scale of B minor 5

Scale of A minor 20 nth Recreation. Contra Dance 52


Lesson with 1 Half and 2 Quarter Notes „...20 1 2th Recreation. Contra Dance 53
Of the Extension 21 Lesson on the Sixteenth Notes 53
2d Recreation. La Petite Guitare 22 Remarks on the Sixteenth Note 57
Scale of G major 2% Exercises on Repeated Sixteenth Notes 59
Lesson with 2 Quarter Notes Slurred, and 2 Quar- Scale of F sharp minor 61
ter Notes Detached 24 Exercise for the Different Strokes of the Plectrum 62
Exercise on Eighth Notes 24 Of the Dotted Notes 63
Scale of E minor in 3-4 time 25 Study of Triplets in Quicker Movements 65
Lesson on Dotted Notes 27 Study of Triplets with Different Strokes of the Plec-
3d Recreation. Last Rose of Summer 29 trum 67
The Appoggiatura or Grace Note 30 Scale of E major 68
Syncopation and Scale of D major 32 1 3th Recreation. Valse 68

ADDITIONAL RECUSATIONS

"Early Morn" Pietro Lanciani 72


"Berceuse" (Solo) Reber n
"Merry Princess March". Launce Knight 74
"Mazurka" Meyer Helmund 76
"Light Cavalry March" Walter Free/and, "Op 1
59" 77
"Dance Eccossais" Fred. T. Baker 79
"La Modesta" C. Caramano 81

"Hermione Mazurka" J. C. Macy 82


"Medley" 84
"Mazurka" E. Meyer Helmund 86
F/o. I
FfG Z

F/gJ

Position when seated

Position when standing


ric. f-

Pos.tion of the fingers


on the four strings.

FIG. 6

HoM.ng the Mandolin

FIG. 6

folding the Plectrum.


FIG 7

Position of the Hand Position of the Hand,


or loud tones.
The The strings
for soft tones.
stringsto be struck be struck with the
to
over
Mth the Plectrum Plectrum over the upper
of the
the lower edge edge of the sound hole.
6ound hole
m

K
(K String*
f : : —

THE RUDIMENTS OF MUSIC.


in the representation of musical sounds —
i.e., written music, or If these five lines and the spaces are not sufficient lor
notation — we
use the characters known as Notes, Clefs, Rests, the extension of the music —
i.e., higher or lower tones we —
and " accidentals " ( or Sharps and Flats ). theu add more lines to the staff; and these are called ledger
These signs and characters are placed upon a Staff consisting lines.
of five lines and four spaces.
ledger line* above.

The Staff -6th line


Him M
A i . mmtm
€r/£ff? -

(with ledger tinea added). -MHm


-»dUme-
.
_3d*pao*
2d space
- let line ttteioaee

Ledger lines below.

The Notes. These are represented by the letters C D E F G AB ; or by the


The Notes represent the sounds of the scale, according to their syllables do re mi fa sol la si.
position on the Staff. The position of the n>tes, as represented by the letters, syllables,
Seven principal tones or notes constitute the musical scale. and characters, aire d mentioned, is as follows

-&- 22:
-<£>- J2- J«l —B

i -*" -gr
*
-&- SL A JSL

D
DO M
The Clefs. (observe the curled part on th«s second line), it denotes that G is
to be placed thereon and hence the name and position of the
;

other notes are determined. ( See preceding representation of notes


The Clef placed at the beginning of the staff determines
on the staff.)

he name and pitch of the notes thereon. There are three different
To fix the notes and their positions on the staff firmly in the
memory, the pupil should write them on music-paper, placing also
oiefs, viz: the G cUfigC=j the F cfc/JIPj^ ; and the C cleffa —. the proper letter and syllable above each.

Music for the Mandolin requires only the G clef ; therefore we The Value or Duration of Notes.
will not here consider the others. The
characters used to represent musical sounds, and which we
call Notes, together with theii relative value or duration, are
As the G clef is placed on the second line of the staff
indicated in the following diagrams :

Whole note. Half note. Quarter note. Eighth. Sixteenth. Thirty-second. Sixty-fourth.

r r r-t b
1
The relative value of the notes is best shown by the fo llowing arrangement

1 Whole note -^
equals

3 Half notes

equal
r
4 Quarter note*

equal
r r r
8 Eighth notes
t
equal

16 Sixteenth notes

equal
t —
32 Thiuv second

equal
notes r rrrrrrrr vLu mm~
84 Sixty-fourth notes.
:

I he KestS. is interrupted for a certain length 01 time, as indicated by uie


Rests are introduced to deuote periods of silence. The music signs called rests, as follows :

*Tiole rest. F«lf rest. Quarter. Eighth. Sixteenth. Thirty-second.

—1—
8ixty-fouTta.

equal to
-t- H-

r t $ S

It will be seen, in the above, that e?"h note has its correspond-
sigu g£ indicates the Key in which the music is to be played
ing rest.
Accidentals. Thus the Signatures by which we determine the Key of a piece of
music are as follows :
A Sharp (#), &H'lat (b), or a Natural
(fi), placed before a uote
afters the tone. In this capacity
such signs are called "Acci- Example of the S'gnatures of the Major
dentals," and there are five of them as follows : and Minor Keys.
The %, which raises the sound a half-tone. With neither Sharp nor Fiat it Is
The b, which lowers the sound a half-tone.
The \ which restores I he sound to its original pitch.
zsi
The *, or double sharp, which raises the sound of a note a
whole tone.
The bb, or double fiat, which lowers the sound of a note a C Major or A Minor.
whole tone.
The Signature.
~zr
A sharp or fiat, or a group of either, placed just after the clef

One Sharp. Two Sharps. Three Sharps. Four Sharps.

*
&- lit y
Key of G
-<*9-

Major or
i Key of T) Major or
s 1221

Key of A Major or
I E Major or
E Minor. B Minor. F# Minor. C 8 Minor.

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m M 22:
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* -JSL

B Major
Five Sharps.

-&-

or G# Minor.
wm *
F # Major
Six Sharps.

or
JSC pa
D 5 Minor.
IJeven Sharps.

C J( Major or
ZZ2I

A$ Minor.
$ F Major
One

or
Flat.

221
T) Minor.

wM1 * — fiB
I ZZ2I
i -&-

Two Flats.

Three Flats. Four Flats. Five Flats.

&
Six Flats. Seven Flats.

m m B b Major
G Minor.
or El?
zzz

Major or
C Minor.
§BE A P Major or
F Minor.
22:
fH Db
Bb
-&-

Major or
Minor.
% fcfc

Gb
Eb
Major or
Minor.
SBE
pzp
Cb
"221

Major or
7 Minor.
I

y
im
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S ~Z21
m
m-.
-&-
P& -<S>-
§fe mW 1ZL

When a sharp or flat additional, or not belonging to the signa- regular " beats." Thus, in Common Time, (simple or compound)
ture, placed before a uote iu any bar or measure of the piece of
is
we divide the bar or measure into four beats, each representing
music it affects only the note or similar notes in that measure
tloP€, according to modern usage. one quarter-note. This kind of Time is indicated by the figure,-

Time, or Tempo. j| or the sign g at the commencement


•Ve measure the movements of a piece of music by t-xent or
h —
Simple Common Time.

^ -J2Z
+
W=+
One, two, three, four, one, two, etc.

Compound Common Time.


*4 W¥¥¥¥¥¥W¥¥FF¥?F¥¥¥¥*-
One, two. three, four, etc.

In Triple Time we count or beat three to every measure Thus;

Simnle Triple Time.

3=^ ~&-
— — ——
:£3
One. two, three, etc.
±=: \
i I i

at=a=tea i i i b=
Compound Triple Time.

HEW
4= + H .
! 1
- ! ! . ! I I
- ! I ! I
-

One. two three, etc

Simple (short) or Even Time.

93 -I-
t: -t—
1
?=> ?—*
:
i
P-
i
*
!
*
i t-
I*-
I
One, two, oue, two, one. two', etc.

Compound Even Time.


£ -*
1
5i- * ^=pZI^=ji_^_A_^__^_^__^__^_ tJ|
T -- H-1?! lit f

8z=t H i-
3= 1
I i !

Simple Triple Time, Short


IF
&=iz £ iz I
Compound Triple Time, Short.

^ *--
.Hi +-;— -I i i i

t:
i i ;

I
Dot and Double Dot.
A dot placed after a note increases its value ( duration ) one half its ow.n length.

Example.
Dotted Whole Note. Half. Quarter Eighth. Sixteenth. Thirty-second.
&-*

Equal to 3 Half notes.


T
Equal to 3 quarters. Equal to 3 eighths. Equal to Equal to T Equal to
3 sixteenths. 3 Thirty-seconds. 3 Sixty-fourths.

T r
r
t g : r —
B
0;
K ^

^
—— »
B"
•-
B
-•
y
0-
i/
1

i/ k 1
R B R y> y>
$ A B
V P V
A second dot adds the value of one half of the first dot.

Example.

equals eouals
f" equals
-0-L-

5 equals
equals

r r r c k • ^ H B" B* w P E n
i/
• B ^ B^ ^ b
* i
The dot or double dots placed after a rest has the same effect as when placed after a note.
The Triplet and the Sextolet. Position of the body.
A group of three notes is calle 1 a triplet, aud is to be played To
ensure a graceful position and facility of execntion, preserve
in the time of two notes of the same kind. an erect position with the head thrown slightly forward. Stand
or sit directly opposite the music, so as to be able to read it
Triplets.

The sextolet or group of six notes


t±f readily.

Manner of Holding the Mandolin.


is to be played in the time of
fonr ;otes of the same kind. The neck or handle of the instrument should rest in the palm of
the leit hand and be supported by the first finger, which should be
Sextolets.
tr placed between the first and second frets.
small strips which cross the neck.)
( The frets are the

The thumb is used to steady


The figure 8 or e placed above the groups indicate the division, the handle, and should easily slide up or down, allowing freedom
or inanuer in which they should be played — as described above. to the fingers. The inner side of the hand should be a little dis-
tance from the handle, so that the fingers may fall perpendicularly
Signs and Marks of Expression. on the strings. ( Fig. 4.)
Dal Segno, or $•', signifies from the Sign.
Da Capo, or D. C, means from the beginning. The Plectrum and Right Hand.
The Pause, or *, indicates that the note is to be kept down at Hold the plectrum between the thumb and first finger of the
pleasure. right hand. (Fig. 5.) The hand should be so curved that a part
The Slur (^n) unites several notes with the same stroke of the of it is held over the strings. The fingers should be pressed
Plectrum. together and kept beneath the thumb and first finger, the little
Piano, or p, softly. Pianissimo, or pp, very softly. finger resting on the top of the instrument between the sound-hole
Mezzo-forte, or mf moderately loud. and the bridge. ( Fig. 6.) Shake or agitate the hand slightly,
Porte, or f, loud. Fortissimo, or fft very loud. as the movement may require. In order to give freedom and
Crescendo, (-=rr) to increase the sound. flexibility to the wrist, the fore-arm must rest on the edge of the
Diminuendo, (; — ) to decrease the sound. instrument in such a manner as will allow ease of motion. ( Fig. 6.)
Trem,olo {*,+—+— ) in a tremulous manner. In order to produce forte souuds, or loudness of tone, hold the
The other less important signs, and also the abbreviations, plectrum firmly ; to produce softer tones (piano ) hold the plec-
terms of expression, and the different movements, will be learned trum lightly, letting it touch the strings above the hole. ( Fig 7.)
as the study of the Method progresses.

The Mandolin. Movement of the Fingers of the Left Hand.


The Mandolin tuned by perfect fifths, in the same manner as
is The hand should be separated and curved so
fingers of the left
the violin. The however, has but four strings, while the
violin, that they may fall with grace and facility upon the strings, and
Mandolin has eight. These eight strings are placed by twos, or with equal ease and promptness spring up from them. The fingers
in pairs, the two strings being tuned in unison. The Mandolin is used somewhat after the manner of small hammers, ( as in piano-
played by picking the strings with a small piece of bone, wood, a forte playing,) should move from the knuckle or third joint, and be
quill, or a bit of ivory. This is called a plectrum. independent of the palm of the hand as well as of the wrist. The
( See Fig. 1.)
The plectrum should be half an inch wide at the upper or larger fingers must rise and fall with ease and equality. The pressure of
end, and should diminish to a flexible point at the other. these fingers upon the strings must be firm and even. ( Fig 8.)
A good position of the fingers is of the greatest importance.
Position. The examples and illustrations already given shonld be sufficient,
The performer may or stand while playing the Mandolin-
sit for the guidance of the pupil in acquiring correct position. Yet
If sitting,he must place the instrument on the right thigh and the teacher should use the utmost care in this important rudiment,
against the abdomen. ( Fig. 2.) If standing, ht should press it and not allow the pupil to acquire habits that might seriously
against the lower part of the chest. (Fig. 3.) affect the development of a naturally good talent.

Compass of the Mandolin.


The following scale shows the compass of each pair of strings.

•0--BL
-e~ •&-

i T>K>-*&-
TP-^ •gr
-gr

4th pair. 3d pair. 2d pair. 1st pair.

Tuning.
"The ma'ndolin is tuned in perfect fifths, thus

131
Example.
Pii o
13
D
— 131

4th pair. Sd pair. 3d pair. 1st pair.

ompass. These two notes show the extension which the modern mandolin reaches — B and C.
Tune the second pair of strinyra unisou with an
in inning-fork,A and perpendicularly upon them, between the hole and the bridge
-9- The teacher should himself assist the pupil in these first attempts

the A above middle C on the piano ffa—B— Then tune the third
at placing the plectrum.
Unite the fingers in a rounded or curved position on the plec-
strings to D which will lie an octave lower than the
trum. The little finger should rest lightly on the instrument ( See
same note made by pressing the A strings at the fifth fret. Tune Plectrum), so that the hand may move freely.

The upper part of the arm should not move. The fore-arm
the G %U ( fourth strings) an octave lower than the tone should rest upon the edge of the instrument.
When the pupil has thoroughly learned how to hold the plec-
made by pressing the D strings on the fifth fret. And lastly tune trum, he should commence the stroke-practice up and down— —
gradually increasing in rapidity until he has attained a very quick
the E's (First strings)^ in unison with the tone made by
movement. This is called the tremolo movement, and should be
pressing the A strings on the seventh fret. practiced on all four sets of strings.
The tremolo must always begin with a downward stroke of the
How to Place the Plectrum on the Strings. plectrum.
Place the plectrum on the fourth strings, (G), resting it lightly

rz: i V ej

i
fr?>
"))
& O
%f
72" 72*
4th 3d 2d 1st 1st 2d 3d 4th

Lesson For Tremolo Practice. The ^, or hold, indicates that the note is to be held or contin-

ued at the discretion of the player. Usually the hold should not
In some lessons given for Mandolin practice, two signs are used, exceed, iu duration, the twofold value of the note or rest over
fiz : A, or the down stroke; and lj, or up stroke. which it is placed.

First Exercise.

The Pupil.

mmm -7!7
79

Htetci=±i*4=t
IZT
79- -zr
79"

The Teacher.

3 -^7"

The figures placed above or alongside the notes indicate wliat fingers are to be used.
Second Exercise.
Thv: Pupil.
pm I3ZI 791
72: 721

S7\
791 72:

The Teacher.

i5!Nl§M2%p
! : *

-gr
~3SL -JR. ZJSL -J21 -jzr
-&-

/Cv

HehSSS I
f-
I*ZZZ
3 r #»-
'ist-fat
•1=
St-iTo F*^g-%
r'l
is: 22: 22:
~g"
is: 22: is: ~Z?~
i
fe— -&
11 il^f 3:
* Z& ^3=^=^
3 g|. .J— > #11:22
*t+-^—

Lesson for Learning the Notes. UBed — viz : 1, first or index finger; 2, second finger; 3, third
finger; 4, the little finger.
la this exercise the pupil must not begin the use of a new The sign indicates an " open " string, or a string not pressed
string until he has well learned how
the preceding one.
to play by the finger.
The figures placed over the notes indicate the fingers to be The figures placed under the notes show what fret should be used.
4th strings. 3d strings.

i Open strings -_-


Angers

frets
-

a 4
-
r
open strings
-fingers—\

frets 2
>.

2d strings.
-flngers-i-
1st strings
fingers 1
2
* A
-?p*Q-? ti|n g*
-0-
^_9im?irlngs_Jg_ fre7i! r -freti

After the pupil has repeated this exercise several times, he played in regular order by ascending and descending. The fol-

shonld play the same notes irregularly, that is to say, by — lowing illustrates the movement
skipping some of the intervals, which in the above exercise, were
1st strings.
4th strings. M strings. 2d strings. 2 5 2 3 »1
o m o -#- m n -**- l

m o—a— oo—
-o—
~ TT — •+»— a — o -=--2r±r2r!L
—»- 0— »—-—<>
-m —m 1

— #— o- »
1

a 3-8 3 3
-0---0-#---0-#-t-#-<»-
i m
—— -*

Observe that tae semitones (half-tones) occur between the 3d


>-

The Scale.
and 4th, and the 7th and 8th degrees, ascending or descending.
A regular succession of t >nes and semitones is called a Scale. semitone semitone

Example. F -se.mto'n.
-&- 22: 22:
Scale of C. F -&r jf ^v & 1221
J2L -&- "Z?
-

Scale in Whole Notes.


In passing from one note to another, of the following scale, the freedom to enable the fingers to rise and fall promptly.
suflficieut

pupil should avoid any interruption of the movement of the plec- In playing the following scale, remember to count four to each
trum on the strings. Keep the fore-arm motionless on the edge of measure. The whole note equals four quarter notes. Beat the
the instrument and preserve the proper position of the right hand. time with the hand for a bar or two, before playing Thus, one :

The fingers of the left hand she ud be well curved over the down, one to the left, one to the right, and one up.
strings ; the wrist must b'„ kept rigid, and the action of the angers We choose the scale of G for the preliminary scale-practice
procood solely from the third joint or knuckles. Allow the hand because it is most favorable to the instrument.

Exercise in the Scale of G Major.


Observe the F$ in the Signature.

Pupil

Teacher
o . o .

9
4orO 2
4or0 XL.
* 11
ZE

I I
*9* i i IP s ap ^g P *
4
2
XE
* xc XE XE

^ 2 S g£ ^
w ** ^ Hm I

/?s

xe o- xr
f
*
« mJUmfi.
3 £ IP*
THE INTERVALS
I i =*?
i IP xr
n #*=
XT
<7\

An Interval is the distance between one note or tone and another. There may be several degrees in the interval , which
we reckon as a second, third, Jburth, fifth, sixth, seventh and octave. Intervals are reckoned ascending or descending the scale.
Thus:

Second. Second- Third- Fourth. Fifth

XE XE -©- -O- O O- ^=3C XE XE


- -*>- O-T » m O

8ixth- Seventh. Octave.


XI HI ,»i° ° •
S=at 'o — l

^o —
In extending the scale, say for another octave, we reckon the ninth, tenth and eleventh:

Ninth .
Tenth Q. Eleventh. — etc.

$ -©-

Inversions
"When we place a given note an octave higher or lower, we invert the intervals, thus;

The 9econd becomes a "7th below. The Third, a 6th. The Fourth, a 6th.

~r
x* xt tttr -*th- Sttr
-w-
XE
-Tttr
XE
-M-
^- XE XE
6 ti,

7th 6th-

The Octave, a nnison.


The Fifth, a 4th The Sixth, a 3d. The Seventh, a 2d
*th-
EC
Q8d
EE 7 thO p2d O- XE f» r>
BtliO

$
-fltft

-&- -O-
3d -O-
XE O O1
4th *-»
T r

10

EXERCISES ON THE INTERVALS.


4w Strings. St^ Strings.
ill
fe
By
Seconds. i s'ii'.'Xi'-'iJ -e- o 3 xr
V T XF 2 3

^ -e-
=« XE g
W
rJ
4
-©-
2*4 Strings

XE (g^ —6 =P 331
3
5=22:
"*

^
i?£ Strings 3 4
2

* -«- Z2I * IE JQ_ -o


i £f=£=# 1

#
^^
2«?Strings.
3 4 ST4strings

*
faZ2ZZ&
2 XE 33:
w
4#£ Strings.
# 3X
1 — -o-

*
2Z 33: o ' al f '
o iJU '

ii '

jjJ Epi 1

t
By
# E jiUi-uu I J J .1

^ ?
i i

Thirds. J0t 22
«"
'

i i9 ~£7

^^
3
1
1 (2)
3 4
* <9-
-0_ -J5L
zz:

P^£?
*
Pi ^^ 2Z IE r»
#" V
By
Fourths.^?
fc
«"
_:
& o
4 1^ 2Z
— -<S>-
J
1 J J |
J
M J

3
4

* zz:

i i
J2

fe# zz:

F^
*Ife r 1 1
r a p 3 » ;
j
I ' *f '

^ ^ ff ^1
(.// ^PZtfrt Me note* DAE are found in any passage whatever, and the passage does not exceed Open Strings.
any of these notes, the rule is to use the 4th finger in preference to the open string, thus:-
TT
O
4th Strings. 3Td Strings. 2™ Strings.
s * a

The 4th finger on the open strings (ft) |


I |
||
—^ rJ
J— fl

(2/ When the same note is repeated without a tie^—^ the tremolo must cease after the first note and be resumed at the second.

57428-86
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Sevenths. ,
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Exercise recapitulating all the Intervals.

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To play perfect fifths, you must at once place the finger flat on the two different strings. To play diminished fifths you
j
S* — I
J 1

-A — 1
J 1 U Thf
1 1

mm
must change the fret, although using the same finger. The diminished fifths are indicated by this sign •.

5742G-86
1 » ; '

12

ON THE CHROMATIC SCALE.

lVhen the Scale is composed of Semitones


only, whether ascending or descending, it is called
a Chromatic Scale.
To play a Chromatic Scale, we generally us* the sharps in ascending
and the flats in descending, as is her*
shown below.
Every series of semitones is called a ehr .matic succession. There are two kinds of semitones: the Chrom-
atic and the Diatonic.
The Chromatic Semitone exists between two notes of the same name:

EXAMPLE.
I m i^j i
i i
i

The Diatonic Semitone is placed between two different notes

EXAMPLE.
I j i ' ^ ^ 1
1 ['

Chromatic Scale ascending with sharps.

3 3 4
2

——— — — ;»:*»«
1 1 .,2
.,
-8 9- 2 2 3 ,3
-a i 1 9 a- 1 1
pr*=j ti
Q — *— -9 8- *-•
1
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fjy|5:r*|k ,fr l

4#£ Strings. 3T& Strings. 2V4 Strings. i?/ Strings.

-J

Chromatic Scale descending: with flats.


3 3
W-^L-l .

I
• a i « 2 .
O —
4 8 9-
if ;*
™fc •
.

E
r;* -#-?
r*-w ^^ *—= —— 3 8 3 — 1 1

l?t Strings. 2* d Strings. 3r? Strings. 4th Strings

W
Chromatic Scale descending with sharps.
4 3 .3 o
i i

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,

3 3 2 2
. .
.
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l?t Strings. 2?4> Strings. ^7^ Strings.


4th Strings.
JL.

(l) We have shown the Chromatic Scale descending by flats as well as sharps because the fingering is not the same in both cases.

57429-4C

13

SCALE IN C MAJOR.
No sharps or flats at the Signature.

goes
All the following scales of Major and Minor keys are written for the first position only. Their compass
as far as B natural above the staff, without exceeding the second octave.

During the study of the other positions, the scales will be extended.

Chords In C Major.

2:
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Lento.

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Lessons In C major, With Whole and Half-notes.

Andante.

THE TEACHER.

Andante.

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A7420-M
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Lesson with Quarter-notes,

All the Quarter notes, when not slurred, must be played tremolo, each succeeding note being accented.
The tremolo must cease an instant before passing to the following note.

iE
Andante. 4

P m - P m ~!

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Lesson with Whole-notes, Half- notes and Quarter-notes.

E
Andante.

f ^^ i £ i f
8.

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17

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— mm #^-» 3 i i
o

ON THE SLUR.
When two notes, or even a greater number are accompanied by this sign -—^ they must he played with_
out the least interruption of the Tremolo. After playing the first note the fingers of the left hand should
press the string, and slide up or down to the next note or notes included in the slur. This observation con-
cerns only notes played on the same string. In slurring on the open strings the plectrum is simply drawn from
one to the other.
Exercise for Slurring notes on the open strings.

§ w m i f".i 3
w m
Lesson in Slurring Quarter-notes.

*m
Lento.
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ff iff g M
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^jfVThe passage from one string to another must be effected without mooing the wrist
1

(if the right hand in making the plectrum


fall on the following string; Thus avoiding the wrong accent.

>742&-e«
^

18

THE TIE.
"When the sign -—> connects two notes of the same degree op letter, it is called a tie; and the string is
pressed down until the time-value of both notes is accomplished.

Lesson in Slurring Quarter-notes and Eighth-notes

Andante.

10.
m i£
m SP
The quavers must be played tremolo.
n .

i mm
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RECREATION I.

Andante sostenuto Prom Norma.

6742Q-86
19

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57429-86
20
SCALE IN A MINOR.
Relative of C major.

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Lesson with one Half-note and two Quarter-notes Slurred.

^
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4

£ 22:
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57429-88
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21

Lesson with Two Quarter-notes Slurred.

12.
£
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THE EXTENSION.
When the 4-W finger is made to reach a note above the first position, without displacing the hand, the move-
ment is called extension . The ^irst position finishes at B with the 4$ finger; but it is possible with the same
finger to reach to C and even to C# with the other fingers still on the strings, and the hand in place. This
extension is called upper or superior, because the 4w finger ascends one or two degrees.

Example of the Extension.

4.(1)
V A

fe «r* fr rf ff rr
-&
-& J i
rr i
i
i i i i i i
rr i
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iju jijj

(l) See, for the extension of the 4th finger, tie 28th bar of the fotlovcing Recreation. "La petite jnitare."

r
>7l2»-8«
22

RECREATION H.
'LA PETITE GUITARE."

Time I. One Quarter- note or two Eighths for each beat or count
Andante. m ^ —
m i ? i
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K*^r
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[Z) Upper Extension.


574*»-8«
*

23

SCALE IN G MAJOR,
F# at the Signature.

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10 =^°
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Lesson with two Quarter-notes slurred and two Quarter-notes detached or staccato.
Allegro giusto.
(0 '
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jffp^ 2p ^ -0-

13.
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/W ^%e« Mere & a dot over the note, it must be staccato and played with a doan stroke of the plectrum and without maki
\ng
the tremolo.
57429-86
24
EXERCISES ON EIGHTH-NCTES.
Three notes slurred and one staccato.

The slurred notes to be tremolo. .The staccato note detached.

Moderate

14.

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ggti ^ i
P i
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Two notes slurred and two detached.

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57180-88
25

SCALE IN E MINOR.
Relative of G major.

^—
psi M
4r6 SXa #&e

277
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3=E
2 "5"
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n
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m
m j UJJ fH'ir iVffNJJiiii
i

SIMPLE TRIPLE TIME.

A dotted Half-note, or three Quarter-notes.

(A dot after a note increases its value one half.)


Moderate.

ij'jTn p=s ^ i i i if r

17.

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fi/ i/a£e M« Eighth-notes staccato.

(2) Slurred Eighth-notes' tremolo.

87429-86
y ~

28

P^m poco a jtwco ores


£
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57489-gfl
^
27

LESSON IN DOTTED NOTES.

18.
mm Andante.

mm mm (i) A

im
p ppppi pp^t
3
i^iH^i^^^ * —

$
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^Pipi B F^w if
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f/j ^faie tKe"BightT^noii) staccato.

.57420-80
ZH

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57429-80
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RECREATION ffl.

(LAST ROSE OF SUMMER.) From "Martha'.'

m Allegro grazioso.

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PH
^/ 7%# dotted note to he
I
flayed Tremolo, The Sixteenth note
-*

.-.laccato.
i
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67429-86
30

THE APPOGGIATURA.

The appoggiatura is a small note placed before another, and usually depriving that note of half its time -value.
It must be well accented and the principal note must be played Tremolo.
"When the appoggiatura is placed before x dotted note, it takes a third and sometimes two-thirds from the time-
value of that note according to the character of the melody.

When the appoggiatura is crossed by a little dash: t»t it must be played rapidly, the finger striking the string
sharply, then being withdrawn so as to allow a continuance of the tremolo on the principal note.

Lesson On the Appoggiatura.

Larghetto

# m m £ew PE ;*^:fc

19.

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57429-80
31

if*'
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(/) TAe Eighth-notes staccato.

fi7429-8(i
32
SYNCOPATION.
Syncopation is a suspension or alteration of accent— accented notes occuring in the unaccented part of a bar.
The emphasis is placed upon the syncopated note.

^
Examples of different kinds of Syncopation.

^iir,j rirrrirrJi"ia rP prNrf ,irir


r Tf rrpiPrrrp
i

r r
SCALE IN D MAJOR.
F# and C# at the Signature.
lg 3E3

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325
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Lesson In Syncopation

20.

% fe=£ 19-

T k £
TZL

m
P Ijij^j I
j^jiJ jjy; Jj' I

1 l

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£
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,

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Pf P^ i i w ' *
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#) Make the Quarter-note* staccato, and play the Half-notes tremolo.


.*.74-20-Kfl
r

89

TRIPLETS.
A Triplet consists of three notes grouped together and played in the usual time of two of the same value,
In slow movements, triplets are generally performed tremolo, excepting those which have a particular accent.

Lesson on Triplets.

21. I
u Lento.

m A W * |

w
|L

^^ i
* 3

mm ife #

p
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F^ p fe£^
J* J- fi*
PT^ § Jj5 US S pv^ 4 4 4

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Tempo.
4 # ^^ — J J Z—i I)l33

£ #

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1 mm m
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fij Jrcent the notes whiltt playing tremolo. 57429-80



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SCALE IN A MAJOR.
F# C# G# at the Signature-
& i£
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m&
3-f9-
4 -£ 3 *•&

1H
312 t-9-
4-9- 3:5ZI ±9—1-9

A* & fP P £#=1
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Time (j
r '
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The pupil must not mistake the group of three notes in f time for the triplets in f time.

^s
Moderato

g^a s SS
4

2.2.
p fir B #-s # 1

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Septet from "ERNANI Verdi.


Adagio.
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'•V TTfe notes io be veil marked and played tremolo. 5742 9-86
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37

RECREATION V.

SERENADE
The triplets in slow or moderate time may also be staccato. It depends upon the character of the piece.
[See the following Recreation )

Schubert.
Moderate

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(1) Staccato the triplet notes.


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(Z) The dotted notes to be played Tremolo.
[3) The slurred notes to be played Tremolo.
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57428-86
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39

Lesson In Quarter-notes and Eighth-notes.

In order to know whether the notes must be played tremolo or staccato, we must take into account the
movement of the piece and the character of the passage.
The longer the notes, the more appropriate the tremolo; whilst, on the contrary, the shorter notes are bet-
ter played staccato.
It is necessary, to pay great attention to the accents placed over the notes, as they indicate the manner
of execution.

Andantino.

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The Eighth -notes to be staccato, with a downward stroke of the plectrum during the lesson.
PP
D.C.

57429-tftf
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40

Lesson In detached Eighth-notes.

Allegro giusto.
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4f

The Slide of the Plectrum on the Strings.

placed are to be played very smoothly. This is


Th9 SlidaV indicates that the slurred notes over which it is

glide gently over the strings without re-


done by striking the first note and then allowing the plectrum to
striking them. It is possible to glide over two, three or four notes.

EXAMPLES.
by four notes.

AAA
by two notes.

i> ^> *y
Exercise for the Slide on two notes.

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up stroke of the plectrum.


(!) The Sotted note to he plsyed tremolo, and the short note an
the momnent of the plectrum on
the note.)
iQbterro the si^n - for
'2) Slide the plectrum orer the three notes.
574 *»->»»
- >

43
Observation On playing the Quarter-note.
should always be played tremolo. But, as an
In a preceding chapter we have said that the Quarter-note
especially in Waltzes.
exception, the quarter may also be played staccato in allegro movements,
(See the following Recreation.)

RECREATION VI.
Tempo di Valse. WALTZ.
d) #

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(t) Mike all the quarter notes staccato.


*7429-8fl
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MANNER OF PLAYING THE MAZURKA.


rhythm of the Mazurka, the Quarter-notes are played tremolo;
In the this rhythm not being so lively as
that of the Waltz. The Quarter-notes should be staccato.

RECREATION VII.

MAZURKA.
Tempo di Mazurka.

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'// Srenntt finger to t* «?pf c/onn.


(?) gf-uarmr itofei tten>o^>- Eighth »otn$ staccato.

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46

SLURRED SIXTEENTH- NOTES.


In rapid passages, the first of the slurred Sixteenth-notes is always played with a down-stroke of the plec-
trum, and the second with the up-stroke.
In order to play these rapidly and smoothly, either ascending or descending, in passing from one string to
another, do not make three successive down strokes of the plectrum. It is better to make use of the Vb
finger than to use the open strings.

ascending. BAD. descending.

^^^a^TTA A A 1 AmN a
JLa a a a

EXAMPLE. GOOD.
^^- -"

Allegro, s
AuAu A^l •#T^Au^\
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In passing from one string to another the Sixteenth-notes are played on the open strings when such
a course seems reasonable and convenient.

Allegro

EXAMPLE.

Detached Sixteenth- notes.

When there is no slur over or under the Sixteenth- notes, they must always be detached by a down-stroke
of the plectrum: however, in slow movements, the Sixteenths can be played tremolo or detached, according

to the style of the passage.

Example of Sixteenth-notes Tremolo.


Largo

T^ltrq^ji
Example of Sixteenth-notes Detached.
Moderate. h

J'- '
ffl ir
utf ^ cridfrJflVBtfig gii fr
For the Examples of the above, see the following exercises and recreations.

W. Those who imagine that they can replace the Mandolin method with that oj the Violin are in error- for the technique of
the former instrument does not always adapt itself to that of the Violin.

)?429-Mi
47

Exercises and Recreations on Sixteenth-notes.


With Obligatory strokes of the Plectrum.

Moderato EXERCISE
a
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Q A A u A A A
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Moderato EXERCISE:
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RECREATION VIE.

POLKA.
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Tempo
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1

?««_
cipal note.
(2) Slide the plectrum over the two slurred Sixteenth-notes.
• 742»-8«
48

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RECREATION IX.

MENUET.
Tempo di Mazurka.
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574 '29-88
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50
RECREATION X.

Tempo di Minuetto
MINUET.
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( i) Tremolo the eighth-note.
1

51
SCALE IN B MINOR.
Relative of the key of D major.

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574 2W-8 6
52

EXERCISE.
Allegro non troppo.
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p* 57488-86
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53
RECREATION XII.

CONTRE-DANSE.
Allegro.

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Lesson on the Sixteenth-notes.

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51

Observation on the Sixteenth-notes.

In order to maintain perfect smoothness in the performance of Sixteenth- notes, it is necessary to observe,
at the outset, that sometimes you must begin with the up-stroke of the plectrum, and sometimes with the
down-stroke. Whan there is an even number of notes, begin with a down-stroke.

A"A U A a

EXAMPLE. ^fl&r i rtf


j frua
When there is an uneven number of notes, begin with the up-stroke.
U A

EXAMPLE.
m u

^r i
0-

?[rfrif-*i
The isolated Sixteenth-note united to the Eighth by the rest f should be played with the down-stroke, be-

cause it is an isolated note. The note of the second beat in the measure should be played with the down-stroke
also.

EXAMPLE.

Lesson on the Preceding- Observations.

Moderato.

30.

IIP^
g SI
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5742 y-60
67490-80
59
Exercises on Repeated Sixteenth notes.

With different strokes of the Plectrum.


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Lesson on Repeated notes.

31.
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62
Exercise on the Eighth -notes.
"With different strokes of the Plectrum.

fc
All

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the notes staccato.

rm i
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Two Eighth-notes Slurred, and
S Two
!

Staccato.
#
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Sound the first note with the down-stroke of the plectrum and vibrate the string with the same finger; give
a slight up-stroke of the plectrum for the second note without stopping the vibration of the string.

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DOTTED NOTES.
"We have indicated at page 27 (RECREATION III) the manner of playing dotted Eighth-notes. Here is another
way of playing them. To produce this novel effect we must give a down-stroke of the plectrum on the dotted
note, and an up-stroke for the short note; separating the two notes hy a rest.

Effect Produced.
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65

TRIPLETS IN LIVELY MOVEMENTS.


To overcome the difficulty of this rhythm, which is contrary to the nature of the plectrum-stroke,
it is
necessary, when there is no accent on the notes and when there is no occasion to pass from one string to
another, that the movement of the plectrum should be always the same; that is to say, that the first note

jnust be sounded with the down-stroke of the plectrum; the second note with an up-stroke; and the third note
with a down-stroke. (See the figns orer the notes in the following studies.)

In adopting this movement of the plectrum an irregular accent is avoided. Though the accents ^=- are in-
dicated, yet the movement of the plectrum is different.
(See the following studies in triplets ttith the carious strokes of the plectrum.)

STUDIES.

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67
Id the following study the plectrum must he glided over all the slurivd notes in passing from one string
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A u A A 3 A
3
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Studies In Triplets, With Different Strokes of the Plectrum.

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RECREATION XIV.

"EARLY MORN."
Arr. by M.C.J.
Pietro Lanciani.
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RECREATION XV.
BERCEUSE.
(Solo.*
Reber.

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MERRY PRINCESS MARCH.


(For two Mandolins.)

Baker.

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MAZURKA.
Arr. bv M.C.J. (Fop two Mandolins.)
E . Meyer- Helmund.

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RECREATION XVHI.

LIGHT CAVALRY MARCH.


(Solo.)

INTROD. Walter Vreeland, Op. 159.


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RECREATION XIX.

DANSE ECCOSSAIS.
(For Two Mandolins.)

Arr. by Geo. Baker.


Pied. T. Baker

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?— —4 * • *
mm
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57429 *•
THE PHILHARMONIC
ORCHESTRA FOLIO
CONTENTS
1. Gavotte celebre Padre G. Martini
2. Moment Musical No. 3 Franz Schubert
3. Capriccio in A Joseph Haydn
4. Hunting Song Gustave Lazarus
5. Gavotte and Musette Johann Sebastian Bach
6. Largo from Xerxes George Frideric Handel
7. Bourree in G minor Johann Sebastian Bach
8. Intermezzo (L'Arlesienne Suite) Georges Bizet
9. Turkish March Ludwig van Beethoven
10. Minuet from Symphony in E\> Wolfgang A. Mozart
11. Gavotte from Paris and Helen C. W. von Gluck
12. Hungarian Dance, No. 5 Johannes Brahms
13. Huniorescrae, Op. 10, No. 2 P. I. Tchaikovsky
14. Ballet Music from Rosamunde Franz Schubert

INSTRUMENTATION
1. 1st Violin 14. 1st Alto (or Melophone) inEb
2. 2nd Violin 15. 2nd Alto (or Melophone) inEb
3. 3rd Violin (substitute for Viola) 16. 1st Trumpet (or Cornet) in Bb
4. Viola 17. 2nd Trumpet (or Cornet) in Bb
5. Violoncello , 18. Trombone (Bass clef)
6. Double Bass 19. Trombone (or Baritone) (Treble clef)
7. Flute 20. EbTuba
8. Oboe 21. Eb Alto Saxophone
9. 1st Clarinet inBb 22. C Tenor (Melody) Saxophone
10. 2nd Clarinet in Bb 23. Bb Tenor Saxophone
11. Bassoon 24. Timpani
12. 1stHorn in F 25. Drums
13. 2nd Horn in F 26. Piano

PRICES
Instrument Book* each .SO
Piano Part 1.00
Full Score S.00

All the numbers in this collection may be purchased separately in Small or Full Sets. For
further information, complete list of Philharmonic Orchestra Series, prices and other details see inside
cover pages II, III, IV.

OLIVER DITSON COMPANY


THEODORE PRESSER CO., DISTRIBUTORS
1712 CHESTNUT STREET PHILADELPHIA
Copyright MCMXXXV

MADE INU.S.A.
Boston Public Library
Central Library, Copley Square

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