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Copyright 0 1987, International Union of Microbiological Societies

Streptococcus suis sp. nov., nom. rev.
Lehrstuhl fur Mikrobiologie, Technische Universitat Miinchen, Arcisstrasse 21, 0-8000Munich 2, Federal
Republic of Germany

Chemotaxonomic and deoxyribonucleic acid homology studies were carried out on various ‘‘Streptococcus
suis” strains to clarify their taxonomic position. The results of the present study indicate that these strains
belong to one species, namely, S. suis (ex Elliott) nom. rev. Strain NCTC 10234 is proposed as the type strain.

“Streptococcus suis” is an important pathogen in pigs. It edness among different strains averaged more than 80%
was originally isolated from cases of bacteremia and menin- (Table 2), confirming their relationship at the species level.
gitis in piglets (2, 4, 15). More recently, however, “ S . suis” Cell wall composition and values of moles percent G+C
has been isolated from pigs with respiratory diseases (5, 11). have been summarized in Table 1. Most strains of “ S . suis”
The name “S. suis” has never been formally proposed or studied contained the lysine-direct peptidoglycan type (di-
described and is, therefore, not on the Approved Lists of rectly cross-linked stem peptides containing lysine as the
Bacterial Names (14). diamino acid [13]). This peptidoglycan type was found
Originally described strains were found to be serologically among streptococci only in strains of “ S . suis” and S . oralis
groupable into Lancefield groups R, S, RS, and T, and some (8). However, in contrast to S . oralis, strains of “S. suis”
were nongroupable (3). Other authors (11, 15) described contained rhamnose and lacked ribitol as major cell wall
eight different serovars of “ S . suis.” All these strains are polysaccharide constituents. In two strains of “ S . suis”,
mlorphologicallyand biochemically very similar. In the pres- namely, strain Henrichsen 11538 (serovar S) and strain
ent study, strains of the different Lancefield groups and Henrichsen 2651 (Lancefield group RS), at least part of the
serovars were investigated by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) stem peptides of their peptidoglycan was not directly cross-
hybridization and cell wall analyses to determine genetic linked but linked by an interpeptide bridge consisting of
relationships of these serologically heterogeneous organisms alanine (ly~ine-[alanine]~-~; Table 1).These two strains were
anid to clarify their taxonomic status. genetically closely related to typical strains of “S. suis”
(Table 2).
Because of the reaction with group D antiserum, it had
MATERIALS AND METHODS been suggested that “S. suis” belongs to group D strepto-
cocci together with “ S . bovis” and even enterococci (2, 4,
The strains used in this study are shown in Table 1. They 11). However, our hybridization studies demonstrated that
were cultivated in a medium consisting of (per liter of “S. suis” is not closely related to group D streptococci
distilled water) 10 g of casein hydrolysate, 10 g of yeast (DNA relatedness values between strains of “S.suis” and
extract, 5 g of D-glucose, 5 g of sodium chloride, 3 g of Enterococcus faecalis were less than 10%). This is consis-
sodium acetate, 0.5 g of L-cysteine hydrochloride, and 1 ml tent with the numerical taxonomic studies of Bridge and
of Tween 80 at pH 7.2 under microaerophilic conditions at Sneath (1) and the opinion of other authors who do not
35°C for 18 h. For the isolation of DNA, cells were harvested consider the reaction with group D antiserum a specific
at the end of the exponential growth phase after 2 h of
incubation with penicillin according to the method of Kilp- characteristic for the identification of “S. suis” (3, 5).
per-Balz and Schleifer (7). Methods for the preparation of As a result of this study it is confirmed that “ S . suis” is a
filter-bound and radioactive DNA as well as optimal hybrid- genetically homogeneous species. It has not yet been validly
ization conditions and determination of guanine-plus- described and is not on the Approved Lists of Bacterial
cytosine (G+C) contents by thermal denaturation have been Names (14). On the basis of our results, the descriptions
described previously (6, 9). Isolation of cell walls and given for group R and group S streptococci (2), and the
determination of peptidoglycan types and cell wall sugar characterizations given by other authors for R, S, RS, and T
compositions were done with cells in the stationary phase, as streptococci or “S.suis” (1,3,5,10, l l ) , we propose S. suis
previously described (12, 13). as a valid species of the genus Streptococcus.
Description of Streptococcus suis (ex Elliott 1966) nom. rev.
Streptococcus suis (su’is. L. n. sus, a pig; L. gen. n. suis, of
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION a pig). Small ovoid cocci, less than 2 pm in diameter, occur
singly, in pairs, or rarely in short chains. Some tendency
The results of DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed toward rod formation. Nonmotile. Gram positive. Chemo-
thcat all “S. suis” strains investigated are highly related, organotrophs with fermentative metabolism. Facultatively
regardless of their Lancefield group or serovar. DNA relat- anaerobic. Catalase negative. Strains are groupable into
Lancefield groups R, S, RS, and T or are nongroupable.
They can also be subdivided into serovars 1to 8 according to
the method of Windsor and Elliott (15) and Perch et al. (11).
* Corresponding author. Acid from fermentation of D-glucose, sucrose, lactose,

Henrichsen. 1987 STREPTOCOCCUS SUZS sp. serological and cell wall data. suis” Henrichsen S735 ( = NCTC R Direct + + + + 40. galactosidase variable.. suis” Henrichsen 8074 Direct + + + + 40. Copenhagen. Organisms studied. tain rhamnose. 1983. and P. N-acetylglucosaminidase. Federal Republic of Germany. suis” type 3 Henrichsen 4961 81 75 80 “S. 8. a-galactosidase . Many strains produce P-hemolysis on horse blood agar. National Collection of Dairy Organisms. pyogenes NCTC 8198T A (Aldl-3 + . suis” type 5 Henrichsen 11538 91 94 22 “S. Denmark.0 “S. in a few 1. Statens Serum Institut. salicin. oralis NCDO 2644 Henrichsen 6407 CCUG 7986 CCUG 11673 NCTC 11427T “S. No growth at This work was supported by a grant from the Deutsche 10 or 45”C. present in minor amounts. Deibel. G +C 2. P. (+I 40.4 “S. Henrichsen. Sneath. Streptococ- .2 “ S . glycerol. suis” “S. no production of acetoin. Cell wall polysaccharides con. Reading. D-mannitol.0 “ S . D. The type strain is NCTC 10234 (= CCUG 7984 = D-ribose. Some strains are Forschungsgemeinschaft . Abbreviations of peptidoglycan types described by Schleifer and Kandler (13). suis” “S. suis” type 4 “S. not determined. decarboxylase . + 38. suis” CCUG 11673 Direct + + + + 39. trehalose. R. CCUG.04% tellurite. suis” CCUG 7986 (= NCTC 10446) T Direct + + + + 40. DNA-DNA relatedness values obtained at optimal hybridization conditions (25°C below the melting temperature of DNA) % Relatedness with labeled DNA from: Source of filter-bound DNA “S. suis” Henrichsen 11538 (AMl-2 + + + + 40. London. suis” type 6 Henrichsen 2524 90 73 21 “ S . pyogenes NCTC 8198= 14 16 15 14 17 maltose. H. absent. A. suis” CCUG 7985 100 75 83 86 “S.. Sweden. present. mol% group glycan typeb Rhamnose Glucose Galactose GlcNH2 GalNH2 G + C “S. suis” CCUG 7986 81 88 100 92 “S. suis” type 2 Henrichsen S735 85 89 77 82 “S. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS tase and alkaline phosphatase negative. TABLE 2.9 “S.J. (+). galactose. suis” Henrichsen S428 ( = NCTC S Direct ND ND ND ND ND 10237) “S. No fermentation of content of DNA is 38 to 42 mol% (T. of Streptococcus. Important pig L-arabinose. J. United Kingdom. Central Public Health Laboratory. -.7 “S.0 S . starch. Variable results in fermentation of raffinose and Henrichsen S735). Statens Serum Institute.0 ‘S. Streptococcus Department. nov. Shinfield.6 10234) “S. suis” type 4 Henrichsen 6407 81 100 76 16 “S. NOM. salicin. esculin. D-sorbitol. or pathogen. suis” Henrichsen 6407 Direct + (+I + (+I 39.9 “S. H. Genus I.1 “S. + 42. Bridge. viriduns” 111 Kiel 45527 40 39 20 S. Copenhagen. Microbiol. Type of peptidoglycan is usually lysine direct. glucose. suis” Henrichsen 2524 Direct + + + + 41. Streptokokkenzentrale. suis” type 8 Henrichsen 14636 93 100 “S. suis” NCDO 2644 ( = NCTC 10237) S Direct ND ND ND ND 40. galactosamine. 37. National Collection of Type Cultures. and inulin. and H.0 aNCDO. REV. and G + C contents Lance. Numerical taxonomy cases also lysine-(alanine)l-2. melibiose and in production of hyaluronidase. and glucosamine.3 “ S . Kiel. Jr.VOL. melezitose. Seeiey. suis” CCUG 11673 100 84 100 20 “S. 161 TABLE 1. suis” Henrichsen 4961 Direct ND ND ND ND 39. + . viriduns” 111 Kiel45527 Direct + + +. United Kingdom. suis” type 7 Henrichsen 8074 89 98 “S. and leucine arylamidase positive. and all are a-hemolytic on sheep blood LITERATURE CITED agar. suis” CCUG 7984 (= NCTC 10234) R Direct + + + + 38. suis” CCUG 7985 (= NCTC 10237) S Direct ND ND ND ND ND “S. suis” S. and glycogen. Culture Collection University of Goteborg. for providing us with strains of serovars 1to P-glucuronidase . ND. suis” Henrichsen 2651 100 89 20 “S. no hydro- lysis of hippurate. suis” CCUG 7984 97 77 100 80 19 “S. Resistant to optochin. L-ornithine We are grateful to J. GlcNH2.5% NaCl or 0. 1974. p. 129565-597. NCTC. W. oralis NCTC 11427T Direct (+I (+I + (+I 37. suis” Henrichsen 14636 Direct + + + + 40. suis” Henrichsen 2651 RS (Awl-2 + + . Kiel.. Gen. Hydrolysis of L-arginine. Glucosamine. Denmark. suis” NCDO 2644 100 93 19 “S. Acid phospha.8 “S. oralis NCTC 11427T 15 100 S . GalNH2. Lysine Cell wall polysaccharides containing‘ Organism Strain” field Serovar peptido. in 6. resistant to 40% bile (5)..0 S .

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